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Transformer

Differential Relay
Electrical Apparatus

MD32T Transformer Differential Relay 150-30


The MD32T Transformer Differential
Relay is a member of Cooper
Power Systems’ Edison® line of
microprocessor based protective
relays. The MD32T relay offers the
following functions:
■ High and low set differential
elements for each phase with
multi-slope bias characteristics.
The MD32T is suitable for
protecting any two winding
transformer or a three winding
transformer with unit-directional
current flow.
■ Low set differential element
response time of less than 2
cycles, high set response time
under 1 cycle.
■ Programmable 2nd and 5th
harmonic restraint elements
which may be reduced auto-
matically during transformer Figure 1.
energization or at any time by Front View of the MD32T Transformer Differential Relay
an external trigger.
■ Restricted ground fault element. ■ Modbus communication The MD32T may also be used to
■ Automatic CT ratio compen- protocol and RS485 terminal on protect multi-winding transformers
sation for all transformer rear. where one winding always acts as
winding and CT connection ■ Modular design allows the the source winding, and the CTs of
configurations through draw-out module to be fitted to the other load windings are
programmable vector groups. a variety of space saving connected in an appropriate
cabinet styles. manner to represent the sum of the
■ 16 cycle oscillographic records load currents.
of trip events. An oscillographic ■ Three programmable Form C
record may also be triggered (SPDT) output contacts and one For autotransformer-started motors,
externally. Form A/B contact. some differential protection
schemes include the
The MD32T also shares the ■ Pick-up (start-time) elements. autotransformer in the zone of
following features common to all protection. In this case a rotating
■ Programmable reset
Edison® relays: machine differential relay, such as
characteristics.
■ Simple five button man machine the MD32G, is not suitable as the
■ Dedicated power supply/relay 2nd and 5th harmonic restraint
interface (MMI) allows access to
fail output contacts. functions common to transformer
all functions, settings, and
stored data without the need for Applications differential relays is required. For
a computer. this application, the MD32T should
The MD32T is ideally suited for the be used.
■ Bright electroluminescent protection of any two winding
display easily visible even in transformer against two or three
brightly lit environments. phase internal faults, inter-turn
■ Draw-out design permits relay faults, and ground faults in
testing without disturbing transformers with low-impedance
connections to case. or solidly grounded neutrals.

August 1997 • New Issue 1


Printed in USA
MD32T Transformer Differential Relay

∆Id ∆(I1 -I2)


R% = 100 = 100
∆IR ∆(I1 -I2)/2

Is/In Is I
4 1 = 4
In In
18
2 Is I I
= d + ( R -- 0.5) •
R%
In In In 100
3 ▲
2 Is I 2R% IR
∆IR ∆Id 3 = d + + ( - 2.5)
In In 100 In

▲ ∆IR
1 2 ▲ Is
4 18
1 ∆Id In

Id/In
Is/In
0
0.5 1 2 2.5 3
Is= Effective relay’s operation differential current
Id= Relay’s setting differential current
Id
{ =[d>] for 1F87

=[d>>] for 2F87

Figure 2.
Dual Slope Bias Characteristic of the MD32T Differential Relay

Multi-slope Biased Low Set Differential faults and blocking the relay, the
Differential Element Element MD32T allows the harmonic
restraint settings to be lowered to
Each phase is provided with its In addition to the multi-slope bias as little as one-half the normal
own differential element with a characteristic, the low set settings during a programmable
characteristic as shown in Figure 2. differential element is further time period following transformer
The relay internally calculates the equipped with programmable 2nd energization. Transformer ener-
RMS value of the differential and 5th harmonic restraint logic. gization is sensed via a digital input
current compensated for any CT connected to an auxiliary contact
During transformer energization,
ratio and phase angle mismatch. on the transformer’s breaker.
significant 2nd harmonic current is
The minimum differential current present, which may result in false High Set Differential
required for operation is adjustable trips. This requires the relay to
between 0.1 and 0.5 pu of the rated suppress its response to the 2nd An instantaneous (high set)
current. This setting is fixed up to harmonic component of current. differential element is provided to
0.5 pu of the transformers rated The MD32T allows for adjustment quickly remove the transformer
current. Above 0.5 pu compen- of the 2nd harmonic restraint from service in the event of severe
sation of the set point is required element over the range of 0.1 to 0.3 internal faults. To effectively
for CT saturation, which may occur pu of the transformer’s rated eliminate the effects of dc offsets
at higher current levels, and for current. and harmonics, the relay trips on
voltage ratio fluctuations caused by the sensing of sequential positive
Similarly, over-excitation of the
on-load tap changers. From 0.5 to and negative peak currents whose
transformer may result in significant
2.5 pu of rated current, the slope of magnitude exceeds the high set trip
levels of 5th harmonic current,
the differential element is level.
requiring similar restraint
adjustable between 10 and 50%. The high set trip level may be either
characteristics. The MD32T allows
Between 2.5 pu and 18 pu of rated set to be a fixed value, or may be
for an adjustment range of 0.2 - 0.4
current, the bias slope is fixed at biased in the same fashion as the
pu of rated current. Either or both
100%. low set element. Due to the oper-
the 2nd and 5th harmonic restraint
elements may be disabled if ational nature of the element, no
desired. harmonic programmable harmonic
restraint elements are provided.
To avoid problems associated with
This element will operate in less
the harmonic restraint elements
than 1 cycle (15 msec).
from being too sensitive on actual

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150-30

Ground Fault Protection quantities and the countdown of Oscillography


any timers begins only when the
To provide greater coverage for blocking is removed. The MD32T stores two
ground faults, the MD32T monitors oscillographic records which are
the fundamental frequency Reset Characteristic made available for downloading to
component of current fed into the a PC for graphing. All six input
The programmable output relays
ground element inputs. Depending phase currents are recorded. Each
may be programmed to reset in one
upon the connection, this element oscillographic record consists of 8
of two manners.
can perform: pre-trigger and 8-post trigger
■ Instantaneously upon the input cycles, for a total of 16 cycles. The
■ Restricted ground fault
or calculated quantities waveform is sampled at 12 samples
protection for one Y connected
dropping below the pickup per cycle. Storage of an
winding (87N).
value. oscillographic record may be
■ Residual current (3Io) protection programmed to occur automatically
■ Manual reset (by front panel or
of one winding (51G). every time a protective element
computer command) only.
■ Neutral current protection of trips, or to occur only upon an
one winding (51N). Measurements and external trigger.
Inrush Values Output Elements
This ground fault element consists
of a definite time high set element The following quantities are
The following functions may be
and a fixed 30 ms response time continuously monitored and are
programmed to one or more of the
instantaneous element. This available for display at the relay and
output relays. The only limitation is
element may be blocked during are accessible by software:
that pick-up and time delay
transformer energization. ■ RMS values of each phase’s functions may not be assigned to
Targets differential current operate the same output relay(s).
Eight bright LED targets are ■ Fundamental frequency ■ Low set differential element.
component of the neutral
provided as follows: ■ High set differential element.
current in per unit of the rated
■ One red LED for each of phase current. ■ Instantaneous ground fault
the three phase differential element.
elements. ■ RMS values of the three high
side currents. ■ Time delayed ground fault
■ One red LED for the restricted element.
ground fault element. ■ RMS values of the three low
side currents. Diagnostics
■ Two red LEDs to signal when
the 2nd or 5th harmonic ■ 2nd and 5th harmonic current Complete memory and circuit
currents respectively exceed the components of each of the diagnostics are run upon powering
restraint level. phase’s differential currents. the relay. The revision level of the
In addition, the maximum values of firmware is displayed at this time.
For all of the above, the LEDs flash
when the element is picked up, and each of these quantities during the The relay runs a comprehensive set
constantly illuminate upon trip. In first 100 msec after transformer of diagnostics every 15 minutes
addition, one yellow LED is energization is also recorded. This that includes memory checksum,
provided which illuminates when makes it convenient to quickly test of the A/D converters by
the blocking input is active. A review the inrush currents injection of an internally generated
second yellow LED flashes when associated with the most recent reference voltage, and a check of
the relay is in programming mode, energization. the ALU.
and illuminates constantly upon Last Trip Record The relay provides two manual test
relay or power supply failure. routines which may be run at any
The following parameters are
Blocking Input time. The first routine performs the
stored in non-volatile memory,
same 15 minute test and in addition
An opto-isolated programmable providing details of the last five trip
checks the target LEDs and the
blocking input is provided. This events:
control circuitry to the output relays
input may be programmed so that ■ Which element was the cause without operating the output relays.
when activated, any combination of of the last trip. The second test is identical but also
the low set differential, high set operates the output relays.
■ The values of all measured
differential, or ground fault elements
currents at the time of trip.
may be blocked.
In addition the relays keep a
While the blocking input is active,
cumulative total of the cause of all
the pickup of any element
breaker trips.
associated with the blocking input is
prevented. Sensing of the input

3
Figure 3.
Wiring Diagram for the MD32T Transformer Differential Relay used for the 87T Protection Only

Figure 4.
Wiring Diagram for the MD32T Transformer Differential Relay used for 87T and 51G Protection

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150-30

Figure 5.
Wiring Diagram for the MD32T transformer Differential Relay used for 87T and 51N (Restricted Ground
(Earth) Fault) Protection

Figure 6.
Wiring Diagram for the MD32T Transformer Differential Relay used for 87T and 87N (Restricted Ground
(Earth) Fault) Protection

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MD32T Transformer Differential Relay

TABLE 1
Functional Specifications

Nominal system frequency setting range.................................................50 or 60 Hz


Programmable rated primary input current of phase CTs......................1 - 9999A in 1A steps(High and low side CT programmable separately)
Programmable rated phase-to-phase voltage of transformer ................0.20 to 380.00 kV in 0.01 kV steps
......................................................................................................................(High and low side voltages programmable separately)
Transformer connection and vector group...............................................Yy0 to Yz0
Differential Element
Minimum pick-up level of low set differential element ...............................0.10 to 0.50 pu of rated CT current in 0.01 pu step
Minimum pick-up level of high set differential element..............................2.0 to 18.0 pu of rated CT current in 0.1 pu steps
Bias percentage slope from 0.5 pu to 2.5 pu rated CT current.................10 - 50% in 1% steps
2nd Harmonic restraint level......................................................................0.10 to 0.30 pu of the differential current in 0.01 pu steps
5th Harmonic restraint level.......................................................................0.20 to 0.40 pu of the differential current in 0.01 pu steps
Harmonic restraint multiplier (reduction) ...................................................0.50 to 1.00 pu of original setting in 0.01 pu steps during energization
...................................................................................................................(2nd and 5th harmonic restraint multipliers programmable separately)
Harmonic restraint reduction timer (starting at transformer energization) 0.05 to 99.00 seconds in 0.01 sec. steps
Ground Fault Element
Minimum pick-up level for ground fault element ........................................0.01 to 1.00 pu of rated CT current in 0.01 pu steps
Time delay of ground fault element ...........................................................0.02 to 9.99 seconds in 0.01 second steps as described in IEC 76

Dimensional and TABLE 2


Catalog Numbers
Electrical Specifications
See Catalog Section 150-05 for Description Catalog Number
electrical specifications and
Base Relay MD32T
dimensional information on all
To the above add one each of the
Edison® Relays. following applicable suffixes
Ordering Information Power Supply1
24-110V AC/DC L
Construct catalog number from 90-220V AC/DC H
Table 2. Rated CT Input
Example: MD32TL5JS is an MD32T 1A 1
with low range power supply, 5A CT 5A 5
inputs, in a single relay case. Modbus Protocol J
Case Style2
If ordering two or more relays to be Draw out relay only, no cabinet supplied D
fit in a common case, the first relay Single relay case S
ordered should indicate the case Double relay case T
style desired. This relay will be 19" Rack mount cabinet N
located in the leftmost bay of the
Mounting Position
case. Subsequent relays should use
Denotes mounting position in either a double C2
the C2, C3, or C4 suffixes to denote
case or 19" Rack along with other relays C3
their position in the case using the ordered at the same time. C4
leftmost bay as a C1 reference.

1
The power supplies are user replaceable and interchangeable. See Catalog section 150-99.
2
The relay itself may be drawn out of any of the listed cases and plugged into any of the other
case styles. The catalog number specified during ordering denotes the type of cabinet in which
the relay will be shipped.

©1997 Cooper Power Systems, Inc. P.O. Box 1640, Waukesha, WI 53187
Edison® is a registered trademark of Cooper Industries, Inc. http://www.cooperpower.com/

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Printed on Recycled Paper

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