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Madonna H S Physics Tutorials

Edited by jay p mcdonald 2011

L-001 Nature of Physics

From the dictionary .. physics [fiz-iks]
noun ( used with a singular verb )

The science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and forc e. Physicists work in three areas: 1. Measurement, 2. Analysis, 3. Computation.

Consider the problem of determining distance of the Earth to the moon. Greek astronomers, beginning with Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 B.C.,) came up with a method of finding the moons distance by observations of a lunar eclipse. This occurs when the moon enters the Earths shadow. 1. The measurement A coin (quarter) of 1-inch in diameter was held at the distance where the coin just blocks the just blocks out the light from the Sun from the observers one eye. (Never look at the sun directly ---youll damage your eye!) The measured distance was about nine feet, or 108 inches The shadow of the coin forms a cone with its point at the maximum distance away. Similarly, the earths shadow must also be conical. It must also be proportional to the quarter since the sun is fixed in size. That is the Earths shadow be 108 earth diameters long!

The tutorials are intended to be a nonlinear collection of topics in H S physics. The document is to be used with an appropriate course book but it is a stand alone device. Not intended for commercial distribution but it is intended as a supplementary teaching document.

The Earths diameter was known to be about 8,000 miles at this time. This means the cone is 108 earth diameters long, or a distance of 864,000 miles from earth. 2. The analysis Fact two: The Moon has to be much smaller than the Sun in order to be eclipsed by the Earths shadow. Fact two: The Moon has to be much smaller than the Earth in order to be eclipsed by its shadow. The Sun has to be larger than the Moon and farther away from the Earth in order to block the Sun during a solar eclipse. Fact three: The Earths cone of darkness at the Moons distance from earth during a lunar eclipse was observed to be 2.5 the size of the Moons diameter. 3. The computation (by Geometry)

Since the Moon and the Sun have the same apparent size in the sky then the angle ECD is the same as the angle EAF as depicted in the above figure. This is true since AFE and EDC are similar and both are isosceles. Notice now that the length FE is the diameter of the earths shadow at the distance of the Moon, and the length ED is the diameter of the moon. The Greeks found by observation of the lunar eclipse that the ratio of FE to ED was 2.5 to 1, so looking at the similar isosceles triangles FAE and DCE, we deduce that AE is 2.5 times as long as EC, from which AC is 3.5 times as long as EC. AC must be 108 earth diameters in length, and taking the earths diameter to be 8,000 miles, the furthest point of the conical shadow, A is 864,000 miles from earth. From the above argument, this is 3.5 times further away than the moon is, so the distance to the moon is 864,000/3.5 miles, about 240,000 miles. This is within a few percent of the right figure.
3 4

Note similar triangles have the same shape but different sizes.

L-002 Scientific Numbers

Physics uses the SI system metric (decimal) system in scientific notation format. The SI system (International System of Units) is the modern metric system of measurement and the dominant system of international commerce and trade. The SI is maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM, for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) in Paris.

The core of the SI system is a short list of base units defined in an absolute way without referring to any other units. The International System of Units (SI) is founded on seven base units. Quantity Name of Unit meter kilogram second ampere Kelvin candela mole Symbol m kg s A K cd mol

Similar triangles

Length Mass Time Electrical current Thermodynamic temperature Luminous intensity Amount of substance

Scientific notation is the way that scientists easily handle very large numbers or very small numbers. For example, instead of writing 0.0000000056, we write 5.6 x 10-9. So, how does this work? We can think of 5.6 x 10-9 as the product of two numbers: 5.6 (the digit term) and 10-9 (the exponential term).

Write 0.000 000 000 043 6 in scientific notation.

In scientific notation, the number part (as opposed to the ten-toa-power part) will be "4.36". So I will count how many places the decimal point has to move to get from where it is now to where it needs to be:

To write the number 123,000,000,000 in scientific notation: Put the decimal after the first digit and drop the zeroes.

Then the power on 10 has to be 11: "eleven", because that's how many places the decimal point needs to be moved, and "negative", because I'm dealing with a SMALL number. So, in scientific notation, the number is written as 4.36 1011

The coefficient will be 1.23 To find the exponent count the number of places from the decimal to the end of the number. In 123,000,000,000 there are 11 places. Therefore we write 123,000,000,000 as:
Here are some examples of scientific notation.

10000 = 1 x 104 24327 = 2.4327 x 104 3 1000 = 1 x 10 7354 = 7.354 x 103 2 100 = 1 x 10 482 = 4.82 x 102 10 = 1 x 101 89 = 8.9 x 101 (not usually done) 0 1 = 10 1/10 = 0.1 = 1 x 10-1 0.32 = 3.2 x 10-1 (not usually done) -2 1/100 = 0.01 = 1 x 10 0.053 = 5.3 x 10-2 1/1000 = 0.001 = 1 x 10-3 0.0078 = 7.8 x 10-3 -4 1/10000 = 0.0001 = 1 x 10 0.00044 = 4.4 x 10-4

L-003 Measurement Uncertainties

SI Prefixes List Symbol 10n Y Z E P T G M k h da d c m n p f a z y Prefix yotta (gr. okto - eight) zetta (lat. septem - seven) eksa (gr. ex - six) peta (gr. penta - five) tera (gr. teras monster) giga (gr. gigas giant) mega (gr. megas great) kilo (gr. khilioi thousand) hecto (gr. hekaton hundred) deca (gr. deka ten) decy (lat. decimus tenth) centy (lac. centum hundredth) milli (lac. mille thousand) mikro (gr. mikros small) nano (gr. nanos dwarf) pico (it. piccolo small) femto (den. femten fifteen) atto (den. atten eighteen) zepto (lat. septem - seven) yokto (gr. okto - eight) Long/Short Scale

1024 Quadrillion/Septillion 1021 Trilliard/Sextillion 1018 Trillion/Quintillion 1015 Billiard/Quadrillion 1012 Billion/Trillion 10

Numbers taken in measurement may have different degrees of worth depending on the error(s) in the method, and of the device(s) used as well as the stability of the system being measured. The scientist must express the error or uncertainty in any number measured. The accuracy of a measurement is the degree of closeness of measurements, as in target A The precision of a measurement, is the degree of reproducibility or repeatability in the measurements, as in target B.

Milliard/Billion Million/Million Thousand/Thousand Hundred/Hundred Ten/Ten One/One Tenth/Tenth Hundredth/Hundredth Thousandth/Thousandth Millionth/Millionth Milliardth/Billionth

106 10 10 101 10

10-1 10-2 10-3 10


Target A is more accurate but less precise than target B


10-12 Billionth/Trillionth 10-15 Billiardth/Quadrillionth 10-18 Trillionth/Quintillionth 10-21 Trilliardth/Sextillionth 10-24 Quadrillionth/Septillionth

Target A

Target B

Uncertainty in a measurement is due to a physical limit in the measurement, e.g. a ruler.

9 10

A). 30.02 has 4 sig. Figs. B). 50.0 has 3 sig. Figs. C). 0.9003 has 4 sig. Figs. (0 left of decimal not sig.)

Rounding numbers: The space between the smallest vertical lines on a ruler has no precise value. Here is an estimate or uncertain value. The number 1 + 7/8 inch is accurate. The last bit indicated by the arrow is a part of 1/8 unit of the ruler. The uncertainty is therefore is centered about the estimated extra length of ( ) of 1/8 inch, with an uncertainty of +/- 1/16 inch. The arrow finds a value of 1 + 7/8 + (1/2)(1/8) inch, +/- 1/16 inch. The centimeter scale for the ruler has less uncertainty in measurement (+/- 1 mm) and it is more precise than the inch scale. In general, the uncertainty in a single measurement from an instrument is half the smallest unit of the instrument. Round number down if the value to truncate is <5, Round the number up if >= 5. 1232 -> 1230, 1239 -> 1240, 1235 -> 1240 Calculations with significant figures: The rule for addition and subtraction is when quantities are added or subtracted; the number of decimal places in the answer is equal to the number of decimal places in the quantity with the smallest number of decimal places 1.76 + 6.854 = 8.624 = 8.62 is correct answer 1.76 - 6.854 = -5.254 = -5.25 is correct answer When you multiply or divide, keep as many significant digits as found in the least accurate number. 1.76 * 6.854 = 12.06304 = 1.20 is the correct number. 1.76 / 6.854 = 0.233566 = 0.234 is the correct number.

Significant figures: 1) ALL non-zero numbers (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) are ALWAYS significant. 2) ALL zeroes between non-zero numbers are ALWAYS significant. 3) ALL zeroes which are SIMULTANEOUSLY to the right of the decimal point AND at the end of the number are ALWAYS significant. 4) ALL zeroes which are to the left of a written decimal point and are in a number >= 10 are ALWAYS significant. Examples:



L-004 Graphing Data

Once the scientist has collected a data set it becomes necessary to review the collective data visually, i.e. graphically. In mathematics and computer science, a tuple is an ordered element, (x, y). In principle each value the independent variable, x is related to the dependant variable, y. Often y = f(x), that is y is the result of some function, f acting on x. The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by Ren Descartes revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. A Cartesian coordinate system specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. This x, y space is also called 2dimensional Euclidean Space. The x, y graph shows the placement of tuples [ (2,3), (0,0), ( -3,1), (-1,5,-2.5)] in Cartesian 2-Space. Graphing should not be done by hand. Use common software such as Excel by Microsoft.

Graphing in Excel. The easiest way to begin is to gather some existing work sheet with data and graphs to use as a template for your own data. Open Excel and enter the date pairs in a columnar fashion as shown.



High light the data to be graphed by holding the mouse button and dragging the over the numbers.

Find and click on the chart wizard to display the menu window. Click on the option of choice.

Here we choose type from the subsequent option menu .

and select the chart

After clicking on FINISH your graph is placed in the spreadsheet.



L-005 Vectors
Part A
A displacement is the shortest distance from an initial to the final position.

A dog takes a walk (along the dotted path). He begins at the green square and ends at the red dot. The black vector mathematically represents his displacement with its head at the end point and its tail at the start. The vector, gives the resultant displacement of the dog and the direction to his concluding position. The length of the arrow is a measure of the magnitude of the displacement. The displacement value itself is a scalar quantity has no sense of direction in and of itself. The displacement is the same for any direction. It is the added sense of direction that constitutes a vectored value.



Such a vector is used for operations in the plane. This displacement can be described by Cartesian values, (x, y), where x = (xo xf) and y =(yoyf). The dog begins at location (xo yo) and ends at location ( xf , yf). Vectors are named by a bold letter ( A) symbol, or a letter with arrow overstrike, .

Vectors are added by translation of vectors keeping length and direction unchanged while placing one end (tail B) of the vector to the other (head A).

Vectors are equal if their lengths and direction are the same.

Vectors are subtracted by inverting the one (B) then adding (-B)as before. Figure shows equal vectors.

Vectors are unequal if their lengths and or directions are not the same

Figure shows unequal vectors. No two are the same.


An arbitrary vector, V has some angle, with respect to a Cartesian axis. Therefore the vector can be mathematically decomposed into Cartesian x-y components by sine and cosine operations. Note the vertical and horizontal


resulting components are vectors in their own rights and point along the x, yaxes respectively.

Part B

Adding vectors graphically is accomplished by drawing them head to tail. Simply translate the vectors without modifying angles. The sum (resultant) is the red vector from the tail of the first to the head of the last vector.

Many vectors are so added to form a polygon when the resultant vector is added.



Subtraction is done as addition after the subtrahand (the vector to be subtartced) is reversed in direction. Consider 1-dimensional (x-axis, or y-axis) addition/subtraction:

Here = 90o and, For arbitrary ,

A2 = Ay2 + Ax2
A2 = Ay2+ Ax2 + 2 Ay Ax cos[]

The sum of components for two or more vectors proceeds by summing the all x-components to a resultant x-vector, and similarly for a resultant yvector.

Adding vectors by decomposition, follow the rule that the sum of vector components is equal to the sum of vectors.

This method uses the theorem of Pythagoras for magnitudes and angle. Any vector can be decomposed into basic x-axis, and y axis components



L-006 Velocity and Acceleration 1-D

Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of objects without consideration of force. Consider the motion of a car traveling at 55 mph. Its speed is 55 mph and this is a scalar quantity. The same car traveling 55 mph northward has its motion now given as a displacement vector.

= tan-1[Ry/ Rx]

For several vectors, the resultants Rx, Ry -components will be the sum of terms for each vector being added.

A car or other body can change its rate and or direction of motion. Rate is distance over time, eg. mile over hour. The change in displacement vector, D will occur over a unit of time t. Time is always a scalar. We consider 1dimension only. The cars velocity V, is a vector given as

Example: Find the resultant vector for the sum of three vectors;
30 units at 45o, 50 units at 160o 70 units at 90

V = D / t.
Where t = 0, the velocity is instantaneous and not measurable. A cars speedometer indicates an instantaneous speed but in actuality this value is determined by the rotation of the wheels for a finite time interval and it is not truly an instantaneous measurement. Where t > 0 (this value is always positive), the velocity is an average value.

answer 41 units, 231o

Vavg = D / t =
In detail D = Df Do, position. So

where Do = initial position and Df = finial


Vavg = (Df Do) / t t = (tf to)

Note the above equations hold for displacement where direction is not considered, then the values are scalar and not vectors; Speed, v = D / t. vavg = D / t vavg = (Df Do) / t There are four parameters [Vavg ,Do ,Df, t] for the above equations. Given any three terms the fourth can be calculated. Note the change in speed or velocity can be + or in value. Sample calculations for speed and velocity. What distance does a ball travel that is moving at 1.6 m/sec for 100 secs? (Ans 160 m) What is the distance a photon travels that is moving 300,000m/s for one (1) hour? (ans 1.08*109 m) What is the average velocity of a bee that ambles across a rose bush (1m in length) after 7 minutes? (ans 1/7 m/min 0r 0.14 m/min) The velocity of a volley bally ball served by No. 25 is 60 feet/sec. If the ball is stopped after 30 feet then what time was the ball in the air? (ans 0.5 sec) Two runners are 24 meters apart and approaching each other at constant speeds. One runner travels at twice the speed of the other. If they meet in 4.3 seconds what are their speeds? (ans 1.86 m/sec and 3.72 m/sec) ~~~~~~

A change in the velocity vector gives an acceleration vector Again the instantaneous acceleration is not measurable. Again we consider 1dimension only.

Aavg = (Vf Vo) / t , the acceleration is constant

where Vo = initial velocity and Vf = finial velocity. Various forms can be constructed from simple algebraic manipulation.

Vf = Vo+ Aavg *t Df = Do + Vo *t + Aavg *t2

There are many parameters [Aavg, Vo, Vf , Do, Df, t] for the above equations. Given any set of terms the appropriate equation is chosen for the calculation

Sample calculations for acceleration.

A rocket lifts to an altitude in 5minutes with a final speed of 600 miles/hr. What is the constant acceleration of the rocket? (ans 7229 m/hr2 ) With an initial velocity of 3 m/s and constant acceleration of 3 m/sec2 a ball travels for (3) seconds. What is its final velocity? (ans 12 m/sec) A racing car increases its speed from 200 miles/hr to 250 miles/hr in 30 min. What was its (constant ) acceleration ? (ans 100 m/hr) A constant acceleration of 400,000 cm/sec2 how fast will a particle traveling at 10 cm/sec be in 10 secs? (ans 4*106 m/s



L-007 Random Walk

Any continuously moving object such as a deer feeding or a gas molecule in a bottle proceeds in successive random steps. The result can be mathematically formalized and the topic is used in science, economics, psychology, and computer science.



The resultant distance traveled does not indicate the amount of random steps involved in the final outcome (see above illustration). Suppose however the placement off the random steps is quantized. Let a particle enter a box divided, as is the following illustration. The number of collisions along the path of the object through the container is recorded for the right versus the left vertical sections (see following graph).

7 6 5 4 Series1 3 2 1 0

Graph of the collision number versus location in container.

29 30

L-008 Dimensional Analysis

Any calculation involving units must have dimensions that match. There for a unit must have a conversion factor! This also referred to a unit analysis. 12 inches = 1 foot 1 = 1/12 ft/in

L-009 Gyroscope
The gyroscopes wheel spins around its the holding axis for rotation. The entire system and will spin around the axis of gravity after a tilt from the vertical for precession (wobble). The wobble starts when one side of the wheel is pulled down and the opposite side rises upward.

Axes of precession

so 3 in * 1/12 ft/in = ft Consider the number of seconds in a day. 60 secs = 1 min , so 60 min = 1 hr, so 24 hr = 1 day, so 1 = 60 secs/min, 1 = 60 min/hr, 1 = 24 hr/day, combine

1* 1*1 = 60* 60 * 24 * sec/min * min/* hr * hr/day 1 = 86,400 secs /day, or 1 day = 86,400 secs Any unit can be converted in a like manner
The rotation of the gyroscopes wheel creates angular momentum that acts along the rotational axis. Gravity creates a torque that acts perpendicularly to the axis of angular momentum. The resulting action is a displacement of the rotational axis that must be mutaully perpendicular to the directions of momentum and torque. Instead of falling the rotational axis processes. When the ration of the gyroscope ends, the angular momentum goes to zero and the rotational axis falls on its side..



L-010 Drawing with Power Point

From the top menu view choose ruler, guides.

Open Power Point for a new blank presentation. Note the bottom bar menu with pop up menus for graphing objects.

To add a guide, hold down CTRL while dragging an existing guide (Lift the drag then CRTL). To delete a guide, drag it off the slide. To hide the guides without deleting them, click Guides on the View menu To place and object, locate the cursor over the item on the tool bar then Click once. Move the cursor over the graphing area and click once. Drag a guide to position it where you want to align the objects. Drag each object near the guide so its center or edge automatically aligns with the guide.




L-011 Motion Graphs

Reading graphs is vital in science. I. Consider the following example of position versus time graph.

For the last seconds (6 ,7) the object moves vertically from (1 , 0) cm with a slope -1 /1 cm /sec = -1 cm/sec, a velocity vector

Y cm

II Consider the following example of velocity versus time graph. The same shape as the previous graph but the y-axis is now cm/sec.

Y cm/sec

X secs

X secs

For any time belonging to the horizontal (x-axis) interval of (0, 7) seconds, the position of a moving object can be found displaced along the vertical (y-axis) interval of (+2, -2) cm and vice versa. A slope in a graph is given (y final - y initial)/ (x final x initial) 1. For the first two seconds (0, 2) on the x-axis the object moves vertically on the yaxis from (0, -2) cm in a negative direction with the slope: -2/2 cm /sec = -1 cm/sec, a velocity vector. 2. For time interval (2, 3) seconds the object the object moves vertically from (-2. 1) cm in a positive direction with a slope 3/1 cm /sec = 3 cm/sec, a velocity vector 3. For time interval (3, 6) seconds the object does not move vertically which gives a zero velocity vector. The area under the curve shown as hatched rectangle is (6-3)^(1-0) = 3 cm*sec, not of physical interest

5. For the first two seconds (0, 2) on the x-axis the object changes velocity on the yaxis from (0, -2) cm/sec in a negative direction with the slope: 2 2 -2/2 cm /sec = -1 cm/ sec , an acceleration vector. 6. For time interval (2, 3) seconds the object the object moves vertically from (-2,1) in a positive direction with a slope 2 2 3/1 cm / sec = 3 cm/ sec , an acceleration vector. 7. For time interval (3, 6) seconds the object does not move vertically which gives a zero acceleration vector. The area under the curve shown as a rectangle is (6-3)^(1-0) = 3 (cm/sec)*sec which is displacement 8. For the last seconds (6, 7) the object moves vertically from (1 , 0) cm with a slope 2 2 -1 /1 cm / sec = -1 cm/ sec , an acceleration vector.



II Consider the following example of acceleration versus time graph. The same shape as the previous graph but the y-axis is now cm/sec2.

L-012 Bernoullis Theorem

Bernoulli's theorem; as the speed of a fluid increases the pressure decreases.
Bernoulli's principle can be derived directly from Newton's 2nd law. If a small volume of fluid is flowing horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure, then there is more pressure behind than in front. This gives a net force on the volume, accelerating it along the streamline.

Y cm/sec2

X secs


For time interval (3, 6) seconds the area under the curve shown as hatched rectangle is (6-3)^(1-0) = 3 (cm/sec2)*sec which is velocity.

Note areas under triangular section would then be Y*X.

K is the total energy and it is conserved in the flow of a fluid in the pipe above. V is velocity and represents kinetic energy, while P is pressure and represents potential energy. In the section of system where flow (kinetic energy) increases then pressure (potential energy) must decrease. The argument of Bernoulli holds where gravity is constant, i.e. motion in horizontal direction. This concept is the basis of an airfoils lift and a moving balls curved path.



Tangent line to a curve at a point

In geometry, the tangent line (or tangent) to a curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the point.

L-013 Constant Acceleration / Free Fall

. Between two locations in space the velocity of a moving object may vary wildly, e.g. a bee buzzing among the flowers. The average acceleration (aavg) is the difference in the velocity (v) of the two points over the time (t) of transit between these points.

aavg = v/t

I. If the acceleration is constant for all time in the period (t), then the acceleration is constant, (ak). The final velocity, (vf) can be found

vf = vo+ ak*t
In the figure, the straight line (red) is the tangent to the (large) point in the graph.

Both of the above equations work for average or constant acceleration but the second is typically used with the constant form Example: what is the final velocity of a ball starting at rest, moving with constant acceleration of 20 m2/sec for 10 seconds?

If the graph is position vs. time then the tangent is the instantaneous velocity at that point. If the graph is velocity vs. time then the tangent is the instantaneous acceleration at that point.


vo = 0 m/sec t = 10 sec ak = 20 m/sec2 vf = 0 m/sec + 20 m/sec2 * 10 sec vf = 200 m/sec



III. If the acceleration is constant for all time in the period (t), then the acceleration is constant, (ak). The final displacement (df ) using the sum of terms with (d0, vo, ak , t) can be found.

df = d 0 + vo*t + *ak*t 2
II. If the acceleration is constant for all time in the period (t), then the acceleration is constant, (ak). The final displacement (df ) using the sum of terms with (vo, vf , t) can be found.

Example: What is the final position a bird moving with a constant acceleration of 10 m/sec2 after 10 secs of flight, if its initial velocity is 2 m/sec and its initial position is 10 m from a tree?

df = vo *t + * (vf - vo,) *t
Example: What is the final distance a bird moving with a constant acceleration covers after 10 secs of flight, if its initial velocity is 0 and its final velocity is 30 m/sec? Ans


vo = 2 m/sec t = 10 sec d0 = 10 m ak = 10 m/sec2 df = 10 m + 2m * 10 sec + * 10 m/sec2 * (10 sec)2 df = 10 m + 20 m + 500 m = 530 m

vo = 0 m/sec t = 10 sec vf = 30 m/sec ak = 0 m/sec2

df = 0 m/sec + * (30 - 0) m/sec * 10 sec df = 150 m/sec

IV. If the acceleration is constant for all time in the period (t), then the acceleration is constant, (ak). The final velocity, (vf) using the sum of terms (d0 ,df, vo, ak ) can be found.

vf2 = vo2 + 2* ak*(df - d0)



Example: What is the final velocity a bird moving with a constant acceleration of 5 m/sec2 when its initial velocity is 2 m/sec, its initial position is 10 m, and its final position is 100 m from a tree?

Free fall under gravity:

Gravitational acceleration, (g) had the value of g is 9,8m/s or


vo = 2 m/sec ak = 5 m/sec2 d0 = 10 m df = 110 m vf2 = (2m/sec )2 + 2 * 5 m/sec2 * (110 10) m vf = [4 (m/sec )2 + 1000 (m/sec )2 ]0.5 = 320 m/sec

approximately 10 m/ s for simplified calculations. One uses the above equations for constant acceleration with

ak = g = -9.8 m/sec2

Figure shows a stone falling and its velocity change per second under the acceleration by gravity.

43 44

A ball falls off the roof of the house. It takes 6 seconds to hit the ground. What is the velocity before the ball crashes to the ground? Ans

L-014 Newtons Laws of Motion

vf = vo+ g*t vo = 0 m/sec t = 6 sec g = 10 m/sec2 vf = 0 m/sec + 10 m/sec2 * 6 sec vf = 60 m/sec

Three laws of mechanics describe the motion of objects. These Laws were first describe d by Sir Isaac Newton in the 1600s

The Three Laws of Motion 1. First law of motion: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion, at a constant velocity unless or until outside forces act upon it.

2. Second law of motion: The net force acting upon an object is a product of its mass multiplied by its acceleration.

3. Third law of motion: When one object exerts a force on another, the second object exerts on the first a force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

Newtons First Law is normally taken as the definition of inertia. If there is no net force acting on an object, then the object maintains a constant velocity. If velocity is zero, then the object remains at rest. An object only changes velocity in either magnitude or direction when acted upon by an outside force. Example: If a car is traveling with a helium-filled balloon in the back seat, and the car suddenly speeds up, what happens to the balloon? What happens to you?



forward while your body moves backward.

The answer for the balloon has to do with the motion of the air in your car. When the car accelerates forward all of the air rushes to the back of the car and you have created an area in the back of your car of higher air pressure. Since helium is lighter than air it wants to 'float' away from that area and moves


Newtons Third law is stated For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is to say a pair of objects that interact exert equal and opposite forces one upon the other.

Example is a heavy ball supported by a rope attached to an overhead beam. Gravity pulls the ball downward but the tension (force) in the rope equals the force of gravity but in the opposing direction.
2. Newtons Second law is given by the vector equation that the resultant (net) force, acceleration,

The units of force are the Newton,

Fr is the product of the mass, m of the object times the resultant (net) Ar. Fr = m * Ar N = kg * m/sec2.

Tension A Gravity

The stone block (above) accelerates as a force is applied.

Example is a 10 kg cannon ball falling from a wagon. What is the force on the ball if gravity is the only acceleration? Answer

Fr = m * Ar Fr = 10 kg * 10 m/sec2. Fr = 100 N , downward



L-015 Periodic Motion

An object that moves in regular (equal) intervals of time displays periodic motion. Common examples are the movement of a porch swing, repetition of ocean waves coming ashore, and the rotation of the earth. In addition to linear motion and rotational motion there is another kind of motion that is common in physics. This is the back and forth action of an object in oscillation (vibrating). The spring (considered mass less) holds a ball of some weight. At equilibrium (no motion), the pull downward by gravity on the ball is balanced by the pull up by the stretched spring.


Simple Harmonic Motion, SHM is an important type of periodic motion. This is motion in which the acceleration is always
directed towards an equilibrium position. The magnitude of a restorative acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object from rest or equilibrium.

Case 1. Mass spring system consists of a spring attached to a hanging

mass. As the mass is displaced a distance from its equilibrium position, work is done and potential energy is stored in the spring.

Here (T) is the period in time of the motion, (m) is the mass of the ball, and (k) is the spring constant.

Case 2. The swing pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot point and moving freely once displaced from its (resting) equilibrium position. There is a restoring force by gravity that will accelerate the mass back toward the equilibrium position.



A string or rod (considered mass less) holds a hanging weight, which is, displaced side ways. Gravity acts to restore the system.

A solid object travels at constant speed in a circle about a midpoint.

Here (T) is the period in time, (L) is the length of the string (rod), and (g) is the acceleration of gravity. There is no mass (m) term in the equation.

Here (T) is the period in time, (r) is the radius of the circle and (V) is the tangential velocity.

Case 3. Circular motion, describes the motion of a body traversing in a circular path at constant speed. However, the velocity is not constant as its direction is tangential. This is the effect of centripetal acceleration, which is constant in magnitude and directed towards the axis of rotation.

Case 4. Transverse motion of a vibrating string is periodic oscillation a perpendicular the direction the wave is traveling. A good example is a moving wave in which the fluid oscillates up and down while traveling horizontally.



L016 Forces in 2-d

Consider the following examples; a.) b.) c.) d.) **Perpendicular forces on wire, rope, et, **Normal force and friction, Inclined plane, pulley, lever Projectile motion

Vibration of string moving left to right reflects at a fixed end.

**The static (mechanical) equilibrium for an object is the condition in which the object has a net force of zero acting upon it. Type a.) Horizontal wire, rope, etc. #1. In the figure below, a ball is suspended from two ropes. The system is motionless. If the magnitude of T2 is 10.0 N, what is the magnitude of T1?

30o 60o
Vibration of string moving left to right reflects at an open end.


T1 mg

T = 1/ f
Here (T) is the period in time, and (f) is the frequency of oscillation.

The ball is motionless, so the net force is zero. The component of T1 pulling to the left must be equal and opposite of the component of T2 to the right. The component to the right is T2 sin 60. The component to the left is T1 sin 30. With these components, we can solve for T1. T1 = (T2 sin 60)/(T1 sin 30) = 17
53 54



mg sin mg

mg cos

= tan [ 0.1/50] = 0.115 degrees Tr = 0.5 Fd / sin -5 = 10 N / 2.0*e = 5000 N

Half the 20.0 N force will pull on the left the other half on the right. The small angle of distortion (); -1

In the figure above, the normal force is perpendicular to the incline plane and in the direction of cos. Note the movement of the crate of mass (m) is in the direction of sin. The frictional force,


always opposes the direction of motion.

Type b & c.) Normal force, friction, inclined plane, lever and pulley The normal force Fn is the force component that is perpendicular to a surface of contact such a floor or wall, which prevents the object from penetrating the surface.

Friction is caused by the attractive forces between ruff surfaces as depicted in the above illustration

#1. The mass of a crate lying flat upon the floor is 50 kg and the Ff is



#1. The mass of a crate lying flat upon the floor is 50 kg and the Ff is 250 N. What will be the acceleration of the crate for a 300 N pulling force?

a = (300 - 250)N/50kg = 10 m/sec2


A 20 kg box sits on a frictionless 30 inclined plane. What is the normal force? What is the acceleration of the box?

Fn = mg cos 30 = 20 kg * 10 m/sec2 * 0.866 = 177 N ma = mg sin 30o a = g sin 30o a = 10 m/sec2 * 0.500 a = 5 m/sec2
#3 Consider the lever in the following illustration It offers a mechanical advantage in lifting heavy loads. The lever can increase the applied force by the following ratio.

The length of the force arm is 10 meters and the load arm is 1 meter. The applied force downward is 20 kilograms. This lever will lift a load of 200 kilograms.

#4 Consider the pulley system in the following illustration. In the standard pulley system the masses, [m < M] are connected by a mass less and frictionless pulley and rope. The system is initially at rest. The acceleration may be calculated.

FL= Fe *E/ L

Fe is the applied force E is the length of the force FL is the load force L is the length of the load arm
The Tension, acceleration, and velocity will be the same everywhere due to the rope.

(effort) arm



T - M*g = M*a sign (-a) T - m*g = + m*a

sign (+a)

larger M moves downward smaller m moves upward

where (g) is the acceleration by gravity and (a) is the resultant acceleration

a = g*(M -m)/ (M + m) a = 10*(50-10)/(50+10) m/sec2 a = 6.7 m/sec2 upward for m, and downward for M
Type d.) Projectiles The motion in which a body is thrown or catapulted is called projectile motion. The resulting path followed is called its trajectory and proceeds under the influence of gravity. See illustration below.

#1.) A rocket has a speed of 300 m/sec as it is launched horizontally from cliff 64 meters above the ocean. How far does the bullet travel before striking the water? Part one of the answer is to use free fall equations to get the time the rocket will fall vertically to the ground. Dov= O m, vertical Dfv = 64 m, vertical G = -10 m/sec2, vertical Vov = 0 m/sec, vertical Dfv = Vov*t +1/2 g*t2 64 m = 0*t (10/2 )* t2, (m/sec2) * sec2 = m t = Square root of [64 / 5] = 3.6 sec, time is always positive Part two is to use this time of flight to calculate how far the rocket will travel under constant horizontal velocity. Doh = 0 m/sec, horizontal Dfh = ? m/sec, horizontal t = 3.6 sec Voh= 300 m/sec, horizontal Dfh = Voh *t , (m/sec * sec) = m, horizontal = 300*3.6 = 1080 m, horizontal

The path of a projectile is illustrated with vertical velocities in red, and blue for the horizontal velocity.

#2) Consider the same problem but the rocket leaves at 450 of elevation. Thus the vertical part becomes a free fall calculation up then a free fall calculation down for total time. Dov = O m, vertical up Dfv= 64 m, vertical down g = -10 m/sec2, vertical Vov = 300 * Sin 450 m/sec = 212 (m/sec), vertical up Vfv = 0 m/sec, vertical up Vfv = Vov + g*t, vertical up 0 m/sec = 212 (10 )* t, m/sec + (m/sec2) * sec = m/sec , vertical up t = [-212 /-10] = 21.2 sec, vertical up Dfv = Vov*t +1/2 g*t2 Dfv = 212*21.2 +(-10/2)*(21.2)2 m, vertical up Dffv = 2247 + 64 = 2311 m, total distance above water


Part two is the horizontal distance. Doh = 0 m/sec, horizontal Dfh = ? m/sec, horizontal t = 21.2 up + 21.2 down + 3.6 down sec = 46 sec, total Voh = 300 cos 450 m/sec, horizontal Dfh = Voh *t , (m/sec * sec) = m, horizontal = 212 *46 = 9752 m, horizontal

Addendum: Uniform Circular motion / Torque

Uniform circular motion describes the motion of a body traveling in a circular path with a constant speed (see figure following). The radius (r) of rotation remains constant. The body's velocity is not constant however and it remains tangential to the circumference, and orthogonal to the radius at all times. Changing velocity denotes acceleration (ar) , which is constant and centripetal at all times. This acceleration is always directed along the radius toward the axis of rotation.

An object moving about a circle travels one circumference, 2r distance in one revolution in time, (T). The tangential (linear) velocity, (v) is given.

V = 2r/T
61 62

The centripetal acceleration (ar) is given.

ar = V2/ r

Eample #1. A DVD has a scratch 3 cm from the center which skips 45 time a minute. What is the linear velocity of the rotating DVD? What is the angular velocity of the DVD? Answer: T= (60/45) (secs/rev) = 1.3 s R = 3 cm

Angular velocity, () is given in radians/sec, (rad/sec) where one radian is the ratio between the length of one radius of arc to the length of the radius, (see following figure).

linear V = 2r/T (cm/sec) linear V = 2 (3)/(1.3) = 14.5 cm/sec

angular = V/r = 14.5/3 = 4.8 rad/sec

r r
Example #2 A small plane circles an airport at a distance of 10,000 m every 3000 secs. What is the centripetal acceleration of the plane?

One revolution is therefore, 2r/r = 2 rad = 360o

= V/r

Answer: linear V = 2r/T (m/sec) linear V = 2(10000)/(3000) (m/sec) linear V = 20.9 m/sec

ar = V2/ r (m2/sec)2 *(1/m) ar = 20.92/ 10000 (m/sec2) ar = 0.044 m/sec2



L-017 Vector Space

Torque, () is a turning force that rotates an object about an axis or pivot. For example, moving a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The force acts at right angle to the axis of rotation (see the following figure). Consider the Cartesian plane, or 2-space where any point is uniquely defined by a pair of coordinate, (x, y). Any point (a, b) in this space can be located by another pair of coordinates, (P, ) with (P), the position vectors tail at the origin and its head landing on the point (a, b). Theta, () is the positive (ccw) angle from the horizontal axis to (P). Typically any position vector can be written in component vector terms that are parallel to the two axes, P = px + py. Thus any point in the space is further identifiable by coordinates (px, py). The algebra of adding or subtracting vectors proceeds by adding and subtracting component vectors of the same axes. See the previous section L005. The resultant vectors magnitude |R| is obtained by the Pythagorean theorem and the resultant angle (r) by the tangent inverse. The position vector is said to span 2-space, i.e. all points in the plane may be so mapped. See following figure.



= force x length arm (N*m)

Example #3. A force of 120 N acts perpendicularly upon an arm 0.5 m from the axis. What torque is achieved?

(x, y), (|R|, )

= force x length arm (N*m) = 120 x 0.5 (N*m) = 60 N*m



This concept is readily extended to 3-space. In an attempt to simplify further algebraic operations, a set of mutually orthogonal, linear independent, unit base vectors (i, j, k) are chosen. That is to say each of the unit base vectors is positioned 90o from the other base vectors, and the magnitude of one component vector |ai|, or |bj|, or |dk| does not affect the value of any other component vectors. Further |i| = |j| = |k| =1.

So let H = ai +bj +dk , and G = mi +nj +wk then H + G = (a + m)i + (b + n)j + (d + w)k and H - G = (a - m)i+ (b - n)j + (d - w)k The magnitude | H + G | = (ai + mi)2 + (bj + nj)2 + (dk + wk)2 , the direction of H + G is given by the set of direction cosines for (i , j , k );
2 2

cos2 (i ) = (ai + mi)2 / | H + G | cos (j ) = (aj + mj)

2 2

where the identity cos2 (i ) + cos2 (j ) + cos2 (k) = 1 obtains by substitution. Example #1. Find the magnitude and direction for the given vector F = 100i +153.2j + 80.8k 2 2 2 2 Answers | F | = (100) + (153.2) + (80.8) 2 | F | = 40,000 | F | = 200 is the magnitude The resultant direction is the set of cosines;

/ | H + G |2 2 cos2 (k) = (ak + mk)2 / | H + G |

j i k i

cos (i ) = 100 / 200 =0.500, cos (j ) = 153.2 / 200 = 0.766, cos(k) = 80.8 / 200 = 0.404 with a check, 0.5002 + 0.7662 + 0.4042 =1

67 68

Example #2. Find the resultant vector, H - G given H = 3i + 0j +1k and G = 2i +3j +0k The answer: H - G = (3 - 2)I + (0 - 3)j + (1 - 0)k H - G = i - 3j + k

Example # 3. Find the Dot product, A *B given A = 0i +3j +-7k and B = 2i +3j +1k , and find the angle, () between the two vectors. Answer: A *B = 0*2 + 3*3 +(-7*1) = 2 2 | A | = (0)2 + (3)2 + (-7)2 = 7.62 2 2 | B | = (2)2 + (3)2 + (1)2 = 3.74 2 = inverse cos[(2) /(7.62 * 3.74)] = inverse cos(0.070) = 86o

Now consider the multiplication of two vectors; H = ai +bj +dk , and G = mi +nj +wk

II. The Cross Product, A X B of two vectors A, B is a multiplication where the resultant is also a vector. Given

I. The Dot Product of two vectors is given; H * G = a*b + b*n +d*w, and it is also given as H * G = (| H |*| G |)*cos(), where () is the included angle between the two vectors. The resultant product is a scalar quantify and not a vector. The factor, | G |*cos(), is called the projection of G onto H that is the vector component of G parallel to the direction of H. The reverse is also true | H |*cos() for the projection of H onto G

Cross Product, C is calculated,

at the same time.

The vector C is orthogonal to both vectors A and B. according to the right hand rule of A moving onto B while the thumb points in the direction of C. It is noted that the magnitude and direction cosines are obtained as shown previously.



Vector space problems 1. Add the vectors A = i + 3k B = 3j + 1k C = 2i + 2j + 1k Ans A+B+C = 3i +5j +5k 2. subtract vectors A = 235i + 35k - 77k B = -235i + 123j - 10k Ans A-B = 470i +-88j +67k 3. Example # 4. Find the cross product of vectors A = i+j and B = 2j + 2k as well as the resultant vectors direction. Using above equations. Answer C = 2i 2j +2k with direction cosines cos (i ) = 2/ 3.46 = 0.578, cos (j ) = 2 / 3.46 = 0.578, cos(k) = 2/ 3.46 = 0.578 with a check, 0.5782 + 0.5782 + 0.5782 =1 Find the magnitude and the direction cosines for A+B where A = i + 3k B = 3j + 1k Ans | A+B | = 5.01 cos (i ) = 0.200, cos (j ) = 0.60 cos(k) = 0.80

4. Find the dot product of vectors A*C and C*A and find the included angle B = 3j + 1k C = 2i + 2j + 1k Ans A*C = 7 = 42.4o 5. Find the cross product H = AXB with resultant angle for

Note the precession of a gyroscope, ( ) sideways is related by the cross product with gravitational downward torque, (), and horizontal (mutually perpendicular) angular momentum, (L) resulting from the angular spin.

A = i + 3k
B = 3j + 1k Ans H = -9i + -j + 3k cos (i ) = 0.95 cos (j ) = 0.10 cos(k) = 0.32

= X L



L-018 Universal Gravitation



Planetary MotionKeplers Laws.

Law # 1. All planets revolve in an elliptic path with a star at one focus. The Area, (A) under the arc length (r*d) is given as A = (r* r*) where r is the radius, ( in measure of radians) is the subtended angle of the arc. dA/dt = (r* r*d/dt)





but so

d/dt = v/r is just angular velocity dA/dt = (r* r* v/r ) = (r*v)

For any point on an ellipse, the value of R1+ R2 is constant where (F1, F2) are the foci of the ellipse. The equation for an ellipse in x-y space is (x-h) /a + (y-k) /b =1 where intercepts |a| >0, and |b| >0 and the elliptic center is located at [h, k].
2 2 2 2

In order for a constant dA/dt the term (r*v) must be also be held constant. Therefore r 1/v. Law # 3. The square of the ratio of two plants periods of revolution is equal to the cube of the ratio of the two plants radii from the star.

(Ta/Tb)2 = (ra/rb)3
Law # 2. A line drawn from a star to a revolving planet will sweep out equal areas in equal periods of time. Thus a planet moves faster when it transits the closer to the star. The two shaded areas in the figure below are equal valued. The period (T) is the time for one orbit around a star. The planets distance form the star (r) is the semi-major axis. The semi-major axis runs from the center, through a focus of the elliptical path to the edge of the orbit. It is the measure of the radius taken at the orbit's two most distant points.



(Ta2)/(ra3) is constant for all objects which orbit a star.

Example #1. One moon and a large asteroid orbit the center of a galaxy. The orbital radius of the moon is 10, 000 parsec. The orbital radius of the asteroid is 1000 parsec. The period of revolution of the asteroid is 101 millennia. What is the period of orbit for the moon? Answer:

Newton's law of Universal Gravitation

Every object in the universe attracts every other object by a force proportional to the product of the masses (m, M) and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance, (d). This force, (F) acts equally on both objects.

Tmoon = Tast * (rmoon/rast)


F = G*m*M/d2

= 101 * (10000 / 1000 )1.5 = 3194 millennia

check 31942 / 100003 = 1.04 * 10-5 millennia2/parsec3 1012 / 10003 = 1.02 * 10-5 millennia2/parsec3

attractive . force

The attractive force is measured in Newtons, (N) and the masses, (m, M) in kilograms, and distance, (d center to center) in meters, and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.6741011 N m2 kg2. Let (Me = mass of the Earth), and (m) be mass of an object on the Earths surface. Then the radius, (re) of the Earth is distance from its center to its surface. Force, F = mg for acceleration of gravity, (g = 9.8m/sec2). So



b.) dg= -1.63 m/sec2

F = G* m*Me /re2 = mg The case of an object in circular motion above the Earth F = G* m*Me /re2 = mac
g = G* Me / re2

Where centripetal acceleration, ac So m* v


= v2/ re

Example #1. A 100 kg gram person stands of the surface of the earth. If the Earth weighs 6.4*1024 kg, then find the radius of the Earth both analytically and numerically. Answer: re2 = (G* Me)/g, and

/ re

= G* m*Me /re2

re = 6.602 10 m

Then velocity, (v) of the orbiting object is

v2 = G*Me /re
example #3 An astronaut orbits the earth at 200,000 above. What is astronauts speed? 2

Variation of acceleration due gravity.

The equation for Newtons law of Universal Gravitation indicates a change of gravity with distance from the Earths center. dF/dre = G*m*Me*d(re-2 ) where d(re-2 )/dre = -2re = -2/re so,
-3 3

v = G*Me /(re + 20000) v = 22,280 m/sec

Centripetal acceleration is also given for period of revolution, (T)

dF/dre = -2*G*m*M/re3 dF = -2*G*m*M *(1/re3 )*dre

ac = 42 re /T2
by substitution G* m*Me /re2 = m4

re /T2

now divide above equation by F = G* m*Me /re2 therefore dF/ F = dg/g = -(2/re) dre
example #2 Given g = 9.806 m/sec2 and re = 6.02 *106 find the change in (g) a.) dg at dre = 1000m ,and b.) dg at dre = 500,000m above the Earth. Answer

then period of revolution just above the Earth is

T2 = 42 re 3/(G*Me )

example #4 If a satellite is 40000 m above the Earth what is its period of revolution. 1 sec = 3.12 * 10-8 year Answer

a.) dg= - g (2/re) dre = -9.806*2 * dre /(6.02 106) m/sec2 dg = -0.003 m/sec2

T2 = 42 (re + 40000) 3/(G*Me )

= 1.44 hr

L-019 Conic Sections

I. Some review A polynomial is a mathmatical expression contaning the sum of terms composed of varaiables multiplied by coefficents.

Example #1 Find the roots of the equation x2 3x 10 = 0 answer: -b = -(-3), a = 1, c = -10 x = (5, -2) roots are x = 5 and x = -2 Example #2 given roots x = -5 and x = -8 find the quadratic equation. Answer: necessarily (x +5) = 0, and (x+8) = 0 So f(x) = (x + 5) * (x + 8) f(x) = x2 + 13x + 40

The degree of a polynomial is given as the term with the highest sum of exponents. x1y1 => 1 + 1 = 2nd degree, 4y2 = 2nd degree Since there is no higher terms the polynomial above is 2nd degree.

II. Quadratic Equation: A second degree polynomial in a single variable (x) is called a quadratic equation. It has the general form, f(x) where (a, b, c ) are real constants.

The values of the quadratic function for which f(x) = 0 are called the roots or zeros of the equation. The roots are solutions to the Quadratic Formula.



III. Conic Sections

A conic section is curve obtained by intersecting a right circular conical figure with a plane surface. The resulting curve is described by a specific form of a 2nd degree equation. The curve can be defined as all the loci of points whose distances are in a fixed relation to a fixed point, (focus), and a fixed line, (directrix). There are four, (4) types of conic sections.

Example #3 What is the radius, and the center of the circle for the equation given (x -8 )2 + (y + 2)2 = 49 Answer (h. k) = (8,-2), and r = 7

Example #4 Given the center of a circle at (-3, 7), and the radius = 6, find the equation of the circle. Answer. (x + 3 )2 + (y - 7)2 = 36

Example# 5 graph the equation (x )2 + (y )2 = 9 answer 1.) A circle is set of all points at a distance fixed by the line segment called the radius, (r) and the focus called the center point, (h, k).

The circle has a standard equation. (x - h )2 + (y - k)2 = r2



2.) The ellipse is the set of all points found by keeping the sum of the distances from two foci a constant. The midpoint of the line segment connecting the foci is called the center, (h, k) of the ellipse.

Example #7 Find the center point and intercepts of the ellipse ((x 5)2 /9 + (y 6)2 /4 = 1 answer (h, k) = (5, 6) and a = 3, and b = 2 Example #7 Write in standard form an ellipse with center at the origin and intercept at (-7, 0), and intercept at (0,11). x 2 /49 + y2 /121 = 1 Answer



Example #8 Graph x 2 /49 + y2 /25 = 1 The ellipse has a standard equation which is always eaual to (1). The values of the constants are (a > 0, b > 0) are distances from the center point to the intercepts of the ellipse, (horizontal, vetical) respectively.

((x h)/a )2 + ((y k)/b)2 = 1

(h, k+b) (h-a, k) (h, k)

3.) The parabola is a conic section formed with a point, focus and a line, directrix. The loci of all points equidistant from the focus to the dirtectrix is the parabola.

(h+a, k)

(h, k-b)



Example #10. A satellite dish is a parabola of the form y = ax2. If a chosen dish is of the form y = x2 /32 and the distance, (p) from any dishs center to the focal p0int is given as a = 1/(4p). Find the value of (P) for the chosen satellite dish. Answer p =8 (typically in inches)

Example #11. graph the parabola y = 4 x2.

The equation of a parabola comes in two forms. The point (h, k) is the vertex of the parabola, i.e. the closet point to the origin of the xy-graph. The axis of symmetry for a parabola in given as the line;


Axis of symmetry
y for x2 x for y2

value of (a) direction parabola opens

>0 <0 >0 <0 vertically up vertically down horizontally right horizontally left 4). The hyperbola is a conic section that has two pieces called branches which are mirror images of each other and resemble parabolas. A hyperbola is centered on a point, (h. k). The locus on each branch closest to the center is a branch's vertex.
The line going from one vertex, through the center to other vertex is called the transverse axis. The foci of the hyperbola are located inside each branch. The hyperbola is the locus of all points whose difference in distances from the two foci is constant.

Example #9 For the parabola y = (x-2)2 + 0 find the vertex and the axis of symmetry. Answers: in std for y = x2 4y +4, so the axis of symmetry is the line y = -(-4)/(2*1) = 2 from the vertex form h = 2, k = 0 so the vertex is the point (2, 0).


There are two standard forms of the hyperbolic equation ((x h)/a )2 - ((y k)/b)2 = 1 for horizontal, vertices = (h-a, k), (h+a, k) ((y k)/b)2 -((x h)/a )2 = 1 for vertical, vertices = (h, k-b), (h, k+b)

Example #12. Given the hyperbola x2 /25 - y2 /16 = 1, find the equations for the asymptotes, the center point, and the vertices of its fundamental rectangle. Answer: y = +/- 4x/5 centered on (h, k) = (0, 0) (5, 4), (5, -4), (-5, 4 ), (-5, -4) Example #13. Given the hyperbola x2 /25 - y2 /16 = 1, find the vertex of the hyperbola. Answer: vertices = (h-a, k), (h+a, k) = (-5, 0), (5, 0)

There are two asymptotes y = bx/a, and y =-bx/a. These asymptotes are the diagonals of the fundamental rectangle with corners (a, b), (a, -b), (-a, b ), (-a, -b) which is centered on (h, k).



Example #14, Graph the hyperbola y2 /121 - x2 /169 = 1, Answer Practice questions 1. Find quadratic F(x) for roots x = 5, and x = -11 Answer f(x) = (x 5)*(x+ 11)

2. Find the roots of the 7x2 + 4x + -3 = 0 Answer x = -1 and x = -3/7

3. Find the equation of a circle for r2 = 3 with center at (3/8, 0). Answer (x - 3/8 )2 + y 2 = 3

4. Given Answer

x 2 + (y + 1. 7)2 = 25 center = (0,-1.7), and

find the center and radius. r=5

5. Plot (x + 1 )2 + (y - 1)2 = 9 answer



6 For what value of (z) does the following ellipse pass through the point 2 2 (-4, 4)? ((x + 5) /4 + (y + z) /9 = 1 answer z = - 1.41

9. For the parabola x = (y-3)2 5, find the vertex and the axis of symmetry. Answers: in standard for x = y2 -6y +25, so the axis of symmetry is the line y = -(-6)/(2*1) = 3, and from the vertex form h = -5, k = 3 so vertex is at (-5, 3) .

7 What is the standard form of the ellipse with vertices; (2, 3), (6, 3), (4, 7), (4, -1). 2 2 answer ((x - 4) /4 + (y 3) /16 = 1

10. A satellite dish is a parabola of the form y = ax2. A dish has the distance, (p) from a dishs center to its focal point given as, a = 1/(4p). Find the equation of a particular satellite with a value of p = 9. Answer y = x2 /36 11. Graph x = -y2 +2

8. Graph x 2 /25 + y2 /49 = 1

12. Given the hyperbola y2 /121 - x2 /169 = 1, find the equations for the asymptotes, the center point, and the vertices of its fundamental rectangle. Answer: y = +/- 11x/13 centered on (h, k) = (0, 0) (13, 11), (-13, 11), (13, -11), (-13, -11)

13. Given the hyperbola y2 /121 - x2 /169 = 1, find the vertices the hyperbola. Answer: vertices = (h, k-b), (h, k+b) = (0, 11), (0, -11)



14. Graph the hyperbola x2 /9 - y2 /36 = 1 answer

L-020 Momentum

Impulse An impulse, (J) happens when a force, (F) occurs during a time interval, (t).

F ti tf

A force, (F) of constant direction is zero for all times except for the time period from initial time, (ti) until the final time, (tf) in duration, (t). See the figure above. The area under curve is an impulse, (J) = force per time, J = (F) (t) = m*a*t. Where mass, (m) mass, and (a) is acceleration.

Example #1. An 80 kg box is accelerated to velocity of 5 m/sec in 0.2 seconds. What is the impulse? What is the average force, (Favg)? Answer: Impulse = 80 5 kg*m/sec *(sec/sec) = Favg = 400/0.2 N*sec = 2000 N 400 N*sec



Linear momentum
The linear momentum, (p) is the product of the object's mass times its velocity. p = mv

Angular momentum

Example #2 A 0.59 kg ball flies at 110 m/sec. What is the momentum of the ball? Answer: p = 0.59 * 110 kg*m/sec = 65 N*sec

A particle of mass, (m) traveling in uniform circular motion at a radius, (r) experiences a tangential velocity, (vt), and a tangential linear momentum, (mvt). However the rotation induces a magnitude of angular momentum, (|L|).

|L| = |r*mvt |


An impulse creates a change in momentum, (p).

J = mvfinal mvintial
The area under the force function, F(t) vs. time curve is the impulse value.



Consider the force function F(t) = -2t2 + 4x +1 on the time interval [0, 2] then

J = -2/3(t3) + 2t2 + t evaluated on [0, 2] = -2/3(23) +22 + 2 - (-2/3(03) +2*02 +0 ) = +16/3 + 8 +2 0 J = 4.67 N*sec

Example # 3. The angular momentum is 4.6 N*m*sec for a 1 kg object in uniform circular motion of radius 0.5 m. What is the mass tangential velocity?


vt = L/( r*m) =

4.6/(1*0.5) = 9.2 m/sec

N*m*sec = kg * m*m*sec/(sec2* m*kg) = m/sec


Conservation of linear momentum in 1-d and 2-d

Momentum is conserved before and after a force acts upon a system. So the vector sum of mivi for all (i) is constant.

The center of mass

The center of mass, (cm) is a location that represents the average of several numbers, (i) of masses, (ms) with respect to the distances, (xs) of each mass from a reference point (usually zero). The concept is likened to a see-saw balanced at a pivot point.

Example #4. Consider two balls each weighing (m =1.5 kg) then let the two objects collide. Ball labeled A is initially traveling at 4 m/sec while ball labeled B is at rest. Ball A strikes B and the two continue in the same direction after with the identical velocity. What is their final velocity? Answer: before a = mva = 1.5 * 4 kg*m/sec = 6 N*sec b = mvb = 0 after a + b = 2*m* vf = 6 N*sec vf = 6/(2*1.5) kg*m/(sec*kg) = 6/3 = 2 m/sec for both

x1 xcm x2 2m cm 3m

Now let the two balls leave in different directions. Example #5 A ball labeled A with mass = 2.0 kg is initially traveling at 4 m/sec while ball labeled B with mass = 3.0 kg is at rest. Ball A strikes B and Ball A leaves at an angle of 60o to the left of its initial direction but ball B moves in a direction 30o to the right of the incidence. What is the final momenta of A, and B? Answer before a = mva = 2 * 4 kg*m/sec after a = 8 * sin 30o = 8 * 0.5 = 4 N*sec b = 8 * cos 30o = 8 * 0.866 = 6.9 N*sec

Above a mass less rod holds a 2m object at one end and a 3m object at the other. Any force acting upon the system can be analyzed as if the force acts solely upon the center of mass. Here s = 2. xcm = xcm = (2m*x1 + 3m*x2) / ( 5m) (2*x1 + 3*x2) / ( 5) kg*m/kg = m

since m is a constant

Consider the above illustration; Let x1 = 2 cm and x2 = 10 cm, then the

center of mass is located;

xcm =

(2*2 + 3*10) / ( 5) = 34/5 = 6.8 cm

Note there does not need to be any mass at the center of mass position.
97 98

There may be (3) masses so (s = 3) located in a plane (nonlinear positions). In this case the position vectors, (r) in <i, j, k> can be used to find the resultant position vector for the center of mass, (rcm). rcm = (1/M) * ms*rs In example let each object have the same mass = 1 kg so rcm = (1/3) * 1*rs
and 1*r1 = <2i, 2j, 0k> 1* r2 = <0i, 1j, 1k>, 1*r3 = <2i, 0j, 1k>, so rcm = ( 1/3)* (1*<2i, 2j, 0k> + 1* <0i, 1j, 1k> + 1*<2i, 0j, 1k>) rcm = ( 1/3)* <4i, 3j, 2k> rcm = <4/3i, j, 2/3k> again there is no mass at this location

L-021 Solid Geometry

I. Disk
The disk is a solid within a circle of radius, (r), The circumference of the circle, C = 2**r, and area A = *r2 and arc length, L = d*r where d is the range of angle along the circumference. We wish to look from point, (p) at a distance, (x) away from a disk of radius, (r). Let the disk contain some uniform surface property, ( per unit area). What is the disks accumulated effect, (V) at location (p)?

The object may be a continuous mass such as a length, (L cm) of solid rod with a variable mass per unit length, (x grams/cm). A piece of rod say at 2 cm would have a mass of 2 cm*2 gram/cm = 4 grams. At a position x = 4 cm the mass is 4* 4 = 16 grams, and 25 grams at position x = 5 cm, etc. Note the mass is not in uniformly distributed along the points of the The rod has no volume or area. It gets more mass along its length from x =o cm until x = L cm. The rod is magical for reasons of simplifying the analysis by integral calculus.

y r



x dx
The answer is given by integral calculus. Consider the inscribed circular strip of circumference 2**y, and width dy. This strip contains an area 2**y*dy. Hence the total surface of the strip has **2**y*dy where the constant of proportionality, () is introduced with appropriate units. The value of d2 = x2 +y2.

xcm = (L3/3)/(L2/2) = 2L/3 cm



II. Toroid
A common form is

The strips contribution to the effect at (p) is given as dV. dV = **2**y*dy/(x2 + y2) The integration will go on the interval [0, r]. The answer is given. A torus, a type of torrid is a 3-dimensional ring, e.g. a donut. It is usually made of a metal for scientific applications. It ha a cross sectional radius, (r) and a radius, (R) of the ring.

**2**y*dy/(x2 + y2)

V = ( **/2)*[(x2 + r2) - x]

Example #1 Find the value of (V) for a disk of radius (r = 88) with = 4 at a point x =200 units away.

Answer V = 237 *

Area Volume

The general formula

For a material of uniform density, () the total mass of the torus is given. M = *2*2*r2*R



Example #2. Find the total mass, (M) of a torus with minor radius, r = 0.5 cm, and major radius of R = 1.5 cm. The density = 2.47 g/cc. Answer M = 18.3 g

One steradian is 1 sr = r , the maximum solid (conical) angle that can be subtended by an area of 1 m2. There are 4*, or approximately 12.6 steradians in a complete sphere. A solid angle of 1sr encompasses about 1/12.6, or 7.9577 percent, of the space surrounding the center point of a sphere.

III. Sphere
A sphere is a perfectly round object in 3-space. A sphere is symmetric with respect to its center, with all points on the surface lying the same distance from the center point. Sphere of radius, (r) has a volume = (4/3) **r3, and a surface area = 4**r2. The standard form of the equation of a sphere is given with center point as (h, k, s). (x - h)2 + (y - k)2 + (z - s)2 = r2 To subtend is to be opposite to and extend from one side to the other, e.g. a hypotenuse subtends a right angle.

Example #3. The view of the stars in the heavens above subtends a maximum of 4 sr. If on a cloudy night only 45% of the sky is clear then what solid angle results for star watching. Answer 5.65 sr

The solid angle, () is a two-dimensional angle in 3-space. It is a measure of how large an object appears. A small object nearby may subtend the same solid angle as a larger object farther away. The moon and sun both have the same size of appearance but are not the same distance from the observer on Earth.

The annulus is the region lying between two concentric circles with unequal radii (r1 < r2). The area of the annulus is A = (r1- r2)2.

r2 r2 r
A spherical shell is a generalization of an annulus to three dimensions. A spherical shell is therefore the region between two concentric spheres of unequal radii.


The steradian, (sr) is the dimensionless unit of a solid angle.



Now consider an annulus of total mass, (M) with radius, (y). Consider the point, (P) a distance, (x) away. A gravitational field, (Ffield) is Newtons Universal Law with the second mass term removed. The force is not exerted until a second mass (M) appears at position, (r) distant from the first mass.

The circumference of the ring is 2*y*sin(). Its arc length is y*d is linear for very small (d).

Ffield = G*m/r

r x s p

r y x d p
Thus the area of the ring is [ 2*y*sin()* y*d] which renders the mass as *[ 2*y*sin()* y*d].

There is a component of the field in the x-direction but

G*m/r *cos() = G*m/r *(x/r)


therefore the field due to the ring along the x-axis is 3 Ffield = 2G*x**[ *y2*sin()*d]/r .

r2 = x2 + y2
Ffield = G*m*x/r3.
The field due to the entire shell is found by integration over () from [0, ] which will yields

therefore along the x-axis

Now let the ring have an arbitrary mass density, ( per unit area). Let the ring be at angle, () with an angular width, (d). The radius of the ring becomes y*sin().

Ffield = 4G* **y2/s



Example #4. What is the Ffield for the spherical shell if (s = y) Answer Ffield = 4G* *

L-022 Binomial Coefficients

Problems in solid geometry



#1. For the value of (V) = 42 for a disk of radius (r = 8) with = 4, = 1. Find the distance to point (p). Answer x = 40.4 units

Take any integer (n >= 0), then the product of all positive integers less than or equal to (n) is given as the factorial (n!). e.g. n! = 1*2*3*...(n-1)*n 0! = 1 1! = 1 2! = 1*2 = 2 3! = 1*2*3 = 6 4! = 1*2*3*4 = 24 10! = 3628800

#2. If the total mass, M = 750g of a torus with minor radius, r = 0.5 cm, and major radius of R = 1.5 cm. Find the density, (). Answer = 101 g/cm3

Example #1. Find 5! Answer 120 #3. Some factorial arithmetic: 11! + 12! = 11! + (12*11!) = (1 + 12)*11! = 13*11! = 13!/12 answer 0.2 sr 4.4 sr (7! + 8!)/(2!*3!*4!) =7!*( 1+8)/(2*2*3*4!) = (7!/4!)* 9/12 = ( 4!*5*6*7/4!)*3/4 = (4!/4!)*630/4 = 157.5 Example #2. Find (5! + 6!)/(3!*4!)

#4 For the spherical shell, if the Ffield = 16G* * then what is the relation between y and s. Answer y/s = 2



Binomial Coefficient

Example #4. Expand (x + y)2 where n =2 , k =0, 1, 2 Answer 2 0 * x *y

0 (2-0)

2 1

*x1*y(2-1) +

2 2


The binomial coefficient is used to find the coefficients in the expansion of a polynomial, and combinations of elements in a set.

= 2!/0!(2-0)!*x0*y2 + 2!/1!(2-1)!*x*y + 2!/2!(2-2)!*x2*y0

= y + 2*x*y + x
2 2

Example #3. Find

5 3


5!/3!(5-3)! = 5!/ 2!*3! = (3!*4*5)/ 2*3! = 20/2 = 10

2.) Permutation on a set of objects Permuting refers to ordering in rearrangement of object. For example, there are six permutations of the set {1,2,3} where the number of objects, n = 3. (1, 2, 3), (1,3,2), (2,1,3), (2,3,1), (3,1,2), (3,2,1). The number of permutations of (n) distinct objects is n-factorial (n!).

1.) polynomial expansion (the binomial theorem) The algebraic expansion of the powers of (x + y)n given by a binomial formula. Example #5. Find the number of permutations for the set [a, b, c, d] Answer since n = 4, there are 4! = 24 permutations

For illustration the 24 permutations for the set [a, b, c, d] are shown.




Problem set for the binomial coefficient

#1. Find 6! Answer 720 #2. Find (10! + 11!)/(2!*3!*4!) Answer 20

Example #3. Find Answer 7

7 6

3.) Combinations A combination is a way of selecting (k) objects out of asset of (n). There are [ n!/(n-k)!] permutations of (k) objects taken out of a set of (n). The number of combinations is the binomial coefficient. n!/((n-k)!*k!)


#4. Expand (x + y)3 where n = 3 Answer x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3

#5. Find the number of permutation s for the set [A, B, C, D, E]. Answer since n = 5, there are 5! = 120 permutations

Example #6. Find the number of combination of (5) cards drawn one at a time from a deck of (52) but the same card cannot be drawn more than once. Answer 2598960

#6. If 4 people are chosen randomly from a group of 10. How many ways can this be done? Answer 210



L-023 Sequences / progressions / Limits

I. Sequence

The (a) is the initial value, and (d) is called the constant of common difference. Example #2. Find the arithmetic progression for the sequence 13, 15, 17, 19.107, 109 answer ( a + i*d) = (13 + i*2) so 109 = 13 + (48) *2

A function, yn = f(n) on positive integers, n > = 0 is called a sequence. The values of the function are real numbers. The sequence is defined as the set of all yn generated by f(n). y0 = f(0), y1 = f(1), y2 = f(2), . An example of a sequence is 0, 2, 4, 6, 8,.2*n,..

The sum of an arithmetic progression (a + i*d) is

n i=0 (a + i*d) =

(n+1)*a +d*(n *(n+1))/2

Example #1. Construct a sequence for the squares of odd integers. Answer 1, 9, 25, 49,. f(0) = 1 = 12 = (2*0 + 1)2 f(1) = 9 = 32 = (2*1 + 1)2 f(2) = 25 = 52 = (2*2 + 1)2 f(3) = 49 = 72 = (2*3 + 1)2 etc f(n) = (2*n + 1)2

Example #3. Given the arithmetic progression (13 + i*2), find the sum of terms from 13 to 109.
Answer 13*(48 + 1) + 2*48*49/2 = 2989

III. Geometric Progression A geometric progression is a sequence in which each term is obtained by from its predecessor through multiplication by a constant, e.g. a ar, ar2, ar3, ar4, The (a) is the initial value, and (r) is called the common ratio.


Arithmetic progression

An arithmetic progression is a sequence in which each term is obtained by adding a constant to the preceding term, e.g.,. (a +i*d) = a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, a + 4d, .

Example #4 For geometric progression is given find (a , r) 3, 32, 33, 34, 35,. Answer 3, 3*31, 3*32, 3*33, 3*34, ., so (a , r) = (3, 3)


The sum of a geometric progression is given

Example #6 Answer Example #7.


Does sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.n converge? NO, since as n , f(n) . Does the sequence 1, , 1/3, ,..1/n converge?
YES as n , 1/n 0

Example #8. Example #5 Find the sum of the first n = 11 terms of the geometric

Find the limit of the sequence with

progression 2, 3/8, 9/128, answer r = 3/8/2 = 3/16, (a, r ) = (2, 3/16) sum = 2*( 1 (3/16)12)/ (13/16) = 2.46

f(n) = (n3 3n)/ (n4 +8) answer multiply f(n)*( n4 / n4 ) = (1/n 3/n3)/ (1+8/ n4 ) n , f() 0/1 = 0 = L

Consider the value x = 0.1428571 then we construct a sequence, a(n) from decimal approximations. N 0 1 2 x - a(n) 0.1428571 0.0428571 0.0028571 0.0008571 0.0000571 = 0.0 <= 0.1 <= 0.01 <= 0.001 <= 0.0001

IV Limit of a sequence A sequence of numbers, f(0), f1), f(3), f(4)..f(n) is said to have a limit if to converges to a number (L) as the number (n) gets arbitrarily large. Limit f(n) L as n If a sequence does not have a limit then it is said to diverge.

3 4

n 0.000.yZ <= 1/10n

Now for any > 0 there exists a N such that if n > N, then | x -a(n)| < . We say the limit of a(n) exists.



The sum of a geometric progression is given

Example #6 Answer Example #7.


Does sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.n converge? NO, since as n , f(n) . Does the sequence 1, , 1/3, ,..1/n converge?
YES as n , 1/n 0

Example #8. Example #5 Find the sum of the first n = 11 terms of the geometric

Find the limit of the sequence with

progression 2, 3/8, 9/128, answer r = 3/8/2 = 1/16, (a, r ) = (2, 1/16) sum = 2*( 1 (1/16)12)/ (15/16) = 2.13

f(n) = (n3 3n)/ (n4 +8) answer multiply f(n)*( n4 / n4 ) = (1/n 3/n3)/ (1+8/ n4 ) n , f() 0/1 = 0 = L

Consider the value x = 0.1428571 then we construct a sequence, a(n) from decimal approximations. N 0 1 2 a(n) 0.1428571 0.0428571 0.0028571 0.0008571 0.0000571 = 0.0 <= 0.1 <= 0.01 <= 0.001 <= 0.0001

IV Limit of a sequence A sequence of numbers, f(0), f1), f(3), f(4)..f(n) is said to have a limit if to converges to a number (L) as the number (n) gets arbitrarily large. Limit f(n) L as n If a sequence does not have a limit then it is said to diverge.

3 4

n 0.000.yZ <= 1/10n

Now for any > 0 there exists a N such that if n > N, then | x -a(n)| < . We say the limit of a(n) exists.



Problems in sequences #1 Find the sequence for 0, 1, 8, 27, 64,.. answer f(n) = n3

Example #7. Does the sequence 1, 1/22 1/32,1/42..1/n2 converge? Answer YES as f(n) , 1/n 0 #8. Find the limit of the sequence with
f(n) = answer L=1

1 + (-1)n /n

#2. Given the arithmetic progression (a + i*d) = (135 + I*3) find the sequence

answer 135, 138, 141, 144, .

#3. Given the arithmetic progression of 38 terms begins with 1 and ends with 112. find progression and the sum of terms.
Answer (1 + i*3), 2147

#4 For geometric progression is given find (a , r) 210, 211, 212, 213,. Answer (a , r) = (210, 2)

#5 Find the sum of the first n = 11 terms of the geometric progression 2, 8, 32, answer sum = 11.2 million Example #6 Answer Does sequence 12, 22, 32, 42, .n2 converge? NO




Work Energy Power

Work can be done by the force function (Hooks law), F(x) = - k*x when a spring is stretched by a mass to an extreme point. The sign indicates the force is opposite to the direction the spring is stretched. The value of (k) is the spring constant.

Energy is the ability to exert a force through a distance, i.e. create a physical change. The systems net energy changes. Work, (W) is the quantity of force, (F) acting through a distance, (d). W = F*d kg*m2/sec2 = Joule


-k*x dx

W = -k* x2/2 = -k*[L2/2 - 02/2] = -k *L2/2

Kinetic energy, (K) of a system changes due to work. K = W = F*d kg*m2/sec2 = Joule K = mv2 Thus a force must act in the same direction as the velocity in order to do work. So force acting at an angle, () to an objects direction of motion does work by only its parallel component. Answer W = -k L2/2 = - 400*(0.03)2 /2 = (kg*m /sec2/m) *m = Joule W = - 0.18 J Example # 2. Given a spring with an unknown, (k) = - 400 N/m that has been stretched 3 cm. Find the value of (W).

W = F*d*cos () Example # 1. A box moves 4.0 m horizontally by a 6 N force acting 37 from the horizon. What work is done? Answer W = 6*4*cos (37o) = N*m = kg*m*m/sec2 = Joule 19.2 J

The work done per unit time is power, (P) P = W/t = J/sec = watt

Example #3. A 1500 kg car accelerates from 0 to 25 m/s in 10 secs. What power is required? Answer P = W/t = K/t = * m ( vf 2 vi 2) = (1500/2)*(25 2 0 2)/10 P = 4,690 watt = kg*(m/sec)2/ sec = J/sec



Law of the conservation of energy applies to a closed system in which particles do not leave or enter. The system must also be isolated from outside forces. In such conditions, the total energy content of the system is constant. The definition of total energy is called mechanical energy, (E). This is the sum of the kinetic, (K) and potential, (U) energies for any state of a closed, isolated system. E=K+U For a system involving gravity, U = Ug = m*g*h where (m) is mass, (g) is gravitational acceleration, and (h) is vertical height. Example # 4. A 10kg object falls to the ground. It has k = 400 J of kinetic energy. From what height was it dropped? Answer K (max) = Ug (max) = m*g*h = 400 N h = 400/(10* 9.8) = (kg*m*m/sec2)/(kg*m/sec2) = 4.08 m

L-025 Fluids
A force, (F) is applied perpendicularly to all surface areas, (A) surrounded by a fluid. The result is pressure, (P). P = F / A = N/m2 = Pa (pascal) The force is attributed to the kinetic motion of particles composing the fluid when they collide with the surface.

Example #1. A 100 kg ball rests on a 1 cm2 spot. What is the pressure on the spot? Answer; 100 kg*10 (m/sec2)/ 0.01 m2 = 1*106 Pa

The Earths atmosphere exerts 10 N on every cm2 of surface; 1 atmosphere = 10 N/cm2 = 100 kPa Any fluid that has a change in pressure at a given point transmits the pressure uniformly through out, Pascals Principal. Consider hydrostatic pressure change with depth in the ocean. P = *g*h Where () is density, (g) is gravitational acceleration, and (h) is depth. The pressure is uniform in all horizontal directions.

Example #2. Mercury has a density, ( = 13.6 g/cm3). What is the pressure at 100 cm below the surface? Ans P = 13,600*10*0.100 = (kg/m3 )*(m/ sec2 )*m = kg*m/(m2 *sec2) = Pa P = 13.6 kPa



This confirms a difference in vertical pressure for an immersed object. If the pressure above is less than the pressure below an object will float, Archimedes Principle. The upward force, (Fb) is then proportional to an objects volume, (V). Fb = *g*V Example #3. Aluminum block weighs 0.1 kg and displaces 4*105 m3 of water when submerged. What is the buoyant pressure on the block? Answer; Fb = (0.1/4*105) *10 * 4*105 = (kg/m3 )*(m /sec2)*m3 = N Fb = 1 N Bernoullis Equation for the vertical flow of air that suspends a floating sphere is given. P1 +1/2 v12 + gh1 = P2 +1/2 v22 + gh2 Where (P) is pressure, = 1.2 kg/m3 is the density of air, (v) is velocity, g = 9.8 m/sec2, and (h) is height respectively in regions 1 and 2 that differ in crossectional area. Example #4. Let a small ball be held suspended by a pressure of 120 kPa at the bottom side. If v1 = 14 m/s and v2 = 20 m/s, then find P2. Answer Let gh1 gh2 so the terms cancel P1 +1/2 v12 = P2 +1/2 v22 or P2 = v22*P1 /v12 P2 = 202 *120 /142 P2 = 245 kPa So

L-026 Thermodynamics
0th law refers to Temperature, oT 1st law refers to internal energy, E 2nd law refers to entropy, S 3rd law refers to absolute, zero motion, 0 oK
Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a system that may be measured. Temperature is the internal energy contained within the system. Heat, (Q) is a measure of the energy transferred from one system to another. The greater the heat absorbed by a material, the more rapidly the atoms within the material begins to move and thus the greater the rise in temperature. Calorimetry is the method used to determine the heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction. The specific heat, (c) is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius, (C). One (1) kcal is the heat needed to rise one (I) kg of water one (1 ) C. The specific heat of water is c =1 calorie/(gram* C) = 4.186 joule/(gram* C). The quantity of heat, (Q) lost or gained when an object changes temperature is given. Tf

c dT

Ti Q = m*c*T



Example # 1. Some 100.0 g of water is required to be exactly 38.0 oC. It is presently 40.0oC. A piece of aluminum originally at a temperature (24.0oC) is added to the bath. Of what mass should the Al chunk be? Specific heat of Al = 0.215 cal/(g* oC) and specific heat of water = 1.00 cal/(g* oC). Answer. Qwater = QAl |mw*cw*Tw | = |mAl*cAl*TAl | = g*cal/(g* oC) *( oC )= calories |100 *0.215*(38.0 40.0) | = |mAl*1.00*(38.0 24.0) | mAl = 3.12 g

Example #2. Copper has a thermal conductivity of 0.0092 kcal/(sec m C). If the crossectional area of a copper slab is 1 m2 what will be the heat conducted for a temperature gardient of 10 C /m ? Answer dQ/dt = - 0.0092*1 * 10 = -0.092 kcal/sec kcal/(sec m Co))*( m2)* (C /m )

Heat and work; 1 calorie = 4.186 joule. Heat is a form of energy that is transferred between regions of different temperatures. Work involves a transfer of energy between states of a system. A system that changes equilibrium states by processes that involves Q, W are called thermodynamic. Consider a piston of crossectional area, (A) filled with an idea gas at pressure, (p). The base is a temparature, (T) resevoir of high thermal conductivity. The walls are thermally insulating.

0. Zeroth Law of thermodynamics The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. Let a piece of cold metal be placed into a warm liquid contained in a beaker. The liquid and beaker lose heat to the metal object. The closed system will settle into equilibrium with the temperature becoming equal in all three. The internal energy, (E) of the system is constant. The transfer of heat between regions of different temperatures is called heat conduction. Consider a slab of material of crossectional area, (A) and thickness, (dx) with difference in temperatures, (dT). The heat, (dQ) flows perpendicularly between faces of the material. dQ/dt = -k*A*dT/dx Here (k) with units kcal/(sec*m*C) is the constant of thermal conductivity, and (dT/dx) is the temperature gradient. The larger the value of (k) the better heat is condcuted in a material.

dW = F*dx = p*A*dx = p*dV F A P T


Vf Vi

p dV

The area under the p_V graph is the work done by the piston compressing the gas.




1st law of thermodynamics If the gas is cooled arbitrarily, then system loses internal energy, and the gas is compressed by the weight of the piston and work is done on the gas. The system returns to equilibrium with an internal energy, (E3). E3 - E2 = - Q + W If the internal energy increases by exactly the amount of work done on it, then the process is called adiabatic. No heat is lost or gained outside the system, so the heat transfer, Q = 0 and the change in internal energy opposes the work. |E| = |W| Work on a system done adiabaticaly increases the temperature of the system. Work done adiabaticaly by the system cools its temperature. An isothermal process proceeds with no change in temperature.

The first law of thermodynamics defines the internal energy (E) as equal to the difference of the heat transfer (Q) into a system and the work (W) done by the system. Every natural process transforms energy and moves energy, but cannot create or eliminate it. Energy can only change form. E=Q-W Q is positive if heat is added to the system, and negative if heat is removed; W is positive if work is done by the system, and negative if work is done on the system. An example of a thermodynamic system is the gas confined by a piston in a cylinder, as shown in the diagram.

Example #3. One cm3 of water at one atmospheric pressure , p = 1 N/m2 is heated to 1700 cm3 of steam.. Ignore the heat of vaporization. Answer W = 1*1700 10-6 (N/m2 ) m3 = N*m
W = 170 J

Gas contained in the piston at equilibrium has constant internal energy, (E1). If the gas is heated arbitrarily then its energy changes by an increase. It expands and does work by lifting the piston upward and the internal energy decreases by work done. The system returns to equilibrium with an internal energy, (E2). E2 - E1 = Q W



A passage way is opened to permit the gas to expand adiabaticaly and isothermally into the empty piston.


2nd law of thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics is known as the Law of Increased Entropy. The quantity of energy in a system remains the same (First Law), while the quality of matter/energy deteriorates. During changes in the processes, usable energy is converted into unusable energy, which irretrievably lost. Entropy, (S) is defined as dS = Q/T (cal/oK). A thermodynamic equilibrium state maybe referred to by its (Q, T). A change may occur by process from state (1 -> 2). If the change is reversible then the process from (2 -> 1) is possible. If the reverse process is impossible and then the changes are irreversible. For a reversible two step cycle (1 -> 2 ->1) the change in entropy is zero. Q1/T1 + Q2/T2 = 0, and for many finite steps in a reversible cycle III. 3rd law of thermodynamics In the Kelvin scale 0 K is mathematically the lowest possible temperature in the universe. This corresponds to -273.15 C, or -459.7 oF. The Third Law of Thermodynamics says: "The entropy of a pure perfect crystal is zero (0) at (0 K)." If water reached absolute zero, all molecular motion would stop. At this point, the water would have no entropy (randomness).

From the first law, Q = W = E = 0. The result is clearly not reversible as shown and S 0. Entropy is greater after the gas expands

"Entropy" is the unusable energy within a closed or isolated system. As usable energy decreases and unusable energy increases. When usable energy is lost, then randomness and chaos increases in the system. Hence a perpetual machine cannot exist.


The integral is evaluated for the complete cycle

An experiment that illustrates entropy is the expansion of an ideal gas into vacuum. Consider two thermally insulated pistons attached by a wall. One side has holds an ideal gas while the second holds a vacuum.



Practice problems

L-027 Real Variables

Force, Newton = N = km* m/sec2 Torque, = N*m Impulse, J = N*sec Momentum, p = N*sec Angular momentum, L = N*m*sec Work, W = kg*m2/sec2 = Joule Pressure, P = N/m2 = Pa (Pascal) Heat, Q = cal, where 1 calorie = 4.186 joule There are six (6) properties of real variables. Let {a, b, c} R, the set of all real numbers. A. Properties: 1. Closure, {a+b, a*b} R. 2. Inverse, for arbitrary (a) there exists (-a), and (1/a , a 0) R 3. Commutative, a + b = b + a, and a*b = b*a. 4. Identity, for addition there exits (0) R, such that (-a) + (a) = -a + a = a a = 0, and a + 0 = a. for multiplication there exits (1) R, such that a*1 = a, and a*(1/a) = (a/a) = 1. 5.Associative, a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c , and a*(b*c) = (a*b)*c. 6. Distributive, a*(b + c) = (b + c)*a = ab + ac. These properties are used in solving the algebra of real variables.
#2. The power inputed to a liquid is W = 2.24 watt while the liquid losses Q = 0.6 watt.What is the change of interanl energu for the liquid? Answer E = 1.64 watt

#1 . A material has a thermal conductivity of 0.040 kcal/(sec m C). If the crossectional area of a slab is 1.5 m2 what will be the heat conducted for a temperature gradient of 30 C /m ? Answer -7.5 kwatt, where 1 kcal = 4184 joules and 1 joule = 1 watt*sec

Example #1. For {a, d, L, n} R, and given L = a + d*(n + 1), then solve for (n) step wise. Answer L - a = a + d*(n + 1) a by EEE (equals, equally on equation) L - a = d*(n + 1) + (a a) by commutative L - a = d*(n + 1) + 0 by identity on addition L - a = d*n + d*1 by distributive L - a = d*n + d by identity on multiplication L - a - d = d*n + d - d by EEE L - a - d = d*n + 0 by identity on addition (L - a - d)*1/d = (d*n)*1/d by distributive (L - a - d)*1/d = 1/d*(d*n) by commutative (L - a - d)*1/d = (d/d)*n) by associative (L - a - d)/d = n by identity on multiplication


example #3. |3*x - 4| = |x + 6| solve for (x), step wise Example #1. For {a, b, h,} R, and given a = b*h/2 then solve for (b) step wise. Answer 2*a = 2* b*h/2 2*a = 2*(1/2)*b*h 2*a = (2/2)*b*h 2*a = 1*b*h 2*a/h = b*h/h 2*a/h = b*(h/h ) 2*a/h = b*1 2*a/h = b by EEE by commutative by associative by identity on multiplication by EEE by associative by identity on multiplication answer |3*x - 4| = x + 6 ,or |3*x - 4| = -(x + 6) 3*x - 4 = x + 6 ,or 3*x - 4 = -x -6 3*x - 4 + 4 = x + 6 + 4 ,or 3*x - 4 + 4 = -x 6 + 4 3*x = x + 10 ,or 3*x = -x 2 3*x -x = x -x + 10 ,or 3*x + x = -x + x 2 (3- 1)*x = 10 ,or (3 + 1)*x = 2 2*x = 10 ,or 4*x = 2 x = 10/2 ,or x = -2/4 x = {-1/2, 5}

C. Inequalities By definition if (a) is strictly greater than (b) we write a > b on the set of real numbers (b, +).

B. Absolute values By definition the absolute value of arbitrary x R is given |x| = x >0, and |-x| = x >0 . Now the absolute value in equation from is given |a*x + b| + c = d where {a, b, c, d} R example #2. |3*x - 1| + 2 = 5 solve for (x), step wise answer |3*x - 1| + 2 2 = 5 2 |3*x - 1| = 3 ,so 3*x - 1 = 3 ,or 3*x - 1 = -3 3*x 1 + 1 = 3 +1 , or 3*x 1 +1 = -3 + 1 3*x = 4 , or 3*x = -2 x = 4/3 , or x = -2/3 x = {-2/3, 4/3}

Further, if (a) is greater than or equal to (b) write a b on the set of real numbers [b, +). Properties; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. If a < b, then a + c < b + c, and a - c < b c. If a < b, and for c > 0, then a*c < b*c, and a/c < b/c. If a < b, and for c < 0, then a*c > b*c, and a/c > b/c. If |x| < a, then -a < x < a. If |x| > a, then x < -a , or x > a.

Example #4 Find the solution set for (x) given x 8 < 15. Answer x 8 + 8 < 15 +8 x + 0 < 23 x = (-, 23)



Example #5 Answer

Find the solution set for (x) given 7 < x < 12.

for 7 < x , so x = (7, +) and for x < 12 , so x = (-, 12) for both x = (7, 12)
Find the solution set for (x) given |x + 5| 10.

example # 7 simplify answer

(28* x5 * y3) / (7x )

[(28* x5 * y3) / (7x )] [(28/7)* (x5/x) * y3 )]

Example #6 Answer

[4*(7/7)* x(5-1) * y3 )] [4* x4 * y3 )] 2* x2 (y3 )

E. Logarithms

(x + 5) 10,
x + 5 5 10 -5 x +0 5 x 5


(-x - 5) 10 so

and -1* (-x 5) -1 *10 and x + 5 -10 nd x -15

so x = [-15, 5] D. Exponents Definition, let x 0, and y 0 and let {m, n} be ratios of integers with no m n zero in the denominator, then x , and y are exponents. Definition, let N >0, M > 0, b > 0 and b 1. Then the logarithm is the n inverse function of the exponential function. Given x = y, then

logx (y) = n

Note in calculator use e1 = 2.718 101 = 10


log10 (10) = 1 = ln (10) = 1 since 101 = 10 , and loge (2.718) = 1 since e1 = 2.718.

= (m + n)

x 1 x *x 0 (1 - 1) 2. x = x =1
n = (- n)

1/x 3. x 4. xn / xm = x(n - m) n m = 5. x / y y -m / x-n m 6. (x * x) = xm * ym m 7. (x /x) = xm / ym (m / n) 8. x = n(xm ) n n 9. x * y = n(x*y) n 10 x / ny = n(x / y)

2. 3. 4. 5.

1. y = logb(x) iff x = by

logb(M*N) = logb(M) + logb(N) logb(M/N) = logb(M) - logb(N) logb(Mp) = p*logb(M) logb(b) = 1, and logb(1) = 0

Example # 8. Given difference of logs. Answer


write the function as a sum and

log5(2*C/7) = log5(2) + log5(C/7) = log5(2) + log5(C) - log5(7)



= log5(2) + log5(C) - log5(7)

Practice problems #1. For {b, r, h} R, and given h = r/2 + 3*b - 4 then solve for (r) step wise. Answer r = 2*(h + 4 3*b) #2. Solve for (x) given | x/4 + 5| = 3 step wise Answer x = {-32, -8} #3. Given |x - 8| = |2*x - 7| , solve for (x). step wise Answer x = {-1, 5}

L-028 Carnots Heat-Work Engine

Carnots Theorem on reversible heat engines: The efficiency of all reversible engines operating between the same two temperatures is the constant. No irreversible engine working between the same two temperatures can be more efficient.

#4. Find the solution set for (x) given 6x +3 2x - 5. Answer x = (-, -2] #5.
Find the solution set for (x) given -6 x 2.


for both x = [-6, 2]


Find the solution set for (x) given | 2*(x 1) + 4 | < 8

Answer # 7. simplify answer


x = (-5, 3)

(8* x5 * y6) / 3(27 )

2 3 2

(1/3 ) *(2* x * y )* [(x )

# 8. Given log8(x *y) write the function as a sum and difference of logs. Answer 2*log8(x) + log8(y)

Consider a piston with thermally insulating walls and pistons. The base is thermally conductive. Let there be four stands which will support the piston
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The Carnot cycle consist of two adiabatic steps and two isothermal steps.

temperature cools to T2. The system now does work, +W lifting the piston and load.

Step 1. Position (a -> b). The equilibrium state is (p1, V1, T1). The cylinder is put on heat reservoir, T1 to force E = 0. Now the gas expands isothermally with the increase of heat +Q1 to (p2, V2, T1). The gas does work, +W by lifting the piston and load

Step 3. Position (c -> d) The equilibrium state is at (p3, V3, T2). The cylinder is put on cooler reservoir, T2. The internal energy of the system must again be constant. The gas must compress isothermally to (p4, V4, T2) as Q heat leaves the system. The piston does work, -W on the gas. Step 4. Position (d -> a) The equilibrium state is at (p4, V4, T2). The cylinder is put on a nonconducting stand. The gas compresses adiabatically to (p1, V1, T1). The piston continues to do does work on the gas as it temperatures rises. For the complete cycle W 0, and necessarily E = 0 since the cycle begins and ends at T1. Thus W = Q = Q1 - Q2.

,a = [p1, v1, T1], ,b = [p2, v2, T1], ,c = [p3, v3, T2], ,d = [p4, v4, T2], where T1 greater than T2

Step 2. Position (b -> c) The equilibrium state is at (p2, V2, T1). The cylinder is put on an insulating base so Q = 0. The system becomes adiabatic and can no longer have constant internal energy, E. The only change permitted is for the gas as it continues to expand to (p3, V3, T2) if its





Properties of the function:

Trigonometry is form of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their component sides and the angles. Trigonometric functions have applicability to important cyclical phenomena such as periodic motion. The locus, (1, 0) is the starting point on the unit circle. The provision is made for the arc (a) to circumvent the unit circle more than once. I. The function: Consider the chosen points.

Let C be the unit circle.

We define (x) as the arc length function, which maps Real Numbers, (x) onto C. So (a) is the counter clockwise (positive a) arc length |a| from (1,0) to (a). The arc length is clockwise for negative (a).
141 142

II. Example #1. Find the point on the unit circle for (-7/4) Answer (/4) = (1/2, 1/2) so (-7/4) = (1/2, -1/2)

Sine_Cosine trigonometric functions

The point (x, y) on the unit circle defined by the (p) function is also defined as [cos(p), sin(p)].

The circular rotation of the function about the unit circle can be equivalently shown as a periodic function in multiples of (). Equivalently, the x-axis is the angle of rotation along the unit circle.

The cosine and sine functions have unique and continuous periodic graphs. Cosine period graph:

Example #2. Find the value of (-) from the period graph. Answer -1
Sine period graph:



The two functions differ in location of their respective maxima by (/2). This angle is referred to as the Phase angle between the two functions.

Example #5. What is the value of tan(-3/2)? Answer = undefined

Example #3 Compare the values of cos(/2) to cos(-/2) on the period graph. Answer they are both equal to 0. Example #4 Compare the values of sin(/2) to sin(-/2) on the period graph. Answer they are not equal with sin(/2) = 1 and sin(-/2) = -1. Practice problems #1. Find the point on the unit circle for (-3/2) III. Tangent trigonometric function tan(a) = sin(a)/cos(a) All trigonometric functions can be represented by period graph. The graph of tan(x) is a discontinuous however when cos(x) = 0. Answer (0,1) #2. Find the value of (5/2) from the period graph. Answer 0

#3. Compare the values of cos() to cos(3) on the period graph. Answer they are both equal to -1. #4. Compare the values of sin() to sin(3) on the period graph. Answer they are both equal to 0. #5. What is the value of tan(3/2)? Answer = undefined



L-030 Waves in deformable media

After a time t > 0, the disturbance (pulse) has moved a distance v*t along the +x-axis. The new equation represents the motion of any shaped traveling wave. y = f(x v*t) at t > 0.

I. A mechanical wave must travel through a medium. Some portion of the medium must be displaced to do so. The material oscillates but does not move far from its initial equilibrium position, as only the disturbance is transferred to neighboring particles. A mechanical wave requires an initial energy input. The wave travels through the medium until all its energy is lost. Two types of mechanical waves: 1. A transverse wave consists of oscillations perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer, e.g. an ocean wave. 2. Longitudinal or compression waves have the same direction of vibration as their direction of travel. The movement of the medium is in the direction of the motion of the wave, e.g. a sound wave.

A particular part of a wave is called a phase or chosen value such as (yz). So as the time increases (x) must increase to keep (yz) constant. Note for the wave to move to the left y = f(x + v*t) at t > 0. Here (v) is called the phase velocity. II. Traveling Waves. Consider a tightly stretched string. Let the string be displaced by an equation for a pulse. y = f(x) at t =0. Example #1. Let f(x v*t) = (x - 2*t) = 2.5. For t = 0 let v =2. Find (x) for constant (x- 2*t) for a fixed t = 6. Answer; (x 2 *6) = 2.5, so x = 2.5 + 12 = 14.5

Phase velocity: For a particular phase of a wave moving to right (x v*t) = constant in time, so d(x v*t) /dt = 0 dx/dt vdt/dt = dx/dt = v, the phase velocity. For (x + v*t) = constant in time, then dx/dt = - v
149 150

Now consider the particular form of f(x): y = ym*sin(x*2*/) where (ym) is the amplitude of the sine wave or maximum displacement, () is the wavelength or the distance between points having the same phase,

The period, (T) of a wave is defined as the time for the wave to travel one wavelength, (). The frequency, (f) of a wave is defined as the number of cycles per second. , = v*T (m/sec)*sec = m f = 1/T (1/sec) = Hz, v = f* m/sec

Example # 3. If the wavelength is 18.0 cm, and the frequency is 1900 Hz, what is the speed of the wave? Answer v = f* = 1800* 0.180 m/sec = 342 m/s So the general wave equation is now optionally written;

Example #2. For what values of (x*2*/ ) will y = +ym for fixed (t). Answer for x = n/2 where n= {0,1,2,3,.}

One period
Recall (v) is the phase velocity so the general wave equation is. y = ym*sin[(2*/ )*(x - v*t)] or y = ym*sin2**[(x /)- (v*t/)] Example #4. For a fixed value of (x /) =1, what values of 2**[1 - (t/T)] give the same (y = |max|)? t = {3*T/4, 5*T/6 , 9*T/10,. }
151 152

y = ym*sin2* *[(x /) - (t/T)]

Example #5. A string vibrates with maximum amplitude of 0.050 m, a wavelength of 0.20 m and a frequency of 40 Hz. Write the wave equation with appropriate terms.
Answer y = ym*sin2**[(x /)- (t/T)]

If the wave at t = 0, and x = 0 does not give y = ym*sin0 = 0, then the most general form of the wave equation is ,y = ym*sin[k*x - *t + ] where is the phase constant.

= 050 *sin2**[(x /0.20 t/0.025)] m where 1/(40Hz ) = 0.025 s

Now define the wave number, (k) and angular frequency, (). Let k = 2* / and = 2* /T = k*v so ,y = ym*sin[k*x - *t] Phase velocity, v = /T = /k Example #6. For a wavelength of 4 cm and phase velocity of 32 m/sec, find the wave number and the angular frequency. Answer; k = 2* / = 2* /0.04 = 169 m-1, = v*k = 32*169 (m/sec) m-1 = 5000 s-1 Where y = ym*sin [k*x - *t 90o] = ym*cos [k*x - *t ] y = ym*sin [k*x - *t 90o]

III. Superposition of Waves:

The principle of superposition waves occurs whenever two (or more) waves travel through the same medium at the same time. The waves pass through each other without disturbance. The net displacement of the medium at any point in space or time is the sum of the individual wave displacements. This is true of wave pulses or continuous waves.



IV. Waves at a boundary The speed of a mechanical wave depends of the medium in which it travels.

Pulses of like signs add while pulses of opposing signs subtract at the same at fixed points during superpositioning. Continuous wave do the same. points. So a mechanical wave meets a boundary between media of different materials the wave speed will be different in the two materials. [v1 = 1/T1 = f1*1] in medium one [v2 = 2/T2 = f2*2] in medium two Consider a wave in a media of faster speed incident on a boundary to a media of a slower speed. The value of (f, T) is fixed in either media. There fore the wavelength must be shorter in the slower media.



Amplitude, (A1), of the fast wave is larger. The energy reflected at the boundary opposes the sign of the incident wave.

V. Standing Waves

fast media #1

slow media #2
T1 = T2 f1 = f2 v1 > v2 1 > 2 A1 > A2

Consider two waves of the same speed, frequency, and amplitude passing each other. The equation for the standing (resulting) wave is Y = ym*sin[k*x - *t] + ym*sin[k*x +*t] which reduces to Y = 2*ym*sin[k*x]*cos[ *t] Any point (x) vibrates in simple harmonic motion. All particles vibrate at the same frequency. The amplitude of a point in a standing wave varies with position. 2*ym*sin[k*x]* has a maximum = 2*ym where k*x = /2, 3/2, 5/2, . And x = /4, 3/4, 5/4, . Maxima are called antinodes and are spaced at distances (/2) apart, Minima are called nodes and are spaced at distances (/2) apart, 2*ym*sin[k*x]* has a maximum = 0 where k*x = , 2, 3, . And x = /2, , 3/2, 2, .

Amplitude, (A1), of the fast wave is larger by partial reflection at the boundary. The energy reflected at the boundary adds in sign to the incident wave Now consider a wave in a media of slower speed incident on a boundary to a media of a faster speed. The value of (f, T) is fixed in either media. There fore the wavelength must be shorter in the slower media.

Slow #2
T2 = T1 f2 = f1 v2 > v1 2 > 1 A2 >A1


Nodes and antinodes are spaced (/4) apart. Energy cannot move past zero points (nodes) and there it is held in between and stands.



Problems #1. Let f(x + vt) = (x + 2*t). When t = 0 then x = 2.5. Find x for constant (x + 2*t) for fixed t = 6. Answer; (x + 2*6) = 2.5, so x = 2.5 - 12 = - 9.5

#4a. For a fixed value of x what values of 2**[((x /) - (t/T)] give the same (y = - max)? answer t ={3T/4, 3T/4+ T, 3T/4 + 2*T,. }. #4b. For a fixed radius on a circle what values of angle, () give the same position on the circle? Answer : {, + 360o, + 2*360o, }. #5. A string vibrates with maximum amplitude of 0.050 m, a wavelength of 0.20 m and a frequency of 40 Hz. Write the wave equation with appropriate terms for the point on the string with x = 0.010 m. Answer y = ym*sin2**[(x /)- (t/T)] = 050*sin2**[(0.010/0.20 t/0.025)] m where 1/(40Hz ) = 0.025 s

#2. For what values of (x*2*/ ) will y = 0 for fixed (t). Answer for x = { 0, 0 + , 0 + 2*, .} # 3. If the wave frequency is 20000 Hz, and its speed is 340 m/sec. What is the wavelength? Answer v/f = = 342/ 20000 (m/s)/Hz = 0.0170 m

#6. For a wave for a wave number of 209 m-1 and angular frequency of 8800 s-1 find the wave length and phase velocity. Answer; = 2* /k = 2*/209 m-1 = 0.030 m v = /k = 8800/209 s-1/ m-1 = 42 m/s

One period y = ym*sin[( x /) - (t/T)]

159 160

L-031 Number theory

I. Modulo 10 Arithmetic 12 10 = 2 so write 19 10 = 9 so write 7- 10 = -3 so write 2. Determination: either x 12 2 (mod 10) 19 9 (mod 10) 7 3 (mod 10) 10) 3. Reflexivity: x r (mod 10) r (mod 10) or not, (13.7 - 2) k *10 is not an integer so 11.7 is not congruent to 2 (mod

example #1. write 15 10 as a congruence mod (10). Answer 15 = 5 (mod 10) Then generally x - 10 = r or x r (mod 10) where (x ) is any whole number, and (r ) is called a residue. All the set of all common (nonnegative ) residues for (mod 10), r = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}. Residue 0; {-20 -10 0 10 20.} Residue 1; {-19 -9 9 11 21.} Residue 2; {-18 -8 8 12 22.} Residue 3; {-17 -7 7 13 23.} . . . Residue 9; { -11 -1 1 19 29.} For vary large numbers we write (x-r) = k *10 , e.g. 27 -7 = 2*10 or 27 7 (mod 10) which is to say 27 is congruent to 7 (mod 10). This requires (x- r)/10 to be an integer otherwise (x) is not congruent (mod 10). In general then we say (x) is congruent to (r ) (mod m); x r (mod m) where m = integer e.g. 5- 4 = 1 so 5 1 (mod 4) . example #2. write 5 3 as a congruence mod (3). Answer 5 = 2(mod 3) Some properties: 1. Equivalence: x 7 7 = k*0 r (mod 0) implies x = r, 7 7 (mod 0) 4. Symmetry: x 13 10 => 13 r (mod m) => r x (mod m) 7(mod 10) 13(mod 10)

3 (mod 10) and 3 10 =>

5. Transitivity: if a 7 (mod 4) ,

b (mod m), and b

c (mod m), then a

c (mod m), 3

3 (mod 4), and 3

1 (mod 4), then 7

1 (mod 4)

6. If b 3

c (mod m), then bk 1 (mod 4) so 32

ck (mod m), for k > 0. 1 (mod 4)

12 (mod 4) => 9

example #3 find 32
Answer 9 4(mod 5)

22 (mod 5)

or 7 0 = 7 so write



II. Round Robin Tournament

team (1) plays team (j) where 1 + j so (1, dmy), and check 2*i

2(mod 5), j = 6, so (1, 6) 6

2(mod 5), i =1

Congruences can be used to schedule Round Robin Tournaments for N teams to play each other team exactly once. a. If N is odd a dummy team is added so there is an even number of paired teams. As the tournament advances the team paired with the dummy draws a bye and does not play.

team (2) plays team (j) where 2 + j team (3) plays team (j) where 3 + j etc

2(mod 5), j = 5, so (2, 5) 2(mod 5), j = 4, so (3, 4)

b. set i + j k (mod N-1), team i N plays team j N and i j in the kth round. All teams are schedule in this round but team N must play team (i) where 2*i k (mod N-1).

Example #4 set a round robin tournament with (5) teams. Answer let teams = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, dmy}

For round, k = 1, team (1) plays team (j) where 1 + j team (2) plays team (j) where 2 + j team (3) plays team (j) where 3 + j so (3, dmy), and check 2*i 1(mod 5), j = 5, so (1, 5) 1(mod 5), j = 4, so (2, 4) 1(mod 5), j = 6, so (3, 6)

1(mod 5), i = 3

For round, k = 2,
163 164


Cryptology Answer Cryptology is the study of secrecy systems. Cryptography deals with constructing a secrecy system. Cryptanalysis is breaking secrecy systems. A message to be converted to a secrecy code is a plaintext. A coded message is a ciphertext. A key is the trick in making a secrecy code. Encrytion takes a plaintext to a ciphertext Decrytion takes a ciphertext to a plaintext Answer Example #2


This type of encryption is called an affine transformation in general C = aP + b (mod26)

Use C = 7*p + 10 (Mod26) to encrypt the massage; Plain L (11) = cipher J(9) as 7*11 +10 = 87 => 9(mod26) PLEASE SEND MONEY LJMKG MGXFQ EXMW

Julius Caesars Cipher Plain: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Cipher: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 DEFGHIJ K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZABC The cipher is given as C= P+3 (mod26) where P is the numerical value of the letter in regular alphabet and C is the numerical equivalent in the ciphertext. When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the normal alphabet and writes down the corresponding letter in the shifted. Decryption is done in reverse.

A secret message of unknown affine encryption can be decrypted using the following chart. Frequency of occurrence of letters in the English Language

Example #1 convert the following message to be sent in secret to Julius Cesar. THIS MESSAGE IS TOP SECRET




#1. write 26 10 as a congruence mod (10). Answer 26 = 6 (mod 10) #2. write 5 3 as a congruence mod (2). Answer 5 = 1(mod 3) #3 find 72 From wikipedia Example #3 . decode YFXMP CESPZ CJTDF DPQFW QZCPY 12 (mod 6)

#4 construct a round robin tournament for N = 7.

Answer most common is cipher P (15) => Plain E (4) => 15 = 4 +11 (mod26) 2nd most common is cipher E (4) => Plain T (19) => 15 = 19 +11 (mod26) NUMBER THEORY IS USEFUL



#5 decipher Caesars message Ciphertext: WKHTX LFNEU RZQIR AMXPS VRYHU WKHOD CBGRJ Answer Plaintext: the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

L-032 Summations,() and Products, ()

I. Summation The large up right Greek letter sigma = represents a sum of numbers.

#6 Decipher the following secret message using C = 7*p + 10(Mod26) to decrypt the massage; e.g. Plain L (11) = cipher J (9) as 7*11 +10 = 87 => 9(mod26), Plain D (11) = cipher F (5) as 7*x +10 => 7*2 +10 = 31-26 => 5(mod26) FEXEN XMBMK JNHMG MYZMN Answer DO NOT REVEAL THE SECRET = (a3 + b3) + (a4 + b4) + (a5 + b5) where (i or k) is a dummy index of summation, (m) is the lower bound, and (n) is the upper bound of summation. = 5+5+5+5+5

where C is a constant



Example #3 Find


II. Product Thee product of sequence operator is the Greek capital letter, .

answer 625 Example #4 Find





L-033 Sound Waves

Sound is a mechanical (longitudinal) wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through deformable media. Sound does not travel in a vacuum. The rapid back-and-forth vibration of an object creates the longitudinal or compression waves of sound. Longitudinal waves are waves that oscillate in the same path that the sound wave is moving.

#1 Find answer 38

Figure 1. A sound (longitudinal) wave shows dense (compression) regions of material alternating wide sparse (rarefaction) regions of material. The sound wave equation where (y) is longitudinal displacement.

y = ym*sin[k*x - *t]

Figure 2. A sound waves pressure (p) amplitude changes longitudinally with time. The pressure level is only demonstrated vertically in the figure above.

p = pmax*Sin[k*x - *t + 90o]

For a point of zero displacement the pressure is a maximum but where the displacement is a maximum the pressure is zero. Displacement is (90o), or (/2) out of phase for a sound wave.



Example #1 A man stands 200 meters from a high wall. He calls out and hears his echo (1) second later. What is the speed of the sound? Answer 400m/sec

fd = f * vr /(vr - vs ) If the observer is moving away from the observer then the frequency is shifted lower with a longer wavelength. d = (vr + vs ) *T

fd = f * vr /(vr + vs )

II Doppler Shift
A change in the observed frequency of a wave, such as of sound or light, occurs when the source, and the observer are in relative motion. The frequency increases when the source, and the observer approach each other, while decreasing when they move apart. The motion of the source causes a real shift in frequency of the wave, while the motion of the observer produces only an apparent shift in frequency. The frequency, and wavelength of a wave will depend on the motion of the waves source. Consider a source of a wave with speed (vs) at frequency (f) and time period, T= 1/f. The wave advances in space in measures of unit length ( = vs *T). If the source is moving at a reference speed (vr) then in time it moves a distance of vr *T. The resulting waves length is shortened to (d) and its frequency is increased. If the observer is moving away from the observer then the frequency is shifted lower with a longer wavelength.

Example #2. A bird flies toward a person standing still at 15 m/s while screaming at a frequency of 1000 Hz. The speed of sound in air is 340 m/s. At what frequency is the bird heard? Answer fd = 1000 * 340 /(340 - 15) Hz = 1046 Hz

If the source moves at (vr) and the observer moves at (vo) toward each other is the same direction then fd = f * (vs + vo ) /(vs - vr ). If the source moves at (vr) and the observer moves at (vo) away each other in the same direction then fd = f * (vs - vo ) /(vs + vr ). General fd = f * (vs +/- vo ) /(vs -/+ vr ). (+ Vo) toward, (- Vr) if toward otherwise (- Vo) away, (+ Vr ) away. III. Beat Frequency

Two waves whose velocities (fa, fb) are close will superimpose to form a resulting wave whose amplitude varies in time. y = 2* ym*cos[ (fa fb)*t]* cos[ (fa + fb)*t] d = (vr - vs ) *T



T beat ____________
At the end of a pipe open to the air, the pressure at the end of the pipe cannot oscillate. Instead, it is fixed at the ambient pressure of the surrounding air. At the open end of the pipe, the standing sound wave pattern must have a node.

/2 2/2 3/2

1 = 2 L ,where L = length of the open tube, and

fn = (n * vs )/2L , where = vs ,velocity of sound and n = 1, 2, 3, 4,etc

one beat


Example #3 What is the beat frequency between waves of 1256 Hz and 1250 Hz? Answer 1260 1256 = 4 Hz

Example #4 What is the fundamental and third harmonic of a 2 meter open pipe in air? Speed of sound is 340m/sec Answer 340/(2*2) m/(s*m) = 85 Hz fundamental frequency, 3*340/(2*2) = 255 Hz, 3rd harmonic

III. Sanding Sound Waves

For standing sound waves in a pipe the medium is typically air, and the waves are longitudinal, corresponding to regions of compression and rarefaction. The traveling sound waves are reflected at the two ends of a pipe.



L-034 The Nature of Light

For the standing sound wave, the air pressure oscillation at the closed end has its greatest amplitude. There is an antinode in the standing sound wave pattern at the closed end of the pipe. The displacement at the closed end boundary is zero and the waves pressure change is held fixed at a maximum value.


Light as a wave.

Light (visible) is a transverse wave that can travel trough a vacuum at 299,972 kmm/sec. A continuous spectrum of wavelengths from 380 nm to 740 nm composes light.

Fundamental fn

1 = 4 L ,where L = length of the tube, and

= (n * vs )/4L , where = vs ,velocity of sound

380 nm 740 nm Light is generated by incandescence or the emission of light from hot objects like the sun. Light is generated by luminescence by emission from electron transitions as in a laser.

Example #4 What is the fundamental and third harmonic of a 2 meter closed pipe in air? Speed of sound is 340m/sec Answer 340/(4*2) m/(s*m) = 42.5 Hz fundamental frequency, 3*340/(4*2) = 127.5 Hz, 3rd harmonic and n = 1, 3, 5, 7,etc

Example #1 What is the frequency of light at 400 nm? What color is the wavelength? Answer = c/f3*108 / 400*10-9 m/s/m = 7.5*1016 Hz, violet



Answer: II. Light as a particle

1750/(4 12) lm/m2 = 1750/(12.6) = 139 lx

Illumination follows the inverse square of the distance law, (1/r2)

Each wavelength of light can act as a particle, or photon with a characteristic fixed amount or quantum of energy. The intensity of light is directly proportional to the number of photons present. The energy of a photon is calculated; E = h*c/ where c = ~300 000 km/s and constant h = 6.626 10-34 joules IV. Interaction with materials A prism disperses light into components. Example #2 What is the energy of light at the wavelength of 400 nm? Answer = 6.626 10-34 * 300 000km / 400*10-9 joules m/(s*m) = 2 10-18 joules



A luminous body emits light, whereas an illuminated object reflects light. The rates at which light is emitted from a source is called the luminous flux. Lumen, lm = unit flux The rate at which luminous flux falls on a surface is called luminance. Lux, lx = lm/m2 Example #3 A 100 W incandescent light bulb emits 1750 lumens isotropically. What is the illumination one (1) meter from the bulb ?

A lens converges light to a focal point.


L-035 Elevator Physics

A mirror reflects light.

1. First panel is a scale in an elevator showing zero (0) load. 2. The second panel is a scale loaded showing a man of weight (m*g). 3. The third panel is an elevator accelerating upward at (a m/sec2). The lifting floor adds compression to the spring scale and the load increases on the spring to m*(g + a). 4. The fourth panel (rightmost) is an elevator accelerating downward at (a m/sec2). The dropping floor removes compression from the spring scale and the load decreases on the spring to m*(g - a).

Consider the normal force acting on you from the elevator:

N = mg if the elevator is at rest or moving at constant velocity N = mg + ma if the elevator has an upward acceleration N = mg - ma if the elevator has a downward acceleration



The normal force is equal to your apparent weight. So, you actually feel a little heavier than usual when the elevator accelerates upward, and lighter than usual when the acceleration is down.

L-036 Matrix algebra

I. Matrix

Example You weigh 500 Newtons, so your mass is about 50 kg. a. The elevator begins to accelerate upward from rest at Up ward Fnet = (50 kg)(2 m/s2) = 100 Newtons. If you are standing on a scale what will the scale read? Answer 500N + 100N = 600N = 112lbs + 22 = 134 lbs b. Instead let the elevator accelerate downward at 2 m/s2. Answer Answer 500N - 100N = 600N = 112lbs - 22 = 90 lbs

A matrix is nothing more than a rectangular array of numbers and each of the numbers in the matrix is called an entry

The size of a matrix is (n) rows wide and (m) columns high. The example above is nxm = 3x3 matrix. The number of rows is specified first and the number of columns second. Matrices that have the same number of rows as columns are called square matrices.

Example #1 What is the size of the following matrix?

Annswer 3x3 a square matrix. Elements in a martix are refered to their specific location entries in the matrix, e.g. ith row and jth column of the matrix Anxm is denoted by aij or Aij Example #2. Given Matrix ( C ) find entry (c43 )




c34 = -52

Similarly for the difference matrix, F = A B. Fij = Aij - Bij Matrices of different sizes cannot be added or subtracted.

Column and row matrices tend to be denoted with a lower case letter that has either been bolded or has an arrow over it.

Column matrix h =

row matrix k =

Example #4. Find the resulting matrix.

A squre matrix has a set of entries that form a main diagonal, e.g. {3, 4, 0,3}.

Answer Example #3. Given the Identitiy Matrix, I4x4 find the elements of the main diagonal. A matrix may be multiplied by a single (scalar) value, e.g. 2 * Anxm. The resulting matrix is the same size but each entry is 2 times as large. Example #5. Find the resulting matrix. Answer {1, 1, 1, 1}

For two matrices to be equal, every element in the first matrix must be equal to the corresponding element in the other. These matrices are equal: but these are not: .

Answer Martices can be multiplied, Anxp*Bpxm = Cnxm . The martcies need not have the same set of rows by columns. However, the number of columns in the first matrix must equal the nuber of rows of the second matrix, i.e. p =p. A * B = C nxp pxm = nxm

If A and B are both the same dimension of matrix then the matrix of sums F = A + B is found by adding/subtracting corresponding entries. Fij = Aij + Bij


The ijth entry of the product marix is the sum of the entries in ith row of A times the entries in the jth column of B. Example #6. Find the resulting matrix Answer AT =

answer Problems #1 What is the size of the following matrix? For a square matrix only the Trace of matrix, A is the sum of the diagonal elements. Example #7 Find the Trace of matrix A, Tr(A) =? Annswer 2x4 Answer Tr(A) = 2 + 7 + 1 + 4 = 14 #2. Given Matrix ( C ) find entries with value (0) For a (nxm) matrix, B then Transpose of the matrix is a (mxn) martix BT in which rows have been exchanged for columns. The first row becomes the first column and the first column becomes the first row etc. Example # 8,, Find the Transpose of A Answer c31 , c33

#3. Given the Identitiy Matrix, I2x2 find the elements not on of the main diagonal.




{0, 0}

#7 Find the Trace of matrix, B, Tr(B) =?

Answer #4. Find the resulting matrix.

Tr(A) = 16

#8 Find the Transpose of the matrix B in problem #7 Answer

#5. Find the resulting matrix.



#6. Find the resulting matrix




L-037 Linear Algebra

Example #2. Answer = 2 Find the determinant of with cofactors


Determinant Function

The determinant of a square matrix has a special value in algebra. Determinants are used to define the characteristic polynomial of a matrix.

Example #1. Answer

Find the determinant of

II. Properties of determinants

a. Matrix A nxn times a scalar quantity (c ) gives det(C*A) = c * det(A).



A n-by-n (square) square matrix A is called invertible if there exists an n-byn matrix B such that

Example #4

Find the eigenvalues for

where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix obtained by the multiplication of matrices.

Answer so { 1, 2} = {1, 3}

Example #3.

Find the identity matrix for


If one has linear equations in two variables such as Then the matrix algebra can be written example above. and solved as in


III. Eigenvalues If (A) is a square matrix, and a non-zero vector (v) is an eigenvector of A then there exits an eigenvalue () a scalar quantity such that

Example #5 find the solutions above; 2x -3x + y = 0 = -x + y x +2y 3y = 0 = x y

to the matrix equation above equation

In general there will be set of eigenvalues {1, 2,.n} for an nxn matrix including any repetitious values of (). The game is to find all eigenvectors. This is accomplished by the matrix algebra equation;


for so 2 = 3 then

is the eigenvector.




Find the eigenvalues for

#1. Answer Find the determinant of

so {1, 2} = {-2, -7}

#2.a Answer matrix

Find the determinant of = 0 this is a singular matrix which means it does not have an inverse

#5 find the solutions

to the matrix equation


find by cofactors the determinant of


for so 1 = 1 then

is the eigenvector.



Find the identity matrix for





The law of reflection states that when a ray of light reflects off a surface, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Example #1. Light incident on a mirror at 45o will reflect at 45o.

L-038 Optics at a Boundary

Light is a wave that travels in a straight line at high velocities that change within different media. The behavior of light depends on the boundary to which it is incident. 1. Law of Reflection:

2. Snells Law of Refraction:


Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in speed at surface of a boundary when the wave enters the second medium. This is not a reflected wave. A ray of light incident to a reflective surface leaves as a reflected ray. The point of incidence a line can be drawn perpendicular to the surface of the mirror. This line is known as the normal. The normal line divides the angle between the incident ray and the reflected ray into two equal angles. The angle between the incident ray and the normal is known as the angle of incidence. The angle between the reflected ray and the normal is known as the angle of reflection. Snell's law describes the relationship between the angles of incidence angle, (a1) and refraction, (a2) when referring to light passing through a boundary between two media of different indices of refraction such as air, (n1) and glass, (n2). Note the relationship to the velocities, (v1, v2) of light in the two media. sin(a1)/sin(a2) = v1/v2 = n2 / n1



The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum or air to the speed in a medium is the index of refraction (n =< 1.00). Snells Law accounts for the change in the speed of as it passes through a boundary

The intensities of the reflected and refracted rays do not remain constant with the angle of the incident ray. At angles of incidence close to 0 degrees from the normal, most of the light energy is transmitted through the boundary and very little of it is reflected. As the angle is increased, less intensity of refraction and more intensity of reflection occur. Further the angles of the reflection and refraction are not equal. Since the light waves into a medium of lesser index bend away from the normal, the angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence. Ultimately the angle of refraction becomes 90o for a critical angle of incidence, (c). For angles greater than (c) the light is totally reflected with zero refraction.
sin c = (n2/n1) sin 90o = (n2/n1)

Example #2. Light travels from air into an optical fiber with an index of refraction of 1.44 from air with index of refraction of 1.00. If the angle of incidence on the end of the fiber is 22o, what is the angle of refraction inside the fiber?

Note the Snells law holds for either direction of the light ray. (1.00) sin 22o = 1.44 sin 2. sin 2 = (1.00/1.44) sin 22o = 0.260 2 = sin-1 (0.260) = 15o

Light entering a slower medium (higher index of refraction) bends toward the normal while it bends away from the normal in a faster media (lower index of refraction).

3. Total Internal Reflection: In general light incident to a boundary between media will separate into reflected and refracted rays.

Example #3 What is the (c) for glass to air interface? Answer nglass = 1.5, nair = 1.0 so c,glass/air= sin-1 (nair/nglass) = sin-1 (0.667) = 41.8o





L-039 Simple Statistics

I. An example
{ 14.50, 15.75, 14.25, 15.50, 15.25 }


Formulae: Count n = 5 Mean, xm = xi = 75.38 , for i = 1 to 5, Variance, s2 = (1/n) (xi - xm)2 = 0.348, for i = 1 to 5, Standard deviation, s = (0.348)1/2 = 0.59 Frequency, fx = { 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 }

Consider five (5) prices sampled.

We wish to make some mathematical description of this sample (set) of numbers. These results will characterize the sample. a.) The number (n) in the count of entries in the sample set. b.) The arithmetic mean, (xm) is the average value of the sample. c.) The variance, (s2) describes the spread of sample values about the mean. d.) The standard deviation, (s) is a statistic in the same units as the samples to describe data spread. e.) Frequency, (fx) of the occurrence of each sample. Table I. The statistics for the sample set above

Example # 1 Find mean, variance, standard deviation, and frequency distribution for the set. { 14.5, 15.75, 15.5, 15.5, 15.34, 12.5 }

Mean = 14.85417 mean *mean = 1323.878 s*s= 0.204188 s= 0.452 n=6

Frequency, fx = { 1, 1, 2, 1, 1 }




Frequency distribution

The Gaussian distribution is a probability distribution that has a bellshaped probability density function.

Here the parameter is the mean (location of the peak) and, 2 is the variance. The sections under the curve are partitions in units of standard deviation, (+/- ) from the mean.

Example #2 Find the probability p( % ) for occurrence from the set in example #1 for values { 15.75, 15.0, 12.5 }. Answer the mean, = 14.85, and standard deviation, = 0.420, so 15.0/ (14.85 + 0.420) = 15/15.27 = 1.018 so p(15.0) = ~ (0.02 * 34 = 0.7%) + (2 + 14 + 34)% = ~83% of the distribution is more likely to have a lesser value and ~27% are likely to have a larger value.

The probability of occurrence for a single selection from a sample set depends on the distance from the mean.



L-040 Optics of mirrors and lenses

A surface to which all the incident light follows the Law of Reflection is called a mirror; flat, convex, and concave.

Moreover the virtual image is reversed in the leftright hand lateral sense but it is not reversed in the vertical direction.

I-a. Flat mirror. The distance from the illuminating real object to the mirror is called the object distance. The distance between the virtual image in mirror is the image distance. The object distance is equal to the image distance. A real is an image in which light rays emerge from a point on the object. Real images may be projected on an opaque screen. No light emerges from a virtual image and a virtual image will not be visible on a screen. Rather light is traceable back to a real image but only projected back to virtual image. I-b. Convex mirror; This is a diverging curved mirror. The reflective surface bulges toward the light source. Convex mirrors reflect light outwards and are not used to focus light. A virtual image is always formed. The focus (F) and the centre of curvature (2F) are both imaginary points "inside" the mirror. Reflected light diverges as the normal to the surface differs with each locus on the mirrors surface.



The two rays diverge upon reflection. The virtual image focal point, (F) is where the extended two reflected rays intersect behind the mirror. I-c. Concave mirror; A concave mirrors reflective surface bulges inward . Concave mirrors are used to focus light to a real image. These mirrors are called "converging" because they collect light and refocus parallel incoming rays to a real focal point in the front.

The method of drawing ray diagrams for convex mirrors. 1. Pick a point on the top of the object and draw two incident rays traveling towards the mirror.

2. These incident rays reflect according to the two rules of reflection for convex mirrors. a.) The ray towards the focal point will reflect parallel to the principal axis. b.) The ray that traveled parallel to the principal axis will reflect such that its extension passes through the focal point behind the mirror.



The same method for drawing a ray diagram works for any object location. 1. Pick a point on the top of the object two incident rays travel towards the mirror. One ray so passes exactly through the focal point on the way to the mirror. The second ray travels exactly parallel to the principal axis. 2. Once these incident rays strike the mirror, reflect them according to the two rules of reflection for concave mirrors. a).The ray that passes through the focal point on the way to the mirror will reflect and travel parallel to the principal axis. b). The ray that traveled parallel to the principal axis on the way to the mirror will reflect and travel through the focal point. The radius of curvature for the mirror is (C ).

b). The magnification equation relates the ratio of the image distance and object distance to the ratio of the image height (hi) and object height (ho).

c). The sign conventions quantities in the two equations. f is + for a concave mirror f is - for is a convex mirror di is + for a real image on the object's side of the mirror. di is for a virtual image behind the mirror.

Example #1 A 2.0-cm object sits a distance of 30 cm from a convex mirror having a focal length of 10 cm. Determine the image distance and the image size. Answer ho = 2.0 cm, d0 = 30 cm, I-d. Mirror Equations; Numerical information about image distance and object size are obtained a pair of equations. a). The mirror equation expresses the relationship between the object distance (do), the image distance (di), and the focal length (f). f = -10 1/f = 1/d0 + 1/di => f = [-1/10 - 1/30 ]-1 = di = -7.5 cm (virtual)

hi / ho = - di / d0 => hi = -2 * -7.5/30 = 0.5 cm (noninverted)

Example #2 A 2.0-cm object sits a distance of 30 cm from a concave mirror having a focal length of +10 cm. Determine the image distance and the image size.
211 212

Answer ho = 2.0 cm, d0 = 30 cm, f = +10 1/f = 1/d0 + 1/di => [1/10 - 1/30 ]-1 = di = 15 cm (real) hi / ho = - di / d0 => hi = -2 * 15/30 = -1 cm (inverted)

A ray diagrams for objects in front of a double convex lens. There are three rules of refraction. a). An incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis will bend through the lens and exit through the focal point on the opposite side. b). An incident ray traveling through a focal point before entering the lens will refract and exit parallel to the principal axis. c). An incident ray that passes through the center of the lens will continue in the same direction.

II. Lens
A lens is an optical device with axial symmetry that transmit, and refract light. Lenses are classified by the curvature of two surfaces, convex and concave. II-a. Convex lens:
A convex lens is thicker at the middle and converges light. Parallel light rays meet at the focal point beyond the lens.

II-a. Concave lens: The double concave lens is thinner across central section causing rays of light that travel parallel to its principal axis to diverge. A double concave lens is a diverging lens.



There are three rules of refraction for double concave lenses: a). An incident ray parallel to the principal axis will refract. This ray will extend back through the lens to the focal point. b). An incident ray passing through the focal point will refract through the lens and travel parallel to the principal axis. c). An incident ray that passing through the center of the lens continues in the same direction.

Sign convention for thin lens formulas. d0 is +for real objects located left of the lens d0 is - for virtual objects located right of the lens di is + for real images formed to the right of the lens di is - for virtual images formed to the left of the lens f is + for a converging lens f is - for a diverging lens. (hi , ho) positive above the optical axis, and negative below.

II-c. Thin Lens Equations: Each lens can be considered in sections of different thickness.

Example #4 A 2.0-cm object sits a distance of 30 cm from a diverging lens having a focal length of -10 cm. Determine the image distance and the image size. Answer ho = 2.0 cm, d0 = 30 cm, f = +10 1/f = 1/d0 + 1/di => [-1/10 - 1/30 ]-1 = di = -7.5 cm (left)

hi / ho = - di / d0 => hi = -2 * -7.5/30 = 1 cm (above)



Example #5 A 2.0-cm object sits a distance of 30 cm from a convex lens having a focal length of +10 cm. Determine the image distance and the image size. Answer ho = 2.0 cm, d0 = 30 cm, f = +10 1/f = 1/d0 + 1/di => [1/10 - 1/30 ]-1 = di = 15 cm (right) hi / ho = - di / d0 => hi = -2 * 15/30 = -1 cm (below)

L-041 Fractals
I. The Fractal A fractal is a mathematical set possessing a dimension that usually exceeds Euclidian dimension that falls between the integer values. One example is the Koch Snowflake with a Euclidian dimension of one. However, the length between any two points on the Koch Snowflake infinite. A small piece of it is of an infinite number of segments joined at different angles. Therefore the Koch curve is best be described by its fractal dimension of 1.26.

Figure #1. The Koch Snowflake is generated from a triangle whose perimeter is iteratively transformed by the addition of other triangles (an infinite number of times).



Example #2. T he quadratic Koch curve in 3D has a fractal dimension of 2..3347.

The Physicists and mathematicians use higher dimensions, known as ordered states, to manipulate complicated topics. Atomic physicists may work with a dimensional space for the possible states of found at the subatomic level. To calculate a fractal's dimension, one extends the formula for calculating traditional dimensions. n= 1/sD
Figure #2. The Quadratic Koch Curve.

where (s) is the scaling factor , (D) is the dimension {1, 2, 3}, and (n) is the number of line segments. So D = log (n)/ log(1/s) The number of line segments in the Koch curve is (4) and that each line segment is replaced by a replica of the original, reduced in scale by s = 1/3. To calculate the dimension: D = log (4)/ log(3) =1.26

II. Fractal dimension calculation In classical geometry, shapes have integer dimensions. A point has a dimension of (0), a line has a dimension of (1) an area has a dimension of (2) and volume has a dimension of (3).

Figure#3.Traditional shapes of point, line, square, and cube.



L-042 Moments of Inertia

III. Fractal Antennae A fractal antenna uses a fractal, self-similar design to maximize the length of material that can receive or transmit. A fractal antenna's is capable of operating at many different frequencies simultaneously. Standard antennas only work well at select usually narrow frequency band. This makes the fractal antenna an excellent design for wideband and multiband applications. The moment of inertia, or rotational inertia (units kgm) is a measure of an object's resistance to changes to its rotation. It is the inertia of a rotating body. A force (Ft) acts tangentially on a mass (m) attached to a pivot point by a mass less rod of length ( r) to create rotation by tangential acceleration, (at). Ft = m*at Torque, = Ft*r= m*at*r rotational acceleration = at/r recall = v/r so = m*r2*

the particles moment of inertia, I = m*r2 units kgm)

Ft m

Figure#4.Fractal antenna design.




For a distributed collection of masses, the composite moment of inertia, (I) depends on the point distribution of each mass and its radius of rotation, (r ). In practice any well-shaped object has its moment of inertia calculated and cataloged. An annulus of inner radius (r1) and outer radius (r2 ) has a moment of inertia : I = m*[r12 + r22 ]/2 All points of mass in a solid object rotate at the same angular frequency, (). The angular momentum, or rotational momentum (L) of the solid object is defined as L = I*

Case I Case 2. ______________________________________________________ Tangential Velocity 0.45 m/s 1.2 m/s Angular Velocity 45 rad/s 4.14 rad/s 2 4.95 m/s2 Centripetal acceleration 20.1 m/s Angular acceleration 2010 rad/s2 16.5 rad/s2 2 0.09 kg*m2 Moment of Inertia 30.0001 kg*m Angular Momentum 0.0042 N*m*s 1.49 N*m*s T = 2**r*Vt = Vt /r ac = Vt 2/r = ac/r I = mi*Ri2 L = I*

Example: Evaluate the uniform circular motion for the following two cases. Case I. Two 500g masses attached at the ends of a mass less rod (0.02 m) revolving about a pivot point in uniform circular motion with time period T =1.52 s. Case II. Two 500g masses attached at the ends of a mass less rod (0.60 m) revolving about a pivot point in uniform circular motion with time period T =1.52 s



L-043 Non Linear Dynamics

An example of a nonlinear system is shown.



Linear systems satisfy the superposition principle where output is directly proportional to input. A nonlinear system is any problem that cannot be written as a linear combination of independent components. Most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. Nonlinear equations are difficult to solve and give rise to interesting phenomena such as chaos. A linear function, f(x) is one which satisfies both of the following properties: additivity, homogeneity, superposition II. Bifurcation

Nonlinear systems can bifurcate. Bifurcation means the splitting of a main body into two parts. A system that bifurcates is shown for xn = r* xn-1(1- xn-1)

An example of a linear system in two variable is given. y=x2 y = -2x + 1

II. Fibonacci Numbers Fibonacci's Problem: The Fibonacci sequence is a recursive sequence: F(0) = 0 F(1) = 1 F(2) = 1 F(n) = F(n 1) + F(n 2) where n>3 or n=3 F(n) = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, ... "Start with a pair of rabbits, (one male and one female) born on January 1. Assume that all months are of equal length and that : 1. rabbits begin to produce young two months after their own birth; 2. after reaching the age of two months, each pair produces a mixed pair, (one male, one female), and then another mixed pair each month thereafter; and 3. no rabbit dies. How many pairs of rabbits will there be after one year?"
A w s n e 1 = r 4

Fibonacci numbers are inter-related to each other in ratios. Take any two consecutive numbers they are related to the next or previous number by 1.618 or 0.618. The inverse of 0.618 is 1.618. Instead of taking 2 consecutive numbers, one can consider alternate numbers. You will always get 0.328 or 2.618. The numbers 0.618 or 1.618 are called the "golden mean" or the "golden number". A golden rectangle is one whose side lengths are in the golden ratio, approximately 1:1.618.

When a square section is removed, the remainder is another golden rectangle. This removal can be repeated infinitely forming an infinite sequence of points on the golden spiral.

L-044 Optics of Interference and Diffraction

Wave interference occurs when two waves superimpose to form a resultant wave. Interference refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated because they are from the same source or are close in frequency. Interference effects can be observed with all types of waves. Diffraction occurs when a wave encounters an obstacle. The diffraction phenomenon is the bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings. Diffraction occurs with all waves. The two terms; interference and diffraction are often used interchangeably. Interference patterns are only observed when the light source gives coherent emission, i.e. if the phase difference between the sources is constant.

I. Single Slit Diffraction

IV. Chaos
The butterfly effect is the dependence of a nonlinear system on initial conditions. A small change at one place in a nonlinear dynamics can result in large differences to a later. The name of the effect is derived from the theoretical example of a hurricane's formation when a distant butterfly had flapped its wings several weeks before.

Consider a slit of width (a). Consider two points of emission; the upper half of the slit, and the lower half, that are separated by (a). For light that travels in the direction of () from the edges will destructively interfere with light from the center if the separation distance, x = m*/2 is a half-integral number of wavelengths. There will be a minimum in the intensity pattern for such conditions. In general the intensity distribution from the single slit follows the equation.

for such conditions. In general the intensity distribution from the single slit follows the equation. I. a*sin =m* , where m is called the order of the minimum, m = 1,2,3,4,... and -1,-2,-3,4,... The single-slit diffraction pattern has a central maximum that covers the region between the m = +/-1 dark spots. The bright spot in the middle is referred to as the zeroth order. Two Slit Diffraction Light waves passing through the two slits interfere to producing bright and dark bands on the screen

The width in screen spacing, (y) between dark spots is given as y = m* *L/a The bright spot in the middle is referred to as the zeroth order.

Two rays of light pass through the centers of two adjacent slits of width, (a) separated by distance, (d) measured from center to center of the two slits and illuminate a screen a length, (L) away at an angle, (). For rays equal in phase at the slits inclined at angle, () the distance x = will generate constructive interference at the screen to give maxima of intensity according to the equation; d*sin =m* , m is called the order, m = 1,2,3,4,... and -1,-2,-3,-4 The width in screen spacing, (y) between bright spots is given as y = m* *L/d The bright spot in the middle is referred to as the zeroth order.
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Example # 1. A single slit is illuminated by light at 500 A (Angstroms). If =30o for a second mimima then what is the value of slit opening (a) ? Answer a*sin =2*, a = 2000 A

The spacing, (y) between bright spots is given as If x = /2 then destructive interference occurs at the screen giving a minima in intensity according to the equation d*sin = (m +1/2)* , where m is called the order, m = 1,2,3,4,... and -1,-2,-3,-4.. y = *L/d Diffraction with a large number of slits is sharp because of the many positions of destructive interference between the constructive-interference fringes.

Example #2 A screen is placed 14.0 m away. A third order fringe is seen on the screen 2.50cm from the central fringe. If the slits were cut 0.10 cm apart, determine the wavelength of this light. Answer L = 14 m, order m = 3, y = 0.0250 m, d = 0.1cm = 0.001 m = 0.025* 0.001 /(3*14) = 595 nm

III. Many Slit Diffraction

Example #3 A diffraction grating has 400 lines per mm. The grating observe incident light with a wavelength of 440nm. The grating is placed 1.0 m from a screen. Where on the screen will the first order bright line appear? Answer d = 1/400 = 2.50 um, = 440 nm , L = 1.00 m so y = 440 *10-9 * 1.00/(2.50*10-6) m*m/m = 0.176 m

A series of (n) narrow slits separated by distances (d) will constructively interfere for angle, () a the screen according to the equation d*sin =m* where m is called the order of the maximum, m = 1,2,3,4,... and -1,-2,-3,



L-045 Deformation of Solids and Fluids

b). A shear force, (F) acts parallel to a face of cross-sectional area, (A) and of height, (h) above an opposing second face for a solid. A shear strain will result is a deformation of (x) in distance of the parallel face experiencing the shear force. So F = (A*S*/ h )*x, where S is Shear modulus given in units of (Pa)

I. The Deformation of Solids. Hookes Law for springs is F = -k*x where (x) is the change in length for the spring from the undisturbed state, and (k ) is the spring constant. The force (F) opposes the motion of the spring. A solid may also deform and recover its shape by the same elastic behavior as a spring. Stress is the force per unit area that deforms and strain is the measure of deformation. So force F = stress, x = strain and k = elastic modulus. a). A solid bars length, Lo can be held stretched L by a tensile stress. This a force per cross-sectional area F/A of the bar with units of N/m2 = Pascal (Pa). The tensile strain is ratio of L/ Lo. So units of (Pa) F = (A*Y*/ Lo )*L where Y is Youngs modulus given in

The larger (S) the larger (F) needed for shear.

c). The volume of a solid squeezed uniformly over its surface will deform. The change in stress pressure upon the surface of the volume, (P) creates a strain (V) to change the volume of the solid, (V). So P = -B*V/V, where B is Bulk modulus given in units of (Pa).

The strength of the deforming force is proportional to the material value of (y). A sufficiently large force will permanently deform or fracture the solid.
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The large (B) the larger the increase in pressure required for volumetric changes in both a liquid and a solid.

II. Deformation of Fluids a). The first change in a fluid is flow. An incompressible uniform fluid moving uniformly through a pipe will conserve mass. The mass in per unit of time will equal the mass out. . . i*Ai*vi Ai*vi = o*Ao*vo = Ao*vo for incompressible fluid

(F/A) = n* /L

in units of N/m = J/m2

where (F) is force on surface and (L)is a length of surface, (A) is area of surface, and (n) is an appropriate constant of proportionality.

C). Capillary action is the lifting due to the surface tension of a fluid on the surface of dry solid wall of a narrow tube in opposition to gravity.

where = density of the fluid Ai = area of dross-section of the pipe vi = velocity of the fluid in the pipe

b.) Surface tension, () is the property of the surface of a fluid that resists an external force. This property results from the cohesion of similar molecules.

At equilibrium the weight (density times the volume = *V*g) lifted a height, (h) in the tube of cross-sectional area 2**r2, must equal the surface tension. . *2** r = *g*2** r2*h where r is radius of capillary.



d). Viscous flow describes a fluid's internal resistance toward motion as a measure of friction within the fluid. The flow is distorted, i.e. non-uniform. F = * A*v/d The deforming force (f) is proportional to the area of a surface in contact with the fluid at speed (v) and the distance between surfaces, (d). The proportionality constant () is the coefficient of viscosity with units N*s/ m2 = 0.10 pose.

L-046 Complex Analysis

I. Complex Numbers;

A number (z) can in the form z = a + b*i, where (a) and (b) are real and (i) is the imaginary unit, such that i2 = 1, or Re(z) = a, and the imaginary part, Im(z) =b. . The real part,

A pure real number is expressed as a + 0*i, and a pure imaginary number is expressed as 0 + b*i.



a). Addition (a + b*i) +(c + d*i) = (a + c) + ( b + d)*i. (2 + 3*i) +(1 + 6*i) = (2 + 1) + ( 3 + 6)*.i = (3 + 9*i) b). Commutatively (a + b*i) + (c + d*i) = (c + d*i) + (a + b*i) also for multiplication (a + b*i) * (c + d*i) = (c + d*i) *(a + b*i) In a tube the liquid in the center is moving fastest while the liquid nearest the walls of the tube is stationary due to friction. The flow, (V/t) in a pipe of length, (L) and radius, (R ) will be related to the pressure differences (P1-P2), and the viscosity, () of the fluid. c). Equality (a + b*i) = (c + d*i) iff a = c and b = d. d). Multiplication (a + b*i)*(c + d*i) = (ac bd, [ad + bc]*i) (2 + 3*i)*(1 + 6*i) = (2*1 3*6, [2*6 + 3]*1) = ( -15+ 15*i) e). Subtraction (a - b*i) +(c - d*i) = (a - c) - ( b + d)*i. f). Additive Identity (a + b*i) +(-a - b*i) = (a - a) + ( b - b)*i. =(0+ 0*i) g). Conjugate of (a + b*i) = (a - b*i) conj (2 + 3*i) = (2 - 3*i) h). Modulus (a + b*i) = | a + b*i| = square root [ a2 + b2]
V/t = * r (P1-P2)/ (8* *L)

i). Division (a + b*i)/(c + d*i) = [(a + b*i)*(c d*i)]/[(c + d*i)*(c - d*I)] (9 + 3*i)/(7 + 5*i) = [(9 + 3*i)*(7 5*i)]/[(7 + 5*i)*(7 - 5*i)]
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j). Multiplicative identity is (1 + 0*i) (a + b*i)*(1 + 0*i) = (a*1 b*0, [a*0 + b*1]*i) = (a + b*i) k). Inverse 1/(a + b*i) = (a - b*i) /(a2 +b2) L). Associativity for (+, *) (a + b*i) (+, *) [(c + d*i) (+, *) (e + f*i)] = [(a + b*i) (+, *) (c + d*i)] (+, *) (e + f*i) m). Distributivity of (*) over (+). (a + b*i) * [(c + d*i) + (e + f*i)] = [(a + b*i) * (c + d*i)] + [(a + b*i) *(e + f*i)


Complex Functions:

Let z = (a + b*i) i). Then ez is given the exp(z)

and and

Some practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (7+ 8*i)*(5 - 6*i) = 83 2*i. (7+ 8*i)/(5 - 6*i) = -0.21 + 1.3 *i. (7+ 8*i)+(5 - 6*i) = 12 + 2*i. (7+ 8*i)-(5 - 6*i) = 2 + 14*i {|(7+ 8*i)|, |(7- 8*i)|} = {10.6, 10.6} (0+ 0*i)-(5 - 6*i) = -5 + 6*i. 1/ (7+ 8*i) = 7/113 (8/113)*i

some problems 1. write 5*e(2.36*i) as cosine and sine terms ans. = 5*[cos(135o)+ sin(135o)*i] recall 360o = 2* radians

2. convert 3*[cos(45 )+ sin(45 )*i] in exponential form (0.79*i) ans =5*e



L-047 Electromagnetism

Charges are properties of atomic particles. Particle

proton neutron electron

Relative mass
1 1 1/1836

+1 0 -1


Static Electricity Electric charge is a fundamental property of the elementary particles of matter. Electrical charges are either positive or negative and occur in discrete quantities that can neither be created or destroyed. A collection of collected like charges can created by induction in a material such as a sphere on a conductive plane

Like charges repel each other while opposite charges attract. A collection of charges can either move freely in a (conductor) material or may not move freely (insulator).

II. Coulombs Law There is an electromagnetic force between separated charges of opposite or like in charge. Opposite charges will produce an attractive force while similar charges will produce a repulsive force. The greater amounts of charge create a greater force. The greater separation between charges results in a lesser the force by the inverse square.



where r = separation distance in meters k = Coulombs constant

qa,b = electric point charge in units of coulomb (C)

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A negative force is attractive, a repulsive force is positive and both are directed in a straight line. Example #1 Two positive charges 1.78*10-6 coulomb and 2.35*10-6 are separated by (1) meter. What is the electric force between them? Answer F = (9109* * 1.78*10-6 *2.35*10-6 )/12 = 0.0376 N (repulsive) N*m2*C*C/( m2*C2)

Electric Field
The electric field arising from a positive charge points away from the charge; the electric field arising from a negative charge points toward the charge. A positive charge exerts an outward force and a negative charge exerts an inward force. The field for a point charge is equally in all directions.

Example #2 Consider a charges of 1.78*10-6 coulomb and -2.35*10-6 are separated by (1) meter. What is the electric force between them? Answer m2*C2) F = (-9*109 * 1.78*10-6 * -2.35*10-6 )/12 = - 0.0376 N (attractive)
Field lines are drawn to show the direction and strength of field. The closer the lines are together then the stronger the force. If the lines are further apart from each other then the strength of force acting on an object is weaker.


Multiple charge points are done by vector addition from a reference point.



There is an electric potential energy associated with charges. For each pair of charges (q, Q), the potential energy is given by: Electric potential energy: vector. PE = k *q *Q / r This energy is a scalar, not a

The electric field (E) is a vector. If the electric field at a chosen point is known, the resulting force a charge (q) when it is placed at that point is given by: F = qE The electric field a distance (r ) away from a point charge Q is given by: E = k *Q / r2

Example #4. Two positive charges are 5 cm apart. One charge is 1 uC the other has a charge of 2 uC. Find the elctric potential energy of the system. Answer: PE = k q Q / r = (8.99 x 109) (1 x 10-6) (2 x 10-6) / 0.05 = 0.4 J

with units of Newton per coulomb (N/C) or volts per meter (V/m).

Electric potential is known as voltage. The potential at a point a distance ( r ) from a charge (Q) is given by: V = k Q / r units of volts Electric potential is a measure of the potential energy per unit charge.

Example #3. What are the magnitude and direction of the electric field 1.5 m away from a positive charge of 2.1*10-9 C? Answer 8.4 N/C, outward

V = PE / q If you know the potential at a point, and place a charge at that point, the potential energy is simply the charge multiplied by the potential. Electric potential is a scalar, not a vector.

The electric field strength is defined as the force per charge on the test charge. The field strength depends on the source charge (q).
E = F/q

III Electric Potential



An equipotential line marks the same potential. These may appear on electric field line diagrams. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to field lines, and therefore perpendicular to the electric force acting on a charge. If a charge moves along an equipotential line, then no work is done. If a charge moves between equipotential lines, then work is done.

Example #7. What amount of work is done on a 2 nC charge as it moves 0.02 m against an electric field of 200 N/C. answer W = q*E*d = (2 x 10-9 C)(167 N/C)(0.02 m) = 8 x 10-9 J

In a uniform field is the electric field is constant at every point. Two parallel conducting plates set a distance (d) apart while maintaining a constant voltage difference give a magnitude for the electric field, (E). E = V/d

NO work is done if the charge were to move in a direction along an equipotential surface i.e., perpendicular to the electric field vector.

A volt is a scalar quantity that equals a joule per coulomb. A coulomb of charge separated by a potential difference of 1 volt would require 1 joule of work. W = q*E*d = q*V joules

When there is a potential difference between two conductors (such as parallel plates) with a separation distance such as in a capacitor, a static electric field develops. The capacitor usually has dielectric () material separating the conductors. A positive charge collects on one plate and negative charge collects on the other. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. A capacitor is characterized by a capacitance, (C ). This is the ratio of the electric charge on each on a conductor to the potential difference between them. C = q/V units of coulomb/volt = 1 farad C = *A/d where A is area of the plate, d is the separation distance The electric energy stored, PE = q*V

Example #5. The distance between parralel plates is 0.15 meters and the voltage across the plates is 25V. What is the magnitude of the uniform electric field between the plates? Answer E = V/d = (-25 V) / (0.15 m) = 167 V/m Example #6. If a positive 2 nC charge were to inserted any where between the plates, what electric force would it experience ? magnitude of Answer F = q*E = (2 x 109 C)*(167 N/C) = = 3.34 x 10-7 N towards the negative.

Example #8. A 3.5 uf capacitor is connected across a 15V electric potential. What is the charge on the capacitor? How much energy is stored in the capacitor? Answer q = C*V = 52 uC . PE = q*V = 52*10-6 uC*15V = 0.78 mJ Example #9. Calculate the capacitance of the capacitor having an area of 0.12 m2 and separated with a distance d = 8 mm with dielectric value of 1 Answer C = *A/d = 1*(8.85*10-12 C2/N*m2)*0.12 m2)/(8*10-3 m) =0.016nF



L-048 Electronics


Ohms Law V = I*R


Electrical Power

The current, (I) through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference, (V). The constant of proportionality is called resistance (R ). R = V/I v/amp = (ohms )

Electric current is a flow of electric charge. The unit for measuring the rate of flow of electric charge, (I) is the ampere, (amp), or one coulomb per second. The amp is also given as 6.24*1018 electron flow per second. An electrical circuit is a path about which electrons follow. Electric current flows in a closed path or circuit. Electrons enter the circuit at a potential difference, voltage "source". The electrons leave an electrical circuit is at the "return" or "earth ground". Objects in the circuit that use the current are called loads.

Energy is lost as the electric current passes through a resistor. The power dissipated by the resistance is given as P = I*V = I2*R units of watts The thermal energy lost the dissipation is E = I2*R*t = w*s = J The electrical power, (P) in a circuit is the current times the potential. P =I*V units of watts Example #1. A 3.5 v battery drives a 0.200 amp current in a circuit. What is the power? Answer P = 3.5 * 0.200 amp*v = 0.70 watt Example #2. A 15 electric heater uses 120V source. What is the current in the circuit? How much energy is used in 30s? Answer: a). I = V/R = 120/15 volt/ohm = 8.0 amp b). E = I2*R*t = (8*8) *15 *30 = w * s = 30,000 J



Answer III A Series Circuit In a series circuit the current is the same everywhere. There is only one path in which electrons may flow. Electrons will flow from the (-) terminal to the (+) terminal.

a). I = 5/ (300) v/ohm = 17 mA b). V2 = 5*100/300 = amp/ohms = 1.67 v


A Parallel Circuit

In a parallel circuit there are several parallel branches or paths for the current to flow. However in a parallel circuit all branches have the same voltage across them.


Kirchoffs First Law for current states: I = V/(R1 + R2 + R3 ) Kirchoffs Second Law for voltage states: Vsource = I*R1 + I*R2 + I* R3 = V1 + V2 + V3 so V2 = Vsource *R2 /(R1 + R2 + R3 ) Kirchoffs First Law for parallel currents states: It = I1 + I2 + I3 the total current in the circuit It = Vs/R1 + Vs/R2 + Vs/R3 = Vs/Re 1/Re = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 The equivalent resistance for the circuit is (Re). Kirchoffs Second Law for parallel currents states: Vs = It *Re

Example #3. Let the circuit above have a source of 5 volts and let R1 = R2 = R3 = 100 ohms. What is the current in the circuit? What is the voltage drop across R2?



L-049 Magnetic Fields

Example #4. Let the circuit above have a source of 5 volts and let R1 = R2 = R3 = 100 ohms. What is the current in each branch of the circuit? What is the equivalent resistance of the circuit R2? What is the total current in the circuit? Answer a). I1 = Vs/ R1 = 5/(100) v/ohm = 5o mA b). Re = 1/ (1/100 + 1/100 +1/100) = 33.3 ohms c). It = Vs/Re = 5/33,3 = 150 mA


The Magnet Fields

Moving electric charges and the magnetic moments of fundamental particles produces magnetic fields. The magnetic field is a vector field and any given point within the field is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength), e.g. the Earths Magnetic Field.

Magnetic field lines make it much easier to visualize and understand the underlying magnetic field. A field line diagram contains the same information as the vector field it represents. The magnetic field can be estimated at any point on a diagram by using the direction and density of nearby magnetic field lines. A higher density of field lines indicates a stronger magnetic field. A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. here are two separate but closely related fields to which the name 'magnetic field' can refer, {H, B}.In a vacuum they are indistinguishable, differing only by a multiplicative constant. Inside a material they are different.
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= B*A A magnetic (H) field has N_S poles such as a bar magnet. The H-field is measured in ampere-turn per meter(A/m). It is a measure of the quantity of magnetism passing through a specified area in a magnetic field.



Electromagnetism is concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. These forces are explained by electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic force is one of the four (4) principle forces in nature, the other three are strong interaction, weak interaction, and gravitation. Current through a wire creates a perpendicular B-field with the direction of the field related directly to the direction of the current in the wire.

A magnetic (B) field has no end poles but is a continuous loop. The B-field is measured in tesla which is equivalent to (newtonsecond)/(coulombmeter).

Current through a coil creates a perpendicular B-field with the direction of the field related directly to the direction of the current in the wire.

The magnetic flux () through a surface is the component of the (B) field passing through that surface. The magnetic flux in the product of the average field, (B) times the area, (A) perpendicular to its direction.



The directions of current and magnetic field are related by a right hand thumb rule. Using the right-hand, curl the fingers into a half-circle around the wire to point in the direction of the magnetic B-field while the thumb points in the direction of the conventional current (flow of positive charges).

F = I*L x B = |I*L* B|

There are no individual magnetic poles (or magnetic charges). Electric charges can be separated, but magnetic poles always come in pairs - one north and one south.

The direction of the resultant force from the B-field on the conductor is given by the right hand rule.


Forces and a Magnetic Field

a). An electric conductor of length (L) carrying a current of (I) in the presence of a magnetic field (B) experiences a force: F = I*L x B = |I*L* B| sin() for angle to the B-field which is 90 for orthogonal orientations so,



Example # 1. A wire 2.0 m long carries a current of 16 amp and makes an angle of 90 with a uniform magnetic field of magnitude B = 1.9 T. Calculate the magnetic force on the wire. Answer: F=B*I*L*sin() F=(1.9)*(16)*(2.0)*sin(90) N*m*A/(A*m) F= 61 N b). Force on a charged particle
The magnetic force known as Laplace force acts on a charged particle, (q) moving with velocity, (v) in a magnetic field, (B): FB = q ( v x B ) The magnitude and direction is perpendicular to the plane formed by (v) and (B). If the particle moves perpendicular to the field, the magnitude becomes q v B and the trajectory of the particle will be circular. The force is perpendicular to the velocity which remains tangential and constant in circular motion at a radius (r ).

Example #2 A Particle of 2 coulomb charge travels at a velocity of 300 m/s through perpendicular B-field of 6 tesla strength. Find the force. Answer F = | q*v*B| coul*(m/s)*Tesla = F = 2*6*300 = 3600 N coul*(m/s) N*s/(coul*m) N



L-050 Projective Geometry

Projective geometry is the study of geometric properties that are invariant under projective transformations. It is not possible to talk about angles in projective geometry as it is in Euclidean geometry, because angle is an example of a concept not invariant under projective transformations. Another difference from elementary geometry is the way in which parallel lines can be said to meet in a point at infinity, once the concept is translated into projective geometry's terms. Again this notion has an intuitive basis, such as railway tracks meeting at the horizon in a perspective drawing.

A group of parallel lines in a projective plane is called a pencil of lines.

This pencil of lines will coincide with two non-parallel lines at a set of particular points called perspective ranges. Conversely a set of perspective ranges will generate a set of lines. If the lines end at one point they are parallel, if not the lines form the image of a conic section.

Parallel lines meet at one ideal point under projective geometric rule. The set of all such points is called the ideal line. A Euclidean plane complemented with an ideal line so that any family of parallel lines has their intersection point there generates a projective plane. If the ideal line construct is removed, then rest of the projective plane turns into a Euclidean plane. That is, any two lines that were coincident at ideal line no longer intersect and become parallel lines, and all axioms of Euclidean geometry hold.



The axioms of projective geometry are: 1. If and are distinct points on a plane, there is at least one line containing both and . 2. If and are distinct points on a plane, there is not more than one line containing both and . 3. Any two lines in a plane have at least one point of the plane (which may be the point at infinity) in common. 4. There is at least one line on a plane. 5. Every line contains at least three points of the plane. 6. All the points of the plane do not belong to the same line Any object that satisfies these properties is called a projective plane. There is a very handy property of projective planes. Its official name is duality. Duality means that for every theorem one may exchange points with lines and vice versa.

The point represented by a given set of homogeneous coordinates is unchanged if the coordinates are multiplied by a common factor. Conversely, two sets of homogeneous coordinates represent the same point if and only if one is obtained from the other by multiplying by a common factor. When Z is not 0 the point represented is the point (X/Z, Y/Z) in the Euclidean plane. When Z is 0 the point represented is a point at infinity. Note that the triple (0, 0, 0) is omitted and does not represent any point. The origin is represented by (0, 0, 1)

Take an equation for a line in Euclidean plane: ax + by + c = 0 then in homogeneous coordinates the line equation of the same line becomes ax + by + cz = 0

Homogenous co-ordinates.
One of the many purposes of using homogeneous coordinates is to capture the concept of infinity. Many geometric concepts and computations can be greatly simplified.

Two lines expressed using homogeneous coordinates:

Consider two real numbers, {a, b}, and the value of a/b. Fix the value of (a) and vary the value of (b). The value of a/b is gets larger as (b) gets smaller. As (b) approaches zero, a/b goes to infinity! Two numbers are used to represent the infinite value with (a,0). .

are identical when The intersection of the two lines above is given by the point {x, y, z} I. Given two lines L1 = {4,2,2} and L2 = {6, 5,1} the point of intersection is given by:

A point on a Euclidean plane is represented by a pair of co-ordinates (x, y). Any point in the projective plane is represented by a triple (X, Y, Z), called the homogeneous coordinates of the point, where X, Y and Z are not all 0.



L-051 Proof Giving

A proof is a demonstration that if fundamental axioms are true, then a concluding statement based on these axioms is necessarily true. Proofs are obtained from deductive reasoning (logic), rather than from inductive or empirical arguments. . An unproven proposition is known as a conjecture. A statement that is proved is often called a theorem. Once proved, it can be used as the basis to prove further statements. A theorem may also be referred to as a lemma, if it is intended for use as a step in the proof of a longer theorem.

II. Consider two points on the projective plane {3,1,1}, {-4,5,1}. Find the equation of the line connecting the points so using vector cross product.

giving the equation,

p)3. Theorem. For any positive integer (n) then the sum , 1 + 2 + ... + n = n(n+1)/2. Proof. (Proof by Mathematical Induction) Let's let P(n) be the statement "1 + 2 + ... + n = (n (n+1)/2." (The idea is that P(n) should be an assertion that for any n is verifiably either true or false.) The proof will now proceed in two steps: the initial step and the inductive step. Initial Step. We must verify that P(1) is True. P(1) asserts "1 = 1(2)/2", which is clearly true. So we are done with the initial step. Inductive Step. Here we must prove the following assertion: "If there is a k such that P(k) is true, then (for this same k) P(k+1) is true." Thus, we assume there is a k such that 1 + 2 + ... + k = k (k+1)/2. (We call this the inductive assumption.) We must prove, for this same k, the formula 1 + 2 + ... + k + (k+1) = (k+1)(k+2)/2. This is not too hard: 1 + 2 + ... + k + (k+1) = k(k+1)/2 + (k+1) = (k(k+1) + 2 (k+1))/2 = (k+1)(k+2)/2. The first equality is a consequence of the inductive assumption.



P1). Isoperimetric Theorem: S1. Among all planar shapes with the same perimeter the circle has the largest area. S2. Among all planar shapes with the same area the circle has the shortest perimeter Theorem: the statements S1 and S2 are equivalent, S1 = S2.

Therefore perimeter of C is shortest. Therefore S1 S2.

Now S1

S2, and S1

S2 so S1 = S2.

QED Proof Assume S1 holds and prove S2 by contradiction. Spose, S2 is false. Then for a given circle C there exists a figure F with the same area but with a perimeter shorter than that of C. Shrink C into a smaller circle C' whose perimeter equals that of F. The area of C' must be smaller than that of C and, consequently, it must have an area smaller than the area of F. # This is a contradiction of S1 where C' and F have the same perimeter but the circle has a lesser area. Therefore circle C has the largest perimeter. Therefore S1 Secondly Assume S2 holds and prove S1 by contradiction. Now spose, S1 is false. Then for a given circle C there exists a figure F with the same perimeter but with an area larger than that of C. Expand C into a larger circle C' whose area equals that of F. The perimeter of C' must be larger than that of C and, consequently, it will be larger than the perimeter of F. # This is a contradiction of S1 when C' and F have the same area but the perimeter of the circle C' is greater than the perimeter of F.
269 270

P2). A candy bar consisting of (N) numbers of squares will require at most (N-1) separations to produce (N) separate squares.
Proof #1 (by induction)

1. Just one square need no breaks. 2. Assume for 1 m < N it is true only m - 1 breaks will make m squares. 3. Let there be a bar of N > 1 squares. Split it into two pieces with x and y squares, respectively so x + y = N. 4. By the induction hypothesis, it will take (x-1) breaks to split the first bar and (y-1) to split the second one. 5. The total breaks will be 1 + (x-1) + (y -1) = N-1.



L-052 Proof Giving Cont

Prove; There exist irrational numbers (a) and (b) such that Proof by construction

is rational."


Rational number is ny number that can be made by dividing one integer by another. Irrational number cannot be written as a simple fraction - the decimal goes on forever without repeating. Recall that number is irrational, and 2 is rational. Consider the . Either it is rational or it is irrational. and both being being and .

If is rational, then the theorem is true, with If is irrational, then the theorem is true, with being , since

QED P3.) To show 22/7 > . Proof 22/7 = 3.142857 and = 3.141592. So 3.142857 - 3.141592 = 0.001265

p.2) Prove the sum of two even integers {x, y} is an even number. Proof . Consider two even integers (x ) and (y), Where x =2*a and y =2*b are even by definition for integers (a) and (b). Then the sum Necessarily 2*(a + b)/(x+y) = 2 Therefore x + y is even. QED .

Therefore 3.142857 > 3.141592 Therefore 22/7 > QED



L-053 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Ideal gas law calculator (enter magnitudes for 10x as E+x in the calculator) . http://www.webqc.org/ideal_gas_law.html


Form a).

P * V = n *R *T


Idea Gas

where P = pressure in atmospheres, (atm) V = volume in liters, (l) T = temperature in degrees Kelvin, (Ko) .n = no. of moles (1 mole = Avogadros No= 6.02*1023 molecules) R = universal gas constant, 8.31 J/ (mol* Ko)

An ideal gas is a theoretical construct of the random motion of noninteracting point particles. At normal conditions, most gases behave like an ideal gas. A gas behaves more ideal at higher temperatures and lower density (pressure) Basic assumptions for ideal gas: 1. The gas consists are point particles. 2. Gas particles are in random motion and obey Newtonian Mechanics. 3. The total space occupied by an ideal is insignificant when compared to the space between the gas molecules 4. There exist no intermolecular forces between ideal gas molecules. 5. All collisions are elastic and instantaneous in duration. 6. Total number of particles is large

Example #1. What is the temperature (Ko) for one (1 mol) of an ideal gas at 2 atm of pressure at one (1) liter of volume? Answer: 24.4 Ko

Form b).

P * V = N *k *T

where P = pressure in atmospheres, (atm) V = volume in liters, (l) T = temperature in degrees Kelvin, (Ko) N = no. of molecules .k = Boltzmans constant, 1.38*10-23 * J/Ko) .k = R/Avogadros No /mol


Ideal Gas Law Example #2. What is the temperature (Ko) for an (Avagadros no. = 6 E+23) molecules of an ideal gas at 2 atm of pressure at one (1) liter of volume? Answer: 24.4 Ko

The state of a gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature given by the equation. A consequence of this law is that, under constant pressure and temperature conditions, the volume of a gas depends solely on the number of moles of its molecules, not on the type of gas.


The three common temperature scales are o Celsius, o Fahrenheit, and o Kelvin.

An ideal gas system can undergo a change from an initial state to a final state {Pi, Vi, Ti} -> {Pi, Vi, Ti}.

Pi*Vi/Ti = Pf*Vf/Tf

Example #3. A 100 liters of an ideal gas at a temperature of 20 Co and 15 atms is condensed into a volume of 80 liters and a final temperature of 25 Co . What is the final pressure? Answer: 19 atms

The scales are linear and therefore convertible from one to another. This is best done with a trustworthy calculator, e.g. III. Temperature http://www.trimen.pl/witek/calculators/temperatury.html

Temperature is the internal energy of a gas (or system). It s the hot or cold property of a gas (or substance).

Temperature is measured by a material the thermometer quickly establishes a thermodynamic equilibrium. Usually the boiling point and freezing point of water are used to establish a scale for temperature values.




Black Body Radiation

A black hole is a region of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape due to its extreme compact mass. Black holes are near-perfect black bodies as their gravitation filed strong for light to escape. There temperature is inversely proportional to their mass. A black body is an idealized object that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation.. Black-body radiation also is called temperature radiation or thermal radiation. Black body radiation of a body is a continuous frequency spectrum that depends on the body's temperature. The spectrum or range radiation has a characteristic frequency that shifts to higher frequencies with increasing temperature.

V. Average Speed of Gas There exits a distribution describes particle speeds in a gas. Particles move freely between short collisions, but do not interact. The temperature of a gas is related to the average speed of the molecules. This implies that there must be a range (distribution) of speeds for the system.

The speeds in a gas will have a distribution with a mean value, ( ) as a function of mass and temperature.

The molecular mass (m), or mass of the molecule of a substance is numerically equivalent to the molecular weight or the weight of Avogadros number of a substance The maximum distribution is an intermediate speed at which the largest numbers of molecules are traveling. As the temperature increases, the number of molecules traveling at high speeds increases, and they become more even.

Plancks law gives the intensity of radiation emitted by blackbody as a function of frequency (or wavelength.)



VI. Mean Free Path

The mean free path is the average distance covered by a moving particle between successive collisions.

The root mean square velocity, ( ) is defined as the square root of the average velocity-squared of the molecules in a gas.

Mean free path, () is given: . = k*T/[4**2 *N*P *r2] where N is the number of molecules per unit volume, r is the ideal gas molecular radius, T = temperature in degrees Kelvin, (Ko) N = no. of molecules .k = Boltzmans constant, 1.38*10-23 * J/Ko)

Example #4 Find the root mean square velocity of a gas with molar mass of 12.0 grams, at the temperature of 3000 Ko . Answer 2497.17 m/s Use calculator http://www.aculator.com/calculator.do?equation=Root-meansquare-velocity&id=65

Example #5. For an idea gas at 101 kPa pressure, with a spherical radius of 1.7*10-10m at a temperature of 273 Ko calculate the mean free path. Answer 72.6 nm use calculator http://hyperphysics.phy-str.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/menfre.html



VII. Atomic Pressure of an Ideal Gas VII. Atomic Temperature of an Ideal Gas Using the result above and the ideal gas law, the relationship between temperature and average velocity can be found: T = (1/3k ) [m*vavg2] Where k is again Boltzmann's constant As the temperature rises, the idea gas molecules will move at greater speeds. If the volume remains unchanged, the molecules would hit the walls more often resulting in an increase in pressure.

An ideal gas shows the following characteristics:

It is in thermal equilibrium. The gas molecules collide elastically The molecules are separated by distances larger then their diameters. The net velocity of all the gas molecules must be zero.

This model of a gas molecules in constant motion undergoing elastic collisions while obeying Newtonian laws is the kinetic theory of gases. The pressure on the wall (P) may be derived in terms of the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules: P = (2N/6V ) [m*vavg2] Where N is the number of molecules, .m is the mass of one molecule, V is the volume

The pressure is proportional to the number of molecules per unit volume (N/V) and to the average velocity of the molecules. The pressure of the gas molecules is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas in degrees Kelvin. Temperature is a direct measure of the average molecular kinetic energy for an ideal gas.



L-054 Electromagnetic Induction

Example #1. A 2.40 m length of wire is held in an east-west direction and moves horizontally to the north with a speed of 14.9 m/s. The vertical component of Earth's magnetic field in this region is 40.0 T directed downward. Calculate the induced emf between the ends of the wire and determine which end is positive. Answer Emf = B*L*v = ( Tesla =V*s/m2)*m*m/sec = V (volts) = 40*10-6 * 2.4 * 14.9 = + 1.44 mV at western terminal see below


Faraday's law of induction

Change in a magnetic field near a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be "induced". The change might be in the magnetic field strength, movement of the magnet toward or away from the coil, movement of the coil into or out of the magnetic field, or rotating the coil relative to the magnet.

The sign on emf is decided by the right hand rule with positive current.

The voltage induced is called an electromotive force but it is not a force in Newtons but a potential energy in volts. Emf = B*L*v Where B is the magnetic field strength, L is length of a straight section of conductor, And v is the velocity of the moving conductor.
Faraday's Law involves (N) coils of wire of fixed area (A), which does not change with time. The current induced in the coil with a magnetic field, (B) changing in time, (t):



Emf = I *R = -A*N*(B/t) where R is resistance in the coil, The induced current depends on both the area of the coil and the change in magnetic field. In a coil of wires, each loop contributes an area A to the righthand side of the equation, so the induced emf will be proportional to the number of loops in a coil. But doubling the number of loops doubles the length of wire used and so doubles the resistance, so the induced current will not increase when loops are added. However the voltage induced doubles.

Emf = -L*I/t

Where, L = self inductance of the coil.

Example #2. A flat square coil with N = 5 loops. The coil is 20 cm on each side, and has a magnetic field of 0.3 T passing through it. The plane of the coil is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The magnetic field is increased uniformly from 0.3 T to 0.8 T in 1.0 seconds. While the induced emf in the coil?
Answer Emf = -A*N*(B/t) = m2*( V*s/m2) /s = V = -(0.20)2 *5(0.8 - 0.3)/1 = -0.1V

When the switch closes current begins to flow creating an induced magnetic field by self inductance.
An emf is produced by change in current in one (1st). The induced magnetic field creates an emf on a second (2nd) coil. This effect is called mutual inductance.

II Self and Mutual Inductance

The property of self-inductance is a form of electromagnetic induction defined as the induction of a voltage in a current varies in a wire. The magnetic field created by a changing current induces a voltage in the same circuit. Therefore, the voltage is self-induced.




Eddy currents

Eddy currents are electric currents induced in conductors when upon exposure to a changing magnetic field ,or relative motion to a fixed field. A circulating flow of electrons arises within the body of the conductor. These eddies current induce a subsequent magnetic field. The primary input voltage (right) induces a magnetic field in the core, which creates the secondary output voltage (right). An input voltage is supplied to the primary coil. This creates a magnetic flux around the iron. This causes a voltage to be induced in the right of the transformer. The voltage induced on the secondary coil depends on the number of turns in the wire. To increase the output voltage from the input voltage you increase the amount of coils on right. Alternatively, if a voltage is now applied to the secondary then a lesser voltage will be found at the primary. Vp/Vs = Np/Ns N = no windings, V = voltage, and {s, p} = {secondary, primary)

The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flat sheet.



A transformer is composed of two different coils of wire around opposite sides of an iron core

Example #3. A power supply has 240V but only 12V is required. How many turns are required on the secondary coil when a transformer is with Np = 400 is used? Answer: Ns = Np*Vs/Vp = 400*12/240 = 20 turns



As the voltage changes so does the current. Resultantly, the voltage decreases the current by the same ratio. Vp/Vs = Np/Ns = Is/Ip

L-055 Electro-Magnetic Fields and Matter

Example #4. A supply with 240V and 10A output is used for a 12V application. What is the current of the circuit? Answer: Is = Ip* Vp/Vs = 10*12/240 = 200 A

I. Motion of an electron in Magnetic field In a magnetic field the force is always at right angles to the motion of the electron so the resulting path of the electron is circular.

The power equation is P = IV. The power into the transformer equals the power. out

Example #5. A computer requires a voltage of 5V and a current of 0.5A. If it is supplied with a voltage of 30V, what is the current being supplied? Answer Pi = P0 Ii = Io*Vo/Vin Io = 0.5*5/30 = 0.083A

A charged, (q) particle of mass, (m) and traveling at velocity, (v) will also move in a circular path of radius, (r ) in a magnetic field, (B). r = m*v/(q*B) v = (2*q*V/m), V = voltage so r = (1/B)* (2*V*m/q),



harmonic, a sinusoidal electric field and a sinusoidal magnetic field are simultaneously produced. Example #1. A ionized helium atom of +2 charge with mass 6.7*10-27 kg, the voltage is 1.0kV. Uniform magnetic field, B is 6.5*10-2 T Find the radius of the particles path in the magnetic field. Answer. r = (1/B)* (2*V*m/q) = (Coul*sec/kg) * [kg*m2/(Coul*sec2) *(kg/Coul)] = (Coul*sec/kg) * [kg*m/(Coul*sec)] = m = (100/6.5)*[(2 *1000 *6.7*10-27 )/( 2*1.6*10-19)]1/2 = 0.10 m EM waves exhibit the following properties: 1. They consist of two sinusoidal fields the Electric-field and Magneticfield, which are oscillating in phase and at right angles to each other. 2. They are transverse waves. 3. All electromagnetic waves can travel through vacuum (or free space). 4. In vacuum, they travel with the same speed c = 3.00 x 108 ms-1. 5. All EM waves exhibit properties such as reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization.

II. EMR Rapidly-moving electrons are most easily accelerated when they enter region of force. They produce much of the highest frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in nature. EMR is classified according to the frequency of its wave. They have a wide range of frequencies (or wavelengths). Their properties vary distinctly with frequencies. Based on their frequencies or wavelengths, they are given different names.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is a wave form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, especially electrons. EMR has components of an electric and a magnetic field. These exist in a fixed ratio of intensity and oscillate in phase that is mutually perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the propagation direction of the wave. In a vacuum, electromagnetic radiation propagates at the speed of light. An electromagnetic wave is produced by charged particles when they accelerate or de-accelerate. As the charged particles execute simple



An LC circuit is called a resonant circuit or tuned circuit. It consists of an inductor, ( L), and a capacitor, (C ). Together they can act as an electrical resonator, storing electrical energy oscillating at the circuit's resonant frequency. LC circuits are used either for generating signals at a particular frequency, or picking out a signal at a particular frequency from a more complex signal.



Example #2. Find the resonant frequency for L is 50 microhenrys and C is 40 picofarads. f = 1/2(LC) = [henry*farads] = [(kg m s Amp ) *(s amp /kg m )] = Hz = 1/6.28*(5010-6 x 4010-12) = 3.56 MHz
2 -2 -2 4 2 2

III. antennae

Antenna impedance, (Z) is the ratio of voltage to current at the antennas input. Antennae are designed so electrons can easily oscillate up and down the structure. The very slight motion of electrons up and down an antenna is enough to cause electromagnetic waves to radiate out the sides of the antenna at the same frequency as the variable voltage applied to it. These are used for transmitting radio and television signals as well as other forms of wireless communication. The reverse is also true. Impinging radio waves create oscillating currents in the antenna at the same frequency received. The electrical waves created on antennas typically have a fixed wavelength. The length of the antenna is chosen to make it resonate. Hence the end of an antenna forms an anti-node or area of maximum voltage or e-field strength. A node is a point with zero e-field. The distance between an anti-node and node is a quarter of a wavelength.

A resonating LC circuit can drive by inductance a current oscillating at the same frequency along a conductor (antenna). A wave of EMR is then transmitted into space after each oscillation. Likewise, EMR impingent upon an antenna can induce alternating current into the LC resonant circuit.

The wavelength of an electromagnetic wave is calculated as follows: = C/f , C = speed of light (3 x 108 m/s), f = frequency



L-056 Boolean Algebra

A dipole antenna is the simplest form of antenna. In this case each half of the antenna is roughly 1/4 wavelength long with the antenna fed from its center. Hence, the total antenna is 1/2 wavelength long. The ends of the antenna correspond to anti-nodes and the center to nodes. Boolean algebra (or Boolean logic) is a logical calculus of truth values, developed by George Boole in the 1840s. Switching algebra is a way to analyze and design circuits by algebraic means in terms of logic gates.

An antenna will still transmit even if the length is not ideal for resonance. The efficiency of the system will be significantly lower. Dipole antennas are considered balance devices because they are symmetrical. The current will be of equal size on both halves. Any antenna will have to oscillate charged particles in order to transmit radio signals and will tend to do this best if the antenna is resonating.








Quantum Theory

Blackbody Radiation
A black body absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls on it. The object reflects no electromagnetic radiation. Since no visible light is being reflected, the object appears black. A less than ideal black body will however emit some radiation.

Max Plank Theory

Incandescence is the emission of light (visible electromagnetic radiation) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
The quantum theory of absorption and emission of radiation was announced by Max Planck in 1900. He proposed that all systems absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation in particles of energy, or quanta (E). Quanta have measure proportional to the frequency () of their radiation E = h* . The constant of proportionality (h) is Planck's constant; h = 6.626068 1034 m2 kg / s. or
6.62606957(29)1034 Js 4.135667516(91)1015 eVs 6.62606957(29)1027 ergs

Depending on the temperature of the black body, it will radiate different wavelengths. This electromagnetic radiation from the black body is called blackbody radiation.

Planks Law for the intensity (Iv) distribution for black body radiation is

Example #1, Find the energy of a photon whose wavelength is 526 nm.
Answer E = h* = h*c/ = J *s (m/s)*m = 4*10

Iv = Example #2. Find the spectral radiance for a black body emission at 526 nm at 5000 Ko.

J = 2.4 eV

Where 1 eV = 1.6 * 10


303 304

Example #2. Find the spectral radiance for a black body emission at 526 nm at 5000 Ko. Answer = 0.000539232 W/m2/sr/m use calculator

Wien's law determines the shift of the radiative power maximum to higher frequencies as the temperature is raised. You can calculate the power radiated by a black body from this formula: P = A* * T4 Where P-Power radiated from the object in J/S A- Surface area of the object m

The equation for the photoelectric effect was given by Albert Einstein in 1905. Ephoton = + KEmax where Ephoton = h* is the energy present in the incident photon, is the work function is the minimum energy for the electron to escape from the surface KEmax is themaximum kinetic energy of the ejected photoelectrons .

- Stefan Boltzmann constant 5.67x10 8W / m2k4 T- Temperature of the object, in Ko

It is also possible to calculate lambda max (the peak wavelength) using the formula:

b = 2.96e


Example #5. What is the work function of sodium if the photoelectron threshold frequency is 680 nm? Answer = h* = h*c/ = 4.1*10-15* 3*106 *109 (eV*s(nm/m) m/s = 1240 eV* nm/ 680 nm = 1.83 eV

T = Temperate measured in Kelvin Example #4 Find the emission wavelength max for a black body at 5000 Ko. Answer 580 nm use http://www.calctool.org/CALC/phys/p_thermo/wien Each photon can be absorbed by exactly one photoelectron. The energy of the photons affects the kinetic energy of the released photoelectrons. Work is done on a charged particle when it moves against an electric field potential (V in volts). This work is equal to the photoelectrons kinetic energy, KE. The charge on the electron is (q). KE = W = q *V

Photoelectric effect
Electrons are emitted from material as a consequence of the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. Electrons emitted in by the photoelectric effect are referred to as photoelectrons.


If the potential is adjusted so the photoelectrons motion is just stopped then KEmax = q*Vstopping The minimum potential at which the photoelectric current becomes zero is called stopping potential, (Vstopping).

Answer = h* = h*c/max = 1240 eV* nm/ 440 nm = 2.82 eV Vstop = Ke max = h*c/threshold - = 1240 eV* nm/ 200 nm - 2.82 eV = 6.20 2.82 = 3.38 eV

Compton Effect
If kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectron is plotted against the frequency of the absorbed photon, a straight line of slope h = Planks Constant. Evidence that light is made up of particles (photons), and that photons have momentum, can be seen when a photon collides with a stationary electron. Some of the energy and momentum is transferred to the latter electron. Energy and momentum are conserved in this elastic collision

Einstein's formula relates the maximum kinetic energy (Kmax) of the photoelectron to the frequency of the absorbed photon (), and the threshold frequency (0) of the emissive surface. Kmax = h( 0) The wavelength (/) of outgoing photon is related to the wavelength () of the incident photon by the equation: = / - = (h/mec) (1 - cos) Example #6 Find KE max for photoelectron ejected from a potassium surface incident light with a wave length of 200 nm. The photoelectric threshold wavelength of potassium is 440 nm What must be the stopping voltage for this photoelectron?
The term (h/mec = 2.43 x 10-12 m), where (me) is the mass of the electron, is known as the Compton wavelength. The collision causes the photon wavelength to increase by somewhere between (0 and 180).



Example #7 A photon with a wavelength of 600 nm collides with an electron. After the collision the photon scatters at 48).What is the photon's wavelength after the collision? Answer / = + (h/mec) (1 - cos) = 600 + 2.43 x 10-12 m *109 nm/m* (1- 0.67) = 600.0008 nm


The Atom

I. The Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively

charged nucleus surrounded by electrons in orbits around the nucleus.

V. De Broglie wavelength The wave particle duality is extended from light to ordinary particles of matter. Any object of mass, (m) moving at velocity, (v) can be represented by a wavelength, ().. = h/(m*v) = h/p h is planks constant p is momentum Electrons change orbits by emission or absorption of a photon of energy (E). E = h*c/ = h*v, v is frequency. The eV s the amount of energy gained by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt. Thus it is 1 volt (1 joule per coulomb, 1 J/C) multiplied by the electron charge (1 e, or 1.602 1019 C).
The radius of the electrons orbit about the simplest atom of Hydrogen is given in integer values n = 1.2.3.

Example #8 Find the De Broglie wavelength of a neutron of mass 1.67 *1027 kg traveling at 2200 m/s Answer = h/p = (m2 kg/s)/ (kg*m/s) =m = 6.626068 10-34 /( 1.67 *1027 * 2200 ) = 0.18 nm

rn = h2n2/(4*2*K*kg*q2) m is mass of electron, 9.10938188 10-31 kg q is electron charge, 1.60217646 10-19 coulombs h is planks constant, 6.626068 10-34 m2 kg / s K = 9.0*109 N*m2/Coul2 The energy of an electron in its orbit is given



Answer = 0.000539232 W/m2/sr/m use calculator


Wien's law determines the shift of the radiative power maximum to higher frequencies as the temperature is raised. You can calculate the power radiated by a black body from this formula: P = A* * T4 Where P-Power radiated from the object in J/S A- Surface area of the object m

The equation for the photoelectric effect was given by Albert Einstein in 1905. Ephoton = + KEmax where Ephoton = h* is the energy present in the incident photon, is the work function is the minimum energy for the electron to escape from the surface KEmax is themaximum kinetic energy of the ejected photoelectrons .

- Stefan Boltzmann constant 5.67x10 8W / m2k4 T- Temperature of the object, in Ko

It is also possible to calculate lambda max (the peak wavelength) using the formula:

b = 2.96e


Example #5. What is the work function of sodium if the photoelectron threshold frequency is 680 nm? Answer = h* = h*c/ = 4.1*10-15* 3*106 *109 (eV*s(nm/m) m/s = 1240 eV* nm/ 680 nm = 1.83 eV

T = Temperate measured in Kelvin Example #4 Find the emission wavelength max for a black body at 5000 Ko. Answer 580 nm use http://www.calctool.org/CALC/phys/p_thermo/wien Each photon can be absorbed by exactly one photoelectron. The energy of the photons affects the kinetic energy of the released photoelectrons. Work is done on a charged particle when it moves against an electric field potential (V in volts). This work is equal to the photoelectrons kinetic energy, KE. The charge on the electron is (q). KE = W = q *V If the potential is adjusted so the photoelectrons motion is just stopped then KEmax = q*Vstopping

Photoelectric effect
Electrons are emitted from material as a consequence of the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. Electrons emitted in by the photoelectric effect are referred to as photoelectrons.



V. De Broglie wavelength The wave particle duality is extended from light to ordinary particles of matter. Any object of mass, (m) moving at velocity, (v) can be represented by a wavelength, ().. = h/(m*v) = h/p h is planks constant p is momentum

The Atom

I. The Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively

charged nucleus surrounded by electrons in orbits around the nucleus.

Example #8 Find the De Broglie wavelength of a neutron of mass 1.67 *1027 kg traveling at 2200 m/s Answer = h/p = (m2 kg/s)/ (kg*m/s) =m = 6.626068 10-34 /( 1.67 *1027 * 2200 ) = 0.18 nm

Electrons change orbits by emission or absorption of a photon of energy (E). E = h*c/ = h*v, v is frequency. The eV s the amount of energy gained by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt. Thus it is 1 volt (1 joule per coulomb, 1 J/C) multiplied by the electron charge (1 e, or 1.602 1019 C).
The radius of the electrons orbit about the simplest atom of Hydrogen is given in integer values n = 1.2.3.

rn = h2n2/(4*2*K*kg*q2) m is mass of electron, 9.10938188 10-31 kg q is electron charge, 1.60217646 10-19 coulombs h is planks constant, 6.626068 10-34 m2 kg / s K = 9.0*109 N*m2/Coul2 The energy of an electron in its orbit is given En = -2*2*K2*kg*q4/ h2n2 = -13.6/n2 eV
309 310

Example #1 Sodium light emits a transition wavelength at 598.6 nm. What is the energy difference between levels for this transition? II. Quantum Atom Answer E = h*c/ eV*nm/nm = nm = 1240/589.6 = 2.1 eV According to Schrodinger, electrons confined in orbits set up standing waves. These describe the probability of an electrons location. The distributions of these probability regions about the nucleus are called orbitals. Electron orbitals are now described as electron density clouds. The densest area of the cloud has the greatest probability of finding the electron and the least dense area has the lowest probability.

Example #2. Find the energy for the electron transition in Hydrogen from n= 1 to n=2 . Find the resulting wavelength. Answer E2-q = 13.6/22 -13.6/12 = 10.2 eV = h*c/ E2-q eV*nm/eV = 1240/10.2 = 122 nm

Example #3 Calculate the radius of n = 3 level of the electrons orbit in Hydrogen. Answer r3 = h2 32/(4*2*K*kg*q2) = = ( N*m*s)2 /(( N*m2/Coul2 )*kg*coul2) = N*m2*s2/( m2 *kg) ( kg*m/s2 ) s2 /(kg) = m = (3*6.626068 10-34 )2 /(4*2* 9.0*109 * 9.1*10 -31 * 1.6*1.6 *10-38 ) = 0.478 nm



III. Lasers A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons.

L-059 Solid State Physics

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter through methods such as quantum mechanics. It investigates the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. Thus, solid-state physics forms the theoretical basis of materials science. I. Band Theory of Conductivity

If one orbital of an atom contains an electron at a given energy level and one open level of greater energy is available for occupation then the electron transfer takes (x quantum) of energy. The gain medium of the laser is accomplished by mixture of helium and neon gases, in approximately a 10:1 ratio at low pressure in a glass envelope. The energy or pump source of the laser is provided by a high voltage electrical discharge passed through the gas between electrodes (anode and cathode) within the tube. A DC current of 3 to 20 mA is typically required forCW operation. The optical cavity of the laser usually consists of two concave mirrors or one plane and one concave mirror, one having very high (typically 99.9%) reflectance and the output coupler mirror allowing approximately 1% transmission. If several occupied orbitals of similar energy sit below several uncoupled levels also of similar energy then an electron transfer will take a quantum less than (x) energy. If a great many occupied orbitals of similar energy sit below many uncoupled levels with energy overlap then an electron transfer will minimum energy.



III. The top occupied energy level at low temperatures for a electron in a material is called the Fermi Level. The valence electrons are bound to individual atoms in the material. They form a valence band. Conduction electrons move freely within the atomic lattice of the material. They form the conduction band. On an energy level valence band is located below the conduction band separated by an energy band gap.


A true insulator is a material that resists the flow of electric charge. In insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. The energy needed for the transfer is large.



All conductors contain electrical charges, which will move when an electric potential difference is applied In metals, the conduction band has no energy gap separating it from the valence band. IV. Semiconductors

A semiconductor is a material with electrical conductivity intermediate in magnitude between that of a conductor and an insulator.



A p-type semiconductor is obtained by adding acceptors to a semiconductor in order to increase the number of free positive hole.. V. PN junction

An intrinsic semiconductor or undoped semiconductor is a pure semiconductor. The number of charge carriers is therefore determined by the properties of the material itself. In intrinsic semiconductors the number of excited electrons (n) and the number of holes (p) are equal.

N-type semiconductors are a type of extrinsic semiconductor where the dopant atoms re capable of providing extra conduction electrons, (n). VI. The diode A diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric transfer characteristic. That is the device has low resistance to current flow in one direction, and high resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals.

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L-060 The Nucleus

The neutron is a neutral particle because it has no charge. Mass of neutron is 1.0086654 a.m.u. or 1.6749 x 10-27 kg. The unified atomic mass unit (a.m.u., symbol: uis a unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic scale. It is defined as one twelfth of the rest mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon-12. and has a value of 1.660538921(73)1027 kg.

The nucleus is the dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. Most all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus. The diameter of the nucleus is in the range of 1.751015 m for hydrogen to about 151015 m for the heaviest atoms. The branch of physics concerned with studying and understanding the atomic nucleus is called nuclear physics.



The number of protons in an atoms nucleus defines elements. An atom with 6 protons is carbon and an atom with 92 protons is uranium. In addition the atoms of every element (except the simplest form of hydrogen) contain neutrons. Isotopes occur when an element's atom exist with different numbers of neutrons. As a result an element's isotopes differ in mass. I. Nucleons: The chemical reactions of an element's different isotopes are almost identical. The physical properties of atoms depend on mass. This enables isotopes to be separated from one another by methods such as diffusion and fractional distillation.

The electron is a negatively charged particle of 1.6022 x 10-19 coulomb. Mass of electron is 0.000548597 a.m.u. or 1.1 x 10-31 kg. The proton is a positively charged particle of 1.6022 x 10-19 coulomb. Mass of proton is 1.0072766 a.m.u. or 1.6726 x 10-27 kg.


The stability of each atom's nucleus depends on the ratio of protons to neutrons. Many isotopes have a ratio of protons to neutrons that renders them unstable and therefore radioactive.

Alpha decay occurs when the nucleus ejects an alpha particle (helium nucleus). This is the most common process of emitting nucleons.

Beta decay occurs when the nucleus emits an electron or positron and a type of neutrino, in a process that changes a proton to a neutron or vice versa. The nucleus may capture an orbiting electron, converting a proton into an neutron (electron capture).


Radioactive decay.

This is the process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing particles. A decay results when an atom with one type of nucleus transforms to an atom with a nucleus in a different state, or to a different nucleus containing different numbers of nucleons. The decay process results in nuclear transmutation (creation of an atom of a new element).



Gamma decay does not result in transmutation when nucleus emits as a gamma ray photon.

Uranium-238 is an isotope, which undergoes alpha decay to produce Thorium and gamma rays.

The mass numbers on each side of the equation when added together are equal. The same is true for the atomic numbers

Plutonium Nuclear Reaction: IV. Nuclear Reaction Equations: The elements involved in the reaction is identified by their chemical symbol. Two numbers are attached to each symbol. The number at the upper right is the mass number, also known as the (A) number which describes the atomic weight of the atom (the number of protons and neutrons). The number at the lower left is the atomic number, or (Z) number which describes the number of protons in the nucleus. Uranium-238 =
alpha particle = beta particle is neutron =

239 + 1 = 142 + 93 + 5 = 240 94 + 0 = 56 + 38 + 0 = 94



V. IV. Half Life

Nuclear Bombardment:

Bombardment reactions involve the nucleus of the atom being bombarded with neutrons and alpha particles to generate new particles.

All the atoms of given radioisotope do not decay at the same time. They decay at a characteristic rate of the isotope. The rate of decay is called 1/2 a half-life, (T ). The half-life of a radioisotope describes how long it takes for half of the atoms in a given mass to decay.


N = No *e[-t/T


N = amount resulting after decay time No = the beginning amount -t = time duration Example, the half life of beryllium (11) is 13.8 seconds. If you start with 16 grams of 11Be. After 20.7 seconds how much material is left Answer , 3.6 gram

= 16*e[-20.7/13.8] grams
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L-061 I. Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus. During this process, matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. Fusion is the process that powers active stars.

Fusion in stars produces all of the chemical elements found on Earth. Sunlight is energy released from fusion reactions in the sun. Fusion is believed to be possible only under extremely high temperatures. For this reason it is referred to as a thermonuclear reaction. When hydrogen atoms fuse, the nuclei must come together. However, the protons in each nucleus will tend to repel each other because they have the same charge (positive). The high temperature gives the hydrogen atoms enough energy to overcome the electrical repulsion between the protons. Fusion requires temperatures about 100 million Kelvin (approximately six times hotter than the sun's core). At these temperatures, hydrogen is a plasma, not a gas. Plasma is a high-energy state of matter in which all the electrons are stripped from atoms and move freely about. The sun achieves these temperatures by its large mass and the force of gravity compressing this mass in the core High pressure squeezes the hydrogen atoms together. They must be within 1x10-15 meters of each other to fuse. The sun uses its mass and the force of gravity to squeeze hydrogen atoms together in its core.
Ia. Methods

It has been possible to initiate fusion reactions (such as in a hydrogen bomb ii a uncontrolled fusion chain reaction), no technology is yet available to use fusion as a viable energy source for use in power plants.

Fusion in the sun occurs in steps. Four protons produce one atom, two positrons, and two neutrinos. The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. The positron has an electric charge of +1 Neutrinos are a mass less a particle do not carry electric charge. The first two steps shown below must occur twice before the third step takes place:

ONE: Magnetic confinement uses magnetic and electric fields to heat and squeeze the hydrogen plasma ways to achieve the temperatures and pressures necessary for hydrogen fusion to take place:



megawatts, but the power yield from the reaction will be about 500 megawatts. The fusion reaction will last from 300 to 500 seconds.

Microwaves, electricity and neutral particle beams from accelerators heat a stream of hydrogen gas. This heating turns the gas into plasma. This plasma gets squeezed by super-conducting magnets, thereby allowing fusion to occur. The most efficient shape for the magnetically confined plasma is a donut shape (toroid). Hydrogen atoms are squeezed together by using intense magnetic fields. Only the temperatures and pressures necessary to make deuterium-tritium fusion possible have been achieved. Deuterium-deuterium fusion requires higher temperatures that may be possible in the future. Ultimately, deuterium-deuterium fusion will be better because it is easier to extract deuterium from seawater than to make tritium. Also, deuterium is not radioactive, and deuterium-deuterium reactions will yield more energy. TWO: Inertial confinement uses laser beams or ion beams to squeeze and heat the hydrogen plasma. At the focal point inside the target chamber, there will be a pea-sized pellet of deuterium-tritium encased in a small, plastic cylinder. The power from the lasers (1.8 million joules) will heat the cylinder and generate X-rays. The heat and radiation will convert the pellet into plasma and compress it until fusion occurs. The fusion reaction will be short-lived, about one-millionth of a second, but will yield 50 to 100 times more energy than is needed to initiate the fusion reaction. A reactor of this type would have multiple targets that would be ignited in succession to generate sustained heat production. Scientists estimate that each target can be made for as little as $0.25, making the fusion power plant cost efficient. The fusion reactor will heat a stream of deuterium and tritium fuel to form high-temperature plasma. It will squeeze the plasma so that fusion can take place. The power needed to start the fusion reaction will be about 70

II Nuclear Fission Nnuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei) and releasing a very large amount of energy, When a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission. The heavy nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei (the fission products), releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation and free neutrons. A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, and so on. This is known as a nuclear chain reaction. This nuclear chain reaction can be controlled by using neutron poisons and neutron moderators to change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fissions.[Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected. Commonly used moderators include regular (light) water (74.8% of the world's reactors), solid graphite (20% of reactors) and heavy water (5% of reactors).


available to cause fission, so pushing the control rod deeper into the reactor will reduce its power output, and extracting the control rod will increase it.

A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Most commonly they are used for generating electricity

The power output of the reactor is adjusted by controlling how many neutrons are able to create more fissions. Control rods that are made of a neutron poison are used to absorb neutrons. Absorbing more neutrons in a control rod means that there is fewer neutrons
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L-062 I. General Scheme

Elementary Particles

with this so-called Higgs field. Bosons carry the weak force, which is responsible for the radioactive decay of subatomic particles.

The photon carries the electromagnetic force. This particle concept gave rise to searches for other force carrying particles. The schematic below gives an overview of the classification of fundamental particles.

a.) Particles and antiparticles A neutron will decay to a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino. This is called neutron beta decay.

A proton will decay to a neutron, a positron and a neutrino. The electron, and positron have the same mass with equal and opposites charge. When they collide they can be annihilated with residual gamma rays produced.

Other Force carriers: The graviton is a hypothetical mass less elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation. The gluon is the messenger particle of the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles. The strong force binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom Bosons includes the God particle or Higgs boson. The leading explanation is that a field exists that has non-zero strength everywhereeven in otherwise empty spaceand that particles acquire mass when interacting

b). The energy equivalent of mass is given

E = m*c2

Example. The mass of an electron is 9.11*10(-31) kg. It has energy equal to E = 9.11*10(-31) * [3.00 10(8)]2 kg*m/sec2


II. Quantum Model of Nucleons

The quark model describes nucleons; neutrons, and protons as an assembly of quarks. Now they are known to be composite particles, made of three quarks bound together by the so-called strong interaction. There are six (6) types of quarks or flavors.

ToE A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory is An assumed theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out. The QST, quantum spring theory is yet to be proven. The resulting fundamental law of everything is given by Prof Michio Kaku an American theoretical physicist at NYU.

Quarks are the fundamental constituents of hadrons. Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons (made of three quarks) and mesons (made of one quark and one antiquark). Quarks are the only known carriers of fractional charge. Their respective antiparticles are the antiquarks which are identical except for the fact that they carry the opposite electric charge (for example the up quark carries charge +23, while the up antiquark carries charge 23). A lepton is an elementary particle of matter which does not undergo strong interactions. Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos).



Inertial Frames


Light travels at one speed in every inertial frames: 299,792,458 m/s or 3 * 108 m/s.

spacetime continuum
Space-time are the four-dimensional coordinate system (3 dimensions of space and 1 of time) in which physical events are located. In physics spacetime (also spacetime, space time or spacetime continuum) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum.

An inertial frame of reference (or Galilean reference frame) is a frame in which Newton's first law of motion applies: an object moves at a constant velocity unless acted on by an external force. All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another and the frame itself is not accelerating. All of Newtons laws are obeyed within an inertial frame. A non inertial frame by definition must be accelerating such as a rotating frame as it experiences centripetal acceleration

There are two inertial frames in the above illustration. The box car with George Washington, and the picnic scene. The two frames differ by a non zero valued velocity vector, .. From Georges frame where he is at rest, he sees the picnickers moving away in the left direction with velocity .. The picnickers at rest in their frame, view the box car and George moving away in the right direction with velocity .. Example # 1. If George throws a base ball with velocity of 5 m/s to the right in the box car what velocity will the ball have in the reference frame of the picnickers if the box car is moving at 30 m/s.? What if the ball is thrown left with the same velocity? Ans 30 + 5 = 35 m/s 30 5 = 25 m/s

The General Theory of Relativity, which describes how gravity affects the shape of space and flow of time. Imagine space as a stretched-out sheet. If a planet sits in the middle of the sheet, the sheet will warp as its weight pushes down on it. If you place a moon on the same sheet, it will roll towards the planet. More massive objects like our sun can warp space and affect the orbits of the surrounding planets. The planets don't fall into the sun and the moon into the Earth because of the high speeds at which they travel.

lorentzian transformations

The speed of Light

Time dilation:



In the theory of relativity, time dilation is an actual difference of elapsed time between two events.

where: t = time observed in the other reference frame, t = time in observers own frame of reference (rest time), v = the speed of the moving object, and c = the speed of light in a vacuum

Length contraction
One of the peculiar aspects of Einstein's theory of special relativity is that the length of objects moving at relativistic speeds undergoes a contraction along the dimension of motion.

Example #1. Let v = .95c, t0 = 10 years for one frame and solve for t which is the time that the observers frame.
Answer: t = 10/(1- (.95c)2/c2)1/2 t = 10/(1- .952)1/2 t = 10/ .312 = 32 years

where is the length of the object in its rest frame, is the length observed by an observer in relative motion is the relative velocity between the observer and the moving object, c is the speed of light.

Time dilation by in a magnetic field

Gravitational time dilation is an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers differently situated from gravitational masses , in regions of different gravitational potential.

Example #2. A space ship with a length of 100 meters would have what length if it were traveling at 0.67 c?
Answer: 74.2 m

Relativistic momentum
If an object of rest mass mo travels with a speed v past an observer, then that observer would measure the objects (relativistic) mass m to be



At relativistic speeds the momentum becomes relativistic, p = m*v where (m) is the relativistic mass.

Example #3. An electron of mass 9*10-31 kg moves at 0.75 C. Find its relativistic momentum.
Ans: 3*10


Realistic Energy
"Mass" is defined in two different ways in special relativity: one way defines mass ("rest mass" or "invariant mass") as an invariant quantity which is the same for all observers in all reference frames; in the other definition, the measure of mass ("relativistic mass") is dependent on the velocity of the observer.

Example #4 what is the energy of the moving electron in the previous example ? Ans = 33*10-22*1016 kg* (m/s)2 = N*m = Joules

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Nature of Physics Scientific Numbers Measurement Uncertainties Graphing Data Vectors parts A and B 1_D Velocity and Acceleration random walk dimensional analysis gyroscope drawing with Power Pt motion graphs Bernoullis Theorem Constant Acceleration /Free Fall Newtons 3 Laws of Motion Periodic motion Forces in 2-d Vector Space Universal Gravitation Conic Sections Momentum Solid geometry Binomial Coefficients Sequences/Progressions/Limits Energy work power Fluids Thermodynamics Real Variables Carnots Heat-Work Engine Trigonometry Waves in a deformable media Number Theory Summations and Products Sound Waves The nature of light Elevator Physic


L-036 Matrix Algebra L-037 Linear Algebra L-038 Optics at the Boundary L-039 Simple Statistics L-040 Optics of mirrors and lenses L-041 Fractals L-042 Moment of Inertia L-043 Nonlinear Dynamics L-044 Optics of Interference and Diffraction L-045 Deformation of Solids and Liquids L-046 Complex Analysis L-047 Electromagnetism L-048 Electronic Circuits L-049 Magnetism L-050 Projective Geometry L-051 Proofs p.1 L-052 Proofs p.2 L-053 Kinetic Theory of Gases L-054 Electromagnetic Induction L-055 Electro-Magnetic Fields and Matter L-056 Boolean Algebra L-057 Quantum Theory L-058 The atom L-059 Solid State Physics L-060 The Nucleus L-061 Nuclear Reactors L-062 Elementary Particles L-063 Relativity