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Atlas of Flood Maps

A t l a s of Flood Maps EX EX EX C C C I I

EXEXEXCCCIIIMMM APAPAP

Atlas of Flood Maps

Examples from 19 European countries, USA and Japan

Examples from 19 European countries, USA and Japan
Examples from 19 European countries, USA and Japan
Atlas of Flood Maps Examples from 19 European countries, USA and Japan Examples from 19 European

Contents

1 Introduction

5

2 Flood mapping

7

3 Cartographic aspects of flood risk mapping

9

3.1 Layout issues and GIS approaches

9

3.1.1 Basic and explanatory information

9

3.1.2 Meta-data

9

3.1.3 Background mapping or imagery

9

3.1.4 Location and navigation

10

3.1.5 Colour palettes and symbols

10

3.1.6 Numerical flood data

11

3.1.7 Additional considerations

11

3.2 Map Content

12

3.2.1 Flood extent

12

3.2.2 Flood probability, depth, progress

12

3.2.3 Potential damage and casualties

13

3.2.4 Flood risk

13

3.2.5 Flood Hazard

13

3.2.6 Evacuation maps

13

3.3 Conclusions

13

4 Examples of flood risk maps

15

4.1 Austria

15

4.2 Belgium

25

4.2.1 Flanders

25

4.2.2 Wallonia

29

4.3 Croatia

33

4.4 Denmark

37

4.5 Great Britain

39

4.5.1 England & Wales

39

4.5.2 Scotland

53

4.6 Finland

55

4.7 France

59

4.8 Germany

67

4.8.1 Baden-Württemberg

67

4.8.2 Bayern (Bavaria)

70

4.8.3 Nieder-Sachsen / Bremen

72

4.8.4 Nordrhein-Westfalen

73

4.8.5 Rheinland-Pfalz

77

4.8.6 Saarland

80

4.8.7 Sachsen

80

4.8.8 Sachsen-Anhalt

83

4.9 Hungary

85

4.10 Ireland

89

4.11 Italy

93

4.12 Latvia

97

4.13 Luxembourg

99

4.14 Netherlands

101

4.15 Norway

109

4.16 Poland

113

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4.17

Spain

119

4.18 Sweden

131

4.19 Switzerland

135

5 Transboundary flood hazard mapping

147

5.1 European Flood Risk Mapping

147

5.2 Comrisk and Safecoast

149

5.3 ELLA

150

5.4 FLAPP

154

5.5 IKRS

155

5.6 SAFER

159

5.7 TIMIS

159

6 Insurance maps

163

6.1 CatNet

163

6.2 Austria

166

6.3 Czech Republic

169

6.4 France

172

6.5 Germany

174

6.6 Italy

175

6.7 USA

176

7 Evacuation maps

179

7.1 Germany – Hamburg

179

7.2 Japan

180

7.3 Netherlands

183

7.4 USA

185

7.4.1

Mississippi

185

7.4.2

Florida

186

7.4.3

Louisiana – New Orleans

187

7.4.4

California – Sacramento

189

8 Final Remarks

195

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4

Prepared for:

EEXE XXCCCIII MMM AAPA PP

Prepared for: E EX E X X C C C I I I M M M

Atlas of Flood Maps

Examples from 19 European countries, USA and Japan

November 2007

Contents

1 Introduction

5

2 Flood mapping

7

3 Cartographic aspects of flood risk mapping

9

3.1 Layout issues and GIS approaches

9

3.1.1 Basic and explanatory information

9

3.1.2 Meta-data

9

3.1.3 Background mapping or imagery

9

3.1.4 Location and navigation

10

3.1.5 Colour palettes and symbols

10

3.1.6 Numerical flood data

11

3.1.7 Additional considerations

11

3.2 Map Content

12

3.2.1 Flood extent

12

3.2.2 Flood probability, depth, progress

12

3.2.3 Potential damage and casualties

13

3.2.4 Flood risk

13

3.2.5 Flood Hazard

13

3.2.6 Evacuation maps

13

3.3 Conclusions

13

4 Examples of flood risk maps

15

4.1 Austria

15

4.2 Belgium

25

4.2.1 Flanders

25

4.2.2 Wallonia

29

4.3 Croatia

33

4.4 Denmark

37

4.5 Great Britain

39

4.5.1 England & Wales

39

4.5.2 Scotland

53

4.6 Finland

55

4.7 France

59

4.8 Germany

67

4.8.1 Baden-Württemberg

67

4.8.2 Bayern (Bavaria)

70

4.8.3 Nieder-Sachsen / Bremen

72

4.8.4 Nordrhein-Westfalen

73

4.8.5 Rheinland-Pfalz

77

4.8.6 Saarland

80

4.8.7 Sachsen

80

4.8.8 Sachsen-Anhalt

83

4.9 Hungary

85

4.10 Ireland

89

4.11 Italy

93

4.12 Latvia

97

4.13 Luxembourg

99

4.14 Netherlands

101

4.15 Norway

109

4.16 Poland

113

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4.17

Spain

119

4.18 Sweden

131

4.19 Switzerland

135

5 Transboundary flood hazard mapping

147

5.1 European Flood Risk Mapping

147

5.2 Comrisk and Safecoast

149

5.3 ELLA

150

5.4 FLAPP

154

5.5 IKRS

155

5.6 SAFER

159

5.7 TIMIS

159

6 Insurance maps

163

6.1 CatNet

163

6.2 Austria

166

6.3 Czech Republic

169

6.4 France

172

6.5 Germany

174

6.6 Italy

175

6.7 USA

176

7 Evacuation maps

179

7.1 Germany – Hamburg

179

7.2 Japan

180

7.3 Netherlands

183

7.4 USA

185

7.4.1

Mississippi

185

7.4.2

Florida

186

7.4.3

Louisiana – New Orleans

187

7.4.4

California – Sacramento

189

8 Final Remarks

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4

1

Introduction

Aware of the growing need for flood mapping development in the future in Europe, early 2006 the European Water Directors decided to establish a European exchange circle on flood mapping (EXCIMAP).

Today EXCIMAP is an informal circle consisting of nearly 40 representatives from 24 European countries or organizations. It has been set up for encouraging and facilitating exchanges between European experts in view of developing flood mapping. The main objective of EXCIMAP is to produce a Handbook presenting the good practices (available in Europe) to mobilize when executing flood mapping.

In the mean time, the European Union has adopted a European Directive on the Assessment and Management of

Flood Risks. This Directive sets out the requirement for the Member States to develop three kinds of products:

• a preliminary flood risk assessment: the aim of this step is to evaluate the level of flood risk in all regions and to select those regions on which to undertake flood mapping and flood risk management plans (see below)

• flood mapping, with a distinction between flood hazard maps and flood risk maps:

− the flood hazard maps should cover the geographical areas which could be flooded according to different scenarios. These maps are also indicated by flood extension maps;

− the flood risk maps shall show the potential adverse consequences associated with floods under those scenarios.

• flood risk management plans: on the basis of the previous maps, the flood risk management plans shall indicate the objectives of the flood risk management in the concerned areas, and the measures that aim to achieve these objectives. Examples are evacuation maps.

The focus in this Atlas is on river flooding, but some examples of coastal flooding are also included.

According to this directive Member states shall produce flood mapping according to some minimum recommendations. To be consistent with this proposed European document, EXCIMAP has decided to focus its work on the minimum requirements of the Directive concerning flood mapping.

As part of the work to be done for this Handbook an inventory was made of examples of maps and mapping programmes in the participating countries. The result of this inventory is this “Atlas of Flood Maps”. It contains examples from 19 European countries, not counting the subdivisions that are made in some instances (Belgium, Great Britain and Germany) and from the USA and Japan. In addition special chapters are dedicated to transboundary flood mapping, flood maps for insurance purpose and evacuation maps. In each chapter the authors of this Atlas have made remarks on content and layout of the maps, based on general cartographic principles.

The Atlas is compiled by the Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. The material is submitted by the EXCIMAP members. WL|Delft Hydraulics assisted to collect and organize the material and has made both the descriptions and the analysis of the maps. After the publication of a draft edition, the material was reviewed by representatives of the various countries.

We hope that this valuable collection of examples will stimulate flood mapping efforts in countries that have to start with it, and discussion to improve these practices in countries that have experiences with it already.

The editors:

Jos van Alphen and Ron Passchier

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2

Flood mapping

For the purpose of consistency, this Atlas is based on the same definitions as the EXCIMAP Handbook on Good Practices on Flood Mapping:

Flood: is a temporary covering by water of land normally not covered by water. This shall include floods from rivers, mountain torrents, Mediterranean ephemeral water courses, and floods from the sea in coastal areas, and may exclude floods from sewerage systems

Flood risk: is the combination of the probability of a flood event and of the potential adverse consequences to human health, the environment and economic activity associated with a flood event

Flood plain maps indicate the geographical areas which could be covered by a flood (from all sources except sewerage systems – see above definition of flood) according to one or several probabilities: floods with a very low probability or extreme events scenarios; floods with a medium probability (likely return period >=100y); floods with a high probability, where appropriate

Flood hazard maps shows areas which could be flooded according to three probabilities (low, medium, high) complemented with: type of flood, the flood extent; water depths or water level where appropriate; where appropriate, flow velocity or the relevant water flow direction

Flood risk maps indicate potential adverse consequences associated with floods under several probabilities, expressed in terms of: the indicative number of inhabitants potentially affected; type of economic activity of the area potentially affected; installation which might cause accidental pollution in case of flooding […] potentially affected ; other information which the Member State considers useful

Damage is the negative effect of an event or process

Residual risk is the portion of the risk remaining after the flood risk management actions have been implemented and taken into consideration

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Atlas of Flood Maps

3

Cartographic aspects of flood risk mapping

This Chapter aims to describe the basic content and cartographic good practices of flood risk mapping. It is meant to form the background information for the description of the compilation of various examples of flood maps from countries that are part of EXCIMAP. The text in the first paragraph on map layout and the use of GIS is identical to the text on cartographic aspects in the ‘Handbook of Good Practice for Flood Mapping in Europe’ produced as part of EXCIMAP. In the second paragraph, map content is discussed.

3.1 Layout issues and GIS approaches

Cartographic aspects are important issues in flood mapping. They need to be adequate to the intended user to help ensure that the content of the maps is correctly understood and that the maps might convey the relevant information to their users, thus achieving the objectives for which they have been developed. This Section discusses some of the key issues related to the presentation of flood maps.

3.1.1 Basic and explanatory information

Information that is important for use and that explain the content of the map includes:

• Title: brief description of the map, including its content and / or purpose (for flood maps particularly important are the considered probabilities or recurrence intervals

• Responsible authority (organisation responsible for the development and publishing of the maps, with contact details)

• Date of preparation / publication

• Legend (textual description of symbols, colours, line features, etc.)

• Purpose of development and intended use

• Method of development

• Limitations of map and / or assessment of uncertainty (if available)

• Disclaimer (to enforce explanatory information and limitations, and provide legal protection to the responsible authority against adverse consequences of misuse)

• North and scale: preferably using scale bar as this allows for changes in page size

The scope and detail of the explanatory information should be appropriate to the intended audience.

• Maps intended for public use should be simple and self-explanatory and include a clear legend, such that as little supporting or explanatory information as possible is required for correct interpretation.

• Maps intended for organisational users (governments, local authorities, etc.) will generally be used by professionals to inform decision makers that may potentially have significant impacts, and will often contain more information than public maps. They are therefore likely to require more detailed explanatory information to help the user to fully understand the development and limitations of the maps, particularly in relation to methods of development, limitations and uncertainty.

3.1.2 Meta-data

Appropriate meta-data should be provided where maps are issued / downloadable in GIS format. Such data should include standard meta-data (dates, responsible organisation, etc.) as well as information necessary for use of the GIS data, including the map projection and any datum levels used. Consideration should also be given to any relevant meta-data protocols or requirements.

3.1.3 Background mapping or imagery

Background mapping (i.e., maps showing topography, towns / buildings, roads, rivers and waterbodies, land use, etc.) or imagery (often ortho-rectified aerial photographs) are almost universally provided to a flood map to provide geographical reference for the flood information. Clear, and appropriately scaled, background mapping facilitates location directly from the principal map (although it might be noted that at very detailed scales this can be difficult to achieve). Care should be taken to ensure that background mapping colours will not be readily confusable with those used in the flood mapping (or vice versa), and background mapping is sometimes provided in black-and-white or grey-scale to improve clarity of the overlying flood map information.

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Atlas of Flood Maps

Imagery may be more readily interpreted than mapping as a background layer, although users may find it more difficult to geographically locate the relevant area, particularly if they are not closely familiar with the specific area. Imagery can also be expensive to procure if not already available, although Google Earth has recently become a powerful tool to provide affordable imagery (see Polish examples, Figure 4.88 and Figure 4.89).

3.1.4 Location and navigation

A location plan is often provided alongside the principal flood map to help users identify the geographical location

that the flood map represents. This plan, which may be an appropriately scaled map or schematic plan (with appropriate key locations, such as towns, roads, rivers, etc.), shows the coverage and the location of the map within a wider geographical area (e.g., the nation, region or river basin).

Navigation tools will be required for internet-based maps to enable users find an area of interest. Tools often include zooming (in and out) and panning and can include relocation from a location plan (as described above) or

a return to default view (e.g., regional or national scale view).

An indication of orientation (direction of North bearing) and map scale are also required for correct interpretation. Scale information may be provided by:

• A written scale (e.g., 1:10 000) in the title box or legend

• A scale bar provided on the map; this allows easy change in paper size

• Grid squares provided on the map (with the grid square size defined in legend)

3.1.5 Colour palettes and symbols

Simple flood maps may show only a single flood parameter (such as the flood extent for one flood frequency or return period) using a single coloured layer over a background map. The use of different colours (or shades of a single colour) may be used to present multiple parameters (such as flood extents for multiple flood frequencies, flood depths within a given flood extent, or classes of flood hazard or risk) in a clear and comprehensible format on a single map. The choice of colour coding may be guided by a number of factors:

• Social conditioning: People are conditioned to interpret information based on colour, e.g., blue may be taken to represent flood extents, and red, orange and green are taken to represent danger, caution and safety respectively. Care should be taken with respect to possible interpretations of colour, and particularly misunderstandings.

• Graduations of colour: Graduations of colour (or within similar colours, such as red, orange and yellow or purple, blue and green) may be used to represent different degrees of a single parameter (e.g., deeper shades to represent more severe flooding or higher risk). The graduation may be discrete or continuous, whereby:

− Discrete graduation is used to represent a set number of ranges or classes of degree (e.g., flood extents for a small number of flood event frequencies, or specified ranges of flood depth). The choice of range or class of degree may be based on equal divisions, or perhaps more appropriately, on classifications related to consequence (e.g., depth categories related to safety and the ability of people to evacuate, or to depth- damage data for economic damage calculation)

− Continuous graduation is used to represent a continuum of degree. This provides more detail but may not be as easy to interpret as discretely graduated maps. An example of discrete and continuous graduation is shown in the next two figures.

•

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10

maps. An example of discrete and continuous graduation is shown in the next two figures. •

Black and White Reproduction: The possible reproduction of a colour map in black-and-white might be considered in choosing a colour scheme, noting that different colours may appear as the same shade of grey once copied. An example of a colour palette that does not translate well into grey scales (both the blue and red translate into dark grey, but the blue is low and red is high) as can be seen in the next two figures.

low and red is high) as can be seen in the next two figures. • Accessibility:
low and red is high) as can be seen in the next two figures. • Accessibility:

• Accessibility: The accessibility of maps for the partially-sighted or colour-blind should be considered in choosing colour-schemes, particularly within the context of any national, regional or organisational regulations, policies or guidelines.

• Clarity: Strong colours may be used to provide clarity over a coloured background map, although it might be noted that an excessive number of strong colours can make a map difficult to interpret

Hatching may be used as an alternative to different shades or colours in representing different parameters or, as is more often the case, parameter variants. Examples might include hatching of flood extent areas that are defended by protection measures or form flood storage areas / washlands, to differentiate these types of area from those that are undefended or naturally flooded respectively. The use of different line types that bound a polygon or flood extent provides another opportunity for differentiation. This approach is generally more suitable to visualise variants of a parameter or meta-data associated with the primary mapped parameters, such as differentiation between observed historic and predictive flood extents, or an indication of uncertainty associated with a flood extent. Line types variations that might be used include ranges of line:

• Thickness

• Colour

• Continuity (e.g., solid, chain, dashed, dotted)

• Definition (e.g., clearly defined line of set thickness as opposed to fuzzy boundary)

3.1.6 Numerical flood data

Flood maps represent information graphically. This visualisation can be supplemented with numerical data, such as values of water level or flow, either directly as text on the map or in a table on the legend. Such data can also be provided as attributes or tables associated with the flood maps where the maps are issued or downloadable in digital GIS format.

3.1.7 Additional considerations

In preparing flood maps, other considerations may be relevant to the presentation. The location, type, standard and condition of flood defence assets, and other flood-related information such as evacuation routes, shelter areas, flow direction, properties, etc., can also be shown on flood maps. The scope of the information provided might be more or less detailed dependent on the intended purpose and audience (i.e., public or organisational). This information may be associated with the flood maps, and possibly with particular flood cells, where the maps are provided in digital GIS format. The presentation of flood maps in trans-national or trans-regional river basins should, as far as reasonably possible within the requirements and constraints prevalent in each jurisdiction, be co-ordinated and consistent in presentation. Consistency should also exist between different types of flood maps for a given area. For example, the outer extents of flood risk zones should be spatially consistent with flood extent maps for a given flood event frequency,

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and a given colour should preferably not be used to represent more than one parameter within a related set of maps. Most EU countries now have a multi-cultural, and hence multi-lingual, society. Minority language versions of maps may therefore be deemed appropriate where significant minorities exist.

3.2 Map Content

3.2.1 Flood extent

The extent of potential flooding has to be presented as surface covering the topography for a specified flood level /frequency. For reference roads, railways, houses, property boundaries and the permanent waterbodies from which the floods may originate may be included. Recently Google Earth has become a powerful tool to use as background layer for this kind of information. A drawback of the use of Google Earth is the fact that the interactive site depends on third-party software which, although it is rather new on the internet, might easily be discontinued and there is always the risk that the server producing the images goes off-line for whatever reason. Other problems may occur when the layout c.q. technical aspects of Google Earth are changed.

Flood extent should be presented for a specified frequency, e.g. 1/10, 1/100 or 1/1000. In addition the protecting effect of defence works may be shown.

3.2.2 Flood probability, depth, progress

A very useful, but more advanced tool, for flood inundation mapping is the use of 2-D hydrodynamic models for

the presentation of the actual process of inundation in a simulation movie. Evidently it is not possible to capture this type of information on a (hard-copy) map, although successive stages of the inundation process can be shown. Nevertheless this type of information is extremely valuable, especially for the assessment of most reliable escape c.q. evacuation routes. It is very important for the presentation of this information to describe precisely the specifications that form the boundary conditions of the simulation. There are an infinite number of possibilities, in

terms of location of a dyke breach, initial size and development of the breach, form of the flood hydrograph that produces the flood (in case of river floods), local roughness conditions in the flooded area, etc.

When many computations from different locations are available (scenario simulations), the resulting information can be combined into probability of flooding of a gridcell and maximum inundation depth per gridcell. However, since this requires many computations, these maps are relatively scarce. These probability maps can also be produced as flood likelihood maps for reassurance purposes.

Potential (maximum) inundation depth maps exist on national, regional and local scales (1:2.500.000 – 1:10.000).

In the legend it is possible to present the important relationship between inundation depth and “what to do”,

depending on inundation depths of e.g.: 50 cm, 1 m, 2 m, 5 m and > 5m, (see Japan). Other related information may be evacuation routes, shelter areas.

3.2.3 Potential damage and casualties

Maps about flood damage may use indicators of potential damage like:

• land use (rural, urban, infrastructure, water, etc.)

• real estate value /ha (shown per dike-ring, or municipality)

• population density /ha (shown per dike-ring or municipality);

When more sophisticated models and information is available potential damage can be computed per gridcell as a result of different flooding scenarios and damage functions that relate water depth to damage to structures and land use as well as to numbers of casualties. Since this is very sensitive information the data, models and assumptions have to be explained in detail in accompanying reports.

Relevant information related to this theme has to do with the objects/services that may increase flood damage substantially: storage of chemicals, vital networks and services (highways, railways, airport, lifeline services like electricity, sewerage and drinking water, hospitals, etc). This information is expressed as line or point symbols, and may be combined with inundation-class maps.

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12

3.2.4

Flood risk

Risk is often defined as probability x adverse effects. Consequently, a flood risk map may express flood risk as expected annual flood damage or casualties per gridcell, given the level of protection. When different flood scenarios are available, the resulting flood level frequency curve per gridcell, population density and casualty function may be combined into personal risk of decease per gridcell. However, the availability of these types of maps is very limited, and not public. They are also difficult to interpret and it might lead to confusing information when presented e.g. on the Internet.

3.2.5 Flood Hazard

Flood hazard maps present information on the typical dangerous aspects of floods that are important for e.g. evacuation and rescue operations: current velocity, sometimes in combination with inundation depth and/or debris content. This type of information may be relevant for very specific locations, e.g. near breaches in the embankment or narrow passages in river valleys, where current velocities become relevant. Therefore this information is presented on detailed maps (1:2.500).

Current velocity may be presented as (magnitude) classes or vector (magnitude and direction). However, it should be kept in mind that current velocity depends very much on local topography and may be of limited accuracy. Vector maps may be difficult to read when flow direction and vector locations coincide.

3.2.6 Evacuation maps

Evacuation maps present public information on “what to do”. USA has a large tradition with evacuation routes in coastal areas related to hurricane and storm surge threats, but other countries start to produce these types of maps as well. Evacuation maps relate the magnitude of the threat (hurricane category) to areas (zipcodes!) that are evacuated or should consider it. In addition recommended evacuation routes may be shown, with detailed road maps about traffic contra flow direction on junctions. Complementary information may be added about things to carry with you to survive the trip (food, water, batteries, emergency telephone numbers, etc.).

In general for river flooding there are too many options for evacuation maps, as the best evacuation route depends on the flood characteristics e.g. It is therefore suggested that such information is used as background data for decision makers instead of published information to the general public for taking decisions on evacuation routes themselves.

3.3 Conclusions

Establishing guidelines to the cartographic aspects of flood risk maps should be given priority, not only to avoid problems of the public not understanding flood risk maps, but also to assure for instance that specialists dealing with floods actually use the same basis for information, in particular where river systems are concerned that cross national boundaries. Maps and GIS products should be tested on the public to see if they are as effective as scientists like to believe. However, it is unlikely that flood maps in the EU countries will become completely comparable as not only the underlying methodology is different, but also the data collection and method of measurement are different. It is possible, though, to arrive at a more generalized layout of the maps. This is particularly interesting now that most countries are in the process of producing interactive Internet sites where any user can access the map layers.

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5

Transboundary flood hazard mapping

Especially the EU-funded projects are excellent examples of transboundary flood-related projects. In Figure 5.1 an overview is given of the flood-related EU-funded projects that were either on-going or had been recently finalized by the time of the compilation of this Atlas. In this chapter a number of these projects will be discussed as far as they contribute to transboundary flood mapping, but no attempt has been made to give a complete overview of all transboundary flood mapping activities in the EU.

of all transboundary flood mapping activities in the EU. Figure 5.1 Overview of EU-funded transboundary flood-related

Figure 5.1 Overview of EU-funded transboundary flood-related projects 29

Another example of a transboundary approach to flood mapping is the CatNET, which aims at providing flood information for insurance purpose. For this reason it is further discussed, with examples, in Chapter 6.1.

5.1 European Flood Risk Mapping

European flood risk mapping is one of the components of the work carried out in the WDNH (weather-driven natural hazards ) action by the JRC (Joint Research Centre) of the EU. Three components of flood risk have been addressed, i.e. flood hazard, flood vulnerability and flood exposure. The assessment is based on a database of map

layers with information on GDP, population density, land use, flood hazard, etc. The flood hazard is derived using a 1 km digital elevation model and the 1 km grid European flow network developed by JRC. The outcomes from this work are:

• Flood risk assessment for the EU + Romania and Bulgaria;

• Flood risk layer: Standardised index map for flood risk (spatial resolution 1 km);

• Flood risk layer: Risk assessment for NUTS3 areas.

NUTS areas (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) are administrative divisions for all European member countries that were introduced in 1998 and for which four different levels of detail exist. A detailed description of

29 http://www.iu-info.de/fileadmin/user_upload/news_Inhalte/Flapp_report.pdf

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the development of the maps by JRC is shown in given on the website of JRC 30 . As an example, the flood hazard map is reproduced in Figure 5.2. This map is based on an algorithm calculating the elevation difference of a location with the nearest river, along the hydrological flow path. The potential flood risk is determined by the difference in elevation and the estimated extreme water level of the nearby river. Further details on the methodology is given in the report on the website referred to earlier. In the future a higher resolution DEM will be used together with model simulations to obtain more reliable results.

In Figure 5.3 the result is shown of a combination of a land use map (Corine 2000) and the European flood hazard map of Figure 5.2. Evidently the trend of increasing urbanisation in many parts of Europe has let to a major increase in flood hazard in those highly populated areas.

increase in flood hazard in those highly populated areas. Figure 5.2 Flood hazard map of Europe

Figure 5.2

Flood hazard map of Europe (WDNH – JRC)

30 http://ies.jrc.cec.eu.int/fileadmin/Documentation/Reports/Land_Management/EUR_2006-2007/EUR_22116_EN.pdf

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Figure 5.3 Overlay of the Corine land cover map and European flood hazard map 5.2

Figure 5.3

Overlay of the Corine land cover map and European flood hazard map

5.2 Comrisk and Safecoast

An example of cooperation between neighbouring countries on coastal flooding can be found in the related Comrisk and Safecoast projects, both under the auspices of the EU. Comrisk (Common strategies to reduce the risk of storm floods in coastal lowlands) was started in 2002 and has already been finalized 31 . It was carried out by eight coastal risk management authorities from Belgium, Denmark, The Netherlands and Germany. Various studies were carried out as part of the project and the project was finalized with an international conference in April 2005. The Safecoast project 32 forms the follow-up action to Comrisk and started in July 2005. The interesting aspects of these projects in view of this Atlas is the opportunity to bring more unity in the technical background for the production of flood maps, as well as the layout of the maps themselves. The projects deal with about 40,000 km 2 of floodprone coastal area and focuses strongly on the safety of the North Sea coast taking into account the expected increase of flooding danger due to climate change, with a planning horizon to the year 2050. Figure 5.4 shows the floodprone area along the North Sea, covered by the Safecoast project. Also in this project, the most important aim in view of transboundary issues in flood mapping is the comparison of different flood risk assessment methods and the goal to arrive at a common ground for the planning of the coastal defence.

31 http://comrisk.hosted-by-kfki.baw.de/

32 http://www.safecoast.org/

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Figure 5.4 Study area of the SAFECOAST project A similar EU-funded project is FRAME (Flood

Figure 5.4 Study area of the SAFECOAST project

A similar EU-funded project is FRAME (Flood Risk Management in Estuaries: Sustainable New Land Use in Flood Control Areas), which does have some mapping issues as well (such as a ‘Best Practice Manual’), but it is considered outside the scope of this Atlas. Information on the FRAME project can be found on the internet 33 . It is part of a number of projects that deal with the North Sea Programme and details on related projects are found on the internet page of this Programme 34 .

5.3 ELLA

The ELLA (Elbe-Labe Preventive flood management measures by transnational spatial planning) project is another example of an EU-financed flood-related project which deals with transboundary issues 35 . One of the aims is the preparation of flood maps with a number of examples on transboundary rivers, especially the Rhine and the Elbe rivers. The project is carried out with partners from Germany, Czech Republic, Austria, Poland and Hungary. The results of the transboundary flood mapping are available on a special internet site 36 , with access to maps for the Rhein, Weser and Elbe (Labe) river basins, the latter being in fact the result of the ELLA project. By clicking on the Rhine river, a next interactive internet site is opened 37 , which gives access to series of flood maps for this river (Figure 5.5). This is in fact part of the Flood Information System, which has been set up within the framework of the ESA project GSE RISKEOS 38 . Additional technological developments are being done within the project EC IP PREVIEW 39 . An important objective is the standardized delineation of flood hazard and flood risk maps. To the extent of their availability, the map service shows the outline and/or inundation depths of a 100 year flood and an extreme flood. Also shown are the damage potentials of at least one of these events. Additional information

33 http://www.frameproject.org/

34 http://www.interregnorthsea.org/default.asp

35 http://www.ella-interreg.org/

36 http://www.floodmaps.de/FloodServer/

37 http://www.floodmaps.de/FloodServer/go?FrameLoaderActionSprache=en

38 www.risk-eos.com

39 www.previewrisk.com

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Figure 5.5 Interactive site for flood maps of the Rhine river basin includes the outlined

Figure 5.5 Interactive site for flood maps of the Rhine river basin

includes the outlined areas of recent flood events, which were derived from satellite imagery. Also available are historical flood maps. The service is completed by landuse data.

As an example, flood extension and damage potential maps are shown for the transboundary region along the Dutch – German border in Figure 5.6 and Figure 5.7. The legend to these two maps is shown in Figure 5.8. The two maps show the location where the Rhine river, after passing the Dutch border, splits into various branches. In green the region is shown that would be flooded in an extreme event, with water flowing along a different Northern route from the Rhine in Germany directly overland towards one of the Rhine branches (“IJssel”) in the Netherlands.

Other combinations of flood map items and land use are possible, but the combination of land use map and damage map is not easy to distinguish (too many items on the map and mixed colours not included in the legend), although this would be the most interesting combination.

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Figure 5.6 Flood extension map for Rhine river along Dutch – German border Atlas of

Figure 5.6 Flood extension map for Rhine river along Dutch – German border

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Figure 5.7 Damage potential map for Rhine river along Dutch – German border Figure 5.8

Figure 5.7 Damage potential map for Rhine river along Dutch – German border

potential map for Rhine river along Dutch – German border Figure 5.8 Legend to the flood

Figure 5.8 Legend to the flood extension and damage potential map

The flood mapping of the Elbe (Labe) river of the ELLA project is a good example of a transboundary effort for Germany and the Czech Republic. However, this is less interesting as an example in this Atlas as the boundary region between the two countries, being a mountainous area, does not exhibit any major flood threat. It does use the same type of layout, though, for the two countries involved as was the case for the maps of the Rhine river. This is evident from the map example shown in Figure 5.9, which shows the flood extent for an extreme flood and a flood with a return period of 1/100 year, in combination with a land use map.

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Figure 5.9 Combination of flood extension and land use map for the city of Dresden

Figure 5.9 Combination of flood extension and land use map for the city of Dresden (ELLA project)

5.4 FLAPP

Another interesting EU-funded project is the 'Flood Awareness & Prevention Policy in border areas' (FLAPP). The project started in 2005 and is now in its final stage. One aspect of the project is the production of a ‘good practice book’, which in itself has various components. For the transboundary flood mapping issue, an important component is the production of the cross-border flood maps for the cities of Görlitz and Zgorzelec on the Nyssa river between Germany and Poland. Information on the project is provided on the internet site of FLAPP 40 . The Nyssa river forms the border between the towns of Görlitz and Zgorzelec, which were separated in 1945 through a redrawing of the borders after the Second World War. The aim of the project was to create a common hazard zone and flood information map on a scale of 1:5,000 in 3 languages (English/German/Polish). The map contains the flood plains of different events (return periods of 1/20, 1/50, 1/100, 1/200 and 1/500 years) which have been taken form the Saxon flood control plan for the Nyssa elaborated in 2004. Furthermore additional information with regard to endangered infrastructure, municipal planning and calamity defence are displayed on the map. In this map flood risk in a certain area is displayed via hazard zones (high, medium, low and residual risk). These zones are determined through overlapping intensity and frequency of a flood event. The map can be used to communicate flood risk to the public and to integrate information on flood risk into spatial planning of the municipalities. An example of part of this map is shown in Figure 5.10, showing the flood extension for the various return periods. It is not clear whether the ‘Hqextrem’ refers to the 1/500 year return period. There is also information on evacuation problems on this map (indication of a bridge in red that is flooded for an event with a return period of more than 1/200 year).

40 http://www.flapp.org/cmsEN/cms/index.asp?itemId=328

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Figure 5.10 Example of a transboundary map of the Nyssa river from the FLAPP project

Figure 5.10

Example of a transboundary map of the Nyssa river from the FLAPP project

5.5 IKRS

Regarding transboundary flood mapping the most important product from the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine is the Rheinatlas (2001). The maps of this Atlas are available on the internet 41 . The maps themselves are accessible through a clickable PDF file 42 . As an example, both a flood extension and a damage potential map are shown for the transboundary region of the Rhine river at the Dutch – German border (Figure 5.11 and Figure 5.12). The legends to the two types of maps are given in Figure 5.13 and Figure 5.14. Although these maps are similar to those produced by the Flood Information System (see Figure 5.6 and Figure 5.7), the maps of the IKRS give the damage potential in quantative terms (Euro / m 2 ), while the Flood Information System gives only a relative (qualitative) scale (see legend in Figure 5.8). As such the maps of the IKRS are far more detailed and provide the user with a better level of information.

41 http://www.rheinatlas.de/

42 http://www.iksr.org/index.php?id=302&type=0#

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Figure 5.11 Flooding extension map for the Rhine river at the Dutch – German border

Figure 5.11

Flooding extension map for the Rhine river at the Dutch – German border

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Figure 5.12 Damage potential map for the Rhine river at the Dutch – German border

Figure 5.12

Damage potential map for the Rhine river at the Dutch – German border

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Figure 5.13 Legend of the flooding maps of IKRS Figure 5.14 Legend of the damage

Figure 5.13

Legend of the flooding maps of IKRS

Figure 5.13 Legend of the flooding maps of IKRS Figure 5.14 Legend of the damage maps

Figure 5.14

Legend of the damage maps of IKRS

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5.6

SAFER

The SAFER ((Strategies and Actions for Flood Emergency Risk Management) project aims to develop innovative strategies and prevent and mitigate fluvial and coastal flood damage by working with organisations and agencies at different levels. The five partner regions involved in the project work are adopting a common approach in implementing these strategies. The project is approved under the INTERREG IIIB NWE Programme and part- funded by the European Union (ERDF). A component that is related to transboundary flood mapping is the Workpackage ‘Hazard Mapping’, which aims at producing a common methodology to produce and provide flood hazard information to all the partners. Examples of the results of this work package can be found already elsewhere in this Atlas, e.g. for the German region of Baden-Württemberg (see Chapter 4.8.1), who is the lead partner in this project. An example of a map that is drawn according to the SAFER hazard mapping methodology is shown in Figure 4.43 for the Neckar river.

5.7 TIMIS

Transnational Internet Map Information System (TIMIS) Flood is a contribution to a uniform EU policy for flood protection and is meant to become a model for other regions with transnational flood issues. TIMIS focuses on both flood hazard mapping and flood forecasting for the border region of Luxembourg, Germany and France. In Figure 5.15 the extent is shown of the TIMIS project for both flood hazard mapping (approx. 22,500 km 2 >90 rivers and >3000 km length of river) and flood forecasting (about 55,000 km 2 ). The project will produce by the year 2008 transnational hazard maps on a scale of 1:25,000, showing four hazard stages and a transnational GIS on flood for hazard, forecasting and warning. The maps are accessible through an interactive internet site 43 (Figure 5.16). An image of the future GIS environment for flood-hazard related information is shown in Figure 5.17.

flood-hazard related information is shown in Figure 5.17. Figure 5.15 Extent of the region of the

Figure 5.15

Extent of the region of the TIMIS project

43 http://www.timisflood.net/en/

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Figure 5.16 Internet page for the viewing of interactive flood hazard maps from the TIMIS

Figure 5.16

Internet page for the viewing of interactive flood hazard maps from the TIMIS project

of interactive flood hazard maps from the TIMIS project Figure 5.17 Example of the GIS environment

Figure 5.17

Example of the GIS environment of TIMIS for accessing the flood-related information

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An example of a map produced by TIMIS is shown in Figure 5.18 for a tributary of the Mosel river in Luxembourg. This is another example of the flood hazard map on a transboundary river, where the same map layout and legend

is used on both sides of the border (see also Chapter 4.8.5 on Rheinland-Pfalz). The maps are produced using the following information:

• High-precision DTM

• River cross-sections

• Hydraulic modelling

• Hazard classification using four hazard levels.

The four hazard levels are determined by specific combinations of intensity, velocity and frequency of the events. The legend of the hazard levels is shown in Figure 5.19.

The legend of the hazard levels is shown in Figure 5.19. Figure 5.18 Flood hazard map

Figure 5.18

Flood hazard map for a tributary of the Mosel river in Luxembourg

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Figure 5.19 Legend of the four hazard classes used in the TIMIS project Atlas of

Figure 5.19

Legend of the four hazard classes used in the TIMIS project

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6

Insurance maps

6.1 CatNet

CatNet is an interactive map tool from the insurance company Swiss RE 44 . It contains information on a number of natural hazards, including tornados, earthquakes, ‘European winterstorm peak gust’, hail, volcanoes, etc., but also flood risk and is regarded as a first attempt at a Worldwide Natural Hazard Atlas 45 . The CatNet flood zones are based on a wide variety of heterogeneous sources. Therefore, depending on the country, either storm surge and/or fresh water flood zones are displayed. The main page of the interactive hazard atlas of CatNet is shown in Figure 6.1 and the selection menu in Figure 6.2. The CatNet is accessible for external users who do have to register before they can use the information, but only for a trial period of 8 weeks, after which it is a commercial service.

period of 8 weeks, after which it is a commercial service. Figure 6.1 Main user graphical

Figure 6.1

Main user graphical user interface of CatNet

44 http://www.swissre.com/

45 http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0402/swissre.html

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Figure 6.2 Selection of three bordering countries to extract information on flood hazard in CatNET

Figure 6.2

Selection of three bordering countries to extract information on flood hazard in CatNET

CatNet covers a number of European countries. The flood risk information is included for the following countries (with short description of their content):

• Belgium Freshwater flood zones are calculated by Swiss Re’s proprietary multiple regression approach. Zones describe naturally flooded areas affected every 100 years. The effect of flood protection measures was not taken into account and flood zones along canals are not depicted.

• Czech Republic Fresh water flood zones are calculated by Swiss Re’s proprietary multiple regression approach. Zones describe naturally flooded areas affected every 50, 100, 250 and 500 years. The effect of flood protection measures was not taken into account and flood zones along canals are not depicted.

• Germany Fresh water flood zones for 10, 50 and 200 year water levels are available. Original data for 10 and 50 year flood zones have been calculated by Institut für Angewandte Wasserwirtschaft und Geoinformatik (IAWG), Ottobrunn; Germany. Orginal data for 200 year flood zones have been calculated by Institut für Angewandte Wasserwirtschaft, Munich, Germany. The zones for Germany are the result of hydraulic calculations carried out for a river network with a total length of around 50,000 kilometres. The calculations were conducted using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a horizontal resolution of 50*50 metres. They do not take flood protection measures into account, i.e. the 10 and 50 year zones are rather too conservative. The flood zones depicted may vary from those in the ZÜRS software (see Chapter 6.5) provided by the German Insurance Association (GDV). There is also information available on the Elbe flood event of August 2002.

• Italy Freshwater flood zones are calculated by Swiss Re’s proprietary multiple regression approach. Zones describe naturally flooded areas affected every 100 years.

• Hungary The 100 year and 1000 year zones are based on the 1977 series of ‘Magyarország árvízvédelmi terképei, VITUKI, 1977’ maps at 1:100,000 scale, which were transferred by VITUKI to a digital format. Areas inundated

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every 50 years were subsequently introduced by Swiss Re.

• Netherlands The zoning reflects the design level of the 53 areas defined by the dike ring system (dijkringgebieden) in the Netherlands, as published by the ‘Meetkundige Dienst’, afd. GAT, Delft, 1996. The protection level of the diked-in areas exceeds 1000 years. Elevated areas outside the dike-in areas are classified as ‘no data’.

• Slovakia Fresh water flood zones are calculated by Swiss Re’s proprietary multiple regression approach. The zones describe naturally flooded areas affected every 20, 50, 100, 250 and 500 years. The effect of flood protection measures was not taken into account and flood zones along canals are not depicted.

• United Kingdom The scope of the flood zones in the UK is limited to areas affected by coastal hazards (saltwater flooding) and based on a study by Dr. J.C. Doornkamp of the University of Nottingham in 1996.

There are also maps and data for Argentina, Israel and the USA.

If we look at the geographical coverage of the CatNET it is evident that this is another example of a transboundary flood mapping as the combination of the Czech Rebublic, Slovakia and Hungary form one continuous region for which the flood maps are available. An example is shown in Figure 6.2.

Examples of flood maps available in the CatNET system are shown in Figure 6.3 for Slowakia (which shows the transboundary coverage with Hungary south of Slovakia) and in Figure 6.4 for Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt).

In general the cartographic layout of the maps is attractive and easy to read, but the level of detail does not allow the user to acquire a very precise level of detail in the information. The use of the colours, starting from dark blue for low return period (1/20 yr) to grey for high return periods (500 yr and larger) is unusual and does not provide the user with an intuitive idea of increased danger level. However, in practice this grey colour represents those regions that are not threatened by river flooding, or at least not by any major river.

by river flooding, or at least not by any major river. Figure 6.3 CatNet map example:

Figure 6.3

CatNet map example: flood risk mapping in Slovakia

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Figure 6.4 CatNet map example: flood risk mapping in Sachsen-Anhalt (Elbe river) 6.2 Austria HORA

Figure 6.4

CatNet map example: flood risk mapping in Sachsen-Anhalt (Elbe river)

6.2 Austria

HORA is an example of a successful public private partnership (PPP) on flood risk zoning and mapping in Austria. Following massive damages after heavy rainfalls and flooding in summer 2002 in Austria, insurance industry and public authorities in Austria under guidance of the Ministry of Agriculture (Lebensministerium) and the Austrian Insurance Association signed a PPP-contract (available in German and English) stating a common project for the development of a public, common and admission-free risk zoning tool (internet access via Lebensministerium). Common goal was to create an open risk zoning platform for flood and earthquake. Public authorities were delivering GIS basis data, modelling and development was done by insurance and reinsurance industry. No direct exchange of any sort took place, the common result is open to the public since June 1st 2006.

Local risk zoning and mapping is for several regions already available on the HORA system as well

choose the option under "Legende", if more detailed public information (than probabilistic zoning for 25000 km river length in HORA) is already existing and HORA has got public access to this local or regional zoning- information (e.g. for the region of Carinthia). There one can see the risk zones in different colours (yellow and red instead of blue).

One can

From the point of view of the insurance industry, at a later stage, HORA is expected to develop into a PML (Probable Maximum Loss)-assessment system for underwriters and risk managers. The fully working public system will be dedicated for individual information (and work for insurance industry as a second source of risk information).

The information from the HORA project is available on the internet 46 . An impression of the interactive internet site is shown in Figure 6.5. After starting up the map server for the HORA site, a disclaimer is shown in red font with the text (in German): “I have read the copyright statements and accept them as legal disclaimer”. This statement need to be accepted by the user before the maps can be accessed. The maps give a delineation of flooding areas on river catchment level for about 25.000 km of river length on scales varying from 1:10.000 to 1:50.000. The return periods shown on these maps are 1/30 yr (zone 1), 1/100 yr (zone 2) and 1/200 yr (zone 3). The information is not yet available for the entire country.

46 http://geoinfo.lfrz.at/website/egisroot/services/ehora2/viewer.htm

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Figure 6.5 Interactive Internet site for the flood hazard map of the HORA project in

Figure 6.5 Interactive Internet site for the flood hazard map of the HORA project in Austria

site for the flood hazard map of the HORA project in Austria Figure 6.6 HORA window

Figure 6.6 HORA window for location of airport of Innsbruck with legend

Users can enter their address information and find out the potential flood risk of their property. Examples of the maps are shown in Figure 6.7 (with topographic map) and Figure 6.8 (with satellite image) for the area of the airport of Innsbruck.

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Figure 6.7 Example of flood extension map for airport of Innsbruck (with topographic map background)

Figure 6.7

Example of flood extension map for airport of Innsbruck (with topographic map background)

for airport of Innsbruck (with topographic map background) Figure 6.8 Example of flood extension map for

Figure 6.8

Example of flood extension map for airport of Innsbruck (with satellite image background)

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6.3 Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic an exceptionally well-developed tool has been made available which allows the user to assess the flood risk at any location in the country using a map-based user-interface (Figure 6.9). This system, called FRAT (Flood Risk Assessment Tool), is now used by almost all property insurances in the Czech Republic, allowing them to identify high exposed risks and more accurately price flood risks.

high exposed risks and more accurately price flood risks. Figure 6.9 FRAT User Interface The tool

Figure 6.9 FRAT User Interface

The tool was developed by Swiss Re, as the leading reinsurer and developer of catastrophe models, and MMC, the leading provider of GIS (Geographic Information System) technology 47 . It can now price selected properties according to their flood risk exposure and can also be used as a basis for improved flood accumulation reporting and control. The tool is designed as a stand-alone software solution (CD-ROM) and offers two basic functional modes:

• The user, for instance, a risk manager or insurance agent, enters data on the property location using the full address (street, house number, and city). The address, or part thereof, is located and transformed into geographic coordinates, which are used for zoning analysis.

• The system generates information on the flood risk exposure of the selected location and displays it on-screen. The tool distinguishes six different flood risk zones (zones 1 to 6, ranging from very low to very high risk), and the historically observed maximum flood boundary. The result is also translated into the CAP (Czech Insurance Association) format for designating tariff zones.

During the past few years, a Swiss Re team of hydraulic engineers, hydrologists, GIS specialists and statisticians developed statistical methodology to derive flood risk zones based on detailed digital terrain models (DTM). The prediction success of the methodology prompted Swiss Re to apply for a patent.

• FRAT 1.0 flood risk zoning is based on the best DTM available in the Czech Republic. The DTM features a horizontal resolution of 10m, i.e. a reading is generated for every 10m of elevation.

• Due to the high impact of local factors, such as river defences or roads which are not reflected in the high resolution DTM, the high frequency flood risk (zone 6) is not derived by the statistical methodology but by detailed processing on the part of MMC.

47 http://www.swissre.com/INTERNET/pwswpspr.nsf/alldocbyidkeylu/ULUR-5QBJKQ

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Figure 6.10 Example of geo-coding at city level and at street level An example of

Figure 6.10

Example of geo-coding at city level and at street level

6.10 Example of geo-coding at city level and at street level An example of the outcome

An example of the outcome of FRAT, in the form of a risk map, is shown in Figure 6.11, with a distinction into four (out of maximum six) hazard zones with increasing severity of flooding.

In August 2006 the FRAT 2.0 has been released. The new version of Flood Risk Assessment Tool, which focuses on property insurance risk assessment is distributed on DVD ROM media and contains address database for whole territory of the Czech Republic. The Address database is used for address verification and for geocoding of the property location. The product offers extended set of detailed city plans, covering in total over 160 cities of the Czech Republic.

The FRAT system is not freely available as it is a commercial product. Swiss Re and MMC have decided to offer FRAT 1.0 CD-ROMs for a nominal fee to Czech clients of Swiss Re, the Czech Insurance Association (CAP) and to all companies within CAP. Other insurance companies with insured interests in the Czech Republic can gain access to the application by written request to Swiss Re or MMC.

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Description of the zones: Zone 1 – out of probable max. flood Zone 2 –
Description of the zones:
Zone 1 – out of probable max. flood
Zone 2 – up to possible max. flood
Zone 3 – up to average 50 years flood
Zone 4 – up to average 20 years flood

Figure 6.11

FRAT results with flood map showing hazard zones with four steps of severity

An interesting development is the application of this technology to China. Flooding is one of the major threats to life and property in China, but to date, the insurance industry has had to depend on experience-based ratings, which have been unreliable especially for very large and infrequent events. Further information is provided on the internet site of Swiss-RE.

Comments on the maps

Although the layout of the maps is clear and serves its purpose for insurance applications, the choice of the colour green for risk zones is not intuitive as it suggests safety where this may be misleading. It does also conflict with the use of green for land use (wooded areas).

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6.4 France

In Figure 6.12 and Figure 6.13 images of typical screens of an intranet website 48 are displayed developed for dissemination and use by insurance companies of public natural zoning data, by a organization dedicated to natural risk knowledge and prevention, for the whole French insurance market.

The information is available for consultation with GPS coordinates or downloading of datasets with relevant metadata (as available from public authorities). Further treatment of the data for more industry specific use of the public zoning is under development at the level of the organization and/or at the level of each company.

Depending to the existing public data on each location, the flood extension reflects either the highest historical one or classified in terms of floods being ‘exceptional’, ‘frequent’ or ‘very frequent’ without details on actual return periods, if not delivered by public authorities.

So far, the indication of urbanization is provided from the relevant themes of the CORINE Landcover land use data base.

relevant themes of the CORINE Landcover land use data base. Figure 6.12 Screenshot of flood extension

Figure 6.12

Screenshot of flood extension data sets made available to insurance companies in France (large area of Avignon, mainly on the Rhone river, indicating the urban areas affected)

48 http://www.mrn-gpsa.org/accueil.php

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Figure 6.13 Screenshot of flood extension data sets made available to insurance companies in France

Figure 6.13

Screenshot of flood extension data sets made available to insurance companies in France (three flood occurrence zones displayed for the area of Cavaillon, indicating the urban areas affected)

Information provided on these type of maps:

1. Map Titles : classification of flood zones

2. Type of map: "Flood hazard zoning map, to be used by French insurance market"

3. Responsible authorities / sources :

a) Flood extension data sets: "waterway-data by the services of the French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable development water authorities;

b) Referential: selected themes of CORINE Landcover, with other references to be added according to specific needs,

c) Intranet geoservice developer ; ARMINES on Kheops

d) Project manager : MRN for French insurance associations

4. Date of publication: MRN intranet geoservice in operation since mid 2006, with steady upgrade with new public data according to their availability

5. Scale: maps are freely scalable on the screen according to data sets scale

6. Explanation of legend: according to public data sets

7. Stage of program: further development for added value services in process, but depending to future the evolution of insurance scheme.

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6.5 Germany

In Germany a numeric tool for classification of flood zones developed by German insurance association (GDV) is available (Figure 6.14) under the name ZÜRS Zonierungssystem für Überschwemmung, Hochwasser und Rückstau.

für Überschwemmung, Hochwasser und Rückstau. Figure 6.14 Classification of flood zones update ZÜRS 2006

Figure 6.14

Classification of flood zones update ZÜRS 2006 – area of flood hazard (Regensburg)

The following information is available on this type of maps:

1. Map Title : Classification of flood zones update ZÜRS 2006 – area of flood hazard (Regensburg)

2. type of map: "Flood hazard zoning map, produced and used by the insurance market in Germany"

3. Responsible authorities / sources :

a) waterway-data by the German water authorities;

b) maps by "NAVTEQ";

c) flood-zoning by "IAWG",

d) programming and additional data by "ESRI", "con-terra" and "geomer";

e) supervisor and project manager: "German insurance association, GDV"

4. date of publication: ZÜRS Version 2.0.12; released August 2006

5. scale: 1:21.151 (scale of this special map as seen on the maps footer, ZÜRS-maps are freely scalable)

6. explanation of legend:

a) GK 4, high hazard: flood at least once in 10 years

b) GK 3, moderate hazard: flood at least once in 10-50 years

c) GK 2, low hazard: flood at least once in 50-200 years

d) GK 1, very low hazard: flood rare than once in 200 years or never

e) B, additional information: small river

7. stage of program: first release of ZÜRS in 2001, ZÜRS 2.0.12 is the fourth release since then.

49 Zonierungssystem für Überschwemmung, Rückstau und Starkregen

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6.6 Italy

In Italy the insurance association (ANIA) provides flood hazard maps for insurance purposes via CEA, the European insurance and reinsurance federation. The maps show the flood extension according to different return periods. They are produced under the responsibility of the Public Basin Authorities or ANIA itself under a special (SIGRA) project 50 . The official internal release is planned for June 2007 and no public release has yet been established. The maps are produced on a scale of 1:25,000 to 1:5,000 for the SIGRA project maps. In Figure 6.15 an example of a screenshot of a flood hazard map is shown. In general the layout of the maps is straightforward, although the use of green is unusual as it is normally associated with safety. Nevertheless it is used here for the floods with the lowest return period (50 years), i.e. the highest threat of inundation.

period (50 years), i.e. the highest threat of inundation. Figure 6.15 Example 1 of Regione UMBRIA/Provincia

Figure 6.15

Example 1 of Regione UMBRIA/Provincia di Perugia/Comune di Torgiano

Legend of the map:

Green

return period =

50 years

Blue

return period = 200 years

Red

return period = 500 years

50 http://www.ania.it/sist_inf/prog/sigra/index.asp

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6.7 USA

Although this Atlas is restricted to examples of flood mapping in the EU countries, as a reference the extensive mapping program in the USA is very interesting to include in this chapter on flood mapping for insurance purposes since this program started already in 1969. The program, called National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), is a Federal program enabling property owners in participating communities to purchase insurance protection against

losses from flooding 51 . This insurance is designed to provide an insurance alternative to disaster assistance to meet the escalating costs of repairing damage to buildings and their contents caused by floods. Participation in the NFIP

is based on an agreement between local communities and the Federal Government that states if a community will

adopt and enforce a floodplain management ordinance to reduce future flood risks to new construction in Special

Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA), the Federal Government will make flood insurance available within the community as

a financial protection against flood losses.

The program is administrated by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) which identifies flood hazard areas throughout the U.S. and it's territories by producing Flood Hazard Boundary Maps (FHBMs), Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and Flood Boundary & Floodway Maps (FBFMs). Several areas of flood hazards are commonly identified on these maps. One of these areas is the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) or high risk area defined as any land that would be inundated by a flood having a 1-percent chance of occurring in any given year (also referred to as the base flood). The high-risk area standard constitutes a reasonable compromise between the need for building restrictions to minimize potential loss of life and property and the economic benefits to be derived from floodplain development. Development may take place within the SFHA, provided that development complies with local floodplain management ordinances, which must meet the minimum Federal requirements. Flood insurance is required for insurable structures within high-risk areas to protect Federal financial investments and assistance used for acquisition and/or construction purposes within communities participating in the NFIP.

An important distinction is made between FHBMs and FIRMs. A Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) is based on approximate data and identifies, in general, the SFHAs within a community. It is used in the NFIP's Emergency Program for floodplain management and insurance purposes. A Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) usually is issued following a flood risk assessment conducted in connection with the community's conversion to the NFIP's Regular Program. If a detailed assessment, termed a Flood Insurance Study (FIS), has been performed, the FIRM will show Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) and insurance risk zones in addition to floodplain boundaries. The FIRM may also show a delineation of the regulatory floodway. After the effective date of the FIRM, the community's floodplain management ordinance must be in compliance with appropriate Regular Program requirements. Actuarial rates, based on the risk zone designations shown on the FIRM, are then applied for newly constructed, substantially improved, and substantially damaged buildings.

The FIRM is the basis for floodplain management, mitigation, and insurance activities for the National Flood

Insurance Program (NFIP). Insurance applications include enforcement of the mandatory purchase requirement of

the Flood Disaster Protection Act, which "

being assisted by Federal programs or by Federally supervised, regulated or insured agencies or institutions in the acquisition or improvement of land facilities located or to be located in identified areas having special flood hazards" (Section 2 (b) (4) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973). In addition to the identification of SFHAs, the risk zones shown on the FIRMs are the basis for the establishment of premium rates for flood coverage offered through the NFIP. The Standard DFIRM Database presents the flood risk information depicted on the FIRM in a digital format suitable for use in electronic mapping applications. The Standard DFIRM database is a subset of the Enhanced DFIRM Database that serves to archive the information collected during the flood insurance study. In the maps a number of types of areas are distinguished using a coding. The most important codes used are:

requires the purchase of flood insurance by property owners who are

Zones AE: Areas subject to inundation by the 1-percent-annual-chance flood event determined by detailed methods. BFEs are shown within these zones. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply. Zone AH: Areas subject to inundation by 1-percent-annual-chance shallow flooding (usually areas of ponding) where average depths are between 1 and 3 feet. BFEs derived from detailed hydraulic analyses are shown in this zone. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply. Zone AO: Areas subject to inundation by 1-percent-annual-chance shallow flooding (usually sheet flow on

51 http://msc.fema.gov/

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sloping terrain) where average depths are between 1 and 3 feet. Average flood depths derived from detailed hydraulic analyses are shown within this zone. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply. Zone A99: Areas subject to inundation by the 1-percent-annual-chance flood event, but which will ultimately be protected upon completion of an under-construction Federal flood protection system. These are areas of special flood hazard where enough progress has been made on the construction of a protection system, such as dikes, dams, and levees, to consider it complete for insurance rating purposes. Zone A99 may only be used when the flood protection system has reached specified statutory progress toward completion. No BFEs or flood depths are shown. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply. Zone AR: Areas that result from the decertification of a previously accredited flood protection system that is determined to be in the process of being restored to provide base flood protection. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply. Zones X: Areas identified in the community FIS as areas of moderate or minimal hazard from the principal source of flood in the area. However, buildings in these zones could be flooded by severe, concentrated rainfall coupled with inadequate local drainage systems. Flood insurance is available in participating communities but is not required by regulation in these zones. Zone D: Unstudied areas where flood hazards are undetermined, but flooding is possible. No mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply, but coverage is available in participating communities.

The flood maps can be used by a graphical user interface (Figure 6.16). In Figure 6.17 an example is given of the flood maps that are produced by FEMA as part of NFIP.

An overview of all flood information and links to maps in the USA is available on the internet 52 .

to maps in the USA is available on the internet 5 2 . Figure 6.16 User-interface

Figure 6.16

User-interface of the NFIP for selection of flood maps

52 http://www.floodsmart.gov/floodsmart/pages/index.jsp

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Figure 6.17 Example of the FEMA – NFIP flood insurance maps (Colorado – Boulder County)

Figure 6.17

Example of the FEMA – NFIP flood insurance maps (Colorado – Boulder County)

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7

Evacuation maps

7.1 Germany – Hamburg

For the city of Hamburg, detailed information is available on the internet on the activities that are being implemented for the purpose of flood protection. Maps are available for several parts of the city on flood hazard and the evacuation routes. On Figure 7.1 a detailed map is shown of part of the city (Wilhelmsburg) with an indication of the evacuation zones corresponding to different water levels (6.5m and 7.5m), the location of evacuation locations (‘Fluchtburgen’, indicated with ‘F1….8’), emergency residences (‘Notunterkünfte’, indicated with ‘N1…4’) and busstops (‘H’) from where evacuation busses will depart. The maps are accompanied by an extensive description of the expected situation in case of flooding and detailed advice to the general public how to act in such circumstances.

This is a good example of a well-planned information package for urban population in a very large city. The information is well-presented and easily accessible, although the files themselves may prove large for slow-speed internet connections.

may prove large for slow-speed internet connections. Figure 7.1 Part of the map with flood protection

Figure 7.1 Part of the map with flood protection and evacuation zones of the city of Hamburg with (German) legend

53 http://fhh.hamburg.de/stadt/Aktuell/behoerden/stadtentwicklung-umwelt/bauen-wohnen/hochwasserschutz/start.html

54 http://fhh.hamburg.de/stadt/Aktuell/behoerden/inneres/katastrophenschutz/service/merkblaetter/start.html

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7.2 Japan

In Japan municipalities are obliged to inform their inhabitants on the flood risk conform the Flood Fighting Act, established in 2001. Since 2005 the municipalities are also obliged to take a pro-active attitude by distributing

flood risk and inundation maps freely among the inhabitants in order to increase the flood-preparedness and, as a secondary goal, to contribute to the spatial planning within the municipality. The flood maps are prepared in two steps:

1. the Ministery of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and the prefecture (for resp. nationwide and regionally adminstred river basins) determine the flood-prone areas;

2. the municipalities produce the Flood Hazard Maps.

The flood maps are produced following a nationwide standard that is determined by the Ministry, which e.g. establishes the inundation depth classes (0 – 50, 50 – 100, 100 – 200, 200 – 500 & > 500 cm) and the corresponding colour codes. The choice of those depth classes is based on ‘human characteristics’:

• 0 – 50 cm: most houses will stay dry and it is still possible to walk through the water;

• 50 – 100 cm: there will be at least 50 cm of water on the ground floor and electricity will have failed by now;

• 100 – 200 cm: the ground floor of the houses will be flooded and the inhabitants have either to move to the first floor or evacuate;

• 200 – 500 cm: both the first floor and often also the roof will be covered by water. Consequently evacuation is the logic choice of action now. The same applies, evidently, for the depth class > 500 cm.

Similar to the situation in e.g. the Netherlands, the flood inundation maps are based on hydrodynamic calculations for several scenarios of possible locations of dike failure. The final map is based on the scenario that would cause the maximum number of victims, i.e. a worst case approach. The return period of the flood that is shown on the maps depends on the region as a function of potential damage. Once such maps have been made on municipal level, the municipality adds local information that is relevant for evacuation, such as the location of shelters, important buildings, evacuation routes, etc., as well as information on the items that should be taken along during an evacuation. On some maps space is left for the user to draw a personal evacuation route map based on the particular situation of the person or family. All the maps are distributed free of charge to the public on scales of 1:5.000 to 1:10.000, and in some cases they can be downloaded from the internet. It is the task of the municipality to keep the maps up to date.

Examples of flood maps that are available to the public are shown in Figure 7.2 for the city of Toshima, using the depth inundation classes mentioned above. As in most cases the legend is only given in Japanese, although in some cases an English legend is provided. Further information on the preparation of the map is given on the internet 55 . On this site all relevant information is given necessary for evacuation in case of flooding, including the addresses of the shelters.

Other examples are shown in Figure 7.3 and Figure 7.4. Especially the latter gives indications of shelters, temporary shelters (which probably have fewer resources for a long duration stay), boundaries of evacuation areas, the location of flood warning speakers and, contrary to general custom, an indication of roads that should NOT be used for evacuation. The map also provides expected flood depths, although no indication is given to which return period this applies, and the limits of a recent historical flood. Although this map has some interesting features that are hardly ever found in other evacuation-type maps (like the earlier mentioned location of ‘flood warning speakers’), the topographical layout on the scale presented is not sufficiently clear to be used in practical situations. It may be used, though, for preparation purposes as a training for flood situations. Further information can be found on the internet 56 .

55 http://www.city.toshima.tokyo.jp/english/bousai/hazardmap/index.html

56 http://www.icharm.pwri.go.jp/html/docu/jan_20_22_2004_ws/pdf_output/hiroki.pdf

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Figure 7.2 Part of flood depth map for the city of Toshima in Japan 1

Figure 7.2

Part of flood depth map for the city of Toshima in Japan

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Figure 7.3 Evacuation map for the Japanese city of Sukagawa Figure 7.4 Example of a

Figure 7.3

Evacuation map for the Japanese city of Sukagawa

Figure 7.3 Evacuation map for the Japanese city of Sukagawa Figure 7.4 Example of a flood

Figure 7.4

Example of a flood hazard map with indications of evacuation roads

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7.3 Netherlands

An example of an evacuation map in the Netherlands is shown in Figure 7.5 for polders along the Rhine river near Germany. This maps shows clearly the mandatory evacuation routes, including indication of one-way converted roads, closed entrances and exits, and are a easy to interpret by the general public.

In Figure 7.6 the simulation of the expected flood extension for the region of “Land van Maas en Waal” (see also Chapter 4.14) is translated into a decision-support map that shows the areas that will either remain dry, reach a water level that leaves the first flood of dwellings dry and those areas that will reach such water depths that evacuation will be required. In order to take decisions on the best evacuation routes, a map is produced that shows the time of arrival of the inundation front with a depth of 50 cm at the various types of infrastructure (especially roads, see Figure 7.7). Depending on the decision up till which depth roads or other escape routes are still safe to use, maps with the arrival time of dfferent inundation depths can be produced.

arrival time of dfferent inundation depths can be produced. Figure 7.5 Example of an evacuation map

Figure 7.5

Example of an evacuation map for the Netherlands with indication of obstructions and lane direction and closed entrances and exits

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Figure 7.6 Basis for decision making on evacuation (expected inundation depth) Figure 7.7 Time of

Figure 7.6

Basis for decision making on evacuation (expected inundation depth)

decision making on evacuation (expected inundation depth) Figure 7.7 Time of arrival of the inundation front

Figure 7.7

Time of arrival of the inundation front of 50 cm depth at infrastructure (roads/elevated areas)

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7.4 USA

7.4.1

Mississippi

Similar to the comments made on insurance maps, there are a number of very interesting examples of evacuation maps that can be used as examples for the development of evacuation maps in Europe. In the USA the evacuation routes are published both by state and central on a clickable map of the entire country 57 . In the maps from the USA reference is often made to the ‘contraflow’ principle, i.e. the reversing of the normal traffic flow direction to change an ordinary two-direction road into a one-direction (evacuation) road to increase its capacity. Special maps are prepared for such occasions that are referred to as ‘contraflow maps’. An example is given in Figure 7.8 for a part of the State of Mississippi 58 and a detailed map of a road crossing prepared by the Mississippi Department of Transport is shown in Figure 7.9 59 .

Department of Transport is shown in Figure 7.9 5 9 . Figure 7.8 Hurricane evacuation routes

Figure 7.8

Hurricane evacuation routes in Mississippi state with indication of ‘contraflow’ roads

57 http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/evacuationroutes.html#sbs

58 http://www.gomdot.com/cetrp/hurricane_evac_routes.pdf

59 http://www.gomdot.com/cetrp/hurricane_evac_routes.pdf

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Figure 7.9 Example of detailed maps prepared for road crossings in case of ‘contraflow’ situations

Figure 7.9

Example of detailed maps prepared for road crossings in case of ‘contraflow’ situations

7.4.2

Florida

The State of Florida produces a number of very clear and attractive evacuation maps. An example is shown in Figure 7.10. This evacuation map is accompanied by a text with an indication of the ‘best’ evacuation route for each of the villages in the region. The colours refer to expected hurricane / storm surge force (category 1 – 5)

to expected hurricane / storm surge force (category 1 – 5) Figure 7.10 Evacuation map for

Figure 7.10

Evacuation map for a part of Florida 60

60

http://www.firstcoastnews.com/weather/stormtrack/evacuation_map.aspx

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7.4.3

Louisiana – New Orleans

Evidently after the impact of the hurricane Katrina, New Orleans has become a focus of attention in terms of flood prevention. Detailed evacuation maps are available for the all of the state of Louisiana (see e.g. Figure 7.11) 61 , with for each road crossing a special map that indicates the contraflow plan and detailed instructions for the evacuation by car (Figure 7.12).

instructions for the evacuation by car (Figure 7.12). Figure 7.11 Part of an evacuation map for

Figure 7.11

Part of an evacuation map for Southwest Louisiana

61

http://www.dotd.state.la.us/maps/

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Figure 7.12 Detail of contraflow at a road crossing (reference to map on Figure 7.11)

Figure 7.12

Detail of contraflow at a road crossing (reference to map on Figure 7.11) and detailed instructions

Another example of an evacuation map for the city of New Orleans, including a phased evacuation plan, is given in Figure 7.13. Very detailed instructions are available in case of a hurricane threat, with emergency shelter information points, agency contact information, radio frequencies, a guide on how to make a ‘family communication plan’ and even a chapter on ‘preparing your pets’.

plan’ and even a chapter on ‘preparing your pets’. Figure 7.13 Part of evacuation map of
plan’ and even a chapter on ‘preparing your pets’. Figure 7.13 Part of evacuation map of

Figure 7.13

Part of evacuation map of area of New Orleans with phased evacuation plan

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7.4.4

California – Sacramento

A very interesting example of a combination of a flood depth map and a combined rescue / evacuation map is

available for the County of Sacramento in California, including the city of Sacramento itself. Various detailed maps

showing hypothetical levee breaks, inundation levels and the time it would take for waters to rise in affected neighbourhoods, and rescue and evacuation zones have been made available on the internet 62 . For a specific failure location two types of maps can be downloaded:

Flood Depth Maps: show where the water would flow over time and how deep it would get given the hypothetical flooding scenario.

Rescue and Evacuation Route Maps: show rescue areas, evacuation areas, and potential evacuation routes.

− Rescue areas, in red, indicate places where water has the potential to reach a depth of at least one foot after two hours from the time of a levee failure. People would not be able to drive out and likely would be stranded and require rescue.

− Evacuation areas, in yellow, indicate places, depending on where the levee breech occurs, that could fill from 1 to 26 feet of water within 10 days, giving most people time to get out safely. Flood depth details are specified on each map.

− This map also portrays potential evacuation routes (in green) and which evacuation routes would become inundated over time.

A total of 18 sets of maps are available. Examples of both types of maps, with the corresponding legends, for the

American – River Arden region, are shown in Figure 7.14 and Figure 7.15.

Detailed maps are also available for some of the other States in the USA, especially New Jersey 63 and South Caroline 64 , but provide no extra information compared to the maps already shown in this Chapter.

62 http://www.msa.saccounty.net/waterresources/floodready/?page=maps

63 http://www.nj.gov/njoem/plan/evacuation-routes.html

64 http://www.dot.state.sc.us/getting/evacuation.shtml

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Figure 7.14 Flood depth map of the county of Sacramento, with indication of location of

Figure 7.14

Flood depth map of the county of Sacramento, with indication of location of hypothetical levee failure and inundation process in time

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Figure 7.15 Rescue and evacuation route map of the county of Sacramento, with indication of

Figure 7.15

Rescue and evacuation route map of the county of Sacramento, with indication of location of hypothetical levee failure and passable routes in time

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8

Final Remarks

In the present document a large number of examples of floods maps are shown, produced by various European

countries. The aim of this document is to provide the reader with illustrative examples of various types of flood

maps that might form an inspiration for future mapping efforts. As a kind of final remarks, in this section some do’s and don’ts are formulated regarding the flood information that can be presented in these type of maps.

In some occasions map examples are described as being very clear and/of as an example of an excellent flood

map. Evidently these are the subjective opinions of the compilers of this document and the users are invited to

browse through it and form a personal opinion that may be brought forward within the context of EXCIMAP.

Although in Chapter 1 a number of different types of flood maps are mentioned, not all these types are equally well presented. Most countries have flood extent maps. This flood extent should be related to a specified flood frequency. Frequencies used in the maps vary from 1/30 to 1/10.000. Most countries use only 2 or 3 different frequencies (e.g. 1/100 and 1/1000, or the less accurate “frequent” and “exceptional”), Flanders seventeen (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 and 1000 years). England & Wales distinguish between floods

originating from the sea (1/200) and flood from rivers (1/100), while Ireland gives an indication of the uncertainty

of the flood extent. Maps become difficult to read when flood extent is presented in iso-lines (instead of coloured

surfaces) or when current velocities are presented is arrows (that may merge together with parallel current lines).

Often flood extent for different frequencies is presented in one map. Increasing intensities of blue, suggesting increasing flood depth, represent the most frequent flooded (deeper) areas (like England & Wales, Finland, Germany). Flood depth maps may be presented for one representative flood frequency, e.g. 1/100. An interesting example is from Japan, in which the flood depth intervals are such that it contains “danger/how to act” information for individuals. In France maps exist that also present flood duration. Information on historic floods is shown on maps from France, Finland and Ireland. With this type of information one should be aware that since this flood event floodwave characteristics and floodplain topography may have changed considerably and that therefore this historic flood may not representative for present conditions. However, this information is valuable to increase flood awareness.

Flood hazard maps, indicating where the combination of current velocity and waterdepth may be dangerous, are published in England& Wales. Austria uses the more or less comparable dragforce parameter. In Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany) and Switzerland this velocity-depth information is related to frequency, expressing this hazard information in a more sophisticated way for professional users. The dominant colours for this type of hazard information are red, orange and yellow.

In terms of flood risk maps, official maps indicating potential damage are rare. The only examples are from

Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen). Italy, Spain and Switzerland have official risk zone maps. These maps are based on the probability of flooding in combination with the land use sensitivity /vulnerability to flooding. In Italy and Switzerland this risk zonation relates to spatial planning regulations and construction requirements. Specific vulnerability maps are available in England & Wales (social vulnerability of the population) and Sachsen (Germany) (vulnerable services, like hospitals).

A special group of flood maps comprise the insurance maps, which are used as a basis for both the general user, to

check on the liability of his/her property to flooding, and the insurance companies to assess the actual risk of

flooding. These maps contain information on flood risk, represented as flood extent probability on damage potential.

Evacuation maps are slowly becoming more usual, although most of them are still produced outside the EU. USA and Japan have a large tradition on this and may be valuable when European countries start to prepare these maps. Examples are found in Germany and also the Netherlands. These maps concentrate on how to act when a flooding threat becomes evident (evacuation routes, location of refuge/shelters, etc.), often combined with

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recommendations on what to take with you. Sometimes those maps are combined with “threat” information (potential flooding depth / flood extent depending on hurricane force).

Apart form flood information (the core of the map of course) some additional information is essential for a proper use of the map: adequate title, date of publishing, responsible authority, orientation of the map, scale (preferably with a scale rod, to avoid confusion when printing or copying maps on other scales), relevant topographic information (roads, railways, buildings, cadastral information (e.g. in Austria)). Interesting opportunities arise when combining flood maps with Google Earth, however care should be taken to avoid an overload of topographic information in this way. Other desirable information is a small set-in map to locate the mapped area. Some Finnish maps indicate the area covered by the model calculation. In addition the map from Finland has a nice example of a Disclaimer.

Another issue is language: in some instances English is used instead of the local language, but it is recognized that the use of English, especially on the publicly accessible internet sites, may limit the access to the information for those people with limited knowledge of English and the local language is preferred. The use of two languages may make the legend too large or difficult to read. An option is evidently to provide a translation of the map labels in English, especially on the internet sites.

With maps presented digitally on a computer care should be taken that the legend remains readable, especially with (scanned) files of original hardcopies. Still many maps will be printed as well (A3 as most frequent maximum size), which requires that map and legend are printed on the same page.

The Atlas shows for some of the maps a wide variety of layouts. When accompanied by a clear legend this may not be a problem, however for transboundary catchments / maps it is advisable that a certain level of uniformity is accomplished. Nice examples of such an approach are shown in the Chapter 5 on transboundary flood mapping.

Apart from the large number of different types of layout, that will be evident when browsing through this document, it is important to realize that the differences in layout are only the outside of the discrepancies between the various maps that according to their titles might assume to show the same information (e.g. flood extension for a certain return period). More important than the differences in layout are the different methodologies that are used for the production of the flood maps. Although the return period used is the same, the actual calculation method may be very different and is often not apparent from the map. However, even in cases where background documents do explain the technical details of the calculations, there are too many differences in the approaches followed by the various agencies that the maps would possibly become comparable or, at border locations where they present a continuous line of information, show the same results. And although in theory it would be possible to use one and the same methodology, it is unlikely that the same results would be generated for e.g. border stations as the underlying data are often contrasting and/or the length of the measurement series are different for stations in neighbouring countries. This demand for uniform approaches not only holds for border areas, but also for maps prepared for different purposes within a country, e.g. national programmes, EU demonstration projects and reinsurance purposes. Because of these initiatives for one area different maps may exist, all presenting some type c.q. aspect of flood risk information.

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Colofon

Published by Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management The Netherlands.

With the help of the EXCIMAP members:

Franz Schmid, Heinz Stiefelmayer (Austria), Wouter Vanneuville (Belgium), Didier de Thysebaert (Belgium), Vlatko Kadic (Croatia), Thorsten Piontkowitz (Denmark), John Goudie, David Murphy (England), Mikko Sane, Mikko Selin (Finland), Nicolas Monié, Frédérique Martini, Roland Nussbaum, Marie Renne (France), Dieter Rieger, Juergen Krempin (Germany), Péter Bakonyi, Sandor Toth (Hungary), Mark Adamson (Ireland), Valentina Vitale (Italy), Liga Kurpniece (Latvia), Victor Jetten (ITC), Robert Slomp (The Netherlands), Siri Stokseth (Norway), Radislaw Radon, Marcin Jacewicz (Poland), José Jiminez, Javier Lastra Fernández (Spain), Barbro Naeslund-Landenmark (Sweden), Roberto Loat (Switzerland).

Text:

Jos van Alphen, Ron Passchier

Cover:

European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark

Publishing and project management: Robert Slomp, Dick Brouwer

Lay out:

Dratex, Lelystad

Print:

Drukkerij Feiko Stevens

Contact: Jos van Alphen, Rijkswaterstaat, Centre for Water Management jos.van.alphen@rws.nl

EXCIMAP was organized by Frederique Martini (France) and Roberto Loat (Switzerland).

The work on this Atlas has lasted from January 2006 till October 2007 finishing with the publication of the document at hand.

The present document contains examples of a non-exhaustive inventory of the current, existing and accessible good practices for flood mapping in Europe. It is based on experiences and knowledge available in the countries represented in EXCIMAP.

The work of EXCIMAP started before the "Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks" endorsement (18 September 2007). The Atlas doesn’t intend to present any guidelines on how to implement the Directive despite the work done to produce it having remained as close as possible to the Directive’s principles. Neither does the Atlas address all requirements of the Directive.

It has not been verified if the maps and examples presented in this Atlas is compliant with the requirements of the Directive.

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4

Examples of flood risk maps

4.1 Austria

General information

The flood maps of Austria are produced by the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. Two types of maps are being produced:

• Flood plain maps

• Flood hazard maps

Flood plain maps are provided for about 5000 km of river stretches on a scale between 1:5.000 and 1:10.000.

A second group of flood plain maps are called Hochwasser Risikozonierung Austria (HORA). These maps are an

example of insurance maps and as such are further discussed in Chapter 6.2.

Flood hazard maps are produced for limited areas on scales between 1:1.000 and 1:5.000 with an accompanying

text. They show expected flood extension for a return period of 1/100 years. For both types of maps, information

is provided on methodology, accuracy, etc. Hazard is expressed in two classes: yellow and red, which is determined

by a combination of flood depth and flow velocity (Figure 4.1).

a combination of flood depth and flow velocity (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1 Criteria that determine medium

Figure 4.1

Criteria that determine medium and high risk using depth and velocity

There are yet no flood risk or flood damage maps available.

A further distinction is made between flood control for major rives and torrents (flash floods). Flood hazard maps

for the latter are produced for ‘catastrophic events’ with a return period of 1/150 years. Hazard zones are in fact given for torrents, avalanches and erosion events. Maps normally cover only a certain village or community. More detailed information can be found on the internet 1 .

1 http://www.wassernet.at/

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Comments on the maps

Four maps are shown as examples of flood maps in Austria for the same region (fictitious region ‘Muster’, Figure 4.2 - Figure 4.5). As a general comment the maps are very clear and especially the cadastre background of the urbanization and infrastructure make them easy to read. It may be useful for anyone not familiar to the region to have a small map added that shows the location within Austria. Another comment is that the North indication on the map is rather small and may obtain a more prominent position, especially in this case where North is not at the top of the map.

In Figure 4.2 both flood extension and expected water depth are given. In fact both water depth and water level (absolute value) are given. The latter might give an indication of the flow direction, although a flood extension map is normally a representation of a static situation, not of the inundation process. For the flood extension, three standard return periods of 1/30, 1/100 and 1/300 yr are used that are the norm in Austria, but the water depth is given for the 1/100 yr flood event. The differences between the extensions corresponding to the three return periods are shown by symbols on lines instead of a system of coloured surfaces. As an alternative use can be made of an indication of altitude similar to topographic maps, either with colours and/or putting the actual value (30 – 100 – 300) within the lines. The water depths are given in an interval of 0.25 m, which is probably in line with the accuracy of the information, but the combination of colours is less common. The smallest depth (0 - 0.25 m) is shown in light blue and darker hues of blue are used for larger depths up to 1.25 m, but then a shift is made to green with increasing depth indicated by lighter hues (up to 3.00 m). Green is normally used as an indication of safety and as was explained in Chapter 3.1. Water depth is preferably indicated by hues of blue. In case there are many intervals the differences between the various shades of blue may become obliterate and it might be an option to change to a larger interval (e.g. 0.5 m) instead of using a combination of colours. Although it can be deduced from the legend that the flood extension and water depth in numbers refer to the event with a return period of 1/100 yr, this is not indicated in the subtitle of the map.

In Figure 4.3 flood hazard zones are indicated using four levels of hazard (blue, orange, yellow and red). Although red is normally the highest hazard, it is not immediately clear from the map what the order of the hazards is. The colour blue is already being used for inundation depth and may be left out of the colour palette here. It is very useful in this map that the hazard zones are combined with land-use information, although the overall use of the same colour for this purpose (green) does not allow for an easy distinction between various types of landuse. There is however also another map available showing these hazard zones on top of an aerial photograph.

In the map showing flow velocities (Figure 4.4) both expected flood extension and flow velocities are shown. The flow velocities are shown as light blue lines with the value of the velocity indicated by the length of the vector. There is no indication to which return period the velocity field belongs and the user might assume that the velocity field is independent of the return period, which is probably not the case. Based on the extension of the velocity field it can be deduced that it belongs to inundation with the highest (1/300 yr) return period. As a general remark it should be mentioned that the use of vectors for flow velocities, although in general very clear, might lead to problems in case of parallel flow lines, because the length of the vectors becomes obliterate.

An interesting and very rare type of map is shown in Figure 4.5 which gives the shear stress / drag force of the flowing water (in N/m 2 ). There is no indication to which return period the information belongs. In general the information provided can be used to assess e.g. the probable locations of highest force on buildings and/or where major erosion can be expected. These locations are also the most dangerous and should evidently be avoided in case of evacuation.

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Figure 4.2 Flood extension and water depth map in Austria

Figure 4.2

Flood extension and water depth map in Austria

17 Atlas of Flood Maps
Figure 4.3 Flood hazard map and indication of danger regions in Austria

Figure 4.3

Flood hazard map and indication of danger regions in Austria

19 Atlas of Flood Maps
Figure 4.4 Map showing flow velocities and flood extension for three return periods

Figure 4.4

Map showing flow velocities and flood extension for three return periods

21 Atlas of Flood Maps
Figure 4.5 Flood map showing drag force (shear stress - Schleppspannung) as a result of

Figure 4.5

Flood map showing drag force (shear stress - Schleppspannung) as a result of flow velocity

23 Atlas of Flood Maps

4.2 Belgium

4.2.1

Flanders

For the Province of Flanders in Belgium, three types of flood plain maps are developed:

• The NOG-maps (Naturally flooded area map) contain the areas that are known as being flooded through soil- mapping. These maps show the river sediments (alluvium) and slope (gravity-caused) sediments (colluvium) zones in the soilmap that has been constructed on a scale 1:20.000

• The ROG-maps (Recently flooded area map) show the recently flooded areas in the period 1988-2006 based upon manual cartography, local terrain knowledge, photographs, (areal) movies, water authorities, Provinces, municipalities, consultants and others on topographical maps with scale 1:10.000. An automatic correction of the ROG-map has been performed using the DTM-Flanders (5*5 m) and GIS-techniques. This side-product is called the ROG-DHM map

• The MOG-maps (Modelled flooded area maps) shows the flooded areas for about 2000 km of rivers that have been modelled hydrological and hydrodynamical. The maps show flood extent, flood depth, flood time, flood frequency (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 and 1000 years). The MOG-map can be used till a scale of 1:2500.

The flood extension maps are available from an interactive internet site 2 called the “Geo-loket Overstromingskaarten” and “Geo-loket Watertoets”; the same site is also used for other map purposes, e.g. soil maps, colour orthophotos, satellite images, water quality, etc. The dark blue in the “Overstromingskaarten” can be chosen for the ROG or NOG maps or for a combination of the surveyed ROG together with the MOG with a return period of 25 years. In the “watertoets” the dark blue zones are the combination of the ROG and a MOG with a return period of 100 years. The light blue zones are the NOG without the built-up areas. Explanation on the interactive information, and how the flood extensions have been calculated, are given in an accompanying digital document (“Risicozones overstroming – Begeleidende Nota”). Examples of a map produced with this internet site are shown in Figure 4.8 and Figure 4.9. There is a legend to the maps, but this is written in Dutch.

Comment on the maps On the maps, colours are used to indicate areas that are floodable:

• from any water course (pink)

• from the sea (dark green)

• recently flooded (ROG – dark blue)

• floodable by excessive rainfall (brown)

• floodable by either excessive rainfall or from a water course (orange)

Especially the two last items are rare on flood maps.

An example of a ROG maps is shown in Figure 4.6 (overview) and Figure 4.7 (example of detailed map).

2 http://geo-vlaanderen.gisvlaanderen.be/geo-vlaanderen/overstromingskaarten/

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Figure 4.6 Overview of ROG areas in Flanders Figure 4.7 Detailed ROG map in Flanders

Figure 4.6

Overview of ROG areas in Flanders

Figure 4.6 Overview of ROG areas in Flanders Figure 4.7 Detailed ROG map in Flanders In

Figure 4.7

Detailed ROG map in Flanders

In general the possibilities to find information on the interactive site are very good and it is easy to use also for non-experts. A drawback is that once a certain area is selected and the user has zoomed into a detail of the map, there is no overview anymore where in Flanders the location is, e.g. there is no accompanying window that gives the overall view of the province as is often shown on other internet sites. The amount of information is limited, but this is evidently also the reason why the maps are easy to interpret. The colour light blue for inundated area is well-chosen, especially given the low return period. However, both the floodable areas from any water course and

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‘risk zones, version 2006’ are shown in light blue and it is not immediately clear what is the difference between the two. Neither is there any indication in the legend on the meaning of the two different hues of blue in the map. A similar problem occurs in Figure 4.9 where there is no indication what is meant with the thick pink lines.

is no indication what is meant with the thick pink lines. Figure 4.8 First example of

Figure 4.8

First example of a flood extension map from the Geo-loket of Flanders (Belgium)

flood extension map from the Geo-loket of Flanders (Belgium) Figure 4.9 Second example of flood extension

Figure 4.9

Second example of flood extension map from Geo-Loket of Flanders (Belgium)

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Also available – not on the internet – are modelled flood maps, damage maps (as a combination of hazard and vulnerability for different return periods) and risk maps as a mathematical combination of several damage maps. Some of the most important inputs are a detailed Elevation Model for the water depths and land use maps to delimit potential damage zones.

Every hydraulic scenario for the navigable waterways leads to a risk calculation with detailed maps of the present situation and the alternatives and a generalized overview map has to be made 2-3 times a decade.

Examples of flood risk maps are shown in Figure 4.10, Figure 4.11 and Figure 4.12.

maps are shown in Figure 4.10, Figure 4.11 and Figure 4.12. Figure 4.10 Original flood risk

Figure 4.10

Original flood risk map (Actual situation)

4.12. Figure 4.10 Original flood risk map (Actual situation) Figure 4.11 Flood risk map with alternative

Figure 4.11

Flood risk map with alternative discharge assessment

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Figure 4.12 Difference between the two foregoing maps 4.2.2 Wallonia In view of the repeated

Figure 4.12

Difference between the two foregoing maps

4.2.2

Wallonia

In view of the repeated floods in recent years and the extent of the damage they produce, the Walloon

Government decided on 9 January 2003 to implement an overall plan for preventing and fighting against floods and their effects on victims, called the « Plan PLUIES 3 ».

One of the objectives of the “Plan PLUIES” is to determine the flooding areas for the whole territory of the

Walloon Region, taking advantage of the preparatory work already done (topographic measurements of minor and major beds of rivers, inventory (survey) of areas flooded by overflowing rivers in the past, soil numerical map,…). Concretely speaking, it consists of establishing two types of maps:

− the flood hazard map, showing the territories that are likely to be flooded by overflow of rivers, which is the main subject of this memo;

− the flood risk map, showing potential damage to vulnerable, flood-sensitive elements located in zones where there is a flood hazard.

The principles of the methodology developed by the GTI (Groupe Transversal Inondations – Cross-sector Flood Group of the Walloon Region) were inspired by the « floodability » method developed by Cemagref, the French Institute for agricultural and environmental engineering research, duly adapted to the specificity of the Walloon

topography and territory. While taking account of basic data available or being collected, it provides a coherent set

of various tried-and-true scientific methods and can be applied to the entire Walloon territory. This methodology

was approved by the Walloon Government on 21 November 2002.

Flood hazard maps

A flood hazard by overflow of rivers exists in areas where flooding can take place, with variable frequency and

severity, as a result of a "natural" overflow of a river. The map shows the areas and their characteristic level of hazard. The hazard level can have three values: low, medium and high.

In practice, the degree of flood hazard is based on a combination of two factors: recurrence of flooding (return

period or occurrence) and its extent (depth of submersion).

3

Recurrence

Plan PLUIES : plan de Prévention et de LUtte contre les Inondations et leurs Effets sur les Sinistrés (plan for preventing and combating floods

and their effects on the victims

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Recurrence of a flood is linked to the return period of high water regimes, which implies statistical computing of a historical series of flow data or of a synthetic series drawn from precipitation measurements using a hydrological integrated model. When the data required for statistical computing are not available, recurrence can be determined through evaluation of the occurrence of flooding, on the basis of observations and surveys in the field.

• Submersion

The submersion of a flood is characterised mainly by its extent and depth. Hydraulic (2D or 1D) models that digitally reproduce minor and major beds of rivers are needed to determine this. When data needed to use hydraulic methods are not available, submersion is characterised by its extent, by applying the "hydropedological" method, based on information taken from digital topographic map and pedological maps, among others.

• Hazard of flooding

The flood hazard (low, medium, high) is computed from combining the values of recurrence and submersion (see Figure 4.13). In the event of frequent flooding with a high submersion, the flood hazard will be high and, conversely, rare flooding with a low submersion will result in a low flood hazard. Note that corrective factors can be inserted for specific conditions of the speed of the current or the duration of submersion, or when protective works are present.

of submersion, or when protective works are present. Figure 4.13 Determination of flood hazard in Wallonia

Figure 4.13

Determination of flood hazard in Wallonia

The combination of the methods for determining recurrence and submersion produce data which show the value of hazard, after being integrated, cross-referenced and processed using the hazard determination grid, as illustrated on Figure 4.14.

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Figure 4.14 Integration of the methods for determining recurrence and submersion Examples maps The flood

Figure 4.14

Integration of the methods for determining recurrence and submersion

Examples maps

The flood hazard maps for Wallonia are produced as the outcome of the combination of maps showing field surveys (occurrence of historical floods), extension of the floodplain and the results of a hydraulic modelling. An example of the resulting flood hazard map is shown in Figure 4.15.

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Figure 4.15 Example of a flood hazard map from Wallonia (sub-basin Dendre) Comments on the

Figure 4.15

Example of a flood hazard map from Wallonia (sub-basin Dendre)

Comments on the map

The general layout of the map forms an attractive combination based on transparent colours overlaying a topographic background map in grey scale. The choice of the colours on the example flood hazard map for Wallonia are logic and intuitive, but it would be interesting to mention both a qualitative (‘low / medium / high’) and quantitative value (’25 / 50 / > 100 years’) for the hazard in the legend. The information provided on the map is also rather limited compared to other example maps in this Atlas.

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4.3 Croatia

In Croatia a pilot project has been carried out for the preparation of flood risk maps for river basin management purposes in 2004. The maps are produced on a scale of 1:100.000. In the Figure 4.16 to Figure 4.21 the results are shown for the river Krapina subbasin.

4.21 the results are shown for the river Krapina subbasin. Figure 4.16 Overview of the river

Figure 4.16

Overview of the river Krapina basin

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Figure 4.17 Extent of expected flooding for events with a return period of 5 years

Figure 4.17

Extent of expected flooding for events with a return period of 5 years

expected flooding for events with a return period of 5 years Figure 4.18 Extent of expected

Figure 4.18

Extent of expected flooding for events with a return period of 1000 years

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Figure 4.19 Landcover flooded for events with a return period of 1000 years Naselja =

Figure 4.19

Landcover flooded for events with a return period of 1000 years

Naselja = settlements

with a return period of 1000 years Naselja = settlements Figure 4.20 Damage map for events

Figure 4.20

Damage map for events with a return period of 1000 years

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Figure 4.21 Overview of expected extent of flooded area for various return periods Comments on

Figure 4.21

Overview of expected extent of flooded area for various return periods

Comments on the maps

Although the overview map of the Krapina basin (Figure 4.16) is very nice from a cartographic point of view, it lacks a legend and as such it is not very informative. Similarly the two maps of the expected flood extension for return periods of 5 and 1000 years (resp. Figure 4.17 and Figure 4.18) do evidently show the difference flooded area, but lack background information, e.g. a subset of the information provided on the overview map. On the other hand the map showing the expected flooded area for various return periods (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 1000 years) does have a reasonable background, although in fact it only shows the basin limits and the drainage pattern. The information provided is difficult to judge as there is no clear measuring rod to read the actual difference between the flooded areas for the various return periods. It does show very neatly the difference in flooded area between the upper basin (very large) and lower basin (relatively small), but this is simply a function of the size of those subbasins. It would be interesting to show the relative inundated area, i.e. as percentage of the total basin area.

Croatia is one of the few countries that provides flood damage maps and in Figure 4.19 and Figure 4.20 a land cover map and flood damage map are shown for the same river basin. In general the areas that are expected to witness damage during an event with a return period of 1/1000 years correspond with the flood extension map in Figure 4.18. In addition to that, although the flood damage map lacks a legend, it is evident that the darker red colours correspond to higher expected damage as these areas coincide with the settlements (Naselja in Croatian) on the landcover map.

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4.4

Denmark

In Denmark the Danish Coastal Authority has only published a few flood maps for specific study areas, such as the areas along the Danish West coast and the Ribe polder area (Wadden Sea region). Flood maps on the internet are not available yet. Two examples of flood maps in Denmark are shown in Figure 4.22 and Figure 4.23.

maps in Denmark are shown in Figure 4.22 and Figure 4.23. Figure 4.22 A very extreme

Figure 4.22

A very extreme flood disaster event with a return period of 1/4000 yr in the Ribe polder area

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Figure 4.23 A flood event of 1/100 yr for a dune area at the Danish

Figure 4.23

A flood event of 1/100 yr for a dune area at the Danish West coast

Comments on the maps

In Figure 4.22 both the expected inundated area and the infrastructure of the same region are shown. In the legend, a distinction has been made between roads with a height of 3-6 m and those above 6 m, but it is not clear which of those roads might become inundated for the particular event (probably both, given that the situation refers to a 1/4000 year flood). Such information might form the basis for an evacuation map. They roads are also difficult to distinguish on the map and the line for roads over 6 m might easily be confused with the ‘dike line’, although the latter is much more pronounced.

The map in Figure 4.23 is difficult to interpret for an outsider as it is not immediately clear on which side the sea is located. The fact that the buildings on the right side of the map are inundated suggests that this is the land side and the left side the coastal area which also becomes partly flooded during the event. This map would benefit from more background information on the map and in the legend and both maps lack a North indication and a scale rod.

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4.6 Finland

In Finland many types of flood maps are produced which are summarized in the following table with an example of the layout of each of them.

table with an example of the layout of each of them. Some flood map types used

Some flood map types used in Finland.

There are also many historical flood maps, i.e. maps showing the extent of historical floods. They can be used in combination with flood extension maps, but their use may be limited when referring to floods that occurred many years ago, especially in urban areas, as major changes may have occurred in the geometry of the river bed.

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Figure 4.30 Flood hazard map for the city centre of Lapua for 1/1000 yr flood

Figure 4.30

Flood hazard map for the city centre of Lapua for 1/1000 yr flood event

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Figure 4.31 Flood hazard map of the city of Pori (water depths for 1/250 yr

Figure 4.31

Flood hazard map of the city of Pori (water depths for 1/250 yr event)

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Comments on the maps

The flood maps from Finland are among the most complete and clearest examples that can be found. The maps are available for various return periods. In Figure 4.30 an example is given for the city of Lapua in Western Finland for a flood event with a return period of 1/1000 yr. The layout of this map is very clear and easy to read also for a non-expert. It is also interesting that it not only gives the extent of the expected flooding, but also the maximum extent of the area that was incorporated in the flood modelling (with a green line), i.e. no information is available outside these boundaries. Isolated areas within the flooded areas are shown by hatching, but this is more difficult to distinguish on the map. The combination with type of urbanization makes the map useful as basis for flood damage assessment. There is an inserted window to show the location of the detailed map and both scale and orientation of the map are very clearly indicated. All information on the background data of the map, including the basis for the delineation of the flood extension, is summarized in a table on the same map page.

For the flood hazard map that is shown in Figure 4.31 for the city of Pori the expected water depths are given for an event with a return period of 250 year. The map shows both the flooding of unprotected areas and, with shading, the areas that will be flooded in case of failure of dikes. It is assumed that all dikes will fail, i.e. it is a worse-case scenario. Also here the maximum extent of the modelled area is indicated by a green line. As with the flood extension map, at the bottom of the map, additional information is given, among which the basis for the calculation of the corresponding discharge: frequency analysis with the Gumbel distribution. The corresponding water levels are calculated with a 1-D hydrodynamic model. Such information is rarely given with flood maps and it is often even difficult to find this type of technical background information in accompanying documents.

It is also interesting that these maps show in a very prominent position a disclaimer in red: “The purpose of the map is to give a general view of the extent and depth of a 250-year flood. It is not reasonable to use the map for a building-specific analysing. More information: http://www.ymparisto.fi/.”. This is a very clear statement and it can be assumed that this message will not easily be overlooked as might happen with disclaimers in separate internet pages and/or accompanying documents. On the specified internet site, more detailed information is indeed provided (albeit evidently in Finnish) and more examples of flood maps can be downloaded.

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4.7 France

France has interactive flood maps for various regions on the internet. A few examples are given below.

General information

In the following figures first examples are given of four interactive internet sites that are available in France to

obtain flood extension maps for different regions.

In Example 1 a nationwide system is shown that allows the user to access flood-related risk information for a number of regions in France.

The other three examples are administered by different agencies and as such the layout of these sites is completely different. The three examples are produced by different methods:

Example 2 – Carte Rhône river – region of Avignon: based on hydrogeomorphology;

Example 3 – Nord Pas-de-Calais: based on modelisation

Example 4 – Ile-de-France region: based on historical flood maps.

A

fifth example of flood maps from France is produced by the insurance sector and therefore discussed separately

in

the corresponding Chapter 6.4.

Example 1 – Ministere de l’ecologie et du developpement durable

An interesting source of information on the risk of natural disasters can be found on a central internet site of the Ministère de l’écologie et du développement durable 7 . On this site, called ‘Cartoristique’ the risk of natural disasters has been centralized from various local sources. One of the main reasons for making this information available to the public is the “Plan de Prévention des Risques naturels (PPR)”, which was created by the law of 2 February 1995, and which includes evidently flood risk. The use of the risk information in the insurance against floods is further discussed in Chapter 6.4.

7 http://cartorisque.prim.net/index.html

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Figure 4.32 Overview page of the nationwide risk internet site On Figure 4.32 an overview

Figure 4.32

Overview page of the nationwide risk internet site

On Figure 4.32 an overview is given of the regions in France for which risk maps are available (shown in dark blue, light blue means “not yet available”). Risks refer to a number of natural risks, including avalanches, etc., but for this purpose flooding is only relevant. After choosing a certain region, a new map becomes available within which by zooming the flood hazard along a river can be shown (e.g. Thionville along the Mosel river in Figure 4.33). Depending on the choice of the region, the extent of a number of historical floods can be shown. By clicking anywhere within a flood-prone region, additional information becomes available which shows that the flood extent refers to a flood with a return period of 1/100 years and it also makes a background document available on the chosen location with an overview of historical natural disasters (in this case floods).

Comments on the maps

The main advantage of this system is evidently that it uses a common layout for all the departments in France, despite the fact that different sources of information may be at the basis. The layout is straightforward and easy to understand, with both the detailed map with the actual required information and the overview map in the same window. There is, however, no indication on the maps themselves to which return period the flood risk map refers. The use of different historical floods makes it impossible to compare adjoining maps, but this is not a major drawback. The use of the various map layers is well organized, with an indication that certain background layers, such as a scanned topographical map and orthographic (aerial) photos, can only be shown after the user has zoomed in sufficiently (Figure 4.34).

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Figure 4.33 Example of a flood extension map for Thionville on the Mosel river 61

Figure 4.33

Example of a flood extension map for Thionville on the Mosel river

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Figure 4.34 Effect of different levels of zooming in on the availability of background layers
Figure 4.34 Effect of different levels of zooming in on the availability of background layers

Figure 4.34

Effect of different levels of zooming in on the availability of background layers in the Cartorisque system (Abbeville on the Somme river)

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62

Example 2 - Rhône river – region of Avignon 8

Example 2 - Rhône river – region of Avignon 8 Figure 4.35 Example of flood extension

Figure 4.35

Example of flood extension internet site of the Rhone river region

of flood extension internet site of the Rhone river region Figure 4.36 Flood inundation maps for

Figure 4.36

Flood inundation maps for city of Avignon with both historical floods (1856 and 2003) and expected inundation areas

8 http://www.geomapguide.com/diren/Risques/Dynamap_risques.htm

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Comments on the maps

The layout of the interactive internet site for the Rhône river, and more in detail shown for the region of Avignon in Figure 4.36, is very attractive and easy to work with also for a non-expert. It shows a combination of historical floods (in this case 1856 and 2003) and expected flood extension. For the latter, though, there is no information to which return period the indicated area belongs. The map was build on the basis of a topographic map with a scale of 1:25.000. There is a clear indication of the location of the detailed map within the overall region. There is no North indication, but in this case all maps are automatically orientated with North at the top of the map. Although it is interesting to show historical floods with the flood extension information, it should be remarked that the extension of floods in the 19th century, as in this case for 1856, may be of limited value given the fact that many changes may have occurred since that time in the geometry of the river cross-sections.

Example 3 - Nord Pas-de-Calais 9

the river cross-sections. Example 3 - Nord Pas-de-Calais 9 Figure 4.37 Example of the river Yser

Figure 4.37

Example of the river Yser in Nord Pas-de-Calais

Comments on the maps

The layout of the internet site for the Nord Pas-de-Calais (Figure 4.37) is clear and easy to interpret. In this case also a combination is shown of historical floods (here a flood of 2001) and the expected flood extension for evens with a return period of 1/10 yr (‘décennale’) and 1/100 yr (‘centennale’). There are also indications possible of the preferential flow path and storage areas. The former may be used as indication where higher flow velocities can be expected, although no flow velocity map is provided. Information on flood depth and duration of the flooding is given for isolated points (depth with green, duration with black) and this type of data is shown whenever such a point is highlighted with the mouse. Depth is given with 0.1 m precision for the historic flood and the two return periods. The duration is given as an order of magnitude (e.g. 1 – 2 days), but there is no information on the map to which return period this information refers.

9 http://carto.ecologie.gouv.fr/HTML_PUBLIC/Site de consultation/site.php?map = azi_yser.map&service_idx=24W htm

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Example 4 - Ile-de-France region 10

Example 4 - Ile-de-France region 1 0 Figure 4.38 User-interface of the flood map site of

Figure 4.38

User-interface of the flood map site of the Ile-de-France

User-interface of the flood map site of the Ile-de-France Figure 4.39 Detail of the flood inundation

Figure 4.39

Detail of the flood inundation map for the Ile-de-France

Comments on the maps

For the Ile-de-France region only historical flood extensions are given and it is only included here as an example of a flood map of a very densely populated urban area (region Paris). Different historical floods can be chosen from the internet site.

10 http://carto.ecologie.gouv.fr/HTML_PUBLIC/Site%20de%20consultation/site.php?map=essai_PHEC.map&service_idx=18W

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4.8 Germany

For Germany there are many different maps as each of the “Länder” makes its own maps, but recently (2006) recommendations have been published on national level for the production of flood maps 11 . Examples in this document include maps from Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Nieder-Sachsen (including Bremen), Nordrhein- Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen and Sachsen-Anhalt.

4.8.1

Baden-Württemberg

For Baden-Württemberg there are interactive maps available for both flood extension and flood depth on the internet 12 . However, there is still very limited information available (only the Neckar river between Mosbach and Heidelberg, see Figure 4.41). There is a clear corresponding document available in PDF-format directly from the map page in which the procedure is explained of the production of the flood maps. Information is given for return periods of 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 and an ‘extreme’ situation. The latter is explained in the text as a ‘statistically very rare event. It can be defined as a historical event, which may be different for different locations, e.g. due to obstruction by bridges’. It is not possible to give any return period to such an event.

In Figure 4.40 the various concepts are shown that are used for the elaboration of the flood maps of Baden- Württemberg. Important are the possibilities to indicate whether a certain area is located behind a flood defence and the return period for which this flood defence is still effective.

In Figure 4.41 the (restricted) river stretch is shown for which flood maps are made publicly available (Neckar river). Examples of flood maps for this region are shown in Figure 4.42 and Figure 4.43. They can be accessed from the internet 13 . As stated on the internet site of Baden-Württemberg all the maps are produced as part of the EU-funded SAFER project (see Chapter 5.6). Baden-Württemberg has also produced an English-language guidebook ‘Flood Risk Maps in Baden-Württemberg’, as part of the SAFER EU project, which forms the basis for the production of the flood hazard maps. The map in Figure 4.43 is an example of a map that is produced following these (SAFER) guidelines.

11 Deutsche Vereinigung für Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall (DWA), Arbeitsgruppe Hochwassermanagement:

“Empfehlungen der Bund-/ Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA) zur Aufstellung von Hochwasser-Gefahrenkarten”

12 http://rips-dienste.lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de/rips/hwgk/

13 http://www.hochwasser.baden-wuerttemberg.de/

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Figure 4.40 Examples of the definition of flood inundation areas (Baden-Württemberg) Atlas of Flood Maps

Figure 4.40

Examples of the definition of flood inundation areas (Baden-Württemberg)

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Figure 4.41 Location for which flood maps are available in Baden-Württemberg (Neckar river) Figure 4.42

Figure 4.41

Location for which flood maps are available in Baden-Württemberg (Neckar river)

maps are available in Baden-Württemberg (Neckar river) Figure 4.42 Example of a flood extension map from

Figure 4.42

Example of a flood extension map from Baden-Württemberg (Neckar)

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Figure 4.43 Example of flood depth map (Neckar river) Comment on the maps The flood

Figure 4.43

Example of flood depth map (Neckar river)

Comment on the maps

The flood extension map (Figure 4.42) is rather detailed and easy to read. The inundated area for each return period is shown as the increment compared to the lower return period, the results on the map being in line with the intuitive interpretation that higher return periods result in larger (=darker hue of blue) water depths.

For the flood depth map (Figure 4.43) the information is only provided for the ‘extreme’ flood, which has no clear return period, although in the case of the maps shown above it corresponds with the extension of the 1/100 year flood (possibly because no major historical flood information is available). The use of colours is unusual as normally flood depth is only shown in shades of blue. The present succession from yellow to red is normally used in flood risk maps to indicate increased level of danger. Step size of 0.5 m is logic and probably consistent with the level of precision of the underlying data.

4.8.2 Bayern (Bavaria)

With the “Information Service on Flood Hazard Areas” detailed flood plain maps for Bayern are shown on the internet 14 , open to the public. The service was published by the Bavarian Environment Agency in March 2004. It contains:

Flood plains (German: Überschwemmungsgebiete). Usually these areas are calculated for a 100 year flood by means of hydraulic modelling and based on high-precision digital elevation models. Up to the end of 2008 flood plain maps will be produced for all big and medium rivers in Bavaria (~ 9.000 river kilometres) in a scale of 1:2.500 to 1:5.000. Furthermore the extension of the programme on small rivers is planned.

Flood prone areas (German: Wassersensible Bereiche): Derived in a scale of 1:25.000 they represent an estimation of potentially hazardous areas by interpreting soil maps (natural flood plains). Water sensible areas are only developed for online presentation. As they are available almost all over Bavaria, they are provided as very simple and basic information for the public, to assess the risk of flooding or high ground water level. The integration of flood hazard maps into the web mapping service is planned. First pilot studies are already started.

14 http://www.iug.bayern.de

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The internet site with an example for the region of Regensburg is shown in Figure 4.44.

for the region of Regensburg is shown in Figure 4.44. Figure 4.44 Interactive internet site for

Figure 4.44

Interactive internet site for flood maps in Bayern

Comment on the map

Compared to many other interactive flood map sites, the site for Bayern shows limited information and as such is of course also easy to interpret. The outstanding feature of the mapping service is the possibility to get very detailed information on the extension of floods. With changing background map zooming in is possible up to a scale that shows every house and parcel (Figure 4.45). Thus utilization restrictions due to water legislation are comprehensible for everyone. In the information provided on the map, it is indicated that the flood inundation area normally corresponds with an event with a return period of 1/100 yr, but in some cases either 1/30 yr or 1/300 yr. In a few cases it represents the extent of a historical flood and further inquiry may be necessary to clarify what the flood extent for a certain location means.

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Figure 4.45 Detail of the interactive internet site precisely showing the affection of houses and

Figure 4.45

Detail of the interactive internet site precisely showing the affection of houses and parcels

4.8.3 Nieder-Sachsen / Bremen

For Nieder-Sachsen and the city of Bremen flood hazard maps are available on the internet as downloadable map sheets in PDF format 15 . An example is given in Figure 4.46. The legend to the maps is only available in German, but the expected flood extension for a return period of 100 years is shown in light-blue. Diagonal hatching indicates regions for which the maps are still being produced, while dark-blue is used for flood water retention areas. The city of Bremen is covered by two map sheets (nrs. 4 and 9). According to the accompanying text (in German) the inundation areas are calculated by 1-D hydraulic models and, for more complex situations, with 2-D hydraulic models. The approach is based on a steady-state situation, i.e. no calculations are made of the actual inundation process and therefore no information is available on the duration of the inundation. Maps are given on a scale of 1:200.000. New detailed maps for some areas on a scale of 1:25.000 are also available on the same internet site and it is the aim to finalize the inundation mapping for the whole of Nieder-Sachsen in 2008.

15 http://www.mu1.niedersachsen.de/master/C7774004_N11348_L20_D0_I598

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Figure 4.46 Example of flood map for Nieder-Sachsen with part of the city of Bremen

Figure 4.46

Example of flood map for Nieder-Sachsen with part of the city of Bremen

Comments on the map

The flood hazard maps of Nieder-Sachsen are easy to read due to the combination of clear colours for the inundated areas and a topographical background. The information provided is limited, with only the expected extension of the inundation without any indication of the expected depth. The legend is only provided on the overall map with the location of the map sheets, no legend is available on the map sheets themselves. Such a legend is available, though, on the newly produced more detailed maps.

4.8.4

Nordrhein-Westfalen

For Nordrhein-Westfalen use is made of maps, which can be downloaded from the corresponding internet site 16 . Information on flood extension is given for the Rhine river for a return period of 1/500 yr and the smaller streams for 1/100 yr. The maps are available as PDF files and are very detailed. Interestingly the maps also show regions that may be used as emergency inundation areas. In Figure 4.47 this is shown with the normal flood extension in dark-blue and the emergency inundation areas in yellow and pink. The yellow areas are flooded in for floods with a return period of 100 years in case no action is taken, while the pink areas are restricted region for inundation and only used in special cases.

16 http://www.lua.nrw.de/wasser/hwberkarten.htm

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Figure 4.47 Flood extension maps in Nordrhein-Westfalen including emergency inundation area In Figure 4.48 an

Figure 4.47

Flood extension maps in Nordrhein-Westfalen including emergency inundation area

In Figure 4.48 an example is given of the Rhine river in the region of Köln that shows the expected inundation area for an event with a return period of 1/500 yr for the Rhine, with a distinction between inundated area along the main river channel (light blue) and behind dikes (hatched yellow). For the tributary of the Sieg in the right upper part of the map, both the expected inundated area for a return period of 1/100 yr is given as well as the emergency inundation area (in yellow and pink). The legend is rather small and not easy to read, even when printed on A3 format as in this case. This illustrates the problem of reproducing scanned original topographic maps as background to flood maps.

The access link to an interactive map is already shown on the internet site where the maps of Nordrhein-Westfalen are available, but has not yet been activated.

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Figure 4.48 Example of a flood extension map with indication of emergency inundation areas along
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4.8.5

Rheinland-Pfalz

Rheinland-Pfalz has a very complete interactive map internet site 17 for the Mosel basin with many possibilities for adjusting the map and searching for e.g. rivers, locations, etc. It is based on a high-precision elevation model. The use of river kilometres (in steps of 500 m) to focus on river stretches is particularly helpful. The map is used to show information on expected flood extension (for return periods of 1/50, 1/100, 1/200 and ‘extreme’ events) and also for a second class of information (‘Danger classes’, with a distinction in four classes). It is possible to show the four types of extension as well as the danger (or hazard) classes in one map, but evidently the information will overlap and may be partly lost. Deriving the hazard stages is based on a method in which the degree of hazard is expressed by the intensity (water depth and flow velocity) of a flood event in combination with the probability of its occurrence. Using a hazard matrix - an intensity-probability diagram - these two parameters are summarised to be expressed as hazard stages (see below).

are summarised to be expressed as hazard stages (see below). The hazard stages show the degree

The hazard stages show the degree of danger to persons, animals and property and are differentiated into three degrees of hazard, distinguishable by the colours red (substantial hazard), orange (moderate hazard) and yellow (minor hazard). In order to be able to calculate the residual hazard, the hazard situation for very rare events (extreme floodwater run-off) was examined. These areas are shown as yellow-white hatched.

A similar approach with a hazard matrix is adopted in Switzerland and Belgium (Wallonia).

17 http://www.gefahrenatlas-mosel.de

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Figure 4.49 Example of flood extension map for the Saar river Figure 4.50 Atlas of

Figure 4.49

Example of flood extension map for the Saar river

Figure 4.49 Example of flood extension map for the Saar river Figure 4.50 Atlas of Flood

Figure 4.50

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Danger class map of the lower part of the Kyll river

Figure 4.51 Flood extension map of the lower part of the Kyll river The danger

Figure 4.51

Flood extension map of the lower part of the Kyll river

The danger or hazard classes do not correspond with the flood extension classes and return periods. They are defined based on the initiative of the international TIMIS-project (see Chapter 5.7) through which hazard maps for more rivers in Rhineland-Palatinate are elaborated. The maps will be available in the internet in 2008 and will provide a lot more information for the user. The four danger classes that are used on those maps are further discussed in Chapter 5.7 on the TIMIS project. Figure 4.52 shows an example of an improved hazard map for Rheinland-Pfalz.

an example of an improved hazard map for Rheinland-Pfalz. Figure 4.52 Example of a hazard map

Figure 4.52

Example of a hazard map for Rheinland-Pfalz

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Comments on the maps

The internet application for the Mosel river in Germany is among the most complete that is presently available. The layout is very clear and the information provided also very complete. The three examples of the internet site itself (Figure 4.49, Figure 4.50 and Figure 4.51) show expected flood extension and flood risk according to the classification explained above. It is possible to show both the flood extension and the risk level in one map, although sometimes the information will be obliterated. Return periods can be chosen (1/50, 1/00, 1/200 and ‘extreme flood’) and the user can interactively change the details of the background information, including vegetation, names of towns, etc. Colours are well-chosen and make it immediately clear to the user which areas have the highest risk. There are very easy to use search options, e.g. for a certain town and it is also possible to jump directly to a certain location along a river using river kilometre indications. This internet flood map site might form an interesting example for other agencies that want to provide their information interactively.

4.8.6 Saarland

Also the maps for the Saarland region are based on an interactive map site 18 . An example is shown in Figure 4.53.

map site 1 8 . An example is shown in Figure 4.53. Figure 4.53 Example of

Figure 4.53

Example of a flood extension map for the Saarland region (1/200 yr event)

Comment on the map

Although the map is rather clear, especially the topographical information, the large number of parallel dark-blue lines, indicating the limits of the expected flood extension for a 1/200 year event, may be more difficult to distinguish than the method based on coloured surfaces.

4.8.7 Sachsen

For Sachsen there is an interactive internet site 19 where a choice is given between flood inundation maps (Uberschwemmungskarte) and flood damage maps (Schaden¬potential¬karte). In Sachsen some major cities are located, such as Leipzig, Dresden and Chemnitz. Dresden is particularly interesting as it has witnessed major flood events in the recent past due to high water levels on the Elbe river (especially August 2002, for which a historical flood extension map is also available). It should be remarked that the maps have been produced as part of the transboundary ELLA project (see Chapter 5.3).

18 http://www.gis.saarland.de/website/usg1/viewer.htm?Title=%DCberschwemmungsgebiete

19 http://www.umwelt.sachsen.de/de/wu/umwelt/lfug/lfug-internet/interaktive_karten_10950.html

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Flood extension maps

On the flood extension maps it is possible to show expected flood extensions for three return periods: 1/20, 1/100 and ‘extreme’, which according to the description is higher than any historical flood extent and at least more than 1/300 years. For the three return periods it is possible to show the corresponding expected flood extent, but only for the ‘extreme’ situation it is also possible to show the expected flood depth. Use is made of an intelligent map program that avoids ‘overlapping’ information, e.g. trying to show both extension and water depth, the latter showing evidently automatically already the extension. It is interesting that it is possible also to show vulnerable locations such as hospitals, energy installations, water production and industrial areas. The examples are shown for Leipzig and Dresden (Figure 4.54 and Figure 4.55).

shown for Leipzig and Dresden (Figure 4.54 and Figure 4.55). Figure 4.54 Flood extension map of

Figure 4.54

Flood extension map of the region of Leipzig

Figure 4.54 Flood extension map of the region of Leipzig Figure 4.55 Flood extension map of

Figure 4.55

Flood extension map of the region of Dresden

Comments on the maps

In general the use of the colour green for flood extension (and in this case use is made of hues of green to show the flood extension corresponding to the three return periods) is unusual, but most likely has been chosen to allow for the combination of both flood extension and expected water depth in the same figure. It should be remarked, though, that green is normally used to indicate safety, which is not the case in this map. This shows the conflict in colouring that will occur when several themes are shown in the same map.

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Flood damage maps

The layout of the flood damage maps is similar to the flood extension maps. Examples for Leipzig and Dresden are shown again (Figure 4.56 and Figure 4.57), but with a higher level of detail as in this case map layers with details on the expected damage become visible.

layers with details on the expected damage become visible. Figure 4.56 Flood damage map of the

Figure 4.56

Flood damage map of the region of Leipzig

Figure 4.56 Flood damage map of the region of Leipzig Figure 4.57 Flood damage map of

Figure 4.57

Flood damage map of the region of Dresden

Comments on the maps

These maps give very detailed information on the potential damage during ‘extreme’ floods, with a distinction between industry and urban damage. Colours are well-chosen and evidently the user can change interactively both the region and the scale that is wanted.

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4.8.8

Sachsen-Anhalt

For Sachsen-Anhalt a number of very detailed maps are available on the internet 20 in PDF format. In Figure 4.58 an example is shown for the river Elbe at the city of Magdeburg for an event with a return period of 1/100 yr.

of Magdeburg for an event with a return period of 1/100 yr. Figure 4.58 Flood extension

Figure 4.58

Flood extension map for the river Elbe at Magdeburg

Comment on the map

This is an example of a very clear map, partly due to the limited type of information that is provided. They have a detailed topographical background. Flood depths are given in a non-linear scale (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 m), which may lead to confusion. Although the maps are freely available from the internet, they can not be copied or printed.

20 http://www.ella-interreg.org/gefahrenkarten0.html

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4.9 Hungary

In Hungary flood maps have been produced for the major rivers, but most of the maps are rather old and have not been updated since 1977. Only flood extension has been presented.

updated since 1977. Only flood extension has been presented. Figure 4.59 Flood map of the Tisza

Figure 4.59

Flood map of the Tisza river basin

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Figure 4.60 Flood map at Madocsa on the River Danube in Southern Hungary Comments on

Figure 4.60

Flood map at Madocsa on the River Danube in Southern Hungary

Comments on the maps

In Figure 4.59 example of a flood extension map is given for the Tisza river. The example is the version in scale

1:500,000, but the maps are originally made in 1:50,000 and 1:100,000. Although it is originally called flood hazard map, it shows the expected flood extension for return periods of 1/100 and 1/1000 yr. The map is an example of a flood extension map without any special additions and as such is very easy to interpret.

A map of a Danube flood area in 1:50,000 is shown in Figure 4.60. The same return periods are used at this

example and also the flood embankments are shown. Flood embankments are very important in Hungary: about 97% of the floodplains are protected by dikes.

Recently new flood maps are being prepared and will become available for the whole country in the near future based on statistical analysis. In many cases hydraulic modelling is used to determine the flood extent, flood depth and the propagation time of inundation. The processing of new flood maps for Hungary is still in progress. In the future many other types of flood maps will be available, among which flood risk and flood damage maps. Examples of new flood maps for Hungary are shown in Figure 4.61 (extension of inundation), Figure 4.62 (flood depth) and Figure 4.63 (propagation of inundation).