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Narrative Project Research Given Era: The Information Age (1970-2000)

The History of Computers The history of computing spans nearly two centuries which is much longer than most people realize. From the mechanical computers of the 1800s to the room-sized mainframes of the mid-20th century, all the way up to the netbooks and smartphones of today, computers have evolved radically throughout their history.

A Timeline of Computers developed from the 1800s to the present day –

of Computers developed from the 1800s to the present day – Mid-1800s- 1930s: Early Mechanical Computers
of Computers developed from the 1800s to the present day – Mid-1800s- 1930s: Early Mechanical Computers

Mid-1800s-

1930s:

Early

Mechanical

Computers

day – Mid-1800s- 1930s: Early Mechanical Computers The Difference Engine No.1 Designed by Charles Babbage mid
The Difference Engine No.1 Designed by Charles Babbage mid The Z1 Designed by Konrad Zuse
The Difference Engine No.1
Designed by Charles Babbage mid
The Z1
Designed by Konrad Zuse
Developed in 1938
1800s
The Z1 Designed by Konrad Zuse Developed in 1938 1800s The Z3, Descendant of the Z1

The Z3, Descendant of the Z1 First programme controlled digital computer

1940s: Electronic
1940s: Electronic

Computers

controlled digital computer 1940s: Electronic Computers Colossus Developed during World War II to decrypt secret

Colossus Developed during World War II to decrypt secret German codes

Developed during World War II to decrypt secret German codes 1950s: The First Commercial Computers Williams
1950s: The First Commercial Computers Williams Tube Used random access memory (RAM) for computations. The
1950s: The First
Commercial Computers
Williams Tube
Used random access memory
(RAM) for computations.
The UNIVAC
First commercial computer in the U.S.
First mass-produced computer.

1930s:

Electro-

Mechanical

Computers

1930s:

Electro-

Mechanical

Computers

Mid-1950s: Transistor Computers The IBM 650 Would cost $4 million today Smaller model was developed
Mid-1950s: Transistor
Computers
The IBM 650
Would cost $4 million today
Smaller model was developed in the
The IBM 350 RAMAC
The first disk drive
First introduced in 1956.
mid-1950s.
1970s: Personal
Computers
Microchips (integrated circuit)
Triggered production of
minicomputers and microcomputers
The Commodore PET
Went on to sell millions
Between 4KB and 48KB of RAM
Osborne 1
Produced in 1981
Small enough to transport
5” Monitor
The Gavilan SC
First computer to be sold as a “laptop”
Produced in 1983
Late 2000s: Netbooks

The Droid Smartphone capable of basic computing tasks such as web browsing and emailing

The Asus Eee PC 700 First Notebook that was mass produced Released in 2007

1960s: The

Microchip and

Microprocessor

1960s: The

Microchip and

Microprocessor

1980s-1990s:

The Early

Notebooks and

Laptops

1980s-1990s:

The Early

Notebooks and

Laptops

2000s: The Rise of Mobile Computing

2000s: The Rise of Mobile Computing

The History of the Internet The Internet was developed during the 1970s by the Department of Defense. In the case of an attack, military advisers suggested the advantage of being able to operate one computer from another terminal. In the early days, the Internet was used mainly by scientists to communicate with other scientists. The Internet remained under government control until 1984.

In the early 1990s, the World Wide Web was developed for commercial purposes. Corporations created home pages where they could sell products. Soon almost everything could be purchased online such as airline tickets, hotel reservations, books, and even cars and homes. Colleges and universities posted research data on the Internet, so students could find valuable information without leaving their dormitories. Companies soon discovered that work could be done at home and submitted online, so people started to earn a living from home offices without the hassle of travelling or even having to put clothes on.

Soon after, electric mail or ‘Email’ was introduced; this was a more convenient way of sending messages to family and friends. Where a letter would take days to receive you could receive an email in seconds whenever you wanted. Service providers set up electronic chat rooms which could be used by anyone, anywhere and people could talk to complete strangers over cyberspace. “Surfing the Web” became a hobby and past time.

The map below show how much internet usage there was in the world as of mid-

1995.

much internet usage there was in the world as of mid- 1995. However the unregulated nature

However the unregulated nature of the Internet allowed pornography to be broadcast to millions of homes. Protecting children from these influences or even from meeting violent predators would prove to be difficult. Regardless of its drawbacks, by the end of the 1990s, the world was fast becoming connected through cyberspace.

Above is an illustration showing the progress of the internet from the days of modem-

Above is an illustration showing the progress of the internet from the days of modem- connectivity to the web.

internet from the days of modem- connectivity to the web. Above is a simple timeline showing

Above is a simple timeline showing the basic progress of computers and the internet.

History and Growth of the Internet from 1995 till Today

The following table shows the incredibly fast evolution of the Internet from 1995 till the present time:

NUMBER % WORLD INFORMATION DATE OF USERS POPULATION SOURCE December, 16 millions 0.4 % IDC
NUMBER
% WORLD
INFORMATION
DATE
OF USERS
POPULATION
SOURCE
December,
16
millions
0.4
%
IDC
1995
December,
36
millions
0.9
%
IDC
1996
December,
70
millions
1.7
%
IDC
1997
December,
147
millions
3.6
%
C.I. Almanac
1998
December,
248
millions
4.1
%
Nua Ltd.
1999
304
millions
5.0
%
March, 2000
Nua Ltd.
359
millions
5.9
%
July, 2000
Nua Ltd.
December,
361
millions
5.8
%
Internet World
2000
Stats
458
millions
7.6
%
March, 2001
Nua Ltd.
479
millions
7.9
%
June, 2001
Nua Ltd.
513
millions
8.6
%
August, 2001
Nua Ltd.
558
millions
8.6
%
Internet World
April, 2002
Stats
569
millions
9.1
%
Internet World
July, 2002
Stats
September,
587
millions
9.4
%
Internet World
2002
Stats
608
millions
9.7
%
Internet World
March, 2003
Stats
September,
677
millions
10.6
%
Internet World
2003
Stats
682
millions
10.7
%
Internet World
October, 2003
Stats
December,
719
millions
11.1
%
Internet World
2003
Stats
 

745

millions

11.5

%

Internet World

February, 2004

   

Stats

 

757

millions

11.7

%

Internet World

May, 2004

   

Stats

 

812

millions

12.7

%

Internet World

October, 2004

   

Stats

December,

817

millions

12.7

%

Internet World

2004

   

Stats

 

888

millions

13.9

%

Internet World

March, 2005

   

Stats

 

938

millions

14.6

%

Internet World

June, 2005

   

Stats

September,

957

millions

14.9

%

Internet World

2005

   

Stats

November,

972

millions

15.2

%

Internet World

2005

   

Stats

December,

1,018 millions

15.7

%

Internet World

2005

 

Stats

 

1,023 millions

15.7

%

Internet World

March, 2006

 

Stats

 

1,043 millions

16.0

%

Internet World

June, 2006

 

Stats

 

1,086 millions

16.7

%

Internet World

Sept, 2006

 

Stats

 

1,093 millions

16.7

%

Internet World

Dec, 2006

 

Stats

 

1,129 millions

17.2

%

Internet World

Mar, 2007

 

Stats

 

1,173 millions

17.8

%

Internet World

June, 2007

 

Stats

 

1,245 millions

18.9

%

Internet World

Sept, 2007

 

Stats

 

1,319 millions

20.0

%

Internet World

Dec, 2007

 

Stats

 

1,407 millions

21.1

%

Internet World

Mar, 2008

 

Stats

 

1,463 millions

21.9

%

Internet World

June, 2008

 

Stats

 

1,504 millions

22.5

%

Internet World

Sept, 2008

 

Stats

 

1,574 millions

23.5

%

Internet World

Dec, 2008

 

Stats

 

1,596 millions

23.8

%

Internet World

Mar, 2009

 

Stats

 

1,669 millions

24.7

%

Internet World

June, 2009

 

Stats

 

1,734 millions

25.6

%

Internet World

Sept, 2009

 

Stats

 

1,802 millions

26.6

%

Internet World

Dec, 2009

 

Stats

 

1,966 millions

28.7

%

Internet World

June, 2010

 

Stats

 

1,971 millions

28.8

%

Internet World

Sept, 2010

 

Stats

 

2,095 millions

30.2

%

Internet World

Mar, 2011

 

Stats

 

2,110 millions

30.4

%

Internet World

Jun, 2011

 

Stats

 

2,180 millions

31.5

%

Internet World

Sept, 2011

 

Stats

 

2,267 millions

32.7

%

Internet World

Dec, 2011

 

Stats

 

2,336 millions

33.3

%

Internet World

Mar, 2012

 

Stats

 

2,405 millions

34.3

%

Internet World

June, 2012

 

Stats

 

2,439 millions

34.8

%

Internet World

Sept, 2012

 

Stats

Dec, 2012

2,497 millions

35.7

%

I.T.U.

March, 2013

2,749 millions

38.8 %

I.T.U.

The History of Mobile Phones

Martin Cooper, a senior engineer at Motorola made the first mobile phone call on April 3, 1973. Cooper called a rival telecommunications company and simply said he was speaking to them via a mobile phone. The phone weighed in at 1.1kg and measured 228.6x127x44.4mm; he could get 30 minutes of talk-time and took about 10 hours to charge.

Motorola released its first commercial mobile phone in 1983, the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. The handset could store 30 phone numbers, offered 30 minutes of talk-time, six hours standby and cost £2639 ($3995).

In the very early days of the mobile space handsets weren’t designed with consumers in mind. You’d need a couple of thousand pounds to get hold of one, and even then performance wasn’t great.

Even at the start of the 1990s this was still the case despite Nokia and NEC entering the fray. Nokia’s first 'handheld' mobile phone, the Mobira Cityman 900, launched in 1989 and weighed just 800g – a huge improvement over 1982’s 9.8kg Mobira Senator model. 1990 to 1995 represented an upward swerve in design and portability, with mobile devices gradually starting to appear in the hands of average consumers for the first time. By the late-1990s, mobile devices were fast becoming the norm.

Mobile phones developed from the 1990s to the present day –

phones developed from the 1990s to the present day – 1997 – Nokia 6110 Three Games
phones developed from the 1990s to the present day – 1997 – Nokia 6110 Three Games
phones developed from the 1990s to the present day – 1997 – Nokia 6110 Three Games

1997 – Nokia 6110 Three Games Calculator, Clock and Calendar Currency Converter 4 Colours

1997 – Motorola StarTAC The world’s first ‘clamshell’ handset

1998 – Nokia 5110 Great battery life Snake game Slim for 1998

1999 – BlackBerry 850 First handset released under the BlackBerry brand
1999 – BlackBerry 850
First handset released under
the BlackBerry brand

2000 – Nokia 3310 Regarded as one of the best mobile phones created Some say it’s indestructible

the BlackBerry brand 2000 – Nokia 3310 Regarded as one of the best mobile phones created
2002 – Samsung SGH-T100 First phone to use a thin-film transistor active matrix LCD display
2002 – Samsung SGH-T100 First phone to use a thin-film transistor active matrix LCD display

2002 – Samsung SGH-T100 First phone to use a thin-film transistor active matrix LCD display

2003 – BlackBerry 5810 Email and QWERTY keyboard Had to use headphones because there was no built in speaker

Had to use headphones because there was no built in speaker 2004 – Motorola Razr V3

2004 – Motorola Razr V3 Best-selling clamshell handset in history

Motorola Razr V3 Best-selling clamshell handset in history 2005 – BlackBerry 7270 First BlackBerry to feature

2005 – BlackBerry 7270 First BlackBerry to feature Wi-Fi One of the reasons for CrackBerry addiction

to feature Wi-Fi One of the reasons for CrackBerry addiction 2006 – Nokia N95 Smartphone with

2006 – Nokia N95 Smartphone with 160MB of RAM 5 megapixel camera Bluetooth Wi-Fi

with 160MB of RAM 5 megapixel camera Bluetooth Wi-Fi 2007 – LG Shine 2.0 megapixels camera

2007 – LG Shine 2.0 megapixels camera with autofocus Java MIDP 2.0 Operating System 50MB Internal Memory MicroSD external memory card slot

50MB Internal Memory MicroSD external memory card slot 2008 – Apple iPhone 3G Changed the face

2008 – Apple iPhone 3G Changed the face of the mobile space forever Helped make touchscreen interface the norm Broke new ground for overall design and finish

The Elderly Coping with Technology Today Day by day technology is growing and the elderly are having a hard time to keep up with modern day technology, so much so that some feel completely detached from the rest of the world. Some try to understand the new technology around today where as others do not want anything to do with it.

Statistically people over the age of 50 do not indulge in online activities as much as teenagers who are using such activities every day for everyday things from contacting family and friends to research for homework. This bar chart below shows the statistics of people using online leisure activities in New Zealand last year. There is a 10% increase since 2009. Over three quarters of 15-24 year olds access music online while two thirds access movies online which accounts for downloading as well as watching. 1 in 4 Internet users over the age of 75 years use the internet for reading.

users over the age of 75 years use the internet for reading. There have been many

There have been many tests on the elderly where researchers and scientists have given elderly people a piece of technology such as a smartphone and filmed volunteers attempting to perform tasks which would seem easy and simple to the likes of teenagers today.

Ian Hosking, who works at Cambridge University’s Design Centre expresses his view that modern gadgets are designed by young people with young people in mind and in this video he is studying the reactions and responses of the elderly to modern technology with volunteer, 75 year old Archie Ferguson. Mr Ferguson said “I was amazed at how thick I am”. He also admits he frequently gets frustrated when trying to use modern technology such as a smartphone.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kS1Pz7-ACis

gets frustrated when trying to use modern technology such as a smartphone. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kS1Pz7-ACis

Here is another short video of an elderly couple attempting to take a photo on their new mac to send to their friends.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRBcP6MmE8g

to their friends. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRBcP6MmE8g There a multiple organisations and programs trying to solve

There a multiple organisations and programs trying to solve this problem by educating seniors about the technological world, specifically computers. Although this is a great idea, funds for such programs are rather large.

An example of one these senior helping programs is ‘It’s Never 2 Late’. Here is the programs website and a 5 minute video showing the therapy and technology used.

http://www.in2l.com/index.cfm/m/therapy/

programs website and a 5 minute video showing the therapy and technology used. http://www.in2l.com/index.cfm/m/therapy/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56WXDrJcONs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56WXDrJcONs Here is a documentary a student has made for a school project about the

Here is a documentary a student has made for a school project about the struggle between older people and technology. The student interviewed his grandparents as shown below.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DeW00atojA

people and technology. The student interviewed his grandparents as shown below. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DeW00atojA