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THE OPEN UNIVERSITY Faculty of Mathematics and Computing

MSXR209 Diagnostic Quiz

John Trapp

c 2004 Mcs-Msxr209@open.ac.uk Last Revision Date: June 14, 2004

Version 1.0

Section 1: Introduction

2

1. Introduction

This course, MSXR209, assumes some knowledge of applied mathe- matics, namely:

Diﬀerential equations: solution of ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equations using separation of variables or the integrating factor method; solution of linear constant-coeﬃcient second-order diﬀerential equations;

Vectors: addition, subtraction, scalar product, and vector product of two vectors; uses of vectors;

Mechanics: expressing forces as vectors; setting up equations of mo- tion for problems involving masses, springs, gravity, inclined planes, strings, pulleys, friction;

Linear Algebra: matrix multiplication, determinants, solving lin- ear equations; ﬁnding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrix; solving linear systems of diﬀerential equations.

Section 1: Introduction

3

This diagnostic quiz contains questions to help you decide whether your mathematical knowledge is good enough to start on the course. This quiz covers all the topics under the heading of Mechanics and it is recommended that you try the diagnostic quizzes on Diﬀerential equations and Vectors ﬁrst before doing this quiz. Either do the quiz on-line or save the .pdf ﬁle to your computer and do the questions at leisure. Most questions will require some mathematical manipulation and understanding. This quiz need only be attempted if you have studied neither MST209 nor MST207. Either the question number itself or the sub-question numbers will be in green; clicking on the green area will bring up the solution. At the end of the solution there is a link back to the question. Your solutions may diﬀer from the solutions given, which are in the style of the associated course, MST209. For example, in that course, forces are expressed as vectors. Those who have studied nei- ther MST209 nor MST207 will be able to obtain the relevant course material from the Open University as an extra. The MST209 Hand- book will be provided as part of the course material.

Section 1: Introduction

4

Read the post-mortem at the end of the quiz to evaluate your understanding of the prerequisite material for MSXR209.

Section 2: Mechanics

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2. Mechanics

Exercise 1. The acceleration of a particle with position vector r given by

r¨ = sin t i t j + 4

and the initial conditions are

is

k

r˙ (0) = 0 ,

r (0) = i j +k .

What is the position of the particle at any time t?

Exercise 2. (a) A particle of mass M is on a rough plane inclined at angle α to the horizontal. One end of a string is attached to the particle, the string passes over a pulley at the top of the slope and a particle of mass m is attached to the other end of the string. The particle of mass m dangles vertically. Identify the forces acting on each particle and draw a force diagram for each mass. (b) Deﬁne suitable unit vectors and express the forces acting on the particle on the plane in terms of these unit vectors.

Section 2: Mechanics

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(c) Find an expression for the acceleration of the particle up the plane, given that µ is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between the par- ticle and the plane.

Exercise 3. One end of a uniform pole of mass M and length 3 metres is hinged to a vertical wall. To the other end of the pole, a rope is attached and this is fastened to the wall 2 metres vertically above the hinge. Find the tension in the rope when the pole is horizontal.

Exercise 4. A particle P is attached by two light springs to two ﬁxed points, A and B, and is constrained to oscillate in simple harmonic motion in a straight line between A and B, as shown in the diagram below.

A

B

/ /
/
/

/ / / ¬

/

/

P

¬ /

The points A and B need not be horizontal. Which of the following statements are true?

Section 2: Mechanics

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 (a) The natural frequency is dependent on the distance between the two points of attachment. (b) The natural frequency is independent of the orientation of the straight line. (c) The equilibrium point is dependent on the two spring stiﬀnesses. (d) The natural frequency is dependent on the natural lengths of the two springs. (e) If the mass of the particle increases, the period of oscillation in- creases. (f) The amplitude of oscillations is dependent on the spring stiﬀ- nesses. (g) The two springs are made of the same wire and with the same coil diameter; the right-hand spring has more coils and therefore has

a higher spring stiﬀness.

Section 2: Mechanics

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Exercise 5. A particle is tethered by two light springs to two points in the same horizontal plane and distance L apart; the motion of the particle is constrained to be along the horizontal line joining the points of attachment of the springs. The left-hand spring has stiﬀness k 1 and natural length 1 ; the right-hand spring has stiﬀness k 2 and natural length 2 . There is no friction. If x is the displacement of the particle from the left-hand point of attachment, express the spring forces acting on the particle in vector notation, in terms of a deﬁned unit vector. What other forces act on the particle?

Exercise 6. A particle of mass m is dangling from one end of a spring of stiﬀness k and natural length 0 . The other end of the spring is attached to a ﬁxed point.The particle is released from rest at a depth h below the point of suspension of the spring. Use conservation of energy to determine the speed of the particle when it is a distance x below the point of suspension of the spring.

Solutions to Exercises

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Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 1. Integrating the acceleration gives the velocity, r¨

r˙ = cos t i

1

2 t 2 j

+

4t k + a ,

,

where a is a constant vector. Using the ﬁrst initial condition gives

0 = i + 0 j + 0k + a .

Therefore

a = i .
Integrating again will give the position vector, r

,

r = sin t i

6 t 3 j + 2t 2 k + t i +b ,

1

where b is a constant vector. Using the initial condition gives

i j +k = 0 i + 0 j + 0k + 0 i +b .

∼ ∼

Solutions to Exercises

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Therefore

b = i j +k .

Therefore the position vector is

r = (sin t + t + 1) i +

(6 t 3 1) j

1

+ (2t 2 + 1) k .

This material is covered in Unit 6 of MST209. Return to Exercise 1

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 2(a) There are four forces acting on the particle that is on the slope and two forces acting on the particle that is dangling. They are: the weights, W 1 and W 2 ; the tension forces, T 1 and T 2 , exerted on the particles by the string; the normal reaction of the plane on the ﬁrst particle, N ; and the friction force between the plane and the ﬁrst particle, F .

Solutions to Exercises

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N ❏❪
✑ ✑ ✑ ✑✸
❏ ✑ ✑
❏ ❏
M
F ∼ ✑✰
W
1

T

1

T

2

m

W

2

This material is covered in Unit 5 of MST209. Return to Exercise 2 (a)

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 2(b) There are two natural choices for the orientation of the unit vectors; one is to align them parallel to, and perpendicular to, the plane; the other is to align them horizontally and vertically. Using the ﬁrst choice, with i parallel to the plane and upwards

and j

perpendicular to, and away from, the plane, we have

T 1 = | T 1 | i ,

N

W 1

=

= Mg cos π + α + cos π + α + π j

| N |

j ,

F = − | F | i

,

2

i

2

2

= Mg(sin α i + cos α j ),

using the cosine of the angle between the force and each unit vector to determine the component of the force in the direction of that unit vector.

Solutions to Exercises

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If the unit vectors are chosen alternatively with i to the right and

 horizontal and j ∼ T 1 = ∼ = N = ∼ = F = ∼ = W 1 = ∼

vertically upwards, then we have

| T 1 | cos α i + cos π

2 α j

|

T 1 |(cos α i + sin α j )

|

N | cos π + α + cos α j

2

i

|N |(sin α i + cos α j )

|F | cos (π α) i + cos π α +

|F |(

cos α i sin α j )

Mg j

.

π

2

j

This is more complicated than the other choice of unit vectors. This material is covered in Unit 5 of MST209.

Solutions to Exercises

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Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 2(c) Assume that the particle is moving up the plane and denote the acceleration of the particle on the plane by ai (using the

ﬁrst option for the unit vectors). Application of Newton’s second law gives

Ma i = | N | j − | F | i + | T 1 | i Mg(sin α i + cos α j ).

We need to apply Newton’s second law to the hanging particle as well. The motion is one-dimensional so we need only one unit vector; take k to be vertically upwards. The acceleration is a k since it is moving downwards. The equation of motion is

ma k = mg k + | T 2 | k .

If the pulley is modelled as an ideal pulley then

| T 2 | = | T 1 |,

and the second equation of motion reduces to

ma = mg − | T 1 |

or

| T 1 | = m(g a).

Solutions to Exercises

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Substituting this into the ﬁrst equation of motion, and resolving in the i -direction gives

M a = −| F | + m(g a) Mg sin α.

Resolving in the j -direction gives

0 = | N | − Mg cos α.

Since the particle is moving we can write

| F | = µ| N |,

where µ is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction, and on elimination we

obtain a = mg Mg sin α µMg cos α M + m This material is covered in Unit 6 of MST209. Return to Exercise 2 (c)

.

Solutions to Exercises

18

Exercise 3. A diagram showing the forces acting on the pole and the axes (with the origin at the hinge) is:

T

R

O

W

j i

The forces are: T , the tension force due to the rope, and aligned

along the rope; W , the weight of the rod, acting vertically downwards at its centre of mass; and R , the reaction from the wall whose direction is unknown. First we need the angle, α, between the rope and the pole. It is

given by tan α = 2 3 , and therefore cos α =

Expressing the force vectors W and T in terms of the unit vectors

3

13

and sin α =

2

13 .

Solutions to Exercises

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shown gives:

W

T

=

=

=

Mg j ,

| T | cos(π α) i + cos π α j

2

| T |(

cos α i +

sin α j ).

To ﬁnd the torques corresponding to each vector, it is easiest to draw up a table:

 Position vector r Force F Torque (=r ∼ × F ) ∼ ∼ ∼ 1.5 i − Mg j − 1.5Mg k ∼ ∼ ∼ 3 i | T |(− cos α ∼ i + sin α j ) 3 | T | sin α k ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ 0 R 0 ∼ ∼ ∼

Since the pole is in equilibrium, the sum of the torques acting on the pole is zero, and therefore

0 = 1.5Mg k + 3| T | sin α k .

Solutions to Exercises

20

Therefore

| T | =

Mg 2 sin α

= 13Mg

4

,

which is the magnitude of the tension in the rope. This problem can be solved using moments; using torques and vec- tors may seem more complicated, but this kind of approach readily generalizes to 3–D problems whereas using moments is restricted to 2–D. The associated course, MST209, tries to teach methods that can be generalized rather than those that are useful for only certain classes

of problems. This material is covered in Unit 5 of MST209. Return to Exercise 3

Solutions to Exercises

21

Exercise 4(a) Not true; the natural frequency is only dependent on the mass of the particle and the spring stiﬀnesses. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (a)

Solutions to Exercises

22

Exercise 4(b) True; the natural frequency is only dependent on the mass of the particle and the spring stiﬀnesses, not on the inclination of the straight line. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (b)

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 4(c) True; the equilibrium position is dependent on the spring stiﬀnesses. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (c)

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 4(d) Not true; the natural frequency is independent of the natural lengths of the springs. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (d)

Solutions to Exercises

25

Exercise 4(e) True; the heavier the particle, the slower it will re- spond to the spring restoring forces. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (e)

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 4(f) Not true; the amplitude of the oscillations is only dependent on the initial conditions. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (f)

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 4(g) Not true; the spring with more coils will have a lower spring stiﬀness. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 4 (g)

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 5. Take the unit vector i to point to the right. The spring forces are best shown in a table. Assume that both springs are ex- tended.

 Left-hand spring Right-hand spring Length of spring Extension of spring Magnitude of tension force Direction of tension force x L − x x − 1 L − x − 2 k 1 (x − 1 ) k 2 (L − x − 2 ) − i i ∼ ∼ Tension force − k 1 (x − 1 ) i k 2 (L − x − 2 ) i ∼ ∼

and the

normal reaction N from whatever support the particle experiences to

The other forces acting on the particle are its weight W

keep the motion along the horizontal. This material is covered in Unit 7 of MST209. Return to Exercise 5

Solutions to Exercises

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Exercise 6. Take the datum for gravitational potential energy to be at the point of suspension of the spring. The various energies at a general point x are:

Gravitational potential energy Spring potential energy Kinetic energy The total energy, E, is given by

E = mgx + 1 2 k(x 0 ) 2

The initial conditions give

mgx

2 1 k(x 0 ) 2

2 1 mx˙ 2

+

2 mx˙ 2 .

1

E = mgh + 2 k(h 0 ) 2

1

+ 0,

which determines the value of E. Therefore the speed |x˙ | is given by

x˙ 2 = 2g(x h) + m (h 0 ) 2 m (x 0 ) 2 .

k

k

This material is covered in Unit 8 of MST209. Return to Exercise 6