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# ECE Dept, KEC

KUPPAM ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KUPPAM - 517425 (Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to JNTUA)

LABORATORY MANUAL

For

COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
(FOR II DECE-REGULATION C09)

## ECE Dept, KEC

INDEX
S.NO
1 2 3 4

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT Simple method of generation and detection of A.M. Simple method of generation and detection of F.M. Study of AM super heterodyne receiver. Test audio amplifier section of super heterodyne receiver. Measurement of sensitivity, selectivity of a radio receiver using field strength meter. Series Resonance Parallel Resonance Verification of Thevinens theorem. Verification of Super position theorem. Verification of maximum power transfer theorem. Differentiator and integrator circuits. Design common emitter amplifier using electronic work bench

24-25

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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## ECE Dept, KEC

Experiment No: 1.1 Date:

AM MODULATOR
Aim: To construct AM modulator and to determine modulation index m. Apparatus:

Resistors (1K) Capacitors (0.01F) Diode (1N4007) Decade Inductance Box Signal generators CRO Tag board Connecting wires.

- 3 Nos - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no.

Circuit diagram:

## Fig (1.1) AM modulator circuit.

Tank circuit design:

Frequency of oscillation, fc= 1/2 Assume C1= 0.01uF We know that, Carrier frequency, fc = 10 KHz

(L1C1 )

## Therefore L1 = _________ m.H.

ECE Dept, KEC Theory: Amplitude modulation: Amplitude modulation is a process in which the amplitude of high frequency carrier is varied in accordance with the amplitude of a low frequency modulating signal. In amplitude modulation, the information signal varies the amplitude of the carrier sine wave. In other words, the instantaneous value of the carrier amplitude changes in accordance with the amplitude of the modulating signal. Fig (1.1) shows amplitude modulator circuit. It is a circuit which generates amplitude modulation. Fig (1.2) shows a single frequency sine wave modulating a high frequency carrier signal. Note that the carrier frequency remains constant during the modulation process but its amplitude varies in accordance with the modulating signal. An increase in the modulating signal amplitude causes the amplitude of the carrier to increase. An increase or decrease in the amplitude of the modulating signal causes a corresponding increase or decrease in both the positive and negative peaks of the carrier amplitude. Modulation index: In order for proper AM to occur, the modulating signal voltage must be less than carrier voltage. Therefore, the relationship between the amplitudes of the modulating signal and the carrier is important. This relationship is expressed in terms of a ratio known as the modulation index, m. Modulation index is the ratio of the modulating signal voltage to the carrier voltage. MODULATION INDEX, M=VM/VC The modulation index should be a number between 0 and 1. If the amplitude of the modulating voltage is higher than the carrier voltage, m will be greater than 1. This will cause severe distortion of the modulated wave form. This condition is called over modulation. When m=1 the condition is called full modulation. Whenever the modulation index is multiplied by 100, the degree of modulation is expressed as a percentage. In this case modulation index is called percentage modulation. %m= (Vm/Vc) x100

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ECE Dept, KEC Procedure: 1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram choosing appropriate components. 2. Apply 1V/1KHz modulating signal and 4V/10KHz carrier signal. 3. Connect the CRO across the tank circuit and observe the AM waveform. 4. Measure Vmax and Vmin from the AM waveform and calculate the modulation index m. 5. Repeat the above step for different values of modulating signal and carrier signal voltages. 6. Sketch the modulating signal, Carrier signal and AM wave forms.

Waveforms:

## ECE Dept, KEC

Tabular column: Sl No. Vmax, in Volts Vmin, in Volts Modulation index, m in percentage

1 2 3

Result:

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## 7. What is the band width of AM wave?

8. Draw the under modulation critical modulation and over modulation wave form.

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## ECE Dept, KEC Experiment No: 1.2 Date:

AM DETECTOR
Aim: To construct AM envelope detector and to observe the demodulated waveform. Apparatus: Resistors (1K)
- 3 nos

Capacitors (0.01F & 0.1F) - 1no Diodes (1N4007, 0A79) Decade Inductance Box Decade resistance box Signal generators CRO Tag board Connecting wires. - 1 no (each) - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no - 1 no

Circuit diagram:

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## Fig (1.2.2) AM Detector (Envelope detector)

Filter design: Filter cut off frequency, fm = 1/2R4C2 Assume C2 = 0.1uF We know that fm = 1 KHz Therefore, R4 = _________ K Ohms. Theory: Fig (1.2.1) shows the amplitude modulator circuit and fig (12.2) shows AM demodulator (detector) circuit. A demodulator is a circuit that accepts a modulated signal and recovers the original modulating information. A demodulator circuit is the key circuit in the radio receiver.

Diode detector: The simplest and most widely used amplitude demodulator is the diode detector shown in fig (1.2.2). The AM signal is applied to the rectifier circuit consisting of diode, capacitors and resistors. The diode conducts when the negative half cycles of the AM signals occur. During the positive half cycles, the diode is reverse biased and no current flows through it. To recover the original modulating signal filter is connected after the diode. The filter is designed such that capacitors have very low impedance at the carrier frequency. At the frequency of the modulating signal, they have much higher impedance. The result is that capacitors effectively short or filter out the carrier, thereby leaving the original modulating signal. The fig 1.2.3b shows the demodulated signal.

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## ECE Dept, KEC Waveforms:

forms a) AM signal b) Demodulated signal Fig (1.2.3) Waveforms Procedure: 1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram choosing appropriate components. 2. Connect the output of AM modulator to the in input of envelope detector. 3. Connect the CRO to the output of envelope detector. 4. Observe the demodulated wave form, measure the frequency of this waveform and compare it with the original modulating signal. 5. Sketch AM wave and demodulated waveform.

Result:

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## ECE Dept, KEC

Self Assessment Questions: 1. What is the main active component in the demodulation circuit of an AM wave?

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## ECE Dept, KEC Experiment No: 2.1 Date:

FM MODULATOR

Aim: To study FM modulator and to observe the FM wave form. Apparatus: FM modulator trainer and CRO. Circuit diagram:

## Fig (2.1) Circuit diagram of FM modulator

Theory: Frequency modulation: Frequency modulation is a process in which the frequency of a high frequency carrier is varied in accordance with the amplitude of a low frequency modulating signal. In FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant, while the carrier frequency is changed by the modulating signal. As the amplitude of the information signal varies, the carrier frequency shifts in proportion. As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the carrier frequency increases. If the amplitude of the modulating signal decreases, the carrier frequency decreases. The reverse relationship can also be implemented.

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ECE Dept, KEC As the modulating signal amplitude varies, the carrier frequency varies above and below its normal center frequency with no modulation. The amount of change in carrier frequency produced by the modulating signal is known as the frequency deviation. Maximum frequency deviation occurs at the maximum amplitude of the modulating signal. The frequency of the modulating signal determines how many times per second the carrier frequency deviates above and below its nominal center frequency 100 times per second. This is called the frequency deviation rate. An FM signal is illustrated in fig (2.1.1c). With no modulating signal applied, the carrier frequency is a constant amplitude sine wave at its normal constant center frequency. The modulating information signal [Fig (2.1.1b)] is a low frequency sine wave. As the sine wave goes positive, the frequency of the carrier increases proportionately. The highest frequency occurs at the peak amplitude of the modulating signal. As the modulating signal amplitude decreases, the carrier frequency decreases. When the modulating signal is at zero amplitude, the carrier will be at its center frequency point. When the modulating signal goes negative, the carrier frequency will decrease. The carrier frequency will continue to decrease until the peak of the negative half cycle of the modulating sine wave is reached. Then, as the modulating signal increases towards zero, the frequency will again increase. Waveforms:

## Fig (2.1.1) Wave forms a) Carrier signal b) Modulating signal c) FM signal

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ECE Dept, KEC Procedure: 1. Switch on the FM experimental board. 2. Connect Oscilloscope to the FM O/P and observe that carrier frequency at that point without any A.F. input. 3. Connect around sine wave (A.F. signal) to the input of the frequency modulator (At AF input). 4. Now observe the frequency modulation output on the 1st channel of on CRO and adjust the amplitude of the AF signal to get clear frequency modulated wave form. 5. Vary the modulating frequency (A.F Signal) and amplitude and observe the effects on the modulated waveform.

Result:

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## ECE Dept, KEC Experiment No: 2.2 Date:

FM DEMODULATOR
Aim: To study FM demodulator and to observe the demodulated wave form. Apparatus: FM demodulator trainer and CRO. Circuit diagram:

## Fig (2.2.1) Circuit diagram of FM demodulator.

Theory: Fig (2.2.1) shows the Circuit diagram of FM demodulator. Demodulation is the process of recovering the low frequency modulating signal. Here in FM demodulator the frequency modulated signal is inputted. The output of the demodulator is the original low frequency modulating signal. Fig (2.2.2) shows original modulating signal, FM signal and demodulated signal.

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## ECE Dept, KEC

There are literally dozens of circuits used to demodulate or detect FM signals. The well-known Foster-Seeley discriminator and the ratio detector were among the most widely used frequency demodulators at one time, but today these circuits have been replaced with more sophisticated IC demodulators. Anyhow, they are still found in older equipment. The most widely used detectors today include the pulse-averaging discriminator, the quadrature detector and the phase locked loop (PLL). The PLL is the best of all frequency demodulators in use. Its ability to provide frequency selectivity and filtering give it a signal to noise ratio superior to any other type of FM detector. The linearity of the VCO ensures the highly accurate reproduction of the original modulating signal. Although PLLs are complex, they are easy to apply because they are readily available in low cost IC form. Waveforms:

Fig (2.2.2) Wave forms a) Modulating signal (CH1 of CRO) b) FM signal c) Demodulated signal (CH2 of CRO)

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ECE Dept, KEC Procedure: 1. Switch on the FM experimental board. 2. Connect Oscilloscope to the FM O/P and observe that carrier frequency at that point without any A.F. input. 3. Connect around sine wave (A.F. signal) to the input of the frequency modulator (At AF input). 4. Now observe the frequency modulation output on the 1st channel of on CRO and adjust the amplitude of the AF signal to get clear frequency modulated wave form. 5. Vary the modulating frequency (A.F Signal) and amplitude and observe the effects on the modulated waveform 6. Connect the FM o/p to the FM i/p of De-modulator. 7. Vary the potentiometer provided in the demodulator section. 8. Observe the output at demodulation o/p on second channel of CRO. 9. Draw the demodulated wave form

## Calculations: Modulating signal, fm= and Amplitude =

Result:

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ECE Dept, KEC Self Assessment Questions: 1. What is the basic FM demodulator circuit?

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## Experiment No: 3&4 AM SUPER HETERODYNE RECEIVER

Date:

Aim: To study of AM Super Heterodyne Radio Receiver. Apparatus: Radio Receiver kit, set of connecting wire, Oscilloscope. Multi meter, RF signal generator. Circuit diagram:

Theory: The basic requirement for any communications receiver is to have the ability to select a signal of desired frequency, while rejecting closely adjacent frequencies (Selectivity) and provide sufficient amplification to recover the modulating signal (Sensitivity). A receiver with good selectivity will isolate the desired signal in the RF spectrum and eliminate all other signals. This can be achieved using tuned LC circuits resonating at the desired frequency. LC circuits with a high Q value have narrower bandwidths and hence have better selectivity. However it must be noted the bandwidth must be sufficiently large such that it passes the carrier as well as the sidebands to avoid attenuation and hence distortion of the transmitted info information.

The sensitivity of a communications receiver is a function of the overall receiver gain. In general, higher gain means better the sensitivity. This can be achieved by multiple stages of amplification. There are two types of communications recei receiver; ver; the Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) receiver and the super heterodyne receiver. Although the TRF system is a straightforward concept at
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ECE Dept, KEC high frequencies it becomes difficult to build, is less efficient, has small gain and suffers bandwidth changes. For these reasons among others the super heterodyne receiver has become the model for all receivers; AM, FM, television, satellite, radar etc.

Following the block diagram Fig. 3.1 above, the incoming signal is picked up on the antenna and fed to an RF amplifier. The RF amplifier provides some initial gain and selectivity and minimizes radiation of the Local Oscillator (LO) signal through the receiving antenna by isolating the Mixer from the antenna. However, the most important function of the RF amplifier is to eliminate what is known as the image signal. The frequency of this signal is greater than the LO and will mix to give a mixer output at the IF frequency. This will cause problems as after down conversion to IF it will appear at the same frequency as the desired signal and cause interference. Therefore, signals at the image frequency fimage = fRF + 2 fIF The output of the RF amplifier is then applied to the input of the Mixer. It also has an input from the LO. The Mixer (or Frequency Converter) is a non-linear device, which results in the creation of sum and difference frequencies. The output from the Mixer is a combination of the received signal and the LO signal as well as their sum and difference frequencies. This process is called Heterodyning. The non-linearity is necessary to provide the mathematical equivalent of time multiplication between the LO voltage and the RF signal voltage. A tuned circuit at the Mixer output selects the Difference frequency (i.e. the IF or Intermediate frequency). The LO frequency is tunable over a wide range and therefore the Mixer can translate a wide range of input frequencies to the IF. The LO frequency is higher than incoming RF frequency (High Side Injection) for engineering reasons. fLO = fRF + fIF. Therefore the difference or intermediate frequency (IF) is fIF = fLO - fRF. This frequency is selected while the other signals are rejected (fLO, fRF, fLO + fRF). The output of the mixer is amplified by one or more IF amplifier stages. Most of the receiver sensitivity and selectivity is to be found in these stages. All IF stages are fixed and tuned to fIF only (this standard is fixed at 455kHz). Hence, high selectivity can be obtained. The highly amplified IF signal is now applied to the detector or demodulator where the original modulating signal is recovered. The detector output is then amplified to drive a Loudspeaker.

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## ECE Dept, KEC Requirements for Receiver:

1. Selectivity is that property of a receiver which enables it to differentiate between one broadcast frequency and another. 2. Sensitivity is that property of a receiver which enables it to pick up signals from distant stations with easy, and with very little signal energy supplied to its antenna. 3. Fidelity refers to the tone quality produced by the receiver .a receiver possessing good fidelity provides a rich and true reproduction of sound.

These Principles used in the super heterodyne aid in obtaining all three of these desired qualities from the receiver.

Procedure: 1. Study the circuit diagram on the front panel of the training board. 2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram. 3. Connect Antenna output to input of mixer. 4. The output of mixer should be connected to input of IF amplifier (i.e. Primary of(IFT-1).As we vary the tuning condenser the frequency will change. 5. The output of IFT-1 should be connected to base of transistor BF 195D. 6. Connect output of IFT-2 to Base of transistor BF 195C. 7. The output of IFT-3 should be connected to diode for detector stage. 8. The detected output signal should be connected to the input of AF Amp. Through 10K potentiometer. As you vary the 10K volume control potentiometer the volume can be increased or decreased. The output of the AF Amp is connected to power amplifier input. The power amplifier is a push-pull amplifier which can drive loud speaker.

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ECE Dept, KEC Observations: Study of sensitivity of Radio Receiver: S NO. Frequency( in KHz) Output voltage (in V)

Study of selectivity of Radio Receiver: Output voltage at resonance=3V Frequency( in KHz) Observed output voltage (V) Ratio= Voltage off Resonance Voltage at Resonance

Plot Graph between Ratio (dB) Versus Kilocycle of frequency Ratio in dB Frequency Off resonance at resonance

Result:

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## MEASUREMENT OF SENSITIVITY, SELECTIVITY

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ECE Dept, KEC Experiment No: 6 SERIES RESONANCE Aim: To design the series resonant circuit for the given resonant frequency and to plot the frequency response characteristic of that series resonant circuit. Apparatus: Resistor 100 Ohms, Inductor 1m.H. (DIB), Capacitor 1 .F. (DCB), Signal generator, Multi meter. Circuit diagram: Date:

## Fig (6.1) Series resonant circuit

Design: Given, Series resonant frequency= 5 KHz We know that, Series resonant frequency, fs= 1/2LC Assume C= 1 .F. Therefore, L= _________ m.H.

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ECE Dept, KEC Theory: The resonant circuit is a combination of R, L and C elements. The interesting characteristic of such circuit is that, they exhibit maximum or minimum current output at a particular frequency. This property is called as resonance. The frequency at which resonance occurs is called as resonant frequency. The R, L and C components may be connected in series or in parallel. Accordingly, there are two types of resonant circuits.

They are 1. Series resonant circuit 2. Parallel resonant circuit (Anti resonance)

Series resonance: Fig (6.1) shows series resonant circuit. Series resonance is a phenomenon in a series RLC circuit. At series resonance inductive reactance is equal to capacitive reactance. Hence inductive and capacitive reactances cancel out each other. The two reactances act as a short circuit since no voltage drops across them. All the applied voltage drops across resistor R. At resonance the net impedance of the circuit is purely resistive. Fig (6.2) shows frequency response characteristic of series resonant circuit. This characteristic is also called as universal resonance curve. It is the plot of current flowing through the resonant circuit v/s frequency. This curve is bell shaped curve, with its peak value at f=fs. For all other values of frequency current flowing through the circuit is less than Io. This is because for a frequency less than fs, capacitive reactance will be more and for a frequency more than fs inductive reactance will be more. In either case, the net impedance of the circuit is more than its resistance R. Hence the current is less. From the graph it is clear that current reduces on either side of fs gradually. Mark a point on current axis, where the current is equal to 0.707 X Ip. Extend that point on the plot. The extended line cuts the plot at two points. Extend both the points on to the frequency axis. We will get two frequencies f1 and f2. Observe that between f1 and f2 current flowing through the circuit is more, whereas below f1 and above f2 current is less. We conclude that the circuit is frequency selective. It allows more current for a range of frequencies and less current for all other frequencies. The range of frequency in which current is more is called pass band (between f1 & f2) and range of frequency in which current is less is called stop band. Frequencies f1 and f2 are called cut off frequencies because they separate pass band and stop band.

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## ECE Dept, KEC Nature of graph:

Fig (6.2) Universal resonance curve (Frequency response characteristic) Band width = f2-f1= _______Hz

Procedure: 1. Design the series resonant circuit for the given resonant frequency (Assume the value of C & calculate the value of L using appropriate formula). 2. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. Keep the input voltage Vin= 5V by varying the amplitude knob of signal generator and maintain it constant throughout the experiment. 4. Vary the input frequency in steps and note down the corresponding current. 5. Plot the graph of current vs. frequency. 6. Find out the band width from the graph.

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ECE Dept, KEC Tabular column: Vin= 5V Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Frequency in Hz 100 200 300 500 700 900 1K 2K 3K 5K 7K 10K Current I, in m.A.

Result:

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## 2. Define resonant frequency

3. Define bandwidth

## 4. Define quality factor

5. Differentiate between series resonance & parallel resonance. S.NO SERIES RESONANCE PARALLEL RESONANCE

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## Experiment No:7 PARALLEL RESONANCE

Date:

Aim: To design the parallel resonant circuit for the given resonant frequency and to plot the frequency response characteristic of that parallel resonant circuit. Apparatus: Resistor 100 Ohms, Inductor 1m.H. (DIB), Capacitor 1 .F. (DCB), Signal generator, Multi meter. Circuit diagram:

Fig (7 (7.1) Parallel resonant circuit Design: Given, Parallel resonant frequency, fp= 5 KHz We know that, Series resonant frequency, fp= 1/2LC Assume C= 1 .F. Therefore, L= _________ m.H.

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ECE Dept, KEC Theory: Fig (7.1) shows parallel resonant circuit. Parallel resonance is a phenomenon in a parallel LC circuit. At parallel resonance inductive susceptance is equal to capacitive susceptance. Hence inductive and capacitive susceptances cancel out each other. At parallel resonance net admittance of the circuit is given by Y= G + jbc - jbl

## Where, Y is admittance G is conductance bl is inductive susceptance. bc is capacitive susceptance

At parallel resonance bl = bc. Therefore Y = G. We conclude that at parallel resonance net admittance of the circuit is equal to conductance only and is minimum. Since admittance is minimum at resonance impedance is maximum. Hence current at parallel resonance is minimum.

Fig (7.2) shows frequency response characteristic of parallel resonant circuit. It is also called as universal anti resonance curve. It is having inverted bell shape with its minimum current value at f = fp.

At all other frequencies current flowing through the circuit is more. We conclude that parallel resonant circuit is also frequency selective. It allows less current at frequencies surrounding fp. i.e. parallel resonant circuit rejects these frequencies. Hence circuit is called rejecter circuit

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## Fig (7.2) Frequency response characteristic of parallel resonance circuit

Procedure: 1. Design the parallel resonant circuit for the given resonant frequency (Assume the value of C & calculate the value of L using appropriate formula). 2. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. Keep the input voltage Vin= 5V by varying the amplitude knob of signal generator and maintain it constant throughout the experiment. 4. Vary the input frequency in steps and note down the corresponding current. 5. Plot the graph of current vs. frequency.

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ECE Dept, KEC Tabular column: Vin= 5V Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Frequency in Hz 100 200 300 500 700 900 1K 2K 3K 5K 7K 10K Current I, in m.A.

Result:

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Experiment No: 8

Date:

## VERIFICATION OF THEVININS THEOREM

Aim: to verify the thevinins theorem of a symmetrical T-network. Apparatus: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Regulated power supply (0-30 v) - 1 No. Resistors (1k ohms) - 4 Nos Multi meter - 1 No Decade resistance box(0-100 k ohms)-1 No Ammeter (0-25 mA) -1 No Voltmeter(0-25 v) -1No

Circuit diagrams:

## Fig 4.3: Measurement Of Thevinin Equivalent Voltage VTH Or Voc

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## Fig 4.5: Thevinin Equivalent Circuit.

Theory: Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent voltage source Vth in series connection with an equivalent resistance Rth. This equivalent voltage Vth is the voltage obtained at terminals A-B of the network with terminals A-B open circuited. This equivalent resistance Rth is the resistance obtained at terminals A-B of the network with all its independent current sources open circuited and all its independent voltage sources short circuited.

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ECE Dept, KEC Procedure: 1. Make The Circuit Connections As Per Circuit Shown In Fig:8.2 and measure the load current. 2. Make The Circuit Connections As Per Circuit Shown In Fig:8.3 and measure the thevinins equivalent voltage Vth. 3. Make The Circuit Connections As Per Circuit Shown In Fig:8.4 and measure the thevinin equivalent resistance by using Multimeter. 4. Make The Circuit Connections As Per Circuit Shown In Fig:8.5 and measure the load current. 5. Compare the load current from thevinins equivalent circuit and the load current from fig:8.2.

Observations: S NO SORCE VOLTAGE (V) VTH (V) RTH (OHMS) LOAD CURRENT(mA) (direct ammeter reading) LOAD CURRENT(mA) (thevinins equivalent)

Specimen calculations: For Source Voltage VS= 15 V 1. VOC=VAB=VTH = + volts.(refer fig 8.3) 2.REQ=R2 + 3.I L=

(refer fig.8.5)

Result:

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## ECE Dept, KEC Self Assessment Questions: 1. State thevenins theorem.

2. If there are any dependent sources in the circuit what should we do?

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## Experiment No: 9 VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM

Aim: To Verify The Super Position Theorem Of Symmetrical T Network. Apparatus: 1. Regulated Power Supply (0-30 V) 2. Ammeter (0-25 mA) 3. Resistors (100, 220, 330 Ohms) Experimental Setup: - 2 Nos. -1 No. - 1 No.

Date:

Fig: 9.1

Fig: 9.2

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## ECE Dept, KEC

Fig:9.3

Theory: The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear system the response (Voltage or Current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, while all other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances. To ascertain the contribution of each individual source, all of the other sources first must be "turned off" (set to zero) by Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short circuit (thereby eliminating difference of potential. i.e. V=0, internal impedance of ideal voltage source is ZERO (short circuit)). Replacing all other independent current sources with an open circuit (thereby eliminating current. i.e. I=0, internal impedance of ideal current source is infinite (open circuit). This procedure is followed for each source in turn, then the resultant responses are added to determine the true operation of the circuit. The resultant circuit operation is the superposition of the various voltage and current sources. The superposition theorem is very important in circuit analysis. It is used in converting any circuit into its Norton equivalent or Thevenin equivalent. Applicable to linear networks (time varying or time invariant) consisting of independent sources, linear dependent sources, linear passive elements Resistors, Inductors, Capacitors and linear transformers. Another point that should be considered is that superposition only works for voltage and current but not power. In other words the sum of the powers is not the real consumed power.

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ECE Dept, KEC Procedure: 1. Make The Circuit Connections As Per Circuit Shown In Fig: 9.1. Note down The Ammeter Reading I, at Different Values of Source Voltages. 2. Make The Connections As Per The Circuit Shown In The Fig.9.2.(i.e. Short Circuiting The Voltage Source V2). Note Down The Ammeter Reading I1. 3. Make the Circuit Connections as per the Circuit Shown in the Fig.9.3 ((i.e. short circuiting The Voltage Source V1).Note Down the Ammeter Reading I2. 4. Check I = I1 + I2 . 5. Repeat The Above Procedure For Different Values Of Source Voltages.

Observations: S No V1 (Volts) V2 (Volts) I (M A) V1(V2=0) (Volts) I1 (Ma) V2(V1=0) (Volts) I2 (Ma) I= I1 +I2 (Ma)

Result:

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## 2. What are the limitations of superposition theorem

3. Can we use super position? If there is any non linear element in the circuit.

## 4. For what type of networks, superposition theorem is valid?

5. Is superposition theorem true for the mixture of different types of sources such as current and voltage sources?

## 7. What is the practical use of superposition theorem?

8. What could be possible error sources between measured and calculated values?

## 9. Is superposition theorem true for powers as well? Why?

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ECE Dept, KEC Experiment No: 10 MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM Aim: To verify maximum power transfer theorem. Apparatus: Power supply, multi meters, Resistor 1K ohm, Decade resistance box (DRB). Circuit diagram: Date:

Fig (10.1) Symmetrical network Theory: Statement: In any symmetrical network, the power transferred from the source to the load will be maximum, when the source impedance is complex conjugate of load impedance. Let Source impedance Zi = Ri jXi Load impedance ZL = RL JxL For maximum power transfer, conditions are Ri = RL Xi = -XL We conclude that for maximum power transfer, load resistance must be equal to source resistance and load reactance must be opposite in nature i.e. if one is the positive reactance the other one should be negative (if one is inductive other one should be capacitive). For dc circuits there will not be any reactive components. Therefore source impedance Zi= Ri

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ECE Dept, KEC and load impedance ZL= RL. Hence condition for maximum power transfer in dc circuits is Ri= RL. In the circuit diagram source resistance Ri is 1 K Ohm. Therefore power transferred from the source to the load is maximum when load resistance RL is equal to 1 K Ohm. Procedure: 1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Keep the input voltage Vin=10V 3. Set the DRB (RL) to 100 ohms. 4. Measure the current (IL) through load resistor and the voltage (VL) across load resistor. Record these data in the tabular column. 5. Repeat step 4 for different values of RL. 6. For each reading, calculate output power using the formula Pout=VL.IL Tabular column: Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Load resistance Current through RL, in Ohms load resistor, IL in m.A. 100 300 500 700 900 1k 2k 3k 4k 5k 7k 10k Voltage across Output power load resistor, VL Pout=VL.IL in in volts m.W.

Result:

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ECE Dept, KEC Self Assessment Questions: 1. State maximum power transfer theorem?

2. Give the model graph for the maximum power transfer theorem RL=RS

3. Where do you get the maximum power transfer from source to load when load and source are pure resistance?

4. What are the conditions for maximum power transfer when load and source are impedance?

5. If the load is an inductive what must be the nature of source impedance for maximum power transfer.

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## Experiment No: 11 DIFFERENTIATOR AND INTEGRATOR

Date:

Aim: To draw output characteristics of differentiator & integrator for square wave input at different time constants. Apparatus: 1. Resistors (10, 1K, 100K ohms) 2. Capacitors (0.047uf) 3. Square wave generator or function generator 4.cathode ray oscilloscope circuit diagram: - 3 Nos - 1 No - 1 No -1 No

## Fig 11.2: RC high pass filter.

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ECE Dept, KEC Theory: a. Differentiator: A linear R.C. circuit acts as a high pass filter when its output is obtained across resistor. A high pass filter acts as a differentiator when T. where is time constant(RC) and T is time period of the input wave form. b. Integrator: A linear R.C. circuit acts as a low pass filter when its output is obtained across resistor. A low pass filter acts as a integrator when T. where is time constant(RC) and T is time period of the input wave form Both differentiator and integrator are classified under linear wave shaping circuits.

Procedure: a. Differentiator: 1. 2. 3. 4. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig.11.1. Apply square wave input of amplitude V volts at frequency f Record input and output waveform using CRO. Repeat the step 3 for different values of time constant (RC) (i.e. by varying either resistance or capacitance values)

b.

Integrator: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig.11.2. 2. Carry out steps a(2),a(3),a(4).

Result:

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## Self Assessment Questions:

1. Can we use high pass filter as differentiator at any time constant? If not, what is the condition for using high pass filter as differentiator?

## 2. Can we use low pass filter as integrator at any time constant?

3. Under what condition the output of high pass filter resembles input wave form

4. Under what condition the output of low pass filter resembles input wave form

5. In how many time constants the capacitor charges to the peak value of input wave.

## 7. What is the output of differentiator for square wave input?

8. What is the average value of output wave form of a differentiator for any input wave form?

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## Experiment No: 12 COMMON EMITTER (CE) AMPLIFIER

Date:

Aim: To observe input-output waveforms of common emitter (CE) amplifier. To measure gain of amplifier at different frequencies and plot frequency response Theory: Common emitter amplifier is used to amplify weak signal. It utilizes energy from DC power supply to amplify input AC signal. Biasing of transistor is done to tie Q point at the middle of the load line. In the circuit shown, voltage divider bias is formed using resistors 10K and 2.2K.

During positive cycle, forward bias of base-emitter junction increases and base current increases. Q point moves in upward direction on load line and collector current increases times than base current. ( is current gain). Collector resistor drop IcRc increases due to increase in collector current Ic. This will reduce collector voltage. Thus during positive input cycle, we get negative output cycle. When input is negative cycle, forward bias of base-emitter junction and base current will reduce. Collector current reduces (Q point moves downside). Due to decrease in collector current, collector resistance voltage drop IcRc reduces and collector voltage increases. Change in collector voltage is much higher than applied base voltage because less base current variation causes large collector current variation due to current gain B. This large collector current further multiplied by collector resistance Rc which provides large voltage output.

Thus CE amplifier provides voltage gain and amplifies the input signal. Without emitter resistance gain of amplifier is highest but it is not stable. Emitter resistance is used to provide stability. To compensate effect of emitter resistance emitter bypass capacitor is used which provides AC ground to the emitter. This will increase gain of amplifier.

CE amplifier does not provide constant voltage gain at all frequencies. Due to emitter bypass and coupling capacitors reduces gain of amplifier at low frequency. Reactance of capacitor is high at low frequency, hence emitter bypass capacitor does not provide perfect AC ground (Emitter impedance is high).

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ECE Dept, KEC There is voltage drop across coupling capacitor at low frequency because of high reactance at low frequencies. Gain of CE amplifier also reduces at very high frequency because of stray capacitances. Audio frequency transistors like AC127, AC128 works for audio frequency range. It does not provide large voltage gain for frequency greater than 20 KHz. Medium frequency transistors are BC147/BC148/BC547/BC548 provides voltage gain up to 500 KHz. High frequency transistors like BF194/BF594/BF200 provides gain at radio frequencies in the MHz range.

If we apply large signal at the input of CE amplifier, transistor driven into saturation region during positive peak and cut-off region during negative peak (Q point reaches to saturation and cutoff points). Due to this clipping occurs in amplified signal. So we have to apply small signal at the input and ensure that transistor operates in active region.

Circuit diagram:

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## ECE Dept, KEC

Procedure:
1) Connect function generator at the input of the amplifier circuit. 2) Set input voltage 10 mV and frequency 100 Hz. 3) Connect CRO at the output of the amplifier circuit. 4) Observe amplified signal and measure output voltage 5) Increase frequency from the function generator and repeat above step 6) Note down readings of output voltage in the observation table for frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 MHz 7) Calculate voltage gain for different frequencies and gain in dB. Plot frequency response.

Result:

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ECE Dept, KEC Self Assessment Questions: 1. What will be emitter current in the given circuit diagram in absence of input AC signal?

2. What is bandwidth? What is the approximate bandwidth of CE amplifier that you have used during your practical

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