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# Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

## Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

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Technical Sketching with Orthographic Projection: Outside of the Box
2.0 Section Overview: Sketching with the Box
This section contains a brief description of first and third angle projection and is based on the concept of visualizing and constructing multiple orthographic views of 3-D objects through the use of a projection box. Following that are a series of hands-on freehand technical sketching exercises based on orthographic third angle projection; the standard method for engineering drawing layout in the United States. Exercises include missing views, multiview, and isometric sketches using orthographic and isometric grids.

## Orthographic Projection Inside the Box The International Standard

The development of a precise technique for using projection to graphically and accurately describe and analyze adjacent multiple views of 3-D objects is generally attributed to the Frenchman, Gaspard Monge in the late 1700s. Originally this drawing system was based on orthographic first angle projection. As shown in figure 2.0 below, first angle projection is based on the principle of placing the object between a viewers line of sight and a plane of projection (typically a paper drawing surface) and projecting the image of the object onto the plane of projection. The term orthographic refers to the fact that all lines of projection are parallel to the viewer s line of sight and perpendicular to the projection plane. With first angle projection, the observer may be described as being inside the projection box. In the illustration shown below, the observers parallel lines of sight and the object may be considered to be inside the projection box. Drawings based on first angle projection continue to be the international standard for representing multiple views of 3-D objects for engineering and manufacturing.

Figure 2.0 The Principle of First Angle Projection: Viewing from INSIDE the Box.

## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## Orthographic Projection Outside the Box The United States Standard

First angle projection served as the standard for engineering graphics in the United States until third angle projection began to gradually replace its use in the late 1880s. As shown in figure 2.1, third angle projection differs from first angle projection only in the location of the plane of projection. The principle of third angle projection is based on placing the plane of projection between the object and the viewers line of sight. The plane of projection containing the image may be thought of traditionally as a sheet of drawing paper or, in the digital age, as a computer screen. In the illustration shown below, the observers parallel lines of sight are considered to be outside of the projection box with the object on the inside. Drawings based on third angle projection are currently the standard for representing multiple views of 3-D objects for engineering and manufacturing in the United States. For that reason, all sketching exercises and drawings in this course will be based on third angle projection.

Figure 2.1 The Principle of Third Angle Projection: Viewing from OUTSIDE the Box.

## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorials

Given the 12 pictorial drawings of objects shown below, find the pictorial drawing from the group shown below that matches each of the girded two view multiview drawings. Next, sketch or draw the missing top, front, or right side view on the grid in the space provided. If assigned, create a solid model of the object. The shaded surfaces shown on the pictorial drawings indicate inclined surfaces..

Exercise 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorial Drawings (1) (3).

## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorials

Given the 12 pictorial drawings of objects shown below, find the pictorial drawing from the group shown below that matches each of the girded two view multiview drawings. Next, sketch or draw the missing top, front, or right side view on the grid in the space provided. If assigned, create a solid model of the object. The shaded surfaces shown on the pictorial drawings indicate inclined surfaces..

Exercise 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorial Drawings (4) (6).

## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorials

Given the 12 pictorial drawings of objects shown below, find the pictorial drawing from the group shown below that matches each of the girded two view multiview drawings. Next, sketch or draw the missing top, front, or right side view on the grid in the space provided. If assigned, create a solid model of the object. The shaded surfaces shown on the pictorial drawings indicate inclined surfaces..

Exercise 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorial Drawings (7) (9).

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorials

Given the 12 pictorial drawings of objects shown below, find the pictorial drawing from the group shown below that matches each of the girded two view multiview drawings. Next, sketch or draw the missing top, front, or right side view on the grid in the space provided. If assigned, create a solid model of the object. The shaded surfaces shown on the pictorial drawings indicate inclined surfaces..

Exercise 2.1 Missing View Sketches using Pictorial Drawings (10) (12).

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.2 Missing View Sketches

Given the two views of a multiview drawing of an object, sketch or draw the missing views. As an additional exercise, create a pictorial sketch and make a solid model of the object.

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.2 Missing View Sketches

Given the two views of a multiview drawing of an object, sketch or draw the missing views. As an additional exercise, create a pictorial sketch and make a solid model of the object.

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.3 Isometric to Multiview Sketches

Given the isometric pictorial drawing of an object, sketch or draw the missing orthographic top, front and right side views of the object. As an additional exercise, create a solid model of the object.

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.3 Isometric to Multiview Sketches

Given the isometric pictorial drawing of an object, sketch or draw the missing orthographic top, front and right side views of the object. As an additional exercise, create a solid model of the object.

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.4 Multiview to Isometric Sketches

Given the three view mulitiview drawing of an object, sketch or draw the missing isometric pictorial view of the object. As an additional exercise, create a solid model of the object.

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## Exploration & Exercises in 3-D Modeling

Sketching & 3-D Modeling Exercises for Spring 2012

## 2.4 Multiview to Isometric Sketches

Given the three view mulitiview drawing of an object, sketch or draw the missing isometric pictorial view of the object. As an additional exercise, create a solid model of the object.

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