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Directed Numbers

DIRECTED NUMBERS

T P OR PASS

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Numbers come in all sizes and forms. They can be positive or negative, whole numbers, fractions or decimals and rational or irrational. Before you start, investigate these terms and write a brief description about them in the boxes. Positive and negative numbers:

Whole numbers, fractions and decimals:

Rational and irrational numbers:

is Give th

a go!

Calculate the value of: (-2) 3 + {- 2 + [2 # (2 + 2)]}

Work through the book for a great way to solve this

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Types of numbers

Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Natural numbers are all the positive counting numbers "1, 2, 3, ... , . Integers are all the positive (+) and negative (-) whole numbers (including zero). Circle all the numbers below that belong to the family known as integers.
(psst!: some of them need to be simplified by calculating their value first)

1 2 -1 4 4 5 4

0.42 13 0 - 2 1.19284750219... -16 - 8 - 5.0

7 41 2 - 9 9.86
3

- 10 5

5 36

8 10
3

o -0.3

-1 3

30

Place each of these numbers into their correct group below to classify them. Irrational numbers cant be written as a fraction

Rational numbers can be written as a fraction

Integers: the positive and negative whole rational numbers including 0.

-1
Natural numbers: the counting rational numbers (not including 0).

Put the special types of rational numbers into their correct group

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Measuring instruments and integers
There are many applications for directed numbers.

Directed Numbers

Thermometers are a great example because the temperature can go below zero. The temperature at midday was 20 degrees Celsius. During the afternoon, the temperature rose 4 degrees before falling 9 degrees in the late afternoon. (i) Shade in the thermometer showing the late afternoon temperature. Starting at 20cC , temperature changed + 4cC then - 9cC
25o 24o 23o 22o 21o 20o 19o 18o 17o 16o 15 14o 13o 12o 11o 10o 9o 8o 7o 6o 5o 4o 3o 2o 1o 0o

rose =+ and falling =-

+ 4cC - 9cC

Temperature at midday 20cC

Temperature by late afternoon 15cC

Centigrade o C

(ii) What directed number gives the overall change in temperature between the two readings? Overall change =+4cC - 9cC =-5cC Digital scales need to use directed numbers to calculate changes in mass. Use this information to calculate the mass of olives purchased by Maria at her local Deli: Maria asked for 500g of olives. After first weighing 575g of olives, the Deli owner took out 98g and then put back 46g. The directed number sentence for this is: + 575 g - 98 g + 46 g
Increase = + and decrease = -

` Maria purchased + 575 g - 98 g + 46 g = 523 g of olives If the first term is positive, we usually don't write in the plus sign.

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Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Measuring instruments and integers


1

Shade in each thermometer below to accurately display these temperatures: (i) 11cC
20o

(ii) -5cC
20o

(iii) 6cC
20o

(iv) 0cC
20o

(v) 8cC above zero (vi) 2cC below zero


20o 20o

15o

15o

15o

15o

15o

15o

10o

10o

10o

10o

10o

10o

5o

5o

5o

5o

5o

5o

0o

0o

0o

0o

0o

0o

-5o

-5o

-5o

-5o

-5o

-5o

-10o

-10o

-10o

-10o

-10o

-10o

Centigrade o C

Centigrade o C

Centigrade o C

Centigrade o C

Centigrade o C

Centigrade o C

This thermometer shows a reading of 12cC at the start. Write the new readings that would be displayed after each of these changes in temperature: (i) Increases by 3cC
30o 25o

12

cC cC cC cC cC cC cC cC cC cC cC

(ii) Becomes 8cC cooler (iii) Decreases by 13cC (iv) Warms up by 9cC (v) Rose by 22cC

20o

15o

10o

5o

0o

(vi) Dropped 28cC (vii) Decrease by 7cC then increase by 12cC


o

-5o

-10

(viii) Warms by 3cC and then a further 9cC (ix) Cools 15cC before warming by 19cC (x) Changes to 0cC before dropping 4cC

Centigrade o C

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Directed Numbers
MEASURIN

Measuring instruments and integers


3

INSTRUM

TS AND EN

The mass of a glass container with some water in it is shown below:

0402
(i) 320g of water poured into the glass

grams

Write down the new reading on the scales after any one of the following changes occurred. grams grams grams

(ii) 212g of water was spilled out of the glass (iii) 88g of flavour syrup was stirred in and then 250g was drunk

(iv) A similar glass with the same amount of water was placed on the scales next to this one.

(v) A cup filled with 216g of water was emptied into the glass and during the day, 7g evaporated away because the room was hot.

Try this tricky one!


4

A glass container holding cold water below was placed on the digital scales after being moved from a 24cC room into a 32cC room. The glass had collected 3 grams of water (through a process called condensation) on the outside for every 2 degree rise in room temperature. What was the original mass of the water filled glass if 24 grams of water was spilt during the move?
60o

55o

40o

30o

32cC

20o

10o

0o

Centigrade o C

0583

grams

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TEGERS * IN

..../...../20...

grams

grams

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How does it work?


Magnitude and direction of integers

Directed Numbers

Integers are positive (+) and negative (-) whole numbers, including zeros. They tell us the size (magnitude) and direction of values associated with change.

-1

+3

It is important to first decide what will be the positive direction. If up ( ) is positive, then the opposite direction down ( ) is negative If right ( ) is positive, then the opposite direction left ( ) is negative If hotter is positive (+), then the opposite colder is negative (-)
G EAST, ROW, F OR H, T WA R R NO
, ST WE
INK, REVERSE SHR ,

INCREASE, W AR ER, ME OV R, R,

E, COOLER, S EAS OU CR TH DE ,

BE LO

POSITIVE

These are some other words usually associated with positive and negative directed numbers Only negative numbers must have the sign written in front. Write down the directed number for each of these statements: (i) 5 degrees below the zero: (ii) 30 degrees above the zero: =-5c =+30c 30c =
The magnitude of the temperature is 5 degrees The magnitude of the temperature is 30 degrees

The positive sign (+) can be hidden

(iii) $12 extra money:

=+$12 = $12

The magnitude of the money is $12

The directed number of an amount left after some changes represents the overall change. One day Matt started with no money and was given $40. He spent $14 of it downloading music. What is his overall change of money on this day? The change in money for Matt during this day was: $0 + $40 - $14 = $26 left ` the overall change in money for Matt on this day is +$26 The final directed value = overall change

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, CE DU

CEND, LOWE R , DES UN DE R

D,

W,

FURTHER, M E, OR OV E, AB FA

R, LESS, SLOW ER OSE , CL

NEGATIVE

RE

, ER ST

RA, ASCEND , EXT HI GH E

How does it work?

Your Turn

Directed Numbers
NITUD MAG
E

Magnitude and direction of integers


1

AND DIRE

ION OF I CT

The tree in Jamies yard grew 3 metres in one year. (i) Directed number: (iii) Directed number: (ii) Magnitude of the trees growth: (iv) Magnitude of the reduction in height: The same tree was then trimmed which reduced the height of the tree by 4 metres.

Aki walked 250m West from her starting point. (i) Directed number: (iii) Directed number: (ii) Magnitude of the distance Aki walked: (iv) Magnitude of this distance walked by Aki: Aki then turned around and walked another 600m East

Seans bank account balance earned interest and increased by $4. (i) Directed number: (iii) Directed number: (ii) Magnitude of Sean's bank balance increase: (iv) Magnitude of the change in Sean's bank balance: Seans bank account balance then changed due to being charged $3 in bank fees.

Think carefully for each of these statements and write down the directed number that matches the overall change.
a

Pip was given $24 and then spent $15 on a dress the same day. Directed number for the overall change in money that day:

The temperature initially increased by 6 degrees and then increased by a further 4 degrees. Directed number for the overall change in temperature: Nigel went down 6 rungs on a ladder and then up 2 rungs. Directed number for the overall change in ladder rungs: Cameron's coolness rose by 4 points when he played guitar, and a further 20 points when he did maths. Directed number for the overall change in Cameron's coolness after doing both activities: Shiromee hiked 12km North, 2km East and then 19km South. North is the positive direction. Directed number for the overall change in Shiromee's North-South movement: Adele's hair grew from 20cm to 30cm long at the back. After a hair cut it was only 17cm long. Directed number for the overall change in Adele's hair length from the initial 20cm:

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EGERS * NT

For each of these statements, write down: (i) the directed number that matches it and, (ii) the magnitude of the directed number.

..../...../20...

+$9

How does it work?


Ascending and descending order

Directed Numbers

When comparing directed numbers, it often helps to arrange them into numerical order.

e Asc

ng ndi

De

sce

ndi

ng

Ascending order = lowest to highest Dont be tricked by the magnitude of a number. Which of these two values is higher?

Descending order = highest to lowest

2cC

- 10cC

2cC

3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6

- 10cC represents a very cold temperature (below/less than 0cC ) 2cC is a cold temperature, however it is (above/greater than 0cC ) ` 2cC is a higher value than - 10cC

-7 -8

-10cC
-10 is a bigger number in magnitude than 2, however the negative sign makes it lower in value

-9 -10 -11 -12

Centigrade o C

Lets look at an ascending and descending order example. For the numbers -4 , 0 , 14.5 , -6 , 5.2 , 3 , -10 , 5.4 : (i) Arrange them into ascending order -10 , -6 , -4 , 0 , 3 , 5.2 , 5.4 , 14.5
Lowest negative Highest positive

(ii) Arrange them into descending order 14.5 , 5.4 , 5.2 , 3 , 0 , -4 , -6 , -10
Highest positive Lowest negative Order is opposite to ascending

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Your Turn

Directed Numbers
ASCEN

Ascending and descending order


1

NG AND D DI E

END SC

a b c d e f

Shortest to Tallest Longest to shortest Closest to farthest Warmest to Coolest Heaviest to lightest Thinnest to widest

Ascending Ascending Ascending Ascending Ascending Ascending

Descending Descending Descending Descending Descending Descending

Arrange the following groups of numbers into ascending order (lowest to highest).
a

14 , 0 , 17 , 3 21 , 25 , 20 , 19 , 22 -10 , -8 , -12 , -4 , -16 2.2 , 2.4 , -2.6 , 0 , -2 -1 , 11 , 1 , -1.5 , 1 , 1 5 4

, , , , ,

, , , , ,

, , , , , , , , , ,

Arrange the following groups of numbers into descending order (highest to lowest).
a

2 , 16 , 5 , 8 40 , 31 , 32 , 38 , 29 -19 , -11 , -16 , -18 , -13 1.6 , 1.9 , -1.3 , -1.0 , 1.2 0 , - 1 , -2 1 , -2.1 , 1.2 , -30 4 2

, , , , ,

, , , , ,

, , , , , , , , , ,

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G ORDER * IN

Circle the word that represents the order of the values in these statements:

..../...../20.

..

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TOPIC

How does it work?

Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Ascending and descending order


Combo Time!
4

Elevator Riding A department store elevator operator started work on the 3rd floor of the 15 storey building. For the first 15 minutes of work, the operator travelled to the following floors in the order written: 12 th floor

13 14 15 10 11 12 7 4 1 8 5 2 9 6 3

8 th floor Ground floor 2nd floor Ground floor 15 th floor 4 th floor 10 th floor 5 th floor

G >|< >|<

If up is positive and down is negative, write numbers that represent the movement of the elevator operator during the first 15 minutes of work. , , , , , , , ,

Arrange the directed movements into descending order. , , , , , , , ,

During the first 15 minutes, did the operator mostly ascend or descend in the elevator? Explain you answer.

BO TIME OM

COMBO TI

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ME * TI C

../ ..../...

20...

ME

* COMB O

How does it work?


The number line

Directed Numbers

Directed numbers can be plotted on a number line to instantly see their order of value. Values decrease (descending) Values increase (ascending)

-15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Lower numbers are further left and higher numbers are further right. Display the numbers -4, -1, 7 on a number line.

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Use the plotted points to compare the values of: (i) -4, -1: (ii) -1, 7: -4 is further left than -1, ` -4 1 -1 -1 is further left than 7, ` -1 1 7
Remember: 1 means 'less than' and 2 means 'greater than'

This example requests numbers to be plotted using a given rule. Display all the even positive integers between -5 and 13 on a number line.
Even and positive -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Read the numbers from right to left ( )

Write these numbers in descending order.

` The numbers in descending order are: 12 , 10 , 8 , 6 , 4 , 2 Half values are plotted by placing the dot half-way between the integers on either side. Display the numbers 1, -2, 4 1 , -5.5, 9, 0 on a number line. 2

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 1 is half way between 4 and 5


2

-5.5 is half way between -5 and -6

Write these numbers in ascending order.

Read the numbers from left to right (

` The numbers in ascending order are: -5.5 , -2 , 0 , 1 , 4 1 , 9 2


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The number line
1

Your Turn

Directed Numbers
THE NUMB
LINE * ER

THE NUMB

Insert the correct symbol 1 (less than) or 2 (greater than) for each of these.

..../...../20...

-12

-5

-11

-2

-8

-7 1 2

-1 2

91 2

9.9

-5.1

- 1.8

1.2

-12.5

-21.5

11 1 2

List the numbers displayed below in ascending order


a

-15-14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

-9 -8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

List the numbers displayed below in descending order


a

-18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

-9 -8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

12

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LINE * ER

-7

-5.8

11 1 3

How does it work?


The number line
4

Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Display the following sets of numbers on a number line.


a

1 = 0.5 2

-5, 8, -1, 3, 6.
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-8.5, 1.5, -2, 7.5, 5.


-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-4 1 , 4, 6 1 , - 1 , 5. 2 2 2
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

- 7, 7.5, 3 1 , 0, 2 1 , 2. 2 2
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Display the following sets of numbers on a number line.


a

The first six odd integers above -8.


-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

All the negative even integers less than 7 but greater than negative 8.
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

All the multiples of 3 higher than 7 but lower than 18.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

All the integers that are 3 or 7 whole numbers away from -2.
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Addition and subtraction using a number line

Directed Numbers

Starting from zero each time, calculations involving directed numbers can be made using a number line.

Negative direction

Positive direction

Remember Always start from 0 and move using each directed number one at a time. Use a number line to calculate these: (i) 8+4
+4

-15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Starting at +8, 4 to the right finishes at 12 right (+12) Start Finish

` 8 + 4 = 12 (ii) -6 - 7
-7

-18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Finish Start Starting at -6, then 7 to the left finishes at 13 left (-13)

` -6 - 7 =-13 (iii) 3 + (-2) (iv) (-2) + 3


Negative numbers are often written inside brackets -2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Finish Start -3 -2 Start Same as (iii) but in different order

+3 -1 0 1 2 3 Finish

Starting at +3 then 2 to the left finishes at 1 right (+1)

Starting at -2, 3 to the right finishes at 1 right (+1)

` 3 + (-2) = 1 (v) 10 - 26+4


+4 -26

` (-2) + 3 = 1

-18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Finish Starting at +10, then 26 to the left followed by 4 to the right finishes at 12 left (-12) Start

` 10 - 26 + 4 =-12

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Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Addition and subtraction using a number line


1

Show the calculation for each of these on a number line and write down the answer.
a

3+5 =

-9 -8
b

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(-4) + 8 =

-9 -8
c

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(-3) - 1 =

-9 -8
d

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

7 - 15 =

-9 -8
e

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

14 - 6 + 3 =

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
2

Write down the calculation to get the given answer shown on each of these number lines:
a

=-12

-15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3

=-3

-9 -8
c

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

=4

-9 -8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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How does it work?

Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Addition and subtraction using a number line


3

Show the calculation for each of these on a number line and state the answer.
a

1.5 + 2 1 = 2
-9 -8 -7 -6

4
-5 -4 -3 -2

+2 1 2
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Start Finish

(-2.5) - 4.5 =

-12 -11 -10 -9


c

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-4 + 10.5 =

-9 -8
d

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

8 1 - 5.5 = 2
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Try these trickier ones!


ADDITIO N
4

D SUBTRA AN C

USING ON A TI

Write down the calculation shown on each of these number lines:


a

=2

-9
b

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4

=-3.5
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-9
d

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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MBER LIN NU E

..../..

.../20.

..

Where does it work?


The mysterious Dr Thermos!

Directed Numbers

Dr Thermos controls the temperature of his laboratory using large hot or cold spheres.

+ 1cC Hot Sphere

- 1cC Cold Sphere

Count the number of each sphere type to find the overall temperature of his laboratory. Calculate the temperature of the laboratory for these sphere combinations: (i) 7 hot spheres and 3 cold spheres ` + 7cC and - 3cC
+7 and -3 combine to make +4

` laboratory is + 4cC (ii) 2 hot spheres and 3 cold spheres ` + 2cC and - 3cC ` laboratory is - 1cC To change the temperature, Dr Thermos adds or removes spheres.

+2 and -3 combine to make -1

Show two ways Dr Thermos can raise the temperature by + 2cC for the combination of spheres below. 9 hot spheres and 6 cold spheres ` + 9cC and - 6cC
+9 and -6 combine to make +3

` laboratory is currently + 3cC (i) Dr Thermos could add two hot spheres

9 hot spheres +2 hot spheres and 6 cold spheres ` + 11cC and - 6cC ` laboratory is now + 5cC ` a change of + 2cC (ii) Dr Thermos could remove two cold spheres 9 hot spheres and 6 cold spheres -2 cold spheres ` + 9cC and - 4cC ` laboratory is now + 5cC ` a change of + 2cC
+9 and -4 combine to make +5 +11 and -6 combine to make +5

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Your Turn

Directed Numbers
! THE MYST E

The mysterious Dr Thermos!

S DR.THER OU M I R

OS
E ! TH MYST E

Write down the temperature of Dr Thermos laboratory for these sphere combinations:
a b

Laboratory temperature:

cC

Laboratory temperature:

Laboratory temperature:

cC

Laboratory temperature:

Write the number and type of hot or cold spheres that would need to be added to the laboratory to cause these changes in temperature.
a

+ 3cC

- 9cC

3 hot spheres
c

- 6cC

+ 20cC

Write the number and type of hot or cold spheres that would need to be removed from the laboratory to cause these changes in temperature.
a

- 7cC

+ 2cC

- 5cC

+ 8cC

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S DR.THE OU RM RI

+ 1cC Hot Sphere

- 1cC Cold Sphere

..../..

.../20.

..

OS

cC

cC

Where does it work?

Your Turn

Directed Numbers

The mysterious Dr Thermos!


4

For each of these combinations of hot and cold spheres, explain two different ways Dr Thermos can change the temperature of the laboratory to equal the amount given in the square brackets.
a

[+4cC] (i) First way:

(ii) Second way: [-2cC] (i) First way:

(ii) Second way: Try these trickier ones!


5

If Dr Thermos could only use the spare spheres shown below each given combination, explain two different ways he could change the temperature of the laboratory to equal the amount in the square brackets. You must use all of the spare spheres for at least one of the methods
a

[+6cC] (i) First way:

(ii) Second way: Spare spheres:


Using all the spare spheres

[-1cC] (i) First way:

(ii) Second way: Spare spheres:


Using all the spare spheres

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Your Turn

Directed Numbers

The mysterious Dr Thermos!


Puzzle time!
6

Dr Thermos has a puzzle room at the entrance to his laboratory to keep his experiments secret. The door will open when the display in the puzzle room reads -2cC . The display currently reads + 3cC . Each hot (+1cC ) or cold (-1cC ) step can be used only once. Only sideways ( ) or forward ( ) steps can be taken. Steps in the white section are switched on (added to the puzzle room). Steps in the grey section are switched off (removed from the puzzle room). (i) Draw a pathway that will allow you to enter the laboratory of Dr Thermos. (ii) See if you can find another path!

Finish anywhere along here

Start anywhere along here

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Where does it work?


Adding and subtracting directed numbers

Directed Numbers

The exercises in Dr Thermos laboratory were examples of adding and subtracting directed numbers. Here is what happened: When a When a subtraction When a When a =+1c C =-1c C

Addition

was added, the temperature went up was added, the temperature went down was removed (Subtracted), the temperature went down was removed (Subtracted), the temperature went up

The rules for adding and subtracting represent the same thing. Use the pattern above to calculate these: = +1 and Addition 5+ 5+ Subtraction 55= 5 + (+1) = 5 + 1 = 6 = 5 + (-1) = 5 - 1 = 4 = 5 - (+1) = 5 - 1 = 4 = 5 - (-1) = 5 + 1 = 6 = -1
+ + = + (Same signs together means plus) + - = - (Opposite signs together means minus) - + = - (Opposite signs together means minus) - - = + (Same signs together means plus)

These rules work for all kinds of directed additions and subtractions Calculate these additions and subtractions: (i) 3 + (- 2) = 3 - 2 =1 (ii) (-2) + 3 =-2 + 3 Same as (i) but in a different order =1 (iv) (-11) - (-4) =-11 + 4 =- 7
- -=+

+ -=-

(iii) 6 - (- 2.5) = 6 + 2.5 = 8.5

- -=+

(v) 2 1 + (- 3) = 2 1 - 3 + - = 2 2 =- 1 2 (vii) 9.5 - (- 8.5) + 6 = 9.5 + 8.5 + 6 = 24

(vi) (-12.2) + (-5.2) =-12.2 - 5.2 + - = =-17.4 (viii) 4 1 + ^-1h - `-6 2 j = 4 1 - 1 + 6 2 3 3 3 3 = 10

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Directed Numbers
ND

Calculate these additions and subtractions of integers without a calculator.


1 a

ADDING

Adding and subtracting directed numbers

SUBTRAC

DIREC NG T TI

-11 - 8

1 - 16

16 - 22

6 + (-3)

30 + (-17)

0 + (-8)

-4 + (-5)

-10 + (-19)

13 - (-5)

20 - (-21)

-18 - (-6)

-15 - (-26)

4-8+2

-9 + 6 - 8

-3 + 4 - 8 - 7

- 7 + (- 4) + 13

2 - (-6) - 7

5 + (-1) - (-14)

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NUMBERS

-5 + 3

-4 + 7

-4 - 4

ED

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Directed Numbers

Adding and subtracting directed numbers


Simplify these additions and subtractions:
Use the number line on the side if it helps. -12 -11 -10 -9
3 a

5.5 - 8

-3 + 2.5

-2 - 7.5

-6 1 - 19 2

9.5 - 16

7.5 + (-18)

-8 -7 -6

0.5 + (-5.5)

-12 1 - (-3 1 ) 2 2

-5

0 - (+8) - (-6)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

-2 - 7 + 3.5

1 + 0.5 - 6

2 + (-3.5) + 1.5

- 7 1 + ^-9h - `-2 1 j 2 2

-8.5 - `-6 1 j + 18 2

-4 + ^-4h - `-4 1 j - 4 1 4 4

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Directed Numbers

Adding and subtracting directed numbers


For trickier questions, the calculator can be used. Use the () button to change between positive and negative when entering numbers into the calculator.
Sometimes the button may look like Simplify using the rules

-29.3 - (-42.9) + (-19.6) =-29.3 + 42.9 - 19.6

() 2

Enter into calculator

=-6 Use your calculator (only if you need to) for these:
5 a

53 - 89

-43 + 94

34 + (-51)

- 25 + (-94)

- 94 - (-28)

-16 + (-87) - (-41)

-2.6 + 10.4

-0.5 - 6.7

-10.3 + (-5.6)

66 - 34.6 + (-24.4)

1.06 + 4.5 - 9.7

-0.23 + 1.76

(- 71.23) + (-52.38)

-1.204 - (-5.093)

98.23 - (-13.8) -112.3

-29 1 + 51 3

-30 1 - `-66 1 j 3 2

100 + `-54 1 j - 46 1 2 4

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Multiplying and dividing directed numbers

Directed Numbers

The rules for multiplying and dividing are similar to adding and subtracting: Multiplication Positive # Positive # Negative # Negative # Positive = Negative = Positive = Negative = Positive Negative Negative Positive
+ + # # # #

+=+ -=+=-=+

(Same signs mean answer is positive) (Opposite signs mean answer is negative) (Opposite signs mean answer is negative) (Same signs mean answer is positive)

Division

The exact same rules apply because division is the opposite operation to multiplication!

These rules always apply to all multiplication and division calculations. Calculate these multiplications and divisions: (i) -4 # 3 =-12
#

+=-

(ii) -14 ' 2 =- 7 (iv) 24 ' (-4.8) =-5 (vi) -46.8 ' (-18) = 2.6 (viii) -32 ' `-3 1 j = 10 5
2 (x) -3 =-(3 # 3) =-9

-'+=-

(iii) 12 # (-1.5) =-18 (v) -8 # (-3) = 24 (vii) -3 1 2


#6

-=-

+'-=-

-=+

-'-=+

=-21

+=-

-'-=+

Be careful squaring (or cubing) directed numbers as brackets affect the question. (ix) (-3) 2 = (-3) # (-3) = 9

If more than two terms are multiplied or divided, simplify by calculating in order from left to right. Simplify these mixed questions: (i) 6 # (-3) ' 9 =-18 ' 9 =-2 =-4 # (-3) = 12 = (-1) # (-1) # (-1) = 1 # (-1) =-1 = 44 ' (-2) ' (-11) =-22 ' (-11) =2
Calculate 6 # (-3) first -'+=Calculate (-2) ' 0.5 first #

-=-

(ii) (-2) ' 0.5 # (-3)

-'+=-

-=+

(iii) (-1) 3

Calculate (-1) # (-1) first Calculate 1 # (-1) next Calculate 8 4 # 5 first 5 Calculate 44 ' (-2) next -'-=+

-'-=+ +'-=+
#

(iv) 8 4 # 5 ' (-2) ' (-11) 5

+=+

+'-=-

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Directed Numbers

Multiplying and dividing directed numbers


1

Simplify these without using a calculator:


a

3 # (- 7)

-6 # 8

-36 ' 12

48 ' (-4)

-16 # (-1)

-2 # (-2)

-12 ' (-12)

21 ' (-21)

3 # (-4) ' 6

Simplify these without using a calculator:


a

-24 ' 3 ' (-8)

-18 ' (-6) # 4

-5 # 2 # (-1) # 2

-5 2

(-4) 2

(-3) 3

-23

(-2) 2 ' 4

(-3) 2 # -3

63 ' (-2)

2 4 ' - 42

92 ' -32 # (3)

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Directed Numbers
TI MUL PLYI

Multiplying and dividing directed numbers


3

NG

AND DIVI

DIREC NG TE DI

Simplify these using a calculator:


a

27 # (-4)

-21 # 13

-4 # 29

-95 ' (-19)

125 # (-49)

-162 ' 18

-53 # 16

(-391) ' (-23)

-15 # 15 ' (-3)

Use your calculator to simplify these:


a

-25 # 13 ' (-65)

-500 ' (-5) ' 25

-552 ' (-23) # (-8)

21 2

# (- 6) ' 5

12.5 # 25 ' (-0.25)

-1 2 ' (-14) # 5 # (-2) 5

-4 # 3.6 # 22 ' 7.92

-3404.7 ' (-3.6) ' 1 1 ' 9.7 2

260 ' (-26) # 2 3 ' 0.26 5

(- 7) 3 - 343

-210 -1024

(-8) 3

(-9) 4

-(-6) 3

-(-1.5) 5

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NUMBERS

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Combining the basic operations

Directed Numbers

Questions that mix multiplying/dividing with adding/subtracting need to be done in a certain order. Multiplication or division operations are ranked the highest and therefore must be completed first. Calculate these combined operations questions: (i) -2 + 3 # 5 -2 + 3 # 5 =-2 + 15 Do this first = 13 (ii) 35 ' (-5) - 1 35 ' (-5) - 1 =- 7 - 1 Do this first =-8
Subtract 1 from -7 Add -2 and 15

If more than one multiply/divide sign, work left to right. Do the same for addition/subtraction. Calculate these combined operations questions: (i) -28 ' 7 # 3 + 6 -28 ' 7 # 3 + 6 =-4 # 3 + 6 Do this first =-12 + 6 =-6 (ii) 17 - 4 -(-10) # 2 17 - 4 -(-10) # 2 = 17 - 4 -(-20) Do this first = 13 - (-20) = 33 (iii) 24 ' 3 + (-5) # 4 24 ' 3 + (-5) # 4 = 8 + (-5) # 4 Do this first = 8 + (-20) =-12 (iv) 6 # (-3) - 210 ' 30 # (-2) 6 # (-3) - 210 ' 30 # (-2) =-18 - 210 ' 30 # (-2) Divide -210 by 30 Do this first =-18 - 7 # (-2) Multiply -7 by -2 =-18 + 14 Add -18 and 14 =-4
Multiply -5 by 4 Add 8 and -20 Subtract 4 from 17 Subtract -20 from 13 ( = 13 + 20 ) Multiply -12 by 3 Add -12 and 6

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Directed Numbers
COMBIN

Combining the basic operations


1

G THE IN

SIC OP BA

Simplify these combined operations without a calculator:


a

- 4 + 16 ' 8

6 # (-8) -12

50 ' (-25) + 10

-8 - 5 # 4

5 + 7 # (-6)

-11 # -2 + 18

22 - 39 ' (-3)

-10 - 4 # 15

Simplify these combined operations without a calculator:


a

4 # (-2) + 18 - 11

-3 # 6 ' 9 + 3

- 9 + 48 ' (-12) + 13

32 ' 4 - 3 # (-4)

Use a calculator to simplify these combined operations:


a

28 ' (-4) + 13 # 7

120 ' (-15) # 24 - 8

- 25 # 6 - 224 ' (-32)

30 # (-15) - 35 ' 4 # (-16)

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Order of operations

Directed Numbers

For more complex calculations involving brackets and indices, we use a similar convention:

B
Brackets Indices
Do these first

D
Division

M
Multiplication
Then do these

S
Addition Subtraction
Do these last

Simplify these directed number calculations using the correct order of operations: (i) (12 - 8) # 7 (12 - 8) # 7 = 4 # 7 = 28 (ii) -21 ' (2 + 5) + 3 -21 ' (2 + 5) + 3 =-21 ' 7 + 3 =-3 + 3 =0 (iii) (-4) 2 ' (8 - 6) (-4) 2 ' (8 - 6) = (-4) 2 ' 2 = 16 ' 2 =8 (iv) 15 # (-5 + 3) 3 - 20 15 # (-5 + 3) 3 - 20 = 15 # (-2) 3 - 20 = 15 # (-8) - 20 =-120 - 20 =-140 (v) 29 - (13 - 4 # 5) + 32 29 - (13 - 4 # 5) + 32 = 29 - (13 - 20) + 32 = 29 - (- 7) + 32 = 29 - (- 7) + 9 = 36 + 9 = 45
Multiply -4 by 5 inside the brackets Subtract 20 from 13 inside the brackets Square 3 Subtract -7 from 29 Add 36 and 9 Add -3 and 5 inside the brackets Cube -2 Multiply 15 by -8 Subtract 20 from -120 Subtract 6 from 8 inside the brackets Square -4 Divide 16 by 2 Add 2 and 5 inside the brackets Divide -21 by 7 Add -3 and 3 Subtract 8 from 12 inside the brackets Multiply 4 and 7

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Order of operations
1

Your Turn

Directed Numbers

Simplify these directed number calculations using the correct order of operations without a calculator:
a

(16 - 10) # 4

34 ' (6 + (- 8))

-5 # (27 ' 9)

(-13 - (-19)) # 3

-5 # (14 - 9) - 5

4 # (36 ' 2) - (-4)

18 + (16 ' 4 + 10)

(18 ' 2 - (-4)) - 7

Simplify these calculations containing indices using the correct order of operations without a calculator:
a

(-2) 2 ' (-2)

(- 7 - 5) # (-1) 3

(8 - 14) 2 - 16

(33 - 43) ' 8

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Order of operations
3

Your Turn

Directed Numbers
TI ERA ONS P O

ER OF ORD

ER OF ORD

Try simplify these trickier ones using the correct order of operations:
a

-100 # (12 - 32 ' (-4)) ' 40

(11 # 23 - 10) ' 39 + 8

9 # ((-8) - 8 ' 4 + 16) - 43

200 ' (-4) # (-3) ' (16 - 14 # (-1) 3)

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26 ' (14 + 2 # 6) + (-1) 2

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What else can you do?


Order of operations with grouping symbols

Directed Numbers

For questions containing multiple pairs of grouping symbols, complete each pair separately. Grouping symbol names: ( ) = brackets [ ] = square brackets { } = braces

Simplify these combined operations questions containing multiple brackets: (i) (10 # 2) ' (- 7 - 3) (10 # 2) ' (- 7 - 3) = 20 ' (-10) =-2 10 # 2 = (10 # 2) ' (- 7 - 3) -7 - 3
The same question can be written as a fraction. Simplify the brackets Divide 20 by -10

numerator = (numerator) ' (denominator) denominator

(ii)

34 - 3 # 4 22 ' (-2) 34 - 3 # 4 = (34 - 3 # 4) ' (22 ' (-2)) 22 ' (-2) = 22 ' (-11) =-2
Re-write with brackets Simplify the brackets Divide 22 by -11

When questions contain brackets within other brackets, work from the inside to the outside. Simplify these combined operations questions containing multiple brackets: (i) 3 # 6(1 - 6) ' 5 @

3 # 6(1 - 6) ' 5 @ = 3 # 6- 5 ' 5 @ = 3 # -1 =-3

Simplify the brackets first Simplify the square brackets Multiply 3 by -1

(ii) 30 - "18 - 626 ' (2 2 - 17) @,

30 - "18 - 626 ' (2 2 - 17) @, = 30 - "18 + 626 ' (4 - 17) @, = 30 - "18 + 626 ' (-13) @, = 30 - "18 + - 2 , = 30 - 16 = 14

Simplify the brackets

Simplify the square brackets Simplify the braces Subtract 16 from 30

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Directed Numbers
OF OP ER E D R
NS WI TIO T A R

Order of operations with grouping symbols


1

UP GRO ING

Simplify these questions:


a

(16 + 9) + (14 - 7)

(1 - 9) - (3 - 8)

(7 - 11) # (4 + 2)

(18 - 3) ' (-12 - (- 7))

46 - 19 5-2

-2 # 10 48 ' 12

= (46 - 19) ' (5 - 2) = 27 ' 3 =9


g

(50 + 54 ' 9) ' (-24 ' 3)

8 # 5 - 12 42 ' (-6)

Simplify these questions with multiple grouping symbols:


a

-12 ' 6(7 + 11) ' 9 @

610 + (-14 ' 2) @ # 8

6-6 # (13 - (- 7)) @ ' 4

5 # 6(22 - 9) # 3 @

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Directed Numbers

Order of operations with grouping symbols


3

Simplify these:
a

{[12 + (6 # 8)] ' 3} -25

(-2) 3 + {- 2 + [2 # (2 + 2)]}

er m Rememb

e?

Give these three tricky ones a go to earn an awesome stamp.


a

(14 - 8) # (-1) 15 - (-3)

* AWE

ME * SO

E* OM
b

-4 # {- 72 + (-6) 2 ' [(4 # (-5)) - (-2)]}

-3 # {[(-3 - (-3)) 2 + (-3) 2] ' 3 # (-3)}

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Cheat Sheet

Directed Numbers

Here is a summary of the important things to remember for directed numbers

Types of numbers Positive and negative numbers are numbers that have both size and direction. Eg: +2 or -3 Rational numbers can be written as a fraction. They include whole numbers and terminating or o, 1, 4. recurring decimals. Eg: 8, 2.3, 4.5 Irrational numbers cannot be written as a fraction. These include decimals that keep going without following a pattern, and roots of numbers that are not perfect squares/cubes etc. Eg: 3 , 1.2938164928..., r. Integers are whole numbers only. They are rational and have no decimal or fraction parts. Eg: 3, -4, 100. Magnitude and direction of numbers Directed numbers are positive (+) or negative (-) whole numbers. They show both the size (magnitude) and direction of values associated with change. It is important to first decide what will be the positive direction. Ascending and descending order Ascending order = lowest to highest Adding and subtracting directed numbers Addition Subtraction
+ + + = + - = - + = - - = + (Same signs together means plus) (Opposite signs together means minus) (Opposite signs together means minus) (Same signs together means plus) 2

Descending order = highest to lowest

Multiplying and dividing direct numbers Multiplication Positive # Positive # Negative # Negative # Positive = Negative = Positive = Negative = Positive Negative Negative Positive
+ + # # # #

+=+ -=+=-=+

(Same signs mean answer is positive) (Opposite signs mean answer is negative) (Opposite signs mean answer is negative) (Same signs mean answer is positive)

Division

The exact same rules apply because division is the opposite operation to multiplication!

Order of operations The word BIDMAS helps to remember the order in which we need to perform calculations.

B
Brackets Indices
Do these first

D
Division

M
Multiplication
Then do these

S
Addition Subtraction
Do these last

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TI MUL PLYI

NG

AND DIVI

MEASURIN

OF OP ER E RD

NS WI TIO T A R

ASCEN

ADDITIO * N

D SUBTRA AN C

MBER LIN NU E

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..

G ORDER * IN

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DIREC NG TE DI

INSTRUM

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TS AND EN

UP GRO ING

END SC

USING ON A TI