You are on page 1of 23

ROBOTIC DREDGER

IIT BOMBAY SUMMER PROJECT

RUDRA PRASAD MECHANICAL BRANCH IIT GANDHINAGAR

Design and Construction of a Robotic Dredger


IIT Bombay- UMIC Summer Project 2012

Submitted By

M.Rudra Prasad
B.Tech 3rd year, IIT Gandhinagar

Under the guidance of

Prof. C. Amarnath

Department of Mechanical Engineering INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY July 2012

DECLARATION
I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misinterpreted or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. I understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed.

Rudra Prasad Roll No. 09003027 Date:

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards my guide Prof. C. Amarnath for his invaluable
guidance, motivation, timely suggestions and especially the encouragement to think independently. I would like to thank my family, who have been an encouragement and supported to me through the project. I would also like to thank all my friends and others who have each helped me in completing this project.

Rudra Prasad Roll No. 09003027

iii

CONTENTS
List of Figures...v

A. About IIT Bombay..... 1 B. About UMIC@IITB............................................................................................................... 1 C. Conceptual Framework.. 2

1 INTRODUCTION..... 3
1.1 1.2 1.3 Dredger.. 3 Types of Dredging... 3 Robotic Dredger 3

2 PROBLEMS OF POWAI LAKE 3


2.1 2.2 2.3

History of Powai Lake [1].. 3 Problems 4 Consequences 4

3 PROBLEM EXPLORATIONS.. 4
3.1 3.2 Excessive growth of Vegetation 5 Organic segments on the lake [2]....................................................................... 5

4 NEED FOR A ROBOTIC DREDGER.. 6 5 BASIC DESIGN OF MACHINE AND ITS COMPONENTS. 7
5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 Basic Design Aspects. 7 Components of Robotic Dredger. 8 Two Hull Boat. 8 Grab Mechanism. 9 Slider Mechanism. 10 Pulley Mechanism 12 Actuators 12

6 ASSEMBLY. 13 7 SPECIFICATIONS 15 8 MANUFACTURABILITY.. 16 9 TESTING & FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT. 16 10 CONCLUSIONS 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 17
iv

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Map of Powai Lake .............................................................................................................. 1 Figure 2.2 Encroachment of builder lobby........................................................................................... 1 Figure 2.3 Polluted Powai Lake ............................................................................................................ 1 Figure 3.2 Excessive growth of water hyacinth ................................................................................... 1 Figure 3.1 Water hyacinth.................................................................................................................... 1 Figure 3.3 Eutrophic fish pond ............................................................................................................. 1 Figure 4.1 Normal hydraulic crane for cleaning lakes. ......................................................................... 1 Figure 5.1 Two Hulls of a boat. ............................................................................................................ 1 Figure 5.2 Some of the existing grab mechanisms .............................................................................. 1 Figure 5.3 Designed Grab Mechanism ................................................................................................. 1 Figure 5.4 Two Hulls connected with aluminium rods (designed in solid works) ................................ 1 Figure 5.5 Two Hulls with a steel frame............................................................................................... 1 Figure 5.6 Grab assembly design ......................................................................................................... 1 Figure 5.7 Dead weight in the Grab ..................................................................................................... 1 Figure 5.8 Working mechanism of the Grab ........................................................................................ 1 Figure 5.9 Rectangular frame with slider ............................................................................................. 1 Figure 5.10 Slider frame ....................................................................................................................... 1 Figure 5.11 Wheels and side wheels .................................................................................................... 1 Figure 5.12 Side wheels on the support frame .................................................................................... 1 Figure 5.13 Pulley and rope mechanism .............................................................................................. 1 Figure 5.14 DC Motors in Assembly ..................................................................................................... 1 Figure 6.1 Clamp fixed to hull .............................................................................................................. 1 Figure 6.2 Final Assembly of Robotic Dredger (i) ................................................................................. 1 Figure 6.3 Final Assembly of Robotic Dredger (ii) ................................................................................ 1 Figure 6.4 Final Assembly of Robotic Dredger (iii) ............................................................................... 1 Figure 6.5 Motor 1 fixed to steel frame ............................................................................................... 1 Figure 6.6 Rail guide fixed to frame ..................................................................................................... 1 Figure 9.1 Sludge collected during testing ............................................................................................ 1

A.

About IIT Bombay:

The Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay) is a public engineering institution located in Powai, Mumbai. IITB has 14 departments, 10 mulch-disciplinary centres, 3 schools of excellence and 3 inter-disciplinary groups. It was established in 1958, it is the second-oldest institute of the Indian Institutes of Technology system.

B. About UMIC@IITB:
Founded by Prof C Amarnath, UMIC (U. Mashruwala Innovation Centre) at IIT Bombay aims to foster an atmosphere of creativity, innovation, discovery and exploration on the campus. UMIC provides infrastructural facilities to nurture inventions among students from various disciplines. Over the years UMIC has evolved from nurturing small hobby projects to solving complex industrial challenges and representing IITB at national and international competitions. Through Assistant Prof. V. Kartik from IIT Bombay, I got this summer project under Prof. Amarnath in UMIC.

C. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:
The main purpose of designing a robotic dredger is to rehabilitate Powai Lake that is located near IIT Bombay campus. For this, we followed the approach shown below.

Define the problem

Exploring the problem

Literature Review

Proposing a solution

Solution Exploration

Designing & Modelling through Solidworks

Fabricating the Machine

Testing

Corrections & Improvements

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Dredger A dredger is a piece of equipment which can dig, transport and dump a certain amount of underwater laying soil in a certain time. This process is called Dredging. The purpose of dredging is generally to gather bottom sediment and either disposes it at a different location or uses these sediments in various products, e.g. sand and gravel is used in concrete mixtures.

1.2 Types of Dredging


Depending upon the application, there are many types of dredging namely a. Construction Dredging Dredges can be used during construction projects that require the creation of trenches for pipelines and tunnels, and the forming of foundations for structures.

b. Environmental Dredging - It is used to clean contaminated areas to restore the areas to non-contaminated levels. Mining Dredging

c.

As name suggests, dredges are used to excavate sand, gravel, precious metals, coal and various other metals.

1.3 Robotic Dredger


Dredgers are usually designed depending on purpose. Robotic Dredgers are generally designed for small scale operations of around 0.5 kg 50 kg capacity for dredging. Robotic Dredgers are completely automated.

2 PROBLEMS OF POWAI LAKE


2.1 History of Powai Lake [1] Powai Lake is located about 27 km away in the North- East of Mumbai City. It is a man-made lake built in 1891. Mumbai Municipality constructed masonry dam of 10 metre height between two hillocks to conserve rain water for drinking purpose. Due to urbanization, Powai Lake suffers environmental degradation over last 100 years.

Figure 2.1 Map of Powai Lake 3

2.2 Problems The water in the lake was found to be non-potable because of the indiscriminate use of the lake for various purposes by the local people and also due to the disposal of domestic sewage and nearby residential and slum colonies. The lake is now used for recreation, gardening, cattle washing and fishing. The land in the catchments area was converted into development zone. This leads to reduction in total water spread and depth due to siltation, encroachment and soil erosion. 2.3 Consequences All the above factors lead to the excessive growth of vegetation, organic segments on the lake bed. These causes the fresh water polluted, thus, unfit for drinking. Due to this pollution, aquatic organisms cannot survive inside the water. Apart from this, dumping of garbage and other materials in the lake, washing of clothes, vehicles on the lakeshore causes the water pollution in Powai Lake. Figure 2.2 Encroachment of builder lobby

Figure 2.3 Polluted Powai Lake

3 PROBLEM EXPLORATION
As we explore further deep into the problems, we found out the two major problems persisting in the lake. Excessive growth of vegetation Organic segments on the lake bed

3.1 Excessive growth of Vegetation


Water near the lake shore remains almost stagnant. This favours the growth of the water plants. These unnecessary excessive growth of vegetation extracts its nutrients from the water, thus, making water unfit for drinking. The most common water plant that grows in the Powai Lake is Hyacinth. These plants float on water. These plants grow fast from seeds and Figure 3.1 Water hyacinth doubles every 5-15 days. It grows and grows until it covers the water with a thick floating mat of tangled weed. These plants grow by taking fresh water nutrients. Water is lost over 3 times faster than from clear water surface because of evapo-transpiration from the leaves. The quality of water is reduced due to loss of nutrients. . This dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish This dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish. . These entangled weeds provide shelter for disease carrying organisms Figure 3.2 Excessive growth of water hyacinth like mosquitoes.

3.2 Organic segments on the lake[2]


The organic segments on the lake bed consist of sludge of dead fishes, plants. The bottom sediment has septic water that has no oxygen loaded with toxic gases and solutions from decaying organic matter. Apart from the organic segments, there is a large amount of sand, slit and other waste materials.

Figure 3.3 Eutrophic fish pond

A rough sketch of the layer of lake is shown below.

4 NEED FOR A ROBOTIC DREDGER


To rehabilitate the Powai Lake, Hyacinths and organic segments are to be removed. Hyacinths are extended 50 metres away from the lakeshore. The depth of the lake varies from 1m-7m depending upon the season. Normal Hydraulic Cranes can remove hyacinths and dredge at maximum of 7-8m away from the shore. Also, the normal reaction for the cranes to operate near lakeshore is not sufficient since the land at land shore is soft. Figure 4.1 Normal hydraulic crane for cleaning lakes. For the machine to operate, it should be able to reach all places in the lake. One way it can be done is by floating. Using the present technologies, the cleaning of Powai Lake is not cost-effective (costs around Rs. 2-3 crores, rough figure). Secondly, the Lake contains Crocodiles and snakes. So, the machine cant be man operated from inside. It should be operated from outside, i.e., automated.

This calls for a Robotic dredger that can float to remove hyacinths and dredge the wastes on the Lakebed. In our project, we attempts make a robotic dredger that can only dredge the sledge in the lake.

5 BASIC DESIGN OF MACHINE AND ITS COMPONENTS


5.1 Basic Design Aspects
For the dredging of the sludge, we need a floating object that would collect and dump the wastes. It would be very difficult to mount a digger directly on the boat since it would affect the stability of the system. If the dredger is operated at the centre of the boat, then the boat will acquire more stability. Hence we thought of using a two hull boat that has a hole in the centre. Two Hulls of the boat we used are shown in the figure 5.1. Another problem we faced is the type of Figure 5.1 Two Hulls of a boat. scoop to collect the sludge. Unlike normal scoops that are used for digging on lands, we have to use some other mechanism for the better collection of sludge as well as the overall system stability. Grab mechanism is found to be best in case of underwater operations. Some of the grab mechanisms are shown below in figure 5.2.

Figure 5.2 Some of the existing grab mechanisms We designed our own grab mechanism subjected to our needs. Figure 5.3 shows a rough idea of our grab mechanism fabricated in the lab.

Figure 5.3 Designed Grab Mechanism

5.2 Components of Robotic Dredger 5.2.1 Two Hull Boat


We aimed in placing the grab mechanism in the middle of the boat such that the stability of boat wont be affected during operation. For this purpose, we proposed to have two hull connected with some gap in between for the grab mechanism. These hulls are made up of plastic. We connected the two hulls using aluminium rods so that one of the two hulls wont wobble during the operation. The two hulls connected

Figure 5.4 Two Hulls connected with aluminium rods (designed in solid works) with aluminium rods are shown in figure 5.4. For extra stability of the system, we fixed a firm mild steel frame on the two hull boat as shown in the figure 5.5. Mild steel frame is painted after a coating with varnish to prevent it from rusting.

Mild steel frame

Figure 5.5 Two Hulls with a steel frame 8

5.2.2

Grab Mechanism Rectangular frame

Grab mechanism is formed by joining two scoops. Two scoops (of same material and same dimensions) are connected using a link 1 at one point i.e. total 2 revolute pair. The opening and closing of the grab is controlled by vertical motion of this link 1. For actuating the link 1, a pulley mechanism is used. At the back side of each scoop, an extrudate is provided to give stationary support to carry out the operation. The stationary support is obtained by using 2 binary links connected from stationary rectangular frame to the extrudate of the scoops. This grab assembly design is shown in figure 5.6.

Link 1 Pulley

Binary Links
Figure 5.6 Grab assembly design

Extrudate

Working of the Grab Mechanism: The working of the grab involves its closing and opening basically. When the grab is released freely, the opening of grab is achieved due to its self-weight. We call this mechanism as force-open (we have force-closed and formclosed) since the net weight of the grab is responsible for its opening. Since the weight of the grab is reduced in water due to buoyancy, we placed a dead weight as shown in the figure 5.7. Whereas closing of the grab is achieved by the pulley mechanism. To close the grab, initially it is held at a particular position and the rope controlling its movement, is released. Due to the self-weight and as movement of scoops is constrained

Dead weight

Figure 5.7 Dead weight in the Grab using the links, the grab opens up. Whereas to close the grab, the same rope which controls the movement is to be lifted up and due to the constrained movement; the scoops of the grab tend to move towards each other closing the grab. The mechanism is shown below with the help of figure 5.8.

Figure 5.8 Working mechanism of the Grab 5.2.3

Slider Mechanism

Grab Mechanism is installed on a rectangular frame using pulleys and ropes .This frame can slide on guide rails such that it can deposit the sledge on the two hulls. The rectangular frame along with the slider is shown in figure 5.9.

Slider Guide rails

Pulleys Wheels Fixed on hull


Figure 5.9 Rectangular frame with slider

10

The slider is made of Aluminium rectangular pipe, is shown in figure 5.10. Slider frame includes two pipes in the middle. As the whole weight of the grab and the sludge (during lifting) directly acts on the slider, we made the slider to withstand this weight so that it doesnt deform, causing any problems while operating. The pipes are cut into the required dimensions and later welded together. Later four wheels were screwed to the frame to complete the slider. These wheels

Wheels Pulleys

when tested on the guide rails caused a Figure 5.10 Slider frame lot of obstruction due to friction. So, we later added four other wheels on the side faces to guide the frame without any friction (as shown in figure 5.11). The need of the side wheels can be seen in figure 5.12 when it is Wheels assembled on the support frame. The movement of the slider over the guide rails is obtained using a motor. A rope is first connected at one end of the slider which makes a loop and then is attached at the other end. One of the two Pulleys (shown in figure 5.9) is attached to a motor which Side wheels controls the motion of slider along the guide rails. In between the rope passes over two pulleys which are fixed one at each end Figure 5.11 Wheels and side wheels of the rails. Working of the slider mechanism: Slider is made to slide over the two hulls so that it could dump the wastes in any one of them. After lifting the grab, the motor controlling the slider is operated that pulls it towards any of the hulls. The direction of the slider is reversed by reversing the direction of rotation of the motor using a DPDT switch. This allows it to fill the hulls simultaneously maintaining the system balanced in water.

Guide rail
Figure 5.12 Side wheels on the support frame 11

5.2.4

Pulley Mechanism

To actuate the grab pulley is attached to the link 1 (as mentioned in figure 5.6) and another pulley attached to the rectangular frame (as mentioned in figure 5.6). A rope is used, one end of which is attached to the boat and then it passes over the pulleys such that on pulling the rope pulleys mounted on rectangular frame and link 1 comes closer to each other, then the other end of the rope is attached to the pulley which is mounted on a motor held rigidly to the boat. Another pulley assembly is used to give support

Slider

Rectangular frame

Link 1

Figure 5.13 Pulley and rope mechanism the rectangular frame, to do this two pulleys are mounted on the rectangular frame and two on the slider frame. Another rope is used, one end of which is attached to the boat and passes over the pulleys attached on rectangular frame and slider frame such that on pulling the rope grab will move up and on loosing grab will move down due to its own weight, other end of the rope is attached to another pulley mounted on motor held rigidly to the boat.

5.2.5 Actuators
We used DC motors to actuate the pulleys. With the help of DPDT Relay switches, we can move in both the directions of the motor. A total of 3 DC motors are used for operation to carry out. One motor is used for opening and closing of the grab. Another motor is used for vertical motion of the grab assembly. Third Motor is for the horizontal motion of the slider assembly (along with the grab assembly). First motor should be operated during the vertical motion of grab assembly simultaneously with the second motor. An attempt is made to show all the motors in one figure. We used a battery to run DC motors.

Motor 1

Motor 3

Motor 2

Figure 5.14 DC Motors in Assembly 12

6 ASSEMBLY
All the parts are mounted on the hull of the boat. The guide rails of the slider are first fixed to the hulls using clamps (figure 6.1). They are fixed at sufficient height for the grab to move freely. The rails are evenly supported with bars to prevent bending. Slider frame is kept over the rails and maintain contact with the rails due to self-weight. Grab is hung from the slider with the nylon ropes passing over the pulleys. The pulley assembly is discussed earlier in the construction of pulley mechanism. Motor used to move the slider is fixed to the supporting frame of guide rails. The other motors which control the movements of grab are fixed at either ends of the boat as discussed above.

Clamp

Figure 6.1 Clamp fixed to hull

A figure of the entire assembly is shown below (figure 6.2).

Slider

Nylon ropes

Grab DC Motor Supporting Frame Mild steel frame Hull

Figure 6.2 Final Assembly of Robotic Dredger (i)

13

A few figures are shown below for better understanding of the assembly.

Figure 6.3 Final Assembly of Robotic Dredger (ii)

Figure 6.4 Final Assembly of Robotic Dredger (iii) 14

Figure 6.5 Motor 1 fixed to steel frame

Figure 6.6 Rail guide fixed to frame

7 SPECIFICATIONS
The data provided below are viewed front from the figure 6.2. Some of the values are averaged since their shape is not defined precisely. Table 7.1 - Specifications Hull Rigid Frame Scoop Pulleys Slider Rail Guide QUANTITY 2 1 2 12 1 2 SHAPE Box Box C/U MATERIAL Plastic Mild steel Aluminium Plastic Aluminium Aluminium LENGTH(cm) 60 160 58 27 182 BREADTH( cm) 200 187 34 43 44 HEIGHT( cm) 49 5 46 3 3

3 DC motors are used. Specification of Motor is 6 Volts; Torque of 0.8 Nm. Ropes of Nylon material is used. Screw-Nuts are used to join steel frame to the hull; also to join rail guides to the supporting frame. Some of the essential components, where more force is experienced (near the clamp, on the slider), are welded. Data not mentioned is either not measured or not calculated. Some of the calculations for the DC motor requirement are done using basic equations (force; work done by taking considerable force acting at the bottom of the grab collector) and hence not mentioned. Research carried out on the force required to pluck Hyacinth plant from water is not scientific and not defined properly. Entire design of the machine is not modelled in the software. Only a few complex parts like grab and hull assembly is modelled in Solid works software.

15

8 MANUFACTURABILITY
The whole manufacturing of the robotic dredger cost us around Rs. 10000 which is very much cost effective. Since this is a scaled model, the cost obviously goes up for producing the marketable product but the large scale production of the product could reduce the cost significantly. Also the manufacturing doesnt involve any complications. The robotic dredger is very efficient in the sludge removal. This even solves the operating complications of present day grab dredgers making it simpler to operate. Considering these advantages and its efficiency, we presume this dredger could go for production after a few changes.

9 TESTING & FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT


We have tested our machine in the nearby small pond Jal Vihar in IIT Bombay. Since the maintenance of pond is good, we able to extract very small amount of wastes from the pond. Another problem we faced during testing is the improper windings of nylon rope on the pulley during operation. One of the problems we found is the different RPMs of the two motors resulting in complex control through switches.

Sludge

Figure 9.1 Sludge collected during testing

10 CONCLUSIONS
The simplicity of the mechanism is giving flexibility of its effective use. This mechanism is working properly. Its construction is supportive to the stability of the boat and provides large carrying space. So it is easier to use this mechanism for dredging in future. Since it is our very first attempt to a robotic dredger, there are few concerns that need to be corrected. A few improvements of this machine would greatly impact the rate of collecting the sludge. An additional feature is purposed for hyacinth removal which will be added in the next improvement.

16

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Environmental Status of Powai Lake, Mumbai (India) by P.B. Salaskar, S.G. Yeragi, Rodricks Gordon ; Maharashtra State Angling Association, Powai Lake, Mumbai, India. [2] Information obtained through PowerPoint presentation provided by Maharashtra government through the web link vis.maharashtra.gov.in/envis_data/pps/pawai2.ppt

17