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Academic Writing – Connectives and uses: Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that are used within sentences to join clauses or parts of a sentence together.

Conjunctions

Word Words Example Sentences Adding and The writer has used techniques such as informal information language

Word

Functions

Words

Example Sentences

Adding

and

The writer has used techniques such as informal

information

language and personal anecdotes in order to persuade the reader.

or

The writing would be more suitable for this context if it used either an academic writing style or more technical

examples.

Contrasting

but

The writer used a formal academic style but also

information

included personal anecdotes in order to persuade the reader.

yet

The writer used informal language yet a more formal style is required in this context.

although

The writer included personal anecdotes although examples of a more technical nature would have been more appropriate.

even

The writer uses an informal style even though this

though

technique is unsuitable for the academic context.

while

The writer included personal anecdotes while examples of a more technical nature would have been more appropriate.

whereas

The writer used informal language whereas more formal language is required in this context.

despite

The writer included personal anecdotes despite the

traditional conventions of academic writing disallowing

1 Academic Writing – Connectives and uses: Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that are used within sentences

Academic Writing Across the Curriculum

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this technique.

Comparing

and

Sensory memory and working memory have a limit

information

upon the duration they can maintain stimuli.

like

Sensory memory, like working memory, has a limit upon the duration it can maintain stimuli.

as

Sensory memory, as is the case with working memory, has a limit upon the duration it can maintain stimuli.

both

...

and

Both sensory memory and working memory have a

 

limit upon the duration they can maintain stimuli.

Ordering

after

Students were expected to hand in typed assignments

information

after many computers became available on campus.

by time

before

 

Few students typed their assignments before computers became available on campus.

since

The number of typed assignments has increased dramatically since many computers became available on campus.

when

Students were expected to hand in typed assignments

 

when many computers became available on campus.

Causation/

because

The conclusion is flawed because the survey failed to

reasoning

use a random sampling technique.

as

The conclusion is flawed as the survey failed to use a random sampling technique.

since

 

The conclusion is flawed since the survey failed to use a random sampling technique.

now that

The conclusion must be rejected now that it has been revealed random sampling was not followed.

for

The conclusion must be rejected for it has been

revealed that random sampling was not followed.

Conditional

if

The conclusion must be rejected if random sampling techniques were not used in the administration of the survey.

unless

 

The conclusion will be accepted unless the

 

administration of the survey was flawed.

2 this technique. Comparing and Sensory memory and working memory have a limit information upon the

Academic Writing Across the Curriculum

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in case

The team is ready to administer another survey in case the results of the first were flawed.

provided

The conclusion will be accepted provided that the

that

administration of the survey was not flawed.

Exemplifying

such as

The writer has used techniques such as informal

The team can administer several surveys

information

language and personal anecdotes in order to persuade

for

the reader.

example

simultaneously; for example intelligence and aptitude

tests are usually done together.

3 in case The team is ready to administer another survey in case the results of

Academic Writing Across the Curriculum