AS 36002009
ISO ETA032913M17 Rev. 0
Berkeley, California, USA March 2013
Concrete Frame
Design Manual
AS 36002009
For ETABS
2013
Copyright
Copyright Computers & Structures, Inc., 19782013
All rights reserved.
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TM
is a trademark of Computers &
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DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY
OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A
QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.
i
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 11
1.1 Organization 12
1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice 13
Chapter 2 Design Prerequisites 21
2.1 Design Load Combinations 21
2.2 Design and Check Stations 23
2.3 Identifying Beams and Columns 23
2.4 Design of Beams 24
2.5 Design of Columns 24
2.6 Design of J oints 25
2.7 PDelta Effects 26
2.8 Element Unsupported Length 26
2.9 Choice of Input Units 27
Concrete Frame Design AS 360009
ii
Chapter 3 Design Process 31
3.1 Notation 31
3.2 Design Load Combinations 34
3.3 Limits on Strength 36
3.4 Strength Resistance Factors 36
3.5 Column Design 37
3.5.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surface 38
3.5.2 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 311
3.5.3 Design Column Shear Reinforcement 316
3.6 Beam Design 324
3.6.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 325
3.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 335
3.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 340
3.7 J oint Design 345
3.7.1 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 345
3.7.2 Determine the Effective Area of J oint 346
3.7.3 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 348
3.7.4 BeamColumn Flexural Capacity Ratios 348
Appendix A Second Order PDelta Effects
Appendix B Member Unsupported Lengths and Computation of
KFactors
Appendix C Concrete Frame Design Preferences
Appendix D Concrete Frame Overwrites
References
1  1
Chapter 1
Introduction
The design of concrete frames is seamlessly integrated within the program.
Initiation of the design process, along with control of various design parameters,
is accomplished using the Design menu.
Automated design at the object level is available for any one of a number of
userselected design codes, as long as the structures have first been modeled and
analyzed by the program. Model and analysis data, such as material properties
and member forces, are recovered directly from the model database, and no
additional user input is required if the design defaults are acceptable.
The design is based on a set of userspecified loading combinations. However,
the program provides default load combinations for each design code supported.
If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of additional load
combinations is required.
In the design of columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal and
shear reinforcement. However, the user may specify the longitudinal steel, in
which case a column capacity ratio is reported. The column capacity ratio gives
an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column.
The biaxial column capacity check is based on the generation of consistent
threedimensional interaction surfaces. It does not use any empirical
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
1  2 Organization
formulations that extrapolate uniaxial interaction curves to approximate biaxial
action.
Interaction surfaces are generated for userspecified column reinforcing
configurations. The column configurations may be rectangular, square or
circular, with similar reinforcing patterns. The calculation of moment
magnification factors, unsupported lengths, and strength reduction factors is
automated in the algorithm.
Every beam member is designed for flexure, shear, and torsion at output stations
along the beam span.
All beamcolumn joints are investigated for existing shear conditions.
For special moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the
columns, beams, and joints is based on the probable moment capacities of the
members. Also, the program will produce ratios of the beam moment capacities
with respect to the column moment capacities, to investigate weak beam/strong
column aspects, including the effects of axial force.
Output data can be presented graphically on the model, in tables for both input
and output data, or on the calculation sheet prepared for each member. For each
presentation method, the output is in a format that allows the engineer to quickly
study the stress conditions that exist in the structure and, in the event the member
reinforcing is not adequate, aids the engineer in taking appropriate remedial
measures, including altering the design member without rerunning the entire
analysis.
The program supports a wide range of concrete frame design codes, including
many national building codes. This manual is dedicated to the use of the menu
option "AS 360009." This option covers the Australian Standard Concrete
Structure (AS 2009), which is denoted as AS 36002009 in this manual.
1.1 Organization
This manual is designed to help users quickly become productive with the
concrete frame design options of AS 36002009. Chapter 2 provides detailed
descriptions of the Design Prerequisites used for AS 36002009. Chapter 3
provides detailed descriptions of the codespecific process used for AS
Chapter 1  Introduction
Recommended Reading/Practice 1  3
36002009. The appendices provide details on certain topics referenced in this
manual.
1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice
It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable
Watch & Learn Series tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a concrete frame using
this program. Additional information can be found in the online Help facility
available from within the programs main menu.
2  1
Chapter 2
Design Prerequisites
This chapter provides an overview of the basic assumptions, design precondi
tions, and some of the design parameters that affect the design of concrete
frames.
In writing this manual, it has been assumed that the user has an engineering
background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and
familiarity with AS 36002009 code.
2.1 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are used for determining the various combina
tions of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. The
load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. The load
combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the
associated load cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces
and moments for the load combination.
For multivalued load combinations involving response spectrum, time history,
moving loads and multivalued combinations (of type enveloping, squareroot
ofthesumofthesquares, or absolute) where any correspondence between in
teracting quantities is lost, the program automatically produces multiple sub
combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
2  2 Design Load Combinations
Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not
required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative
of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the previously described per
mutations generate the required sub combinations.
When a design combination involves only a single multivalued case of time
history or moving load, further options are available. The program has an option
to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each
time step of the time history. Also, an option is available to request that moving
load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each
design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities.
For normal loading conditions involving static dead load, live load, wind load,
and earthquake load, or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load, the pro
gram has builtin default loading combinations for each design code. These are
based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the
corresponding manuals.
For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live
loads, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, and so on, the user
must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the
default design loading combinations.
The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load
to be additive. Similarly, all cases declared as live load are assumed additive.
However, each static load case declared as wind or earthquake, or response
spectrum cases, is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces
multiple lateral load combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases
produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative)
reversed. If these conditions are not correct, the user must provide the
appropriate design combinations.
The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to
be included or if no other userdefined combination is available for concrete
design. If any default combination is included in design, all default combinations
will automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is
changed or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified.
Chapter 2  Design Prerequisites
Design and Check Stations 2  3
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load
case on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load
to the factored loading.
The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested
to be recovered in the analysis for some or all of the frame members, the effects
of those loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them.
2.2 Design and Check Stations
For each load combination, each element is designed or checked at a number of
locations along the length of the element. The locations are based on equally
spaced segments along the clear length of the element. The number of segments
in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is performed. The user
can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more seg
ments.
When using the AS 36002009 design code, requirements for joint design at the
beamtocolumn connections are evaluated at the top most station of each
column. The program also performs a joint shear analysis at the same station to
determine if special considerations are required in any of the joint panel zones.
The ratio of the beam flexural capacities with respect to the column flexural
capacities considering axial force effect associated with the weakbeam/strong
column aspect of any beam/column intersection is reported.
2.3 Identifying Beams and Columns
In the program, all beams and columns are represented as frame elements, but
design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. Identification for a
concrete element is accomplished by specifying the frame section assigned to
the element to be of type beam or column. If any brace element exists in the
frame, the brace element also would be identified as a beam or a column ele
ment, depending on the section assigned to the brace element.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
2  4 Design of Beams
2.4 Design of Beams
In the design of concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports
the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,
shears, load combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in detail
in the codespecific manuals. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a
userdefined number of stations along the beam span.
All the beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear and torsion only.
Effects due to any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the
beams must be investigated independently by the user.
In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular
section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the maximum
factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The beam
section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored
moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Negative beam
moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always designed as a
Rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such
cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular beam or a Tbeam. For the
design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced
beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required compression reinforce
ment is calculated.
In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of
loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the
steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the determination of
the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the determination of the
reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated into the program for
the AS 36002009 code.
2.5 Design of Columns
In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal
steel, or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is
reported in terms of a column capacity ratio, which is a factor that gives an
indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of
Chapter 2  Design Prerequisites
Design of Joints 2  5
the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the
structure involves the following steps:
Generate axial forcebiaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the
different concrete section types in the model.
Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending
moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the col
umn. This step also is used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none
was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.
The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and
stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and
strain distributions and the assumptions are documented in Chapter 3.
The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for
beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity
must be considered.
For certain special seismic cases, the design of columns for shear is based on the
capacity shear. The capacity shear force in a particular direction is calculated
from the moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial
force acting on the column. For each load combination, the factored axial load is
calculated using the analysis load cases and the corresponding load combination
factors. Then, the moment capacity of the column in a particular direction under
the influence of the axial force is calculated, using the uniaxial interaction dia
gram in the corresponding direction, as documented in Chapter 3.
2.6 Design of Joints
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames pos
sesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the
beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the
joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Only joints that have a column below the joint are designed. The material
properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below
the joint. The joint analysis is performed in the major and the minor directions of
the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
2  6 PDelta Effects
Determine the panel zone design shear force
Determine the effective area of the joint
Check panel zone shear stress
The joint design details are documented in Chapter 3.
2.7 PDelta Effects
The program design process requires that the analysis results include PDelta
effects. The PDelta effects are considered differently for braced or
nonsway and unbraced or sway components of moments in columns or
frames. For the braced moments in columns, the effect of PDelta is limited to
individual member stability. For unbraced components, lateral drift effects
should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. The
program assumes that braced or nonsway moments are contributed from
the dead or live loads, whereas, unbraced or sway moments are con
tributed from all other types of loads.
For the individual member stability effects, the moments are magnified with
moment magnification factors, as documented in Chapter 3 of this manual.
For lateral drift effects, the program assumes that the PDelta analysis is
performed and that the amplification is already included in the results. The
moments and forces obtained from PDelta analysis are amplified further for
individual column stability effect if required by the governing code, as in the AS
36002009 code.
Users of the program should be aware that the default analysis option is that
PDelta effects are not included. The user can include Pdelta analysis and set
the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. The default number of
iterations for PDelta analysis is 1. Further details about PDelta analysis are
provided in Appendix A of this design manual.
2.8 Element Unsupported Lengths
To account for column slenderness effects, the column unsupported lengths are
required. The two unsupported lengths are l
33
and l
22
. These are the lengths
Chapter 2  Design Prerequisites
Choice of Input Units 2  7
between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. The
length l
33
corresponds to instability about the 33 axis (major axis), and l
22
cor
responds to instability about the 22 axis (minor axis).
Normally, the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element,
i.e., the distance between ENDI and ENDJ of the element. The program,
however, allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single
member for design. This can be accomplished differently for major and minor
bending, as documented in Appendix B of this design manual.
The program has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on
an elementbyelement basis.
2.9 Choice of Input Units
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The codes are
based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions presented in
the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless oth
erwise noted. For example, the AS 36002009 code is published in New
tonmillimetersecond units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented
in Chapter 3 Design Process correspond to Newtonmillimetersecond units.
However, any system of units can be used to define and design a structure in the
program.
3  1
Chapter 3
Design Process
This chapter provides a detailed description of the codespecific algorithms used
in the design of concrete frames when the AS 360009 code has been selected
on the Preferences form including Amendment No. 1 to AS 36002009. For
simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to
Newtonmillimetersecond units unless otherwise noted.
3.1 Notation
The various notations used in this chapter are described herein:
A
cv
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, mm
2
A
g
Gross area of concrete, mm
2
A
st
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2
A
sc
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2
A
s(required)
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, mm
2
A
st
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm
2
A
sv
Area of shear reinforcement, mm
2
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  2 Notation
A
sv
/s
Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member,
mm
2
/mm
A
sw
/s
Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member of
closed ties, mm
2
/mm
E
c
The mean value of the modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days,
MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 210
5
MPa
I Moment of inertia of the gross concrete section about the cen
troidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm
4
I
se
Moment of inertia of reinforcement about the centroidal axis of the
member crosssection, mm
4
L Clear unsupported length, mm
M
1
*
Smaller factored end moment in a column, Nmm
M
2
*
Larger factored end moment in a column, Nmm
M
c
Factored moment to be used in design, Nmm
M* Factored moment at a section, Nmm
M*
2
Factored moment at a section about the 2axis, Nmm
M*
3
Factored moment at a section about the 3axis, Nmm
M
ub
Ultimate strength in bending when k
uo
=0.003/(0.003 +f
s
/E
s
),
Nmm
M
ud
Reduce ultimate strength in bending without axial force, Nmm
M
uo
Ultimate strength in bending without axial force, Nmm
N
ub
Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, N
N
c
Critical buckling strength of column, N
N
max
Maximum axial load strength allowed, N
N
ub
Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, N
N
uo
Ultimate in comression without bending, of an axially loaded
crosssection, N
Chapter 3  Design Process
Notation 3  3
N
uot
Ultimate in tension without bending, of an axially loaded
crosssection, N
N* Factored axial load at a section, N
V
uc
Shear force resisted by concrete, N
V
E
Shear force caused by earthquake loads, N
V
D+L
Shear force from span loading, N
V
u.max
Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N
V
p
Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, N
V
us
Shear force resisted by steel, N
V* Factored shear force at a section, N
a Depth of compression block, mm
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm
a
max
Maximum allowed depth of compression block, mm
b Width of member, mm
b
f
Effective width of flange (Tbeam section), mm
b
w
Width of web (Tbeam section), mm
c Depth to neutral axis, mm
c
b
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm
d
sc
Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm
d
s
Thickness of slab (Tbeam section), mm
f
c
Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
f
sy
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa. The value
of f
sy
used in design calculation is limited to a torsional longitu
dinal reinforcement of 500 MPa for both tension and compression
(AS 6.2.1).
h Overall depth of a column section, in
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  4 Design Load Combinations
k Effective length factor
k
u
The neutral axis parametersratio of the depth of the neutral axis
from extreme compression fiber to d
k
m
Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate
moment magnification factor
Reinforcing steel overstrength factor
d
Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to
maximum factored axial total load
s
Moment magnification factor for unbraced frames
b
Moment magnification factor for braced frames
c
Strain in concrete
c,max
Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete
fiber (0.003 mm/mm)
s
Strain in reinforcing steel
Strength reduction factor
1
Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
3.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The program creates a
number of default design load combinations for concrete frame design. Users
can add their own design load combinations as well as modify or delete the
program default design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load
combinations can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,
each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces and
moments from the load cases to form the factored design forces and moments for
each design load combination. There is one exception to the preceding. For
spectral analysis modal combinations, any correspondence between the signs of
the moments and axial loads is lost. The program uses eight design load
Chapter 3  Design Process
Design Load Combinations 3  5
combinations for each such loading combination specified, reversing the sign of
axial loads and moments in major and minor directions.
As an example, if a structure is subjected to dead load, D, and live load, L, only,
the AS 36002009 design check may need one design load combination only,
namely, 1.2D +1.5L. However, if the structure is subjected to wind, earthquake,
or other loads, numerous additional design load combinations may be required.
Two types of live load are used in the program, i.e., Live (L) and Reduced Live
(LR). Live loads are nonreducible and this load should be used for defining
sustained loadings, such as storage, car parking, mechanical plant, and the like,
and Reduced Live should be used for transient live loads.
The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member
forces of the reducible live load case on a memberbymember basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for
which the structure needs to be checked. For this code, if a structure is subjected
to dead load (D), live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) and
earthquake (E) load, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are
reversible, the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 2.4.2,
AS/NZS 1170.002):
1.35D (AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(a))
1.2D +1.5L +1.5LR (AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D +1.5(0.75PL) (AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(b))
0.9D 1.0W
1.2D 1.0W
1.2D +0.6L +0.4LR 1.0W
(AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(e))
(AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(d))
(AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(d))
1.0D 1.0E
1.0D +0.6L +0.4LR 1.0E
(AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(f))
(AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(f))
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the
AS 36002009 code is used. The user should use other appropriate design load
combinations if roof live load is separately treated, or if other types of loads are
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  6 Limits on Material Strength
present. PLL is the live load multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor. The
Pattern Live Load Factor can be specified in the Preferences.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load
analysis on a memberbymember basis to reduce the contribution of the live
load to the factored loading.
When using the AS 36002009 code, the program design assumes that a PDelta
analysis has been performed.
3.3 Limits on Material Strength
The upper and lower limits of f '
c
are 100 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively, for all
framing types (AS 3.1.1.1(b)).
' 100MPa
c
f (AS 3.1.1.1)
' 20MPa
c
f (AS 3.1.1.1)
The upper limit of f
sy
is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 3.2.1, Table 3.2.1).
When the compression strength of concrete used in design is beyond the given
limits or when the yield strength of steel used in design exceeds the given limits,
the code does not cover such cases. The code allows use of f
c
and f
sy
beyond the
given limits, provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility
(AS 3.1.1, 3.2.1, 17.2.1.1).
The program does not enforce any of these limits for column PMM interaction
checks or design and flexure design of beams. The specified strengths are used
for design. The user is responsible for using the proper strength values while
defining the materials.
3.4 Strength Resistance Factors
The strength reduction factor, , is defined as shown in the table that follows
(AS 2.2.2(ii), Table 2.2.2):
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  7
Type of action effect Str ength r eduction factor ()
(a) Axial force without bending
(i) Tension
(ii) Compression
0.8
0.6
(b) Bending without axial tension or compression where:
(i) for members with Class N reinforcement only
(ii) for members with Class L reinforcement only
0.6 (1.19 13k
uo
/12) 0.8
0.6 (1.19 13k
uo
/12) 0.64
(c) Bending with axial tension +[(0.8 )(N
u
/N
uot
)]
is obtained from(b)
(d) Bending with axial compression where:
(i) N
u
N
ub
(ii) N
u
<N
ub
0.6
0.6+[( 0.6)(1 N
u
/N
ub
)]
is obtained from(b)
(e) Shear 0.7
(f) Torsion 0.7
M
ud
is the reduced ultimate strength of the crosssection in bending where k
u
=
0.36, and tensile force has been reduced to balance the reduced compressive forces (AS
8.1.5).
3.5 Column Design
The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If the
geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section
has been defined, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the
program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column
based on provided reinforcing bar configuration. The reinforcement require
ments are calculated or checked at a userdefined number of check/design
stations along the column span. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete
columns of the structure involves the following steps:
Generate axial forcebiaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the
different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interacting
diagram is shown in Figure 31. For reinforcement to be designed, the
program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable
reinforcement: 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate Moment
Resisting frames (AS 10.7.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special Moment
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  8 Column Design
Resisting frames (Appendix C of AS 36002009, NZS 1170.5 and NZS
3101).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored
axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each
loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio
is taken as the Utilization Factor Limit when calculating the required rein
forcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.5.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of
discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction failure
surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation
allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction
surface is shown in Figure 31.
Figure 31 A typical column interaction surface
+
uo
N
uo
N
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  9
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain
in three dimensions on the section of the column, as shown in Figure 32.
Figure 32 Idealized strain distribution for generation of interaction surface
The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain,
c
, at the
extremity of the section, to 0.003 (AS 10.6.1(d)).
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  10 Column Design
The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate
strength design (AS 10.6.2).
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel
modulus of elasticity,
s
E
s
, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f
y
(AS
10.6.1(c), 3.2.3). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be
placed at the actual location of the center of the bar, and the algorithm does not
assume any further simplification with respect to distributing the area of steel
over the crosssection of the column, as shown in Figure 32.
Figure 33 Idealization of stress and strain distribution in a column section
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress
value of
2
f '
c
(AS 8.1.3(b)), as shown in Figure 33. The interaction algorithm
provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the
reinforcement in the compression zone. The depth of the equivalent rectangular
block, a, is taken as:
a =k
u
d (AS 8.1.3(b))
and,
2
1.0 0.003 '
c
f = where,
2
0.67 0.85 (AS Eqn. 10.6.2.5(1))
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  11
1.05 0.007 '
c
f = where, 0.67 0.85 (AS Eqn. 10.6.2.5 (2))
The effect of the strength reduction factor, , included in the generation of the
interaction surface varies as follows:
Bending with axial tension = +[(0.8 )(N
u
/N
uot
)] where,
0.6 =(1.19 13k
uo
/12) 0.8 for members with Class N reinforcement only
0.6 =(1.19 13k
uo
/12) 0.64 for members with Class L reinforcement only
Bending with axial compression:
=0.6 for N
u
N
ub
=0.6 +[( 0.6)(1 N
u
/N
ub
)] for N
u
<N
ub
Default values for for various actions are provided by the program, but those
values can be overwritten using the Preferences.
The maximum compressive axial load is limited to 0.75N
uo
where
N
uo
= [
1
c
f (A
g
A
st
) +f
sy
A
st
] (AS 10.6.2.2)
1
1.0 0.003
c
f = where,
1
0.72 0.85 (AS 10.6.2.2)
where = 0.60 for axial compression without bending (AS 2.2.2(ii), Table
2.2.2).
3.5.2 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The column capacity ratio is calculated for each design load combination at each
output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating
the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular design load combination
at a particular location:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the load cases and the
specified load combination factors to give N*, M*
2
, and M*
3
.
Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  12 Column Design
Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter
mine if the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set,
lies within the interaction volume.
The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the
identification of the individual column as unbraced or braced.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.5.2.1 Determine Factored Moments and Forces
The loads for a particular design load combination are obtained by applying the
corresponding factors to all of the load cases, giving N*, M*
2
, and M*
3
. The
factored moments are further increased, if required, to obtain minimum
eccentricities of 0.05D mm, where D is the dimension of the column in the
corresponding direction (AS 10.1.2). The minimum eccentricity is applied in
only one direction at a time.
3.5.2.2 Determine Moment Magnification Factors
The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for unbraced
(overall stability effect), and for braced (individual column stability effect).
Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are, in
general, different.
The program assumes that P analysis has been performed and, therefore,
moment magnification factors for moment causing sidesway are taken as unity
(AS 6.3). For more information about P analysis, refer to Appendix A.
For the P analysis, the analysis combination should correspond to a load of
1.2D +1.5L. See also White and Hajjar (1991).
3.5.2.2.1 Braced Column
The additional computed moments are amplified for individual column stability
effect (AS 10.4.2) by the nonsway moment magnification factor,
b
, as follows:
M
c
=
b
M
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  13
M
c
is the factored moment to be used in design.
The nonsway moment magnification factor,
b
, associated with the major or
minor direction of the column is given by (AS 10.4.2)
*
1.0
1
m
b
c
k
N
N
=
(
=
(
(AS 10.4.3a)
where the summation includes all columns within the story and N
c
is calculated
for each column in accordance with AS 10.4.4.
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user
can explicitly specify values of
b
and
s
.
3.5.2.3 Determine Capacity Ratio
As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.
The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress
condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the
moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain N*,
M*
2
, and M*
3
. The point (N*, M*
2
, M*
3
) is then placed in the interaction space
shown as point L in Figure 34. If the point lies within the interaction volume,
the column capacity is adequate. However, if the point lies outside the
interaction volume, the column is overstressed.
This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the
location of point C. Point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended
outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by
threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure
surface, as shown in Figure 34. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
OL/OC.
If OL =OC (or CR =1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the
column is stressed to capacity.
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  15
If OL <OC (or CR <1), the point lies within the interaction volume and
the column capacity is adequate.
If OL >OC (or CR >1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and
the column is overstressed.
Figure 34 Geometric representation of column capacity ratio
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each design load
combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the
controlling N*, M*
2
, and M*
3
set and associated design load combination name.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  16 Column Design
3.5.2.4 Required Reinforcing Area
If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforcement
that will give a column capacity ratio equal to the Utilization Factor Limit,
which is set to 0.95 by default.
3.5.3 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each design combination in the major
and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in
designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular design
load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:
Determine the factored forces acting on the section, N* and V*. Note that N*
is needed for the calculation of V
uc
.
Determine the shear force, V
uc
, which can be resisted by concrete alone.
Calculate the reinforcement required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate Moment Resisting frames (Ductile frames), the
shear design of the columns is also based on the maximum probable moment
strengths and the nominal moment strengths of the members, respectively, in
addition to the factored shear forces (AS Appendix C and NZS 310106).
Currently the program uses the capacity design principle provided by ACI
31802M instead of using the NZS 310106 code.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.5.3.1 Determine Section Forces
In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary Moment
Resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular design load combina
tion, namely, the column axial force, N*, and the column shear force, V*, in
a particular direction are obtained by factoring the load cases with the cor
responding design load combination factors.
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  17
In the shear design of Special Moment Resisting frames (i.e., seismic
design), the shear capacity of the column is checked for capacity shear in
addition to the requirement for the Ordinary Moment Resisting frames. The
capacity shear force in the column, V*, is determined from consideration of
the maximum forces that can be generated at the column. Two different
capacity shears are calculated for each direction (major and minor). The first
is based on the probable moment strength of the column, while the second is
computed from the probable moment strengths of the beams framing into
the column. The design strength is taken as the minimum of these two val
ues, but never less than the factored shear obtained from the design load
combination.
Figure 35 Column shear force V*
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  18 Column Design
V
u
= min{ ,
c
e
V
b
e
V } V*
factored
(ACI 21.4.5.1)
where
c
e
V = Capacity shear force of the column based on the probable
maximum flexural strengths of the two ends of the column.
b
e
V = Capacity shear force of the column based on the probable
moment strengths of the beams framing into the column.
In calculating the capacity shear of the column, ,
c
e
V the maximum
probable flexural strength at the two ends of the column is calculated for
the existing factored axial load. Clockwise rotation of the joint at one end
and the associated counterclockwise rotation of the other joint produces
one shear force. The reverse situation produces another capacity shear
force, and both of these situations are checked, with the maximum of the
two values taken as the .
c
e
V
For each design load combination, the factored axial load, N*, is
calculated. Then, the maximum probable positive and negative moment
capacities,
pr
M
+
and ,
pr
M
2
=1; or
=1 (N
*
/3.5A
g
) 0 for members subject to significant axial tension; or
=1 +(N
*
/14A
g
) for members subject to significant axial compression
3
=1
For Special Moment Resisting concrete frame design, if the factored axial
compressive force, N*, including the earthquake effect, is small
( )
* 20
c g
N f A < ,
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  22 Column Design
if the shear force contribution from earthquake, V
E
, is more than half of the total
factored maximum shear force ( ) * 0.5 *
E
V V V over the length of the member,
and if the station is within a distance l
o
from the face of the joint, then the
concrete capacity V
uc
is taken as zero (ACI 21.4.5.2). Note that for capacity
shear design, V
e
is considered to be contributed solely by earthquakes, so the
second condition is automatically satisfied. The length l
o
is taken as the section
width, onesixth the clear span of the column, or 18 in, whichever is larger (ACI
21.4.5.2; 21.4.4.4).
3.5.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V* and V
c
, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties
within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the
following:
The shear force is limited to a maximum of
max c
0.2 =
u o
V f bd (AS 8.2.6)
The minimum area of shear reinforcement (A
sv.min
) provided in a beam shall
be given by
.min sy
0.35 /
sv
A bs f = (AS 8.2.8, 10.7.4.5)
The ultimate shear strength of a beam provided with minimum shear rein
forcement shall be taken as:
.min o
0.6
u uc
V V bd = + (AS 8.2.9)
The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing, A
v
/s, is calculated as
follows:
If * 2,
uc
V V
0,
v
A
s
= except for d 750 mm, A
sv.min
shall be provided; (AS 8.2.5)
else if
( )
.min
2 * ,
uc u
V V V < A
sv.min
shall be provided; (AS 8.2.5)
Chapter 3  Design Process
Column Design 3  23
else if
.min .max
* ,
u u
V V V <
( )
o
*
,
d
uc
v
sy v
V V A
s f Cot
(AS 8.2.10)
( )
max 0.35
v
sy
A
b/f
s
(AS 8.2.8)
else if
max
* , V V >
a failure condition is declared. (AS 8.2.6)
In the preceding expressions, for a rectangular section,
w
b is the width of
the column, d is the effective depth of the column, and
cv
A is the effective
shear area, which is equal to
w
b d. For a circular section,
w
b is replaced with
D, which is the external diameter of the column, and d is replaced with 0.8D,
and
cv
A is replaced with the gross area
2
.
4
D
In the preceding expressions, the strength reduction factor is taken by
default as 0.7 for nonseismic cases (AS 2.2, Table 2.2.2), and as 0.60 for
seismic cases (ACI 9.3.4.a). However, those values can be overwritten by
the user, if so desired.
If * V exceeds its maximum permitted value V
u.max
, the concrete section
size should be increased (AS 8.2.6).
The maximum of all the calculated
v
A s values, obtained from each design
load combination, are reported for the major and minor directions of the
column, along with the controlling combination name.
The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup
requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement
volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the
program by the user.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  24 BeamDesign
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
Figure 36 Shear stress area,
cv
A
3.6 BeamDesign
In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the required
areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shear forces,
torsions, design load combination factors, and other criteria described in the text
that follows. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a userdefined
number of check/design stations along the beam span.
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  25
All beams ar e designed for major dir ection flexur e, shear and tor sion only.
Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may
exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design flexural reinforcement
Design shear reinforcement
Design torsion reinforcement
3.6.1 Design BeamFlexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations
along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural
reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular
section:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel
3.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary
Moment Resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each design
load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the
corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding design
load combination factors.
The beam section is then designed for the factored moments obtained from all of
the design load combinations. Positive moments produce bottom steel. In such
cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular beam or a Tbeam. Negative
moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always designed as a
Rectangular section.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  26 BeamDesign
3.6.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of
concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block, as
shown in Figure 37 (AS 8.1.2.2).
Figure 37 Rectangular beam design
The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged
sections (Tbeams) is summarized in the following subsections. It is assumed
that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed
( )
0.15
sc sy
A f N > (AS
10.7.1a); hence, all of the beams are designed ignoring axial force.
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  27
3.6.1.2.1 Design for Rectangular Beam
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M* (i.e., designing top
or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure
37), where,
*
2
2
2
'
c
M
a d d
f b
=
(AS 8.1.3)
where, the value is taken as 0.80 by default (AS 2.2.2) in the preceding, and the
following assumptions are used for the stressed block used to compute the
flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1.2).
The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.003 (AS
8.1.3(a)).
A uniform compression compressive stress of
2
f
c
acts on an area (AS
8.1.3(b)) bounded by
The edges of the crosssections,
A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the considered
loading and located at a distance k
u
d from the extreme compressive fiber
where
2
1.0 0.003 '
c
f = where,
2
0.67 0.85 (AS 8.1.3(1))
1.05 0.007 '
c
f = where, 0.67 0.85 (AS 8.1.3(2))
and 0.36.
u
k
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by
max
where 0.36
u u
a k d k = (AS 8.1.5)
If a a
max
, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
*
2
s
sy
M
A
a
f d
=
 

\ .
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  28 BeamDesign
This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M* is positive, or at the top if M
uo
is negative.
If a >a
max
, i.e., k
u
>0.36, compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.5)
and is calculated as follows:
The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by
2 max
'
c
C f ba = (AS 8.1.3)
the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is
max
.
2
uc
a
M C d
 
=

\ .
where is determined as from item b of Table 2.2.2 of AS 36002009,
as follows:
0.8 0.6
ud
uo
M
M
=
In the determination of , M
ud
is the reduced ultimate strength of the
crosssection in bending when k
u
=0.36 and tensile forces have been
reduced to balance the reduced compressive force (AS 8.1.5a).
Therefore, the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
* .
us uc
M M M =
So the required compression steel is given by
( )
us
sc
s
M
A
f d d
=
, where
0.003 .
s s y
c d
f E f
c
(
=
(
(AS 8.1.2.1, 3.2.2)
The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  29
1
max
,
2
uc
s
sy
M
A
a
f d
=
(
(
and
the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by
( )
2
'
us
s
sy
M
A
f d d
=
Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement is A
s
=A
s1
+A
s2
, and the total
compression reinforcement is A
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A
s
is
to be placed at the top if M* is positive, and A
s
is to be placed at the bottom
and A
s
is to be placed at the top if M* is negative.
3.6.1.2.2 Design for TBeam
In designing a Tbeam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 37, is
assumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive. If the
moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ignored. In
that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 38 is assumed
on the compression side (AS 8.1.5).
Figure 38 T beam design
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  30 BeamDesign
3.6.1.2.2.1 Flanged BeamUnder Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M* (i.e., designing top steel), the
calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as described for a rectangular
beam, i.e., no Tbeam data is used.
3.6.1.2.2.2 Flanged BeamUnder Positive Moment
If M* >0, the depth of the compression block is given by
*
2
2
2
'
c f
M
a d d
f b
=
where, the value of is taken as that for a tension controlled section, which is
0.80 by default (AS 2.2.2) in the preceding and the following equations.
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by
max
where 0.36
u u
a k d k = (AS 8.1.5)
If a d
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as pre
viously defined for the Rectangular section design. However, in that case,
the width of the beam is taken as b
f
, as shown in Figure 38. Compression
reinforcement is required if a >a
max
.
If a >d
s
, the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for
balancing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 38.
C
f
is given by
( ) ( )
2 max
* min ,
f c f w s
C f b b d a = (AS 8.1.3(b))
Therefore,
1
f
s
sy
C
A
f
= and the portion of M* that is resisted by the flange is
given by
( )
max
min ,
2
s
uf f
d a
M C d
 
=


\ .
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  31
Again, the value for is 0.80 by default. Therefore, the balance of the
moment, M*, to be carried by the web is given by
* =
uw uf
M M M
The web is a Rectangular section of dimensions b
w
and d, for which the
design depth of the compression block is recalculated as
2
1
2
2
uw
c w
M
a d d
f b
=
If a
1
a
max
, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
2
1
,
2
uw
s
sy
M
A
a
f d
=
 

\ .
and
1 2 s s s
A A A = +
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam.
If a
1
>a
max
, compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as
follows:
The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by
2 max
' .
w c w
C f b a =
Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is
max
,
2
uc
a
M C d
 
=

\ .
and
the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
.
us uw uc
M M M =
Therefore, the compression steel is computed as
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  32 BeamDesign
( )( )
2
,
us
sc
s c
M
A
f f d d
=
where
max
max
0.003 .
s s y
c d
f E f
c
(
=
(
The tensile steel for balancing compression in the web concrete is
2
max
2
uc
s
sy
M
A
a
f d
=
(
(
, and
the tensile steel for balancing the compression steel is
( )
3
us
s
sy
M
A
f d d
=
.
The total tensile reinforcement is
1 2 3
,
s s s s
A A A A = + + and the total
compression reinforcement is .
s
A
s
A is to be placed at the bottom, and
s
A
is to be placed at the top.
3.6.1.2.3 Minimumand MaximumTensile Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given
by the following limit (AS 8.1.6.1):
2
,
.min
,
ct f
st b
sy
f
D
A bd
d f
 
=

\ .
where (AS 8.1.6.1(2))
0.20,
b
= for Rectangular Section (AS8.1.6.1(2))
for L and TSections with the web in tension:
1/4
0.20 1 0.4 0.18 0.20 ,
f f
s
b
w w
b b
D
b D b
   
 
= +
  
\ .
\ . \ .
(AS8.1.6.1(2))
for L and TSections with the flange in tension:
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  33
2/3
0.20 1 0.25 0.08 0.20 ,
f f
s
b
w w
b b
D
b D b
   
 
= +
  
\ .
\ . \ .
(AS8.1.6.1(2))
,
' 0.6 ' .
ct f c
f f = (AS 3.1.1.3(b))
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension
reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed as follows:
0.04 Rectangular Beam
0.04 TBeam
0.04 Rectangular Beam
0.04 TBeam
s
w
s
w
bd
A
b d
bd
A
b d
3.6.1.3 Special Consideration for Seismic Design
For Special Moment Resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam
design satisfies the following additional conditions (AS Appendix C, ACI
Chapter 21) (see also Table 31):
Table 31: Design Criteria
Type of
Check/
Design
Ordinary
Moment Resisting
Frames
(NonSeismic)
Intermediate
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Special
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Column Check (interaction)
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Column Design (interaction)
Specified
Combinations
1% < <8%
Specified
Combinations
1% < <8%
Specified
Combinations
1% < <6%
=1.0
Column Shears
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Column shear capacity
=1.0 and =1.25
Vc = 0 (conditional)
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  34 BeamDesign
Table 31: Design Criteria
Type of
Check/
Design
Ordinary
Moment Resisting
Frames
(NonSeismic)
Intermediate
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Special
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Beam Design Flexure
Specified
Combinations
0.04
( )
2
,min
/ /
s b cf sy
A D d f f bd
Specified
Combinations
0.04
( )
2
,min
/ /
s b cf sy
A D d f f bd
Specified
Combinations
0.025
(min)
3 200
max and
`
)
c
s w w
sy sy
f
A b d b d
f f
Beam Min. Moment Override Check
No Requirement
1
end
end
3
+
M M
u
u
{ }
end
1
max
span
5
+ +
M M ,M
u u u
{ } span
max
1
max
5
+
u
M M ,M
u u
1
end
end
2
+
M M
u
u
{ }
end
1
max
span
4
+ +
M M ,M
u u u
{ }
1
max
span
4 end
+
M M ,M
u u u
Beam Design Shear
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Beam Capacity Shear (Ve)
with =1.0
and =1.25 plus VD+L
Vc =0 (conditional)
J oint Design
No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear
Beam/Column Capacity Ratio
No Requirement No Requirement Checked
The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top
and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than
A
s(min)
(ACI 21.3.2.1) for Special Moment Resisting Frame.
(min)
3
200
max and
c
s w w
sy sy
f
A b d b d
f f
`
)
or (ACI 21.3.2.1, 10.5.1)
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  35
(min) (required)
4
.
3
s s
A A (ACI 21.3.2.1, 10.5.3)
The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by
0025
s w
A . b d. (ACI 21.3.2.1)
At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e.,
associated with the bottom steel) would not be less that 1/2 of the beam
negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at that end
(ACI 21.3.2.2).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at
any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum
of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support)
stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).
For Intermediate Moment Resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the
beam design would satisfy the following conditions:
At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not
be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (AS
A12.3.2.1, ACI 21.12.4.1).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at
any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum
of the positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end
(support) stations (AS A12.3.2.1, ACI 21.12.4.1).
3.6.2 Design BeamShear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a
userdefined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are
involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular station because of
beam major shear:
Determine the factored shear force, V*.
Determine the shear force, V
uc
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  36 BeamDesign
For Special and Intermediate Moment frames (ductile frames), the shear design
of the beams also is based on the maximum probable moment strengths and the
nominal moment strengths of the members, respectively, in addition to the
factored design. Effects of axial forces on the beam shear design are neglected.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.6.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary Moment Re
sisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular design
load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the
associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding design load
combination factors.
In the design of Special Moment Resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic
design), the shear capacity of the beam also is checked for the capacity shear
resulting from the maximum probable moment capacities at the ends along
with the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to the
design check required for Ordinary Moment Resisting frames. The capacity
shear force, V
p
, is calculated from the maximum probable moment capaci
ties of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for
calculating the design shear force in a beam from the maximum probable
moment capacity is the same as that described for a column earlier in this
chapter. See Table 31 for a summary.
The design shear force is then given by (ACI 21.3.4.1)
{ }
2 1
, max
e e u
V V V = (ACI 21.3.4.1, Fig R21.3.4)
L D p e
V V V
+
+ =
1 1
(ACI 21.3.4.1, Fig R21.3.4)
L D p e
V V V
+
+ =
2 2
(ACI 21.3.4.1, Fig R21.3.4)
where V
p
is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated
maximum probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams
acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V
p
is the maximum of V
p1
and
V
p2
, where
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  37
1
,
I J
p
M M
V
L
+
+
= and
2
,
I J
p
M M
V
L
+
+
= where
I
M
2
=1; or
=1 (N
*
/3.5A
g
) 0 for members subject to significant axial tension; or
=1 +(N
*
/14A
g
) for members subject to significant axial compression
3
=1
3.6.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V* and V
uc
, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties
within a spacing, s, is given by the following:
The shear force is limited to a maximum of
.max o
0.2
u c
V f bd = (AS 8.2.6)
The minimum area of shear reinforcement (A
sv.min
) provided in a beam shall
be given by
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  39
.min
0.35
sv sy
A bs/f = (AS 8.2.8)
The ultimate shear strength of a beam provided with minimum shear rein
forcement shall be taken as:
.min o
0.6
u uc
V V bd = + (AS 8.2.9)
The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing, A
v
/s, is calculated as
follows:
If * 2,
uc
V V
0,
v
A
s
= except for d 750 mm, A
sv.min
shall be provided; (AS 8.2.5)
0,
v
A
s
= for b
v
>2D; (AS 8.2.5(c)(i))
else if ( )
,min
2 * ,
uc u
V V V < A
sv.min
shall be provided; (AS 8.2.5)
else if
.min ,max
* ,
u u
V V V <
( )
o
*
,
cot
uc
v
sy v
V V
A
s f
=
d
(AS 8.2.10)
( )
max 0.35
v
sy
A
b/f
s
(AS 8.2.8)
else if
max
* , V V >
a failure condition is declared. (AS 8.2.6)
If V* exceeds its maximum permitted value V
max
, the concrete sec
tion size should be increased (AS 8.2.6).
The maximum of all of the calculated A
v
/s values, obtained from each design
load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and
associated design load combination name.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based
purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  40 BeamDesign
satisfy spacing and volumetric consideration must be investigated indepen
dently of the program by the user.
3.6.3 Design BeamTorsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a
userdefined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are
involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular
station because of beam torsion:
Determine the factored torsion, T*.
Determine special section properties.
Determine critical torsion capacity.
Determine the reinforcement steel required.
Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion
in the Preferences.
3.6.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of torsion reinforcement of any beam, the factored torsions for each
design load combination at a particular design station are obtained by factoring
the corresponding torsion for different load cases with the corresponding design
load combination factors.
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsional
moment in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon
cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code
(AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not try to redistribute the internal forces
and to reduce T*. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional
DOF in the structural model.
3.6.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as A
t
, J
t
, and u
t
are calculated.
These properties are described as follows (AS 8.3).
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  41
A
t
= Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars
at the corner of the crosssection
J
t
= Torsion Modulus
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
sw,v
/S and
A
sw,l
/S, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 30 mm. This is equivalent to
25mm clear cover and a 10mmdiameter stirrup placement. For torsion design
of Tbeam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange
area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion
reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
uc
calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a Rectangular beam
section are given as follows:
A
t
=
( )( ) 2 2 , b c h c (AS 8.3.5)
u
t
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 , b c h c + (AS 8.3.6)
J
t
= 0.33x
2
y (AS 8.3.3)
where, the section dimensions b, h and c are shown in Figure 39. Similarly, the
special section properties for a Tbeam section are given as follows:
A
t
=
( )( ) 2 2 ,
w
b c h c (AS 8.3.5)
u
t
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 ,
c w c
h b + (AS 8.3.6)
J
t
= 0.33x
2
y (AS 8.3.3)
where the section dimensions b
f
, b
w
, h, d
s
and c for a Tbeam are shown in
Figure 39.
3.6.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity
The critical torsion limits, T
cr
, for which the torsion in the section can be ignored,
are calculated as follows:
0.25
cr uc
T = T (AS 8.3.4(a)(i))
where,
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  42 BeamDesign
c b
w
2
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
TBeam Section
c h 2
h
b
c h 2
w
b
b
f
c b
w
2
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
TBeam Section
c h 2
h
b
c h 2
w
b
b
f
Figure 39 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
0.3
uc t c
T J f = (AS 8.3.5)
where J
t
is the torsion modulus of concrete crosssection, as described in detail
in the previous section, is the strength reduction factor for torsion, which is
equal to 0.7 by default (AS 2.3(c), Table 2.3), and
c
f is the specified concrete
strength. Torsion reinforcement also may be ignored if either of the following is
satisfied:
* *
0.5
uc uc
T V
T V
+
(AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))
* *
1
uc uc
T V
T V
+
and D max(250 mm, b/2) (AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))
3.6.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsion T* is less than the threshold limit, T
cr
, torsion can be safely
ignored (AS 8.3.4). In that case, the program reports that no torsion is required.
Chapter 3  Design Process
BeamDesign 3  43
However, if T* exceeds the threshold limit, T
cr
, it is assumed that the torsional
resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3).
If, T* >T
cr
, the required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as follows:
2
0.5 cot
sw
sy t t
l
sy
A
f u
s
A
f
 

\ .
= (AS 8.3.6(a))
and the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
sw
/s, is calculated as
follows:
*
,
tan
2
sw t
sy f t
A T
s f A
= (AS 8.3.5(b))
where,
t
= the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the
longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30
when T*=T
uc
to 45 when T*= T
u,max
where, the minimum value of A
sw
/s is taken as follows:
sy
v
sw
f
b
s
A
35 . 0
min ,
= (AS 8.2.8)
The following equation also shall be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by
adding additional shear stirrups.
* *
1.0
us us
T V
T V
+
(AS 8.3.4(b))
*
*
1
us
us
T
T
V
V
=
 

\ .
(AS 8.3.4(b))
( ) 0
cot
us sv sy v
V = A f d s (AS 8.3.2.10(a))
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  44 BeamDesign
An upper limit of the combination of V
u
and T
u
that can be carried by the section
also is checked using the following equation.
,max ,max
* *
1.0
u u
T V
T V
+
(AS 8.3.3)
where,
max
0.2 ,
c o
V f bd
u,
= and (AS 8.2.6)
max
0.2 .
u, c t
T = f J (AS 8.3.3)
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V* and T*
exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
When torsional reinforcement is required (T* >T
cr
), the area of transverse closed
stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
0.35
2
v sw
sy
A A bs
s s f
 
+

\ .
(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)
If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated
v
A s and
sw
A s ,
v
A s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case,
v
A s does not need to
satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.
The maximum of all the calculated
l
A and
sw
A s values obtained from each
design load combination is reported along with the controlling combination
names.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based
purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements and
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be
investigated independently of the program by the user.
Chapter 3  Design Process
Joint Design 3  45
3.7 Joint Design
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of Special Moment Resisting frames
possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of
the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in
the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Only joints having a column below the joint are checked. The material properties
of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint.
The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the
column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
Determine the panel zone design shear force,
h
u
V
Determine the effective area of the joint
Check panel zone shear stress
The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the
following three sections.
3.7.1 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure 310 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beamcolumn
intersection for a column direction, major or minor.
The force
h
u
V is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.
The forces that act on the joint are N*, V*, * ,
L
M and * .
R
M The forces N* and
V* are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into
the top of the joint. The moments *
L
M and *
R
M are obtained from the beams
framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force
h
u
V by
resolving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T
L
=C
L
and T
R
=C
R
,
= + *
h
u L R
V T T V
The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment. The
magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles
of ultimate strength theory (ACI 10.2).
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  46 Joint Design
The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that
frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor
directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby
contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates the
C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that the
concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.
In the design of Special Moment Resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of the
design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel
overstrength factor, , where, =1.25 and no factors) of the beams framing
into the joint (ACI 21.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these moment
capacities. The program calculates the column shear force V
u
from the beam
moment capacities, as follows (see Figure 35):
.
L R
u u
u
M M
V
H
+
=
It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 35 are taken as
midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. If no column
exists at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of the column is taken as
zero.
The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 310,
are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears
obtained from the two cases.
3.7.2 Determine the Effective Area of Joint
The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in
plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor
dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam framing into the
joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the
calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. The
area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.
The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated
separately (ACI R21.5.3).
Chapter 3  Design Process
Joint Design 3  47
Figure 310 Beamcolumn joint analysis
Concrete Frame Design AS 36002009
3  48 Joint Design
It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the
preceding assumptions may not be conservative and the user should investigate
the acceptability of the particular joint.
3.7.3 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress
The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force by the
effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear
strengths (ACI 21.5.3).
20 for joints confined on all four sides,
15 for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces,
12 for all other joints.
c
c
c
f
v f
f
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