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Wastewater | Treatment Concepts and Design Approach GL. Karia Re AN Christian , Re. 325.00 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH G.L. Karia and R.A. Christian © 2006 by Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing trom the publishor. ISBN-81-203-2860-4 ‘The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus, New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Meenakshi Art Printers, Delhi-110006. Contents Preface xi Acknowledgements xiii L_WASTEWATER AND TREATMENT CONCEPTS d= LO_Fundamentals of Wastewater J L1_ Types of Wastewater 2 L2 Concept of Treatment_ 2 L3_Treatment Methods 3 13.1 Unit Operations 3 13.2 Unit Processes 3 L4 Treatment Systems 5 14.1 Preliminary Treatment System 5 1.4.2 Primary Treatment System 6 14.3 Secondary Treatment System 7 14.4 Tertiary or Advanced Treatment System & 1.5. Selection of Treatment System 9 Summary 10 Exercises if BASI: v E] io Haaeisial’ Caosidecih 22 ‘Sheaath and Characteristics of Wastewater 12 22 Flow rates and Their Fluctuations 14 2.2.1 Daily Variation 14 2.2.2 Seasonal Variation 15 2.2.3 Maximum and Minimum Fi ian FS 224 Definiti Various Flow. 5 2.2.5 Useful Ratios 16 1 = CONTENTS I 2.3. Concept of Mass Load 17 2.3.1 Variation in Mass Loading 2/ 2.4 Concept of Design Criteria 22 Detention Time (Hydraulic Retention Time, HRT) a 5 243 Settling Velocity. v.27 face Loading Rate (SLR) or Overflow Rate (OFR) 28 ‘eit Loading Rate, WLR_ 29 6 Organic Loading 32 2.4.7 _Food-Microorganism (F/M) Ratio 32 2.4.8 Mean Cell Residence Time, 6, or Solids Retention Time, SRT 35 24.9 Hydraulic Loading 37 2.4.10 Volumetric Loading 38 2.4.11 Length : Breadth: Depth Ratio 39 5__Hydraulic Flow Diagram (HFD) 39 Summary 40 reises 4, $E CEDURE DESIGN CALCULATIONS 42-54 3.0 Objective 42 3.1_Types of Treatment Units 42 3.2 Sizing of Units 43 a3 ‘alculation Procedure 44 Summary 4.0 Design Essentials _55 4.1 Concept of Reactions 55 4.1.1 Types of Reactions 56 2= Reaction Rates 56 4.2 Illustrative Examples 59 4.2.1 Temperature Effect 61 2 zyme Reactions 64 4.3__Concept of Reactors 66 43.1 Reactors (Treatment Units) 66 43.2 Types of Reactors 67 433 Reactors in Series 78 Exercises 85 a 5.0 ential Prerequisites 86 5.1__Design of Sump and Pump Wells of Pumping Stations 87 3.1.1 Concept 87 5.1.2 Design Considerations 87 5.1.3 Design Examples 89 5.2. Design of Approach Channel 93 5.2.1 Concept 93 §.2.2 Design Criteria 93 5.2.3 Design Example 94 5.3 Design of Equalization Basins 96 5.3.1 Concept 96 .2__Determination of Capacity of Equalization Tank 97 5.3.3 Design Examples 98 5.4 Design of Screen Chamber _/02 5.4.2 Design Considerations 102 5.43 Design Criteria /03 5.5 Design of Grit Chambers 107 3.5.1 Concept 107 5.5.2 Types of Grit Chambers 107 Design Criteria 108 4 Determining Settling Velocity 108 5.5.5 Design Examples 177 5.5.6 Design of Flow Control Device 1/4 5.5.7_Design Assumptions 120 5.6 Aerated Grit Chamber 126 5.6.1 Concept 126 5.6.2 Design Criteria 127 5.6.3 Design Example 127 5.7 Oil and Grease Trap (Skimming Tank) /29 5.7.1 Design Criteria 129 5.7.2 Design Example 130 Summary 130 Exercises 131 . DESIGN OF PRIMARY TREATMENT UNITS 133-162 6.0 Introduction 133 6.1 Concept of Primary Settling Tank 134 6.1.1 Types of Settling 134 6.2 Functions of Primary Sedimentation Tank 135 6.3 Design Criteria 136 6.4 Design Examples 138 CONTENTS 6.5 Flotation 153 1 Concept of Removal Mechanism 153 6.5.2. Flotation Systems 155 6.5.3 Design Considerations 156 6.5.4 Design Criteria 157 Summary 161 Exercises 162 7. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER: AEROBIC PROCESSES 163-198 7.0 Concept of Biological Treatment 163 7.1 Removal Mechanism 163 7.2 Objectives of Biological Treatment 164 7.3 Classification of Treatment Processes 164 7.3.1 Processes According to Operational Conditions 164 7.3.2. Processes According to Microbial Maintenance in the System 165 74 Aerobic Biological Treatment 165 7.4.1 Principle 165 7.4.2. Bio-kinetic Coefficients (Growth Constants) 166 7.5 Significant Bio-kinetic Coefficients 167 7.5.1 Basic Kinetic Constant Equations _/70 Laboratory Procedure 171 7.6.2 Illustrative Examples 172 7.7 Design Application of Bio-kinetic Constants 177 7.7.1 Basic Design Equations for CMR 178 7.7.2_Design Examples 180 7.8 Design Considerations _/8i 728.1 Solids Content 181 7.8.2 Organic Content 182 7.83 Mustrative Examples 183 Type of Reactor Selected 187 Hydraulic Retention Time 188 Mean Cell Residence Time 188 Food to Microorganisms (F/M) Ratio 188 Organic Loading 189 Amount of Oxygen Required 190 7.8.10 Quantity of Air Required 191 11 Power Required for Oxygenation 192 12 Sludge Production 193 7.8.13 Sludge Wasting Flow Rates 194 CONTENTS vil 7.8.14 Settling Quality of Sludge 195 7.8.15 Effluent Quality 196 Summary 197 Exercises 198 8. DESIGN OF SECONDARY BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT UNITS: SUSPENDED GROWTH PROCESS 199-261 8.0 Suspended Growth Treatment Units 199 8.1 Activated Sludge Process 199 8.1.1 Concept 199 8.1.2 Removal Mechanism 200 8.1.3 Types and Modifications of Activated Sludge Process 20/ 8.1.4 Design Considerations 205 8.1.5 Design Steps 205 8.1.6 Design Criteria for ASP 206 8.2 Secondary Settling Tank 207 8.2.1 Concept 207 8.2.2 Design Criteria for Secondary Settling Tank (SST) 207 8.3. Design Examples 208 84 Extended Aeration System 227 8.4.1 Oxidation Ditch 228 8.4.2 Aerated Lagoons 241 8.4.3 Design Example 243 8.5 Waste Stabilization Ponds 250 85.1 Removal Mechanism 252 8.5.3 Design Considerations 253 4 Design Criteria 254 8.5.5 Design Examples 255 Swnmary 259 Exercises 259 9. DESIGNS OF AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT UNITS: ATTACHED GROWTH PROCESSES 26; 2.0 Introduction 262 9.1 Trickling 911 Concept 263 912 Removal Mechanism 262 9.1.3 Classification 265 9.1.4 Design Criteria 266 9.1.5 Design Equations 266 1.16 Design Examples 272 9.2 Biotowers 281 CONTENTS 9.3 Rotating Biological Contactors 28? 9.3.1 Concept 283 9.32 Removal Mechanism 284 9.3.3 Staging 285 9.3.4 Design Considerations 285 9.35 Design Criteria 286 9.3.6 Design Example 286 Summary 288 Exercises 289 10.0 Introduction 297 10.1 Removal Concept 292 10.2 System Concept 293 10.3 Design Considerations 293 10.4 Design Procedure and Criteria 294 10.4.1 Design Criteria 294 10.5 Anaerobic Reactors 295 10.5.1 Case I: Attached Growth Reactors 295 10.5.2 Case II: Suspended Growth Anaerobic Reactors 298 10.6 Design Examples 299 Summary 312 Fa 313 DESIGN OF SLUDGE TREATMENT UNITS 315-350 11.0 Introduction 225 1.1 Treatment Concept 376 11.2 Design Essentials 3/6 Sludge Soures 316 11.2.2 Sludge Quantities 3/7 Sludge Quality and Characteristics 3/7 11.2.4 Volume-Weight Relationship 318 11.3 Mlustrative Examples _ 320 114 Sludge Digestion 325 11.4.1 Anaerobic Sludge Digestion 325 11.4.2 Types of Digesters 326 11.5 Design Considerations 328 11.5.1 Design Criteria 328 11.5.2 Design Methods 329 11,5,3 Design Example 333 11.6 Quantity of Methane Gas Produced 337 11.7 Aerobic Digestion 342 11.7.1 Design Considerations 343 CONTENTS 11.7.2 Design Criteria_343 11.7.3 Design Example 343 11.8 Sludge Drying Beds 345 11.8.1 Design Criteria 345 11.8.2 Design Example 346 Summary 348 Exercises 349 Appendix I List of Some Useful Conversion Factors 351-353 Appendix II Dimension Details of Parshall Flume (mm) 354 Appendix II Physical Properties of Water 355 Appendix IV. Symbols and Units Used in Wastewater Treatment (in SI Units) 356-357 References 359-360 Index. 361=26: Preface Wastewater treatment is a vast subject covering the technical elements of treating domestic and industrial wastewaters. Though there are many excellent textbooks that elucidate the theory and design of wastewater treatment plants, it was nevertheless felt that there was a need for another book that would not only deal the design approach but also cover the computational methods for the design of all units of a wastewater treatment plant. Though the idea of writing such a book was conceived by the senior author during his teaching years, we decided to put this project into practice as many of our students really appreciated the introduction of design computations in classroom lectures. The main objectives of this book are therefore threefold: (a) To highlight the basic principles of operation of the processes that are normally used for wastewater treatment. (b) To provide a clear understanding of the design criteria for sizing the treatment units. (c) To illustrate the design approach with step-by-step computations of the conventional domestic wastewater treatment plant units, normally employed in the field. It should however be noted that this book is not a manual or handbook for the design of wastewater treatment plants. Students and other users of this book should understand very clearly that a complete and exhaustive design of a wastewater treatment plant requires a vast experience and knowledge of mechanical and electrical elements of plant units or reactors, and know-how of the factors related to the field conditions. The illustrated design examples in the book, however, will provide the necessary guidelines on how to apply the design concepts in real situations, mainly to determine the size of the teatment units. Chapters have been organized in logical order starting from the design fundamentals to the order in which the treatment units appear in a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts related to wastewater, the need of treatment and the types of treatment systems that are normally selected to treat domestic wastewater. While Chapter 2 covers the basic design considerations, Chapter 3 explains the general procedure for the design computations. Chapter 4 deals with the types of reactors most generally used and the reactions that normally take place in the reactors. xi Eu PaaE Chapters 5 and 6 cover the basic principles and design of preliminary and primary treatment systems units. The aerobic and anaerobic biological processes and the design steps for the conventional secondary treatment units are covered in Chapiers 7 through 10. Finally, Chapter 11 deals with the design aspects of sludge treatment. The most frequently used design criteria have been listed just ahead of the design examples for ease of reference. Tn all, about a hundred design examples have been included along with their solutions. A lot of significant theoretical and computational information has been presented in NOTE boxes while useful design hints have been provided in TIP boxes. The authors have referred to many technical journals, reports, papers, manuals of Practice, textbooks, etc. during their teaching periods. The design criteria suggested as guidelines in this book are, therefore, based on such references and the publications of many research workers and the field experience of many engineers. These criteria may be found varying in the references provided. Therefore, it is the normal practice to determine the design criteria based on laboratory studies. As a prerequisite, it is presumed that the user of this book would have an adequate theoretical background related to chemistry and microbiology of design aspects of wastewater treatment. It is hoped that the book will be useful to the students of civil engineering and environmental engineering for the course in wastewater engineering. Practising engineers as well as governmental authorities involved in the design of wastewater treatment plants should also find this book beneficial. Though utmost care has been taken to ensure the correctness of computations, the authors would welcome communication of errors, useful suggestions and comments for improvement of the book in its subsequent reprints/editions. G.L. KARIA R.A. CHRISTIAN Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge all the authors whose works have been referred to by us during our academic years for teaching the subject of wastewater treatment. We also wish to thank our colleague Dr. J.H. Pandya, Microbiologist, Civil Engineering Department, SVNIT, Surat for his useful comments and suggestions while going through the manuscript of this book. Special appreciation is due to our ex-students, Mr. Jigesh Mehta, M.S. (CE). Purdue University, USA and his wife, Mrs. Mehali Mehta, for diligently going through the manuscript and suggesting changes to the text and computations of design examples. We would also like to acknowledge gratefully the fact that the development and publication of this book would not have been possible without the encouragement of Prentice-Hall of India, the motivation provided by our students, and the patience and support of our fami “G.L. KARIA R.A. CHRISTIAN xiii Wastewater and Treatment Concepts 1.0 FUNDAMENTALS OF WASTEWATER Before one starts with the design and detailing of a wastewater treatment plant, one must have a very clear understanding of the concept of what wastewater is and what its treatment means. In simplest words, it can be said that wastewater is nothing, but the used water or liquid waste generated by the community due to its various activities, and contains the impurities in excess of the permitted/regulated statutory limits. Technically, however, wastewater can be defined as any water or liquid that contains impurities or pollutants in the form of solids, liquids or gases or their combinations in such a concentration that is harmful if disposed into the environment. Q Impurities in wastewater are mainly due to the presence of solids in the water. The solids may be organic or inorganic in nature and may be present in suspended, colloidal, dissolved or in the various forms of their combinations. The prescribed limit or acceptable level of concentration of impurities or pollutants is laid down by the local authorities such as a municipality or State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) or Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in India. QO The final discharge of wastewater will normally be either into the body of water or onto the land, The receiving bodies of water may be streams, lakes, ponds, canals, rivers, seas, estuaries, etc. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH ‘The wastewater disposed onto the land ultimately reaches the subsurface water strata/aquifer by percolation and infiltration. Thus, final disposal of wastewater except for volatilization of certain pollutants is always into a water body— surface or subsurface. 1.1. TYPES OF WASTEWATER Depending upon the source of generation, wastewaters are broadly classified as domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater. Domestic Wastewater Domestic wastewater, also known as municipal wastewater or sanitary wastewater or simply sewage, is the used water, which has been discharged from the residential, commercial and institutional zones of a city or a town or community and collected through sewerage system. Sometimes, partially-treated liquid wastes from small industries are also collected and discharged into the sanitary sewers and thus included with domestic wastewater. In general, domestic wastewater contains organic and inorganic solids and microorganisms, mainly bacteria. The composition of wastewater will depend on the source of its generation. Domestic wastewater, in general, is 99.9% water and contains only 0.1% solids. Industrial Wastewater Normally the wastewaters generated by large and medium scale industries are called industrial wastewaters. These wastewaters vary in quantity and quality from industry to industry and from process to process for the same industry. In general, a majority of manufacturing dustries generate a large volume of high strength wastewaters. Pkaem | As there are numerous kinds of industries and wastewater characteristics are process dependant, comprehensive coverage of design calculations for industrial wastewater is beyond the scope of this book. 1.2, CONCEPT OF TREATMENT The treatment of wastewater, in general, means the partial reduction or complete removal of excessive impurities present in wastewater, The excessive impurities imply to the constituent(s) concentration(s) that is more than the acceptable level(s) for final disposal or suitable reuse of treated wastewater. SARE AA REET = The partial reduction or complete removal of impurities depends on the intended level of treatment. If the objective is to simply dispose of the final effluent into the body of water (receiving streams), or onto the land, the concentration(s) of specific constituent(s) is reduced only up to acceptable limits prescribed by the statutory body like Pollution Control Boards or local authorities such as municipalities. For example, the prescribed limit of concentration of BOD; in final effluent of wastewater is 30 mg/L or less, if discharged into inland surface water, i.e. a stream or river. So, the objective of treatment will be to remove the initial concentration of BODs only up to 30 mg/L or less. On the other hand, to reuse the treated wastewater in some industrial process, the concentration of specific constituent is reduced to a particular level or completely removed as per the need. Since impurities are normally due to the presence of solids in wastewater, treatment of wastewater, in general, means the reduction or removal of the solids from wastewater. 1.3. TREATMENT METHODS Usually, physical, chemical or biological means are applied for wastewater treatment, and the treatment units are designed to carry out specific functions on the principles of either one or a combination of the means employed. Based on the means used, treatment methods have been broadly classified as unit operations and unit processes as described briefly in the following paragraphs [5, 9, 15, 20]. 1.3.1. Unit Operations The means of treatment in which the application of physical forces predominates are known as unit operations. Major treatment methods falling under this category are as follows: Screening Mixing Flocculation Sedimentation Floatation Elutriation Vacuum filtration Heat transfer and drying cooooo0oo 1.3.2 Unit Processes The types of treatment in which the removal of contaminants is brought about by the addition of chemicals or the use of biological mass or microbial activities are known as unit processes. Based on the type of agent used, these are further classified as follows: WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Chemical Unit Process Reduction or removal is brought about by means of chemical reactions by adding chemicals. Major treatment methods falling under this category are as follows: Q Chemical neutralization: To control or adjust the system pH. 1 Chemical coagulation: To remove colloidal particles by chemical destabilization and flocculation. Q Chemical precipitation: To enhance the removal of suspended solids, phosphorous, heavy metals and BOD in specific system conditions. Q Chemical oxidation: To remove grease, ammonia, BOD, COD and for odour control in particular requirement. Q Chemical disinfection: To kill pathogens in influent and treated effluents. It should be noted that: (2) chemical processes are expensive due to cost of chemicals that are used and the expenditure that occurs in handling the large volume of sludge generated by chemical precipitation and (b) if treatment system is designed to reuse the treated effluent, the increase in concentration of specific constituent requires due consideration. Pu | As chemical processes are normally not provided in conventional treatment of F domestic wastewater, design examples of chemical processes including disinfection of effluent, are not covered in this book, Biological Unit Process Reduction or removal is brought about by microorganisms. Major treatment methods falling under this category are classified as follows: Q Suspended growth process: Activated Sludge Process, Aerated Lagoon, Oxidation Pond, Aerobic and Anaerobic Digesters, etc. Q Attached growth process: Trickling Filter, Rotating Biological Contactors, Bio Towers, Up-flow Filters, ete. A typical or conventional wastewater treatment plant essentially comprises units selected from physical operations and biological or chemical processes in various combinations depending upon the treatment sysiem selected. Such plants are normally designed to remove floating materials and inorganic and organic solids from domestic wastewater. Figure 1.1 shows a typical schematic flow diagram of a conventional sewage treatment plant. In cases, when it concerns with removal of excessive nutrient and liquid or gaseous impurities, specific advanced treatment methods like Biological Nitrification-Denitrification, Reverse Osmosis, lon Exchange, Ultra Filtration, etc, are_used. CHAPTER 1: WASTEWATER AND TREATMENT CONCEPTS Grit Oil and Grease Trap Biological Unit Bar Screen Chamber (Ski ark) PST Underdrain ; water Drying Beds Sludge} Digester Oi/Grease = Wastewater Flow Dried Studge = = = Sludge Flow for Disposal 4 Gases — > Gases Effluent for Final Disposal PST—Primary Settling Tank, SST—Secondary Seitling Tank Figure 1.1 Schematic flow diagram of a typical conventional treatment plant. 1.4 TREATMENT SYSTEMS The type of combination used from the available unit operations and processes for treatment of a particular wastewater is known as the treatment system. Normally, a wastewater treatment plant is designed for either of the following treatment systems: 1.4.1. Preliminary Treatment System The preliminary treatment system is mainly selected to remove floating materials and large inorganic particulate contents of wastewater that usually cause maintenance or operational problems in primary and secondary treatments of wastewater. It is also known as pretreatment in conventional treatment system. The preliminary treatment system includes: Q Sump and pump unit: Cityhown wastewater is usually collected in a sump or holding tank and is pumped to the higher levels of treatment units. Q Approach channel: To convey and dampen the flow of wastewater pumped to treatment plant units. Q Screen chamber: To remove large size floating materials. Q Grit chamber: To remove up to 0.20 mm size suspended settleable solids of a specific gravity 2.60. Skimming tank (oil and grease iraps): To remove excessive oil and grease from the wastewater. A flow diagram of a typical preliminary treatment system is depicted in Figure 1.2. In true sense, sump and pump units and approach channels are not treatment units. They can be called holding and conveying or transporting units as basically eB they collect, lift and convey the wastewater. WASTEWATER TREATMENT! CONCEPTS AND GEBG APERONGH (Optional) Grit ‘Skimming Tank Ber Screen Chamber Effluent for rey Discharge or i jume or Other Further pepe i F Velocity Treatment ‘Screenings Control Device ica Gre Grease Figure 1.2 Flow diagram of a typical preliminary treatment system. 1.4.2 Primary Treatment System The primary treatment system includes all the units of the preliminary treatment system as shown in Figure 1.2 and the Primary Sedimentation Tank (PST), also known as the primary clarifier. When only these units are provided for treatment, it is called primary treatment of wastewater. Figure 1.3 shows a schematic diagram of a typical primary treatment system. (Optional) Skimming Tank Approach Parshall T Channel Senos ” Flume or Other isposal an ene i F Velocity Control i ' Screenings yy Dees ¥ primary Studge for Grits Gil and Treatment or Disposal Grease Figure 1.3 Schematic diagram of a typical primary treatment system. In the primary treatment system, the removal of most of the large floating materials takes place in the screen chamber, and most of the heavy suspended solids are separated in the grit chamber. The primary clarifier (PST) then reduces about 60-70% of fine settleable suspended solids, which include about 30-32% of organic suspended solids. It should be noted that the colloidal and soluble (dissolved) organic content of wastewater is not removed in this system, In a conventional treatment plant, removal of organic content of wastewater takes place in two steps. The settleable suspended organic matter is removed by primary treatment system in PST, while colloidal and soluble organic fraction is removed in secondary treatment units. Searrensirwndrenoren anniteeaiese CG = 1.4.3 Secondary Treatment System After primary treatment, if wastewater is further treated for the removal of colloidal and soluble organic matter present in wastewater, then it is called secondary treatment of wastewater. Normally, biological processes are employed to remove the remaining colloidal and soluble organic content as shown in Figure 1.4, The treatment system provided usually consists of Activated Sludge Process, ASP (an aeration basin with return sludge facility) as shown in Figure 1.4(a) or Trickling Filter (a basin with fixed-filter media filter) and Secondary Settling Tank (SST), also known as the secondary clarifier in a conventional treatment plant as shown in Figure 1.4(b). Effluent Cerra Y Influent s anal for Disposal ftom [ : or Reuse Preliminary Re It L _ _ Retuin Sludge Line ‘Secondary Sludge Treatment (Activated Sludge) Primary Sludgo Sludge to Treatment (a) Secondary treatment sysiem with activated sludge process Bro} Filter Influent from Preliminary 4 Secondary Sludge Treatment 4 (Humus) Primary Sludge Sige to ‘eatment (b) Secondary treatment system with trickling fitter Figure 1.4 Schematic diagram of biological secondary treatment system. Other biological treatment units usually provided for secondary treatment to cater to specific needs, particularly for a small volume of wastewater, include: Q Waste Stabilization Ponds (also known as Oxidation Ponds) Q Oxidation Lagoons (Aerated Lagoons) Q Oxidation Ditches (Extended Aeration System) Q Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) Q Up-flow Anaerobic Filter (UAF) O Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH 1. When both primary and secondary treatment systems are provided, then it is generally known as complete treatment of wastewater, because the quality of final effluent of domestic wastewater obtained normally satisfies the prescribed limits set by the local authority or conforms with the Indian standards for disposal into the receiving streams. 2. When waste stabilization ponds are selected for the treatment of wastewater, then only the screen chamber is provided prior to waste stabilization ponds. The grit chamber and PST are not required in such cases as the settling of heavy and fine suspended solids takes place in the pond itself. 1.4.4 Tertiary or Advanced Treatment System If the effluent from the secondary treatment system is further treated to reduce or remove the concentrations of residual impurities, then it is called as tertiary or advanced treatment of wastewater [6, 9, 20]. The system is normally provided when it is found that: Q The quality of conventionally treated wastewater (secondary effluent) is unsuitable for final disposal requirements into the body of water or onto the land. Q The concentration(s) of residual organic materials or suspended solids require further reduction or complete removal for specific reuse or recycling of wastewater after the secondary treatment. Q The concentration(s) of residual nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous is high for final disposal or reuse/recycling of wastewater. The different techniques available for the tertiary treatment are given in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 Different techniques for tertiary treatment Techniques For complete removal or further reduction of 1. Granular-media filtration, Residual suspended solids Ultra filtration and Micro-strainers 2. Biological nitrification/denitrification, Removal of nitrogen, chlorine and dissolved Ton exchange and air stripping gases 3. Biological and chemical processes Residual nitrogen and phosphorous 4, Ton exchange, Reverse osmosis, Residual dissolved inorganic solids, refractory Electro dialysis, Chemical organics, toxic and complex organic compounds Adsorption The advanced treatment system is normally employed for treatment of industrial wastewater, and it is very expensive. CHAPTER 17 WASTEWATER AND TREATUGNT CONOEPTS gE 1.5 SELECTION OF TREATMENT SYSTEM Selection of a particular treatment system mainly depends on the degree of treatment required to bring the quality of raw wastewater to a permissible level of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent from the treatment plant). This ensures that the final effluent is either safe for disposal or acceptable for specific reuse or recycling. Other significant factors that will influence the selection of a treatment system are as follows: Q Availability of funds and land at the meatment site Q The topography of land at the treatment site OQ Non-availability of suitable mechanical equipment and skilled personnel for running and maintaining the plant. RMU | Selection of treatment system is not an easy decision to make. It is a tough job @) that requires a good field experience as well as sound technical knowledge of various unit operations and processes. The points to keep in mind while selecting the treatment system are as follows: 1. Reduction of inorganic material component of wastewater is much easier and cheaper than removal of organic contents of wastewater. 2. Removal of suspended solids from wastewater requires lesser time and efforts than that of colloidal and dissolved solids. 3. In many countries, the Environmental Protection Act requires at least the secondary treatment system for all publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) such as municipal wastewater treatment plant, so that effluent requirements of 30 mg/L for BODs and 100 mg/L of SS are achieved. 1.6 FUNCTIONS OF TREATMENT PLANT UNITS Major functions of weatment units shown in Figure 1.1 and which are normally provided for conventional treatment of domestic wastewater ere summarized in Table 1.2. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Table 1.2 Major functions of treatment units for conventional system of domestic wastewater treatment Name of treatment units Major function(s) of units Sump and Pump Well* Approach Channel* Screen Chamber Grit Chamber with flow control facility Skimming Tank (Oil and Grease trap)** Primary Sedimentation/Settling Tank (PST) or Primary Clarifier Biological Treatment Unit Secondary Sedimentation/Settling Tank (SST) or Secondary Clarifier Sludge Digester Sludge Drying Beds To collect town/city wastewater in sump wells and to pump it to treatment units from pump wells so that flow in treatment plant units is by gravity To dampen the wastewater flow before it is applied to subsequent treatment units so that wastewater flow remains as uniform as possible in the following units To remove large floating materials in wastewater to protect the following units getting damaged by abrasion and clogging To remove small and heavy suspended solids from the wastewater To collect and remove lighter particles and oil and grease from wastewater surface To remove fine suspended inorganic and settleable organic solids (BOD) and the floating scum To remove colloidal and soluble organic solids by aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, to remove excessive nitrogen and phosphorus content from wastewater by nitrification-denitrification To thicken and segregate biological sludge from wastewaler To treat sludge before final disposal To dry and reduce the volume of the treated sludge by dewatering before final disposal * In true sense, these are holding and conveying units. ** Normally not included in a conventional treatment sysiem. wees ee see UII eae In this chapter you have leamt the following: Q The main purpose of designing the wastewater treatment plant is to provide a suitable system that is capable of removing the excessive impurities or pollutants found in the influent to the desired level as prescribed by the local authorities or SPCB for the final or treated effluent. CHAPTER 17 WASTERATOR AND TREATIENT CONOEPTE Q To provide a suitable treatment system, the designer has to select the proper combination of units from the available unit operations and unit processes. Though selection of suitable treatment units depends mainly on the influent characteristics (quality) of wastewater to be treated and the degree of the treatment required, availability of fund also plays an important role in the final selection of units. Q Factors such as permissible limits for effluent concentrations of selected parameters (usually pH, BOD and SS) laid by local authorities, final effluent disposal method, topography and available area at the treatment site and options for reuse of treated effluent will have their say in final selection of treatment units. Q Careful attention is required in selecting chemical processes, as they are additive and expensive proces en EIT en 1, State what you understand by the ueatment of wastewater. 2. Discuss to what extent you need to treat the wastewater and explain the significance of providing the permissible limits for disposal of wastewater. 3, A community discharges 20 MLD of wastewater. Draw a conventional flow diagram for treating this wastewater. Discuss the concepts on which the design of the proposed treatment units is based. 4, What is a treatment system? Describe in brief the treatment systems normally adopted for wastewater treatment. 5. Enlist the main units under each of the following and discuss the functions of each: (i) Preliminary treatment (ii) Primary treatment (iii) Secondary treatment (iv) Tertiary treatment 6. What are the factors you would consider to propose a domestic wastewater treatment system for a community? Basic Design Considerations 2.0 ESSENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS The aim of this chapter is to highlight the significant factors that are essential for the design of wastewater treatment processes and plant units. These essential design factors include the following: Strength and characteristics of wastewater Q Flow rates and their fluctuations O Mass loading O Design criteria Q Hydraulic flow diagram 2.1. STRENGTH AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER The first important information one should have for the design of wastewater treatment system is the strength and characteristics of the wastewater to be treated. The strength of wastewater is normally expressed in terms of pollution load, which is determined from the concentrations of significant physical, chemical and biological contents of the wastewater. The characteristics or the quality of wastewater is expressed in terms of its physical, chemical and biological characteristics on the basis of the parameters given in Table 2.1. 12 CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Table 2.1. Significant parameters for physical, chemical and biological characteristics Physical characteristics Chemical characteristics Biological characteristics Solids Organic contents Animals Total, suspended and dissolved, BOD, COD, fats, phenols, volatile and fixed or mineral _ surfactants, oil and grease, etc. Inorganic contents Plants alkalinity, chlorides, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous, heavy metals, pH, carbohydrates, etc. Odour Gases ‘oxygen, methane, Protista hydrogen sulfide Temperature Pathogenic organisms Viruses BME) Characteristics of wastewater depend on the quality of water used by the community, conservation practice and culture of population, type of industries present and treatment given by industries to their wastewater. Many of the above parameters are interrelated. For example, the concentration of dissolved gases and microbial activities in wastewater are affected by temperature. Knowledge of concentrations of significant parameters is necessary for selecting a treatment system and the amount of pollutants to be removed to a level that meets prescribed limits set by the statutory authority such as SPCB (State Pollution Control Board), before their final disposal. The strength of wastewater is normally measured as mass per unit volume of waste- water and usually designated in units of mg/L (milligrams per unit litre), or as kg/d (kilograms per day). Table 2.2 shows the typical concentrations of significant constituents of medium strength municipal wastewater [5, 13, 18, 23]. If characteristics of raw wastewater show the concentration of specific constituents like BOD and SS within the standard permissible limits, there is no need to treat the wastewater. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: Table 2.5 Computation table for mass load determination Time Flow BOD Suspended BOD (g/m?) Suspended solids (Hours) (m*/h) (mg/L= g/m) solids x Flow (m*/h) (g/m?) x Flow (mg/L = gim’) x (1/1000) (mh) x (1/1000) = (kg/h) = (kg/h) 0 16.5 71 192 2,822 3.168 1 15.2 142 163 2.158 2.478 2 13.7 103 125 1411 1.713 3 13.4 74 97 0.992 1.300 4 12.6 31 67 0.643 0.844 5 12.4 35 60 0.682 0.744 6 12.3 09 62 0.849 0.763 7 13.5 us 105 1.593 1.418 8 16.6 149 216 2.473 3.586 9 18.4 190 2m 3.496 4.986 10 19.2 212 283 4.070 5.434 ul 19.6 221 294 4332 5.762 12 19.2 223 281 4.282 5.395 13 19.5 218 269 4.251 5.246 4 18.6 210 245 3,906 4.997 15 18.2 205 25 3.731 3.913 16 17.6 192 181 3.379 3.186 7 17.5 166 167 2.905 2.923 18 17.6 160 165 2.816 2.904 19 18.2 189 189 3.440 3.440 20 18.9 240 218 4536 4.120 2 19.2 315 226 6.048 4.339 22 18.8 272 221 5.114 4.155 23 17.8 213 200 3.791 3.560 Total 404.5 4158 4512 73.719 79.931 Simple average 16.85 173.25 188 3.072 3.330 Weighted average [using Eq. (2.1)] 0.182 0.198 Flow x BOD and Flow x SS have been multiplied by 1/1000 for convenience to plot the data as shown in Figure 2.2. WASTEWATER TREADENT, COMDEPTE IND DESIGN AFPRORGH Using the above flow data, plot the graphs of BOD and SS variation versus time as shown in Figure 2.2. Flow (mn) —— hem ey 800 mgt) +88 (gh o 2 4 6 8 0 2 14 16 18 20 2 Time (hrs) (a) Variation of flow, BOD and SS with time o 2 4 8 8 10 12 14 18 18 20 2 Weighted BOD, SS (mg/L) x 10° Flow (mn) 0 2 4 6 & 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time of day (hrs) (b) Variation of flow, weighted BOD and SS with time Figure 2.2 Diurnal variation in flow, BOD and SS. CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A From the computation (Table 2.5), we have average values: Quvg = 16.85 m'/h, BOD,,, = 173.25 mg/L and SS,y, = 188.00 mg/L. Again from Table 2.5 and Figure 2.2(b), we have, concentration of weighted average BOD, i.e. total load _ 73.719 (kg/h) BODwvee = ‘otal flow — 404.0 (an°/h) = 0,182 kg/m? = 182.0 g/m? = 182.0 mg/L and concentration of weighted average SS, ie. total load _ 79.931 (kg/h) SSayp = = = total flow 404.0 (msn) = 0.198 kg/m? = 198.0 g/m* = 198.0 mg/L From this analysis, it is seen that the unit will be under-loaded by 5.1%, i.e. (2324) x 100 if we design on simple average BOD basis instead of weighted average BOD. 2.3.1 Variation in Mass Loading As the performance of wastewater treatment plants is influenced by the variation in flow rates, in their characteristics or both (mass loading), it is important to compute ratios of peak to average and/or minimum mass load to check the design of treatment facilities, For example, in the case of Example 2.1 the variation in.BOD mass loading during 24 hours of a day will be determined as follows: (a) Peak to average BOD loading ratio is given by peak BOD mass loading average BOD mass loading 315 (gim?) x 19.2 (m3/h) © 173.25 (gim*) x 16.85 (mm/h) = 2.019 (at 21 hours time) (b) Peak to minimum BOD mass loading ratio is given by peak BOD mass loading minimum BOD mass loading _ 315 (g/m?) x 19.2 (m*/h) (at 21 hours time) 51.0 (g/m?) x 12.6 (m?/h) (at 4 hours time) = 94 ea yas TSNRTEN RATT ONGEETH Aw DEEN Noone (©) Average to minimum BOD mass loading ratio is given by average BOD mass loading minimum BOD mass loading _ 173.25 (g/m?) x 16.85 (m3/h) 51.0 (g/m*) x 12.6 (m*/h) = 4.55 Comment: From the above ratios, it is seen that the maximum BOD mass loading is about 9.4 times more than the minimum mass loading and about 2 times more than the average mass loading. Thus, such variations in mass loading require due consideration in the design of treatment units. 2.4 CONCEPT OF DESIGN CRITERIA ‘The data determined through the research and laboratory scale model studies as well as those obtained from the operational experience of field and pilot scale wastewater treatment plants have been used as guideline values for designing a new wastewater treatment facility. The values of such guideline parameters are called design criteria and are available in the literature [4, 5, 6, 12, 15, 16, 20, 21, 26). It should, however, be remembered that available design criteria arc based on the normal or atmospheric conditions of environment at which plants were operated or the conditions at which laboratory studies were carried out. Therefore, their use or assumptions in designing a new treatment system will presume that the design plant will also operate under a similar set of | environmental conditions at which design criteria were determined, If a treatment plant to be designed is to operate at different environmental a \ || conditions, then criteria for design parameters and/or process constants should ~) || be determined by carrying out laboratory or pilot plant studies at those required operating conditions. As design criteria are obtained for a particular set of conditio \ || find different values for the same design parameters in literature. you may ) The most frequently assumed criteria for designing a conventional wastewater treatment plant are as follows: Q Detention period or time (Hydraulic Retention Time, HRT), ¢ or @ Q Flow through velocity (Horizontal velocity of flow), v), CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Settling velocity (terminal velocity of setting particles), vs Surface Loading Rate or Over Flow Rate (SLR or OFR) Weir Loading Rate (WLR) Organic loading (BOD or COD or VSS loading) Food to Microorganisms ratio, F/M Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT), 8, or Solids Retention Time (SRT) Hydraulic loading Volumetric loading Basin geometry—Length : Breadth : Depth ratios, L : B : D (for rectangular tanks) —Diameter and side water depth (for circular tank) ocoooooco As the design calculations are normally based on the assumptions of the above mentioned design criteria, it is utmost important to have a very clear understanding of the concept of these design criteria and their significance in determining the capacities, dimensions and cost of treatment units. These design criteria are briefly discussed as follows. 2.4.1 Detention Time (Hydraulic Retention Time, HRT) Detention time is the length of time a particle or a unit volume of wastewater remains in a reactor. It is an important design parameter that is used for computing the volume and sizing the treatment plant units. A reactor is a tank or basin or any container in which treatment operation or process is carried out. Concept: If a unit volume of wastewater (say 1.0 ml) enters a rectangular basin at time 1 = 0 second and leaves the basin after 60 seconds, then the hydraulic detention time ¢ (or Hydraulic Retention Time, HRT) of that basin is 60 seconds. Ideally, it is also the time taken by the wastewater to fill up the empty tank up to the outlet level. This concept is illustrated in Figure 2.3. Inflow (a) time, t= 08 (b) time, t= 308. (6) tima, t = 608 Volume of wastewater of 1 mi with thickness 5X moves from inlet to outlet of a tank in 60 seconds Figure 2.3 Schematic diagram for concept of detention time. a WASTEWATER TREATNENT? COMCEPTS AND DEBI APPROACH For example, a particle moving at rate of 1 m/min, in a tank of 10-metre length, will take an average of 10 minutes of time duration from the time it entered the unit till it moved out of the unit. The detention time for this tank is 10 minutes and for a continuous flow of 10 m/min, the liquid volume or the capacity of the tank will be 10 x 10 = 100 m? WV =x). Mathematically, we can say VeQxt (2.2) Vv or = (days) (2.3) oY Vv or t=— x24 (hours) (2.4) Q where 1 = detention time in days V = volume of basin in m? Q = flow of wastewater in m7/d 1. The term ‘basin’ or ‘tank’ or ‘reactor’ is used synonymously. 2. When the tank is filled up to the outlet level (i.e. up to the effluent weir), the unit volume of wastewater may leave the tank earlier than actual detention time due to hydraulic short-circuiting as shown in Figure 2.4. fy ae = Effluent ‘fluent Channel Channel (i) Short-circuited flow (i) Short-circuit prevention by baffles (@) Vertical flow type tank Inflow inflow Outfiow Outflow () Short-circuited flow (ii) Short-cireuit prevention by baffles (b) Horizontal flow type tank Figure 2.4 Schematic diagram for concept of short-circuit of flow. CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Short-circuiting in sedimentation tanks is also caused by eddy currents, winds and in specific cases by thermal convections. The following example illustrates the steps to determine the hydraulic detention time of wastewater treatment units. PO Lae A treatment unit is 1.5 m wide, 20 m long and has a wastewater depth of 2.0 m in it. If the wastewater flow through the tank is 0.5 m/s, calculate the detention time. Solution: Flow of wastewater, Q = 0.5 m/s (given) = 30 m/min The volume of treatment unit, V = 1.5 x 20 x 2.0 = 60 m s+ Detention time, ¢ VIO (as V=QOx 1) 60(m3)/30(m"/min) 2.0 min 2.4.2. Flow Through Velocity or Horizontal Velocity, v, In any tank where the flow is continuous, the solid particles in wastewater experience two types of velocities, one along the horizontal direction due to drag force and another along the vertical direction due to gravitational force. The horizontal velocity component is called the flow through velocity (v,) while vertical component is known as the settling velocity (v,). However, the settling particle follows the resultant path in the tank as shown in Figure 2.5. Inflow Outflow German Resultant path of Ve Se Cy settling particles Figure 2.5 Settling path of a solid particle in a tank. Thus, flow through velocity is the velocity with which the wastewater flows through a treatment unit. It can be visualized by observing the horizontal distance travelled by any floating body, such as a piece of paper or a stick in a unit time and can be determined by noting the time taken by such particle to travel a specific distance. 26 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH distance travelled time taken t Flow through velocity, vj, = This is also one of the important parameters in the design of treatment plant units particularly for computing the cross-sectional area of a tank and length of a rectangular tank. Normally, the flow through the different treatment units is maintained under gravity and, therefore, flow through velocity is maintained at “non-silting and non-scouring levels”. Low levels of flow through velocity may cause the organic suspended solids to settle at the bottom of the tank, which may undergo decomposition and cause odour problems, whereas settled inorganic particles may cause the problems of loss of tank material due to abrasion. However, such problems are observed more in conduits/sewers. If we have L = length of a rectangular tank (m) B = breadth (width) of the rectangular tank (m) D = depth of the rectangular tank (m) A, = cross-sectional area of the tank (m?) V = volume of the tank (m) v4 = flow through velocity of wastewater (m/d) 1 = detention time (d) then, mathematically we have the following relations: The volume of the tank, V = Lx Bx D The cross-sectional area of the tank, A, = BX D Then, the flow rate, g = Y= Yolume of tank (iquid) t time Q=BxDx = (7 V=LxBxD) O=ALX Mm =f ele: Weg ode (2.5) L also Wa Lawyxt (2.6) Example 2.3 illustrates the steps to determine the flow through velocity. CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS eg ea A floating stick travels a distance of 15 m in 30 seconds in a reactor tank having 2.0 m width and 1.5 m depth. Determine the flow through velocity. Solution: Distance travelled, L = 15.0 m Time taken, ¢ = 30s . Flow through velocity, vy = Ls 2 = 05 mis t The cross-sectional dimensions of the tank in this problem do not have any significance in determining the flow through velocity. 2.4.3. Settling Velocity, v, The knowledge of settling velocity of particle is used in determining the depth of a treatment unit to separate the suspended solids (particulate matter) by gravity settling and for checking the adequacy of length or diameter of a tank to remove particles before the effluent flows out of the basin, As shown in Figure 2.5, heavier solids that enter the settling unit like grit chamber or PST follow the resultant path due to settling velocity component of the flow and get removed. ‘A sand particle of 0.2-mm size with specific gravity of 2.65 is observed to st 2.3 Is. eS ettle at a rate of 2.3 emi The following example illustrates the steps to determine the length of a rectangular tank when settling velocity is known. EXAMPLE 2.4) A grit chamber has a wastewater depth of 0.9 m. Calculate the time required by a 0.2-mm sand particle to settle at the bottom. Also compute the length of the grit chamber if the flow through velocity is 0.3 mis. Solution: Assuming that the 0.2 mm sand particle settles at a rate of 2.3 cm/s, The time required for settling, ¢ = D/v, (as v, = Dit) [0.9 x 100] (em)/2.3 (cm/s) 39.13 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH The distance L, that the particle will travel in this time is vy X 00.3 x 39.13 =11.74m = 11.75 m So, for a 0.2-mm particle carried in flow of 0.3 m/s, the net or effective length of a grit chamber should be at least 11.75 m. 2.4.4 Surface Loading Rate (SLR) or Overflow Rate (OFR) Surface loading rate, also known as overflow rate (OFR), is the volume of wastewater (flow rate) applied per unit surface area of the treatment basin and is normally expressed in units of m/d/m? or m3/m?-d (which is numerically equal to m/d). Figure 2.6 illustrates the concept of SLR. This is a significant design criterion as it is used to determine the surface area of the tank. Surface Area, m* Reactor Figure 2.6 Concept of surface loading rate. Now, as flow (m3/d) sx=—_¢” - surface area (m’) = settling velocity (m/d) Therefore, numerically SLR = y, Though, v, or SLR is independent of the depth of the basin, it is necessary to provide sufficient depth for separation of particles from the liquid and to collect them in the tank. ‘As surface loading is the hydraulic flow applied per unit surface area of the tank, it is also known as hydraulic loading. { CHAPTER 2: BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: The following example illustrates the steps to compute the SLR. Seen Assuming the diameter of a clarifier to be 20.0 m and the wastewater flow rate 10.0 MLD, calculate the detention time and surface loading rate of the clarifier having a wastewater depth of 2.5 m. Solution: The surface area of the clarifier is given by 2 a eked 4 mx 20° = 2314.16 m Now, surface loading rate, flow rate SLR = ———————___ surface area of the tank 10 = 10°(m?/d) 314.16 (m?) (As 10 MLD = 10 x 10 m'/d) = 31.8 m/m*-d or m/d Now, the volume of the tank, V= Q x ¢ Vv Detention time, r = > Q xD or (As V = A, x D) 314.16 (m?) x 2.5 (m) 10 x 10°(m*/d) 0.07854 day 1.885 hours ~ 2.0 hours u 2.4.5 Weir Loading Rate, WLR It is also known as weir overflow raie and is defined as the quantity of wastewater flowing over a unit weir length of the tank in a day. If one observes the wastewater practically flowing out of a unit length over a weir, it is observed that the flow velocity is higher at the weir than flow in the tank, and it would tend to drag the settling solids over the weir, which will affect the effective sedimentation, Mathematically, WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH 5 Weirvovertiow tiers Ome) Spica total weir length (m) If a numerical value of the weir overflow rate is more than the permissible value of design criteria, increasing the weir length by providing launders, as illustrated in Figure 2.7, can reduce the OFR. Influent eeu Collection ane Channel(s) ‘Single weir collection channel Chamber Multiple collection channels Weir length = B Weirlength = 2 x 2x B (@) Rectangular sedimentation tank Effluent Chamber it Collection Channel Single overtiow weir ie Doubie overtiow weir Weirlength = x x D Weir length = x (Dx d) (b) Circular sedimentation tank Figure 2.7 Methods of increasing weir length. Weirs are located as away as possible from the tank inlet. Maintaining specified WLR is necessary to prevent washout of solids in the effluent. CHAPTER F GASE DESH CONSDERATINS j= In general, weir loading rate is not a significant criterion for the performance of settling tanks. The following examples illustrate the steps for computation of WLR. Namen For a circular clarifier of 20.0 m diameter, determine the weir loading for a wastewater flow rate of 10 MLD. Solution: The diameter of the weir, D = 20.0 m, As the length of the weir is the circumference of the outlet chamber of a circular tank, the length of the weir, L = xx D = & x 20.0 (m) = 62.83 m Now, the flow rate, @ = 10 MLD = 10 x 10° mid : flow rate Q So, weir loading = ———~""_ == total weir length — L 5 a Substituting values, 2 = 10% 10 (mid) L 62.83 (m) = 159.159 m'/m-d = 160.0 m/m-d PAS SLL e es A rectangular sedimentation tank has a length of 10.0 m and a width of 5.0 m. For a flow rate of 1.0 MLD, calculate the weir loading rate. Solution: Normally in a rectangular tank the wastewater flow is along the length of the tank, so the weir overflow will be over the width of the tank, Thus, in this case, the weir length is 5.0 m. Now, 1.0 MLD = 1.0 x 10° Lid 1.0 x 10? md (> 1 m= 1000 litres) LO x 10°(m*/d) 5.0(m) = 200.0 m/m-d Weir loading = Ell WAETENATE TREATMENT! CONCEPTS AND DEDIGN APPHORGH 2.4.6 Organic Loading The concept of organic loading is more significant in the design of secondary treatment units, particularly in the case of designing reactors for biological processes. Organic loading conceptually means the total quantity of organic matter (in terms of BOD or COD) that is applied per day over the unit surface area or per unit volume of the treatment basin or tank. Normally, it is designated in the units of kg BOD (or COD) per m? surface area or kg BOD (or COD) per m} volume of the tank. Therefore, this criterion is significant in determining either the surface area or the volume of the treatment unit when the total quantity of organic load (BOD or COD) applied per day to the treatment unit is known, as illustrated in the following example. ENAMPLE A trickling filter has a diameter of 20 m and a liquid depth of 2.5 m. Calculate the organic loading rate for an influent of 10.0 MLD having 220 mg/L BOD. Solution: Organic load in kg of BOD/day = concentration x flow = 220 (mg/L) x 10° (kg/mg) 10 x 10° (L/d) = 2200 kg/d and the tank volume is = aia x (diameter)? x depth = al4 x (20 m)? x (2.5 m) = 785.40 m* applied kg of BOD/day volume of the tank (m*) = 2200/785.4 <. Organic loading rate = = 2.80 kg BOD per day/m’ of tank volume Organic loading per unit volume of a tank is also known as volumetric loading. It can be used to compute the volume of the tank, For example, the volume of a tank fed with 2500 kg BOD per day with assumed 2.5 kg BOD/m?-d volumetric loading will be 1000 m3. (V = (2500)((2.5) = 1000 m’) 2.4.7 Food—Microorganism (F/M) Ratio The F/M ratio is the relationship between the available food (F) and the microorganisms (M) present in a biological reactor. Food is the organic matter present in the wastewater that is applied to the reactor and the microorganisms are the total biomass that is maintained in aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. FEZ [______wastewarer TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH The FIM ratio is given by F. _ food (influent BOD or COD) applied to the reactor (kg/d) M microorganism (biomass) in the reactgor (MLVSS) (kg) F = 2% So _ So = = 2) @s Wo =@ Mo Vxx ox) @s wo hydraulic retention time, HRT) Thus, if the wastewater with a BOD; concentration of 200 mg/L. is treated in a tank having 6 hours HRT and containing 4000 mg/L. MLVSS, then F__0(ma)_—_—_ ga gt M ~ 4000 (mgiL) x 6 x 2 When the total microbial mass is approximated as MLSS, it should be remembered that MLSS includes both the total biomass (active and dead) and the inorganic suspended solids. Example 2.9 illustrates the use of the F/M ratio in the design of Activated Sludge Process (ASP). EXAMPLE 2.9 Raw sewage with BOD of 220 mg/L is applied to a conventional sewage treatment plant based on activated sludge process. If the primary treatment units remove 25% of the BOD, determine the MLVSS to be maintained in the reactor to control an F/M ratio of 0.6, assuming a wastewater flow rate of 0.5 MLD. Solution: As influent BOD is 220 mg/L. and 25% of it is removed in primary treatment, 75% of influent BOD enters the aeration tank of the activated sludge proce system. Therefore, BOD applied to the activated sludge process system is 0.75 x 220 mg/L = 165 mg/L. and the total kg of BOD entering the unit per day is BOD x flow/day = 165 x 10 (kg/L) x 0.5 x 10° (Lid) 82.5 kg/d Now, as the F/M ratio in the unit is 0.6, ic. for every 0.6 kg of BOD entering the unit, we require 1 kg of MLVSS to be maintained in the reactor, MLVSS to be maintained in the reactor is = 825 (kgidy0.6d') (F/M = 0.6 or M = F106) = 137.5 kg aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Solution: Wastewater flow, Q = 0.5 MLD = 0.5 x 10° Lid = 0.5 x 10° x 107 mid = 500 m/day flow rate Now, the surface area of the reactor, A, = . HLR _ _500(¢m*/d) = F5anymed = 20.0 ¢. The diameter of the tank, D= = 5.046 m? = 5.0 m? Numerically, hydraulic loading is equal to surface loading rate. 2.4.10 Volumetric Loading The volumetric loading of a treatment basin refers to the quantity of organic load applied per unit volume of the basin or reactor. It helps in determining the volume of a tank as illustrated in the following example. PAR AUa A If 5.0 MLD flow of wastewater has 250.0 mg/L. BOD and a volumetric loading rate is 2.8 kg BOD/d/m’, calculate the volume of a tank. Solution: Daily application of BOD load = concentration of BOD x flow of wastewater 250 (mg/L) x 5.0 (MLD) = 250 (mg/L) x 10° (kg/mg) x 5.0 x 10° (Lid) = 1250 kg/d and the volume of the tank, V = £r@ani¢load applied to reactor per day " volumetric loading rate = 1250.0 (kg BOD/4)/2.8 (kg BOD/d/m* tank volume) = 446.428 m? = 450.0 m* aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. General Procedure for Design Calculations 3.0 OBJECTIVE In this chapter, we shall look into the steps of design calculations of treatment units. The procedure for design calculations involves the steps for computing the capacity and dimensions of treatment units based on assumed design criteria or actual given field conditions. 3.1 TYPES OF TREATMENT UNITS According to shape, the treatment units are mostly of wo types, viz. rectangular and circular. However, functionally, these units can be classified as reactors or settling units. The units where chemical, biological or biochemical actions take place are generally known as reactors and the units, which are designed to remove suspended solids or to separate chemical or biological flocs by sedimentation are called seriling basins or sedimentation tanks or clarifiers. These settling units are required to collect the solids or sludge settled at the bottom and therefore, they usually have hopper bottom sludge pockets. Figure 3.1 shows schematic diagrams of typical rectangular and circular settling units. 42 aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH The flow given in terms of MLD (Million Litres per Day), is normally required @) to be converted to m'/day or m/sec for design computations. The relationship between various units of flow used in the design calculations are given as follows: 1 MLD 1 x 10° litres/day 10,00,000 litres/day = 1000 m/day (1000 litres = 1 m3) 1000/(24 x 60 x 60) m/s (1 day = 24 x 60 x 60 s) = 0.0116 m/s Step I: Compute capacity or volume of the treatment unit Once the daily average quantity of wastewater Quyp is known (either for present or future conditions), then the capacity or volume of the tank for both rectangular and circular units, can be computed by assuming the hydraulic detention time from the relation given below: Volume of treatment unit, V = flow rate x detention time = Q x ¢ where V = volume of a tank or reactor, m? Q = average daily flow rate, m’/d t = hydraulic detention time, d { ‘The capacity of units can also be determined by assuming volumetric loading. o The following example illustrates the steps to compute the capacity of a treatment unit. (PAM BLLM ADRES! If detention time of a tank is 4 hours, compute the volume of a treatment unit for the conditions given below: Q Average daily flow Qyyg= 600 mid Q Peaking factor Q Minimum flow Qnin = 400 m/d Solution: The volume of the tank for various flow conditions is computed as follows: Case I: The volume of the tank for average flow conditions, Vavg = (Ouvg X 1/24 600 (md) x 4/24 (d) = 100 m> aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH So, providing L = 7.0 m and B = 2.9 m, surface area = 7.0 m x 2.9 m = 20.3 m? (acceptable as greater than 20 m’) Assuming v, = 0.35 mm/s, depth of the tank, D = v, xt 0.35 (mm/s) x 1 x 60 x 60 (s) =126m=+13m Thus, L = 7.0 m, B = 2.9 m, and D = 1.3 m. Design computation will provide the net or effective dimensions of the unit. To calculate the total or overall dimensions of the unit for all practical purposes, some percentage values of dimensions for inlet and outlet chambers and channels, sludge collective zones and hopper bottom (wherever applicable), freeboard, etc. are assumed and added to the computed net values as illustrated in Example 3.6. AeA on Assuming suitable design criteria, compute the net and overall dimensions of rectangular and circular settling basins for a wastewater flow of 1000 m°/d. Solution: Case I: Computation of Net anp Overatt. DIMENSIONS OF THE RECTANGULAR Basin For the given daily flow rate, assume SLR = 40 m?/m?-d and HRT = 2 hours, (a) Computation of net dimensions Surface area, A, = Q/SLR = 1000.0 (m?/d)/40 (m?/m?-d) = 25.0 m? Assuming L : B = 2.5 : LxB=25Bx B=25 B= 25 m © B= 3.16 m = 3.2 m, and L = 3.16 x 2.5 =7.9 = 80m So, the provided surface area = 8.0 m x 3.2 m = 25.6 m* (acceptable as greater than 25 m7) +. Depth of tank, D =v, x7 (vy, = SLR) = 40 (m/d) x 2/24(4) 3m Thus, L = 8.0 m, B = 3.2 m, and D = 3.3m The volume of the tank V required = Q x t = 1000 (m'/d) x 2/24 (d) = 83.5 m* aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. EE TiS En RENT CONCEPTS A DEBIT PPE Q Certain percent of net dimensions are added to net dimensions to obtain the overall dimensions of the units. Q Total or overall dimensions are used to estimate the cost of treatment units. ————_-__ i 1. What is sizing of a treatment unit? Discuss the general procedure to compute the size of a sedimentation tank. 2. An industrial township has 250 staff quarters, all occupied by the staff, How would you compute the flow rate of domestic wastewater generated in order to design a treatment plant for the township? 3. A town having 75,000 population is annually consuming 5000 ML of water; determine the per capita per day rate of water supply and the total quantity of wastewater generated, 4. What do you understand by the net and overall dimensions of a unit? [Illustrate the same with a neat sketch for a rectangular treatment unit. 5. What is the significance of settling velocity and surface overflow rate in sizing the treatment units? Explain with suitable examples how they can be used to determine the size of treatment units. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Wastewater treatment processes designed at a low food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio usually assumes that first order reaction kinetics occur in a system for substrate limiting condition. Second Order Reactions Such reactions proceed at a rate proportional to the second power of a single reactant. Mathematically, - exc? Integrating, =->=Kt (4.4) As shown in Figure 4.3, the slope of the line plotted for reciprocal of remaining concen- tration of the reactant versus time will give the rate constant of the second order reaction. we ad a Time Figure 4.3 Second order reaction. In all the above Eqs. (4.1), (4.2), (4.3) and (4.4), the (—) negative sign indicates decrease in concentration. ac ; “7 = Tate of change of concentration C = concentration of reactant at any time f In general, the reaction order n, reactant concentration C and reaction rate R are related by the expression, rate of reaction, R = (concentration of reactant, C)" or R=C" or log R=n log C (4.5) aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH E, As =—~*—— is normally assumed as a constant (c) for reactions occurrin, RG x7) ' ? © e in biological treatment processes operating at ambient temperature, In (B)-< X(T; - T)) or Been (4.7) 1 q where, E, = energy of activation, cal/mole R = Ideal gas constant, 1.98 cal/mole-K, T = reaction temperature, K K, and K> = reaction rate constants at temperatures 7, and 72, K In general, the biological reaction rate doubles with each 10°C increase in temperature for all normal range of operating temperatures. As the value of @ for biological treatment varies typically from 1.02 to 1.10, | an appropriate value of @ should be used for wastewater temperature at which | treatment will be carried out, The following example illustrates the steps for determining the value of temperature coefficients for data obiained in a laboratory study. Reine For the experimental data obtained as given below for chemical rate constant, determine the value of temperature characteristic coefficient, 0. Temp (°C) : Cn | i |) K, (day) : 040° «78 140 2.70 5.50 Solution: (a) Compute the data table The data table as shown in Table 4.2 is computed to plot the curve between In (K X 10) and (I/T) as shown in Figure 4.6. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. ca iia Snag GMT. CONST Boal PRT Integrating the above equation for an initial concentration Cp at time r= 0 to a concentration C, at any time t, we get the desired expression to determine effluent concentration C, as G 4 jf S2t£acef-Kar c 0 Grr i J [4 +1]ac=-m (49) % & or Kyin & 4G, - C)= Ki (4.10) which gives an equation for determining detention time, 1, as given below 1 &o t=—/K,, In— +(C - C, i nine (Co | (4.11) where Co = influent substrate concentration, and C, = effluent substrate concentration. Now for Example 4.3, we have: K = 35 mg/L-min, Ky = 95 mg/L Co = 2000 mg/L and C, = 200 mg/L So the time required to get a desired substrate concentration removal from 2000 mg/L. to 200 mg/L, can be computed by substituting the above values in Eq. 4.11, i.e. ee Lo - te re (2)+« 3) [ss hn ( 35 = 57.68 min. = 58.0 min. ) + ca0o0 = 2109] 4.3 CONCEPT OF REACTORS 4.3.1 Reactors (Treatment Units) The units or vessels that hold wastewater for treatment by chemical or biological processes are normally called reactors and the units that are used for separation of solids from liquid aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Now, Qo = 1.2 MLD = 1.2 x 10° Lid = 12 x 103 md From Eq. (4.17), for first order kinetics, we have v - | 2 = Ye eee _ i 1200(m°/d) 0.5 (a) | 15¢mg/L) 3, v= 20m) (16.66 - 1) 0.5 (6!) = 2400 x 15.66 m? = 37584 m? ~= 37600 m’. So, the required volume of reactor is 37.6 x 10° m°. SNL ee! A wastewater is being treated in a CFSTR following the first order reaction kinetics with a reaction rate constant equal to 0.15 day”'. For a reactor volume of 50 m°, what should be the flow rate to achieve 96% treatment efficiency? For this flow rate, compute the reactor volume if the desired treatment efficiency is 98%? Solution: We have K = 0.15 day", V = 50 m? Also, if Co = 1.0 mg/L, then for 96.0% efficiency C, = 0.04 mg/L Now for the first order kinetics for a CFSTR, we have tom Zn 11S -] Q RKC, 50(m* 1 Long) _ 1 ad Q — 0.15(d*) | 0.04 (mg/L) 50 (m*, ae REY = 160.0 or OQ = 0313 md aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH In general, the volume required for a CFSTR will always be more than that of a PFR. Both CFSTR and PFR will have the same reactor volume for the zero order reaction kinetics. Completely Mixed Batch Reactor (CMBR) A completely mixed batch reactor is a closed system where no flow is added or allowed to go out during designed reaction time (detention period). The reactants are added to the reactor when it is empty and the contents are withdrawn after the reaction period is over. In a CMBR, it is assumed that the reaction kinetics is of first order and at a given instant of time, the reactant concentration is uniform throughout the reactor. Figure 4.10 shows a schematic diagram of a CMBR. a Q OQ GQ Figure 4.10 Schematic diagram of a CMBR. The mass balance for a reactant in a CMBR can be expressed as: Rate of change in mass Rate of the reaction of of the reactant within 7 the reactant within the the reactor reactor For the first order reaction kinetics, mathematically, dC dC v (e) =V« (4). =V(KO) (431) or # =xc (432) and integrating Eq. (4.32), we get the following equation to determine HRT and the volume of the reactor, aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH The SBR system does not require recycling of the activated sludge to maintain MLSS in the reactor. The sludge wasting depends on performance requirements. To operate the SBR system on a continuous basis, two or more reactors are provided in parallel so that the second or next reactor is filled when the first or preceding reactor is completing its last step. 4.3.3 Reactors in Series In the design of wastewater flow treatment system, sometimes, either the same or a combination of different types of reactors are required to be used in series. The reactors provided in series may or may not be of equal size and may be operating on different types of processes. Figure 4.14 shows two continuous flow-stirred tank reactors in series. Q o a Q Figure 4.14 Schematic diagram of two CFSTRs in series. Assuming the first order reaction kinetics and n number of equal-sized CFSTR, we get the equation for detention time and thereby the total volume of reactors as follows: 1 tema =} (2) mii (detention time in one reactor) (436) . n* terste = : (2) af (detention time in n reactors) (437) . v_n|(q\ «la Si oP 4 E or ar ( } (volume of n reactors) (438) aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH or or or or 2500(m*) _ 1 24 (mg/L) _ | 1000(m'/d) 0. 24 (mg/L) _ 2500 (m*) = 0.8 (d-!) & 1000 (m°/d) ~ 24 c =2.0+10 G= % = 8.0 mg/L 24-8 This gives about [ | Xx 100= 66.68% reactant removal efficiency in a CFSTR and thereby the overall reactant removal efficiency of the system is [% an 175 ] x 100 = 95.43% . Case TH: When flow is through a PFR, the concentration of a reactant in the PFR effluent is computed using Eq. (4.25) or (4.26), i.e. or or or or For a SYSTEM WITH THE SECOND ORDER REACTION KINETICS 2500(m*) _ 1 1 tt 1000(m/d) 0.8(mg/L « dy! | C(mg/L) —-175(mg/L) 9943 = 0.49 mg/L ~ 0.50 mg/L (say negligible) aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Design of Preliminary Treatment Units 5.0 ESSENTIAL PREREQUISITES Along with the treatment system units, we have to design a few other essential units like pumping stations (sump and pump wells), approach channels and if need be, the flow equalization basins. Figure 5.1 shows a typical flow diagram of preliminary treatment units normally employed for domestic wastewater treatment. In this flow diagram, only the sereen chamber, grit chamber and oil and grease removal basins are the treatment units in true sense. Other units like pump house and approach channels are essential for transporting and providing a uniform flow to the succeeding treatment units. The functions of these units have already been explained in Table 1.2. (Optional) Gr ‘Skimming Tank Bareeee Chamber Effuent for eet Parshall Discharge or si { ane i Fume or Other Further Pump house 4 Velocity = Treatment ° Sereenings 4 Control Device =f Grits oe Grease Figure 5.1 Flow diagram of a typical preliminary treatment system. 86 aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH (c) Design of the sump well (wet well) Assuming that the sump well retains the flow of wastewater for 20 minutes, the maximum quantity of sewage in the sump is pe xt = 0.435 (m'/s) x 20 x 60(s) = 522.0 m3 The quantity of sewage in a rising main of 200 m length is x 5 3 4 x (0.97 x 200 = 127.23 mi The total capacity of the sump required = quantity of sewage in the sump + quantity of sewage in the rising main 522.0 + 127.23 m? 649.23 m? = 650.0 m? Assuming 4 maximum of 4.0 m depth of the sump, the surface area of the sump, 650.0 m3 40m = 162.5 m? Providing 3 sump wells such that 2 wells will always remain in operation when one of the wells is taken under repair or maintenance, the surface area of one sump is (162.573) = 54.16 m?, 4 x 54.16 d= iz =8.3m~ 85m The diameter of each sump, The minimum depth of the well is Qmin in the well + flow in the rising main The volume of liquid in the well is [0.052 (m°/s) x 20 x 60(s)}] + 127.23 (m?) (assuming 20 min detention) 62.5 + 127.23 m> 189.73 m? = 190.0 m? aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Q Slope is computed by Manning's equation, i 1 page n where Yh velocity of flow, m/s hydraulic mean radius = A,/P, m cross-sectional area, m> wetted perimeter, m slope | in L Manning’s coefficient of roughness for the pipe 5.2.3 Design Example The design of an approach channel is illustrated in Example 5.2. : DORA e oe Assuming suitable data, design an approach channel for 26.0 MLD maximum flow of wastewater. Solution: Providing 2 channels in one unit, compute maximum flow in each channel, ie., Qmax = 26.0/2 MLD 13.0 MLD = 13 x 10° md = 3X10" yn = 541.667 mh 24 341.667 = BT ie a 3 aeeeh ms = 0.15 mils Let us now compute the channel dimensions. Assuming flow through velocity, », = 0.75 nv/s in the channel, the required cross- sectional area of the channel, Ay = Omax!¥4 = 0.15/0.75 = 0.2 m? Assuming the width to depth ratio, B: D = 1.5: 1, B=15D A, = 1.5 Dx D = 15 D? 0.20 = 1.5 D? aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TRENTWENT: GONGEPTS AND DESIGN APPROATH the day. The steps for preparing the mass diagram are given as follows (and explained in Examples 5.3 and 5.4). QO Compute the cumulative wastewater flow from the given flow data at time interval of the day (as shown in Table 5.3). U Plot a hydraulic mass curve between time along the x-axis and the cumulative wastewater flow along the y-axis (Figure 5.5). Q Draw a line from the origin to the last point of hydraulic mass diagram (last point of cumulative inflow volume unit). The slope of the line drawn will provide the average flow rate of the day. Q Draw a tangent parallel to the average flow rate line at the lowest and/or highest point of the hydraulic mass curve. Q The total vertical distance(s) from the point of tangency to the average flow line will provide the total volume of the equalization tank, as illustrated in Figure 5.4. “In practice, the capacity of an equalization basin is increased by 20% of its value determined theoretically to consider other factors like sudden increase in flow, free board, etc. 5.3.3 Design Examples LAA igo The cumulative flow of wastewater reaching a treatment plant in a day varies as shown in Table 5.1, Determine the capacity of an equalization tank for the given flow variation. The given flow fluctuations are as under: Table 5.1 Data for computing capacity of an equalization tank Time (h) 0 2 4 6 & 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Cumulative flow (m) 0-25-5075 :100 120-130-140 150 160-170-198 225 Solution: For the given flow data, prepare a graph of time vs cumulative flow, as shown in Figure 5.5, and draw the tangents at points A and B as shown. From the graph, the sum of vertical distances a and b from the point of tangency to the average flow line will give the total volume required for the equalization basin. The values of a = 26.43 m? and b = 18.21 m’, So, the total volume = 26.43 + 18.21 = 44.64 m’, However, provide a total volume of 50 m? to account for free board and other factors. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 10: WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Design summary O No. of units aD QO SWD in each unit =45m Q Freeboard in each unit = 0.5 m Q Diameter of a circular unit = 29 m Length of a rectangular unit = 36 m QO Width of a rectangular unit = 18 m 5.4 DESIGN OF SCREEN CHAMBER Screens are the devices with clear openings of uniform size used to remove floating materials and coarse solids from wastewater. It may consist of parallel bars, wires or grating. Mainly is like sticks, rags, boards and other large objects, which find their way into a wastewater are removed by screening. This is the first unit operation encountered in wastewater treatment plant, The screens are frequently required to be cleaned, as the retained solids (screenings) will tend to increase the head loss across the screens by clogging the screens [8, 15, 18, 23, 24). 5.4.1 Classification of Screens Normally screens are classified by two methods: Q According to the method of cleaning: Screens are known as hand cleaned or mechanically cleaned. Q According to the size of clear openings: They are known as coarse, medium or fine screens depending on the size of clear openings between the bars, as under: Screen type Size of clear opening Coarse screen More than 50 mm Medium screen 25-50 mm Fine screen 10-25 mm Coarse and medium screens are usually bar racks provided to protect pumps, valves and pipelines from damage or clogging by rags or large objects in wastewater. Fine screens are generally of disk or drum type strainers that are used to remove solids from primary effluent. Normally medium screens are used in domestic wastewater treatment. 5.4.2 Design Considerations It is important to determine the head loss through the screens during its operation. The head loss through screens mainly depends on: aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH which is approximately equal to 0.06 m° screening produced for every 3 days cleaning, hence acceptable. (g) Compute the inclined length of bars Inclined length of bars Disin 45° = 0.7/sin 45° = 1.0 m So, provide bars of total length of 1.0 m. (bh) Compute the length of the screen chamber Horizontal projected length is 1.0 x cos 45° ~ 0.7 m. Let, the length of the outlet zone be the length of the perforated plate + 0.2 m. Assuming the length of the inlet zone as 0.8 m, the total length of the screen channel is 0.8 + 0.7 + 0.5 = 2.0m Figure 5.8 shows the details of a bar screen. ‘Screen Bars Perforated Plate 06mx03m osm Screening ee 015m 0.8m 07m em ‘ osm Figure 5.8 Details of a bar screen. Design summary Q No. of units = 1 (with 2 channels) Q Length of chamber, L = 2.0m Q Width of chamber, B 0.6 m Q Depth of chamber, D 0.7 m (with free board) Q Number of bars, 1 = 16 Q Size of bars 10 mm x 50 mm O Clear opening between the bars = 25 mm aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER 5: DESIGN OF PRELIMINARY TREATMENT UNITS: ees And, the total depth of tank is Dyouai = net depth + free board + depth for grit collection .8 + 0.30 + 0.20 (assumed) = 1.30 m (d) Compute the net volume or capacity of each channel Vj=LxBxD = 18.0 mx 15 mx 08m = 21.6 m Check for the volume of the tank: The volume at peak flow for one channel is VeQxr 30000 (m?/d) = —————_ x 60(s) = 20.8 m Tax 60x 60(a) “O° ™ So, the provided volume of 21.6 m? for cach channel is acceptable. Check for SER: The surface loading rate for each channel at peak flow is Qheax _ 30000 (m*/d) SLR = “A = Teo x15 (m?) = WLM mmd = 1112.0 m/m?-d Check for settling velocity: The settling velocity is v, = SLR = 1112.0 m°/m7/d at peak flow = 0.012 m/s (slightly less but acceptable) Design summary: Data for a grit chamber when both channels are in operation at peak flow: Q The number of channels, n = 2 Q Total length of channel, L Q Total depth of channel, D = 1. Q Width of channel, B = 1.50 m Q Detention time, ¢ = 60.0 s Including the thickness of the dividing wall between 2 channels, the overall dimensions of a grit chamber are 20.0 m x 3.5 m x 1.3 m as shown in Figure 5.9 (not to the scale). aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER 5: DESIGN OF PRELIMINARY TREATMENT UNITS ral To design a Parshall flume, the dimensions of the different elements of the flume, as shown in Figure 5.16, for the particular throat width are determined from the table given in Appendix II. The throat widths for the various flow ranges are also given in the table. Design Example The following example illustrates the steps for designing the cross sections of a grit chamber and determining the elements of a Parshall flume. CBee Assuming given conditions and suitable design criteria, design a grit chamber with a Parshall flume to control the velocity of the flow in a grit chamber. The flow through velocity of 0.3 m/s is to be maintained in the chamber. The maximum, average and minimum flows in the grit chamber will be 60000 m'/d, 30000 m/d and 15000 m'/d respectively. a As flow is controlled by a Parshall flume, the cross section of the grit chamber will be parabolic. Solution: Desicn or Parasoxic Cross Secrion or THe Grir CHAMBER (a) Compute the cross-sectional area of the channels for given flow conditions Providing 3 channels in the grit chamber and maintaining 0.3 m/s flow through velocity in the channel, the cross-sectional area required for each channel of the grit chamber at peak flow condition is given by Aveak ee, ~ No. of channels x flow through velocity 60000 (m*/d) 3x 03 x 24x 60 x 60 (mid) = 0.77 m? = 0.80 m? Quvg Now. —————— ow Ave = No, of channels » flow through velocity 30000 (m*/d) 3 x 0.3 x 24 x 60 x 60 (mid) = 0.40 m? = Qasim ~ No. of channels x flow through velocity and Anim aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is 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CHAPTER 7: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER: AEROBIC PROCESSES. KXS: K,+S Ruy = (as K = Umay/Y) (7.1) The negative sign in Eqs. (7.10) and (7.11) indicates decrease of substrate concentration. In the above equations, R, = growth rate of biomass [mass/(unit volume of liquid x time)] Ree) = Et growth rate of biomass [mass/(unit volume of liquid x time)] specific growth rate of biomass (time) biomass concentration, MLVSS [mass/(unit volume of liquid)] maximum specific growth rate of biomass (time™!) growth limiting substrate concentration [mass/(unit volume, usually, mg/L)| substrate concentration at one half the maximum growth rate, also known as half velocity constant {mass/unit volume, usually, mg/L)] Y = yield coefficient for biomass (mass of cell/mass of substrate) Ry, = rate of substrate utilization [mass/(unit volume of liquid x time)] K = constant for maximum rate of substrate utilization (time!) (also known as maximum velocity constant) Ry = endogenous decay rate of biomass [mass/(unit volume of liquid x time)] Rayacry = net endogenous decay rate of biomass [mass/(unit volume of liquid x time)] K,, = endogenous decay coefficient (time) The bio-kinetic constants depend on the type of microbial species and environmental conditions like pH, temperature, DO concentration, nutrients, inhibitory substances and degradability of the organic substrate, etc. in wastewater. 7.6 DETERMINATION OF BIO-KINETIC COEFFICIENTS To design a biological process for treatment of a particular wastewater, the required values of bio-kinetic coefficients are determined by carrying out bench scale studies in the laboratory. The usual procedure for such a study is as follows: 7.6.1 Laboratory Procedure Q Operate at least five units for a range of five different detention times, 6 or 6, O Determine mean values of Qo, So. X and S at steady state conditions of operation aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 184 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Substituting the given data, y, = 250 mg/L, K’ = 0.35 and 1 = 5 days, we get 250 = Lf — €°0359)* 5) or 250 = Lofi - 0.174] <. Ultimate BOD, Lo = 302.6 mg/L. (b) Compute 3-day BOD (at 20°C) 3-day BOD is computed by the equation, l= bye*! Substituting the values Lo = 302.6 mg/L, K’ = 0.35 and 1 = 3 days, we get Ly = (302.6) €39*@) = (302.6) x (0.35) 4. Sday BOD, L; = 105.89 = 106.0 mg/L. Paaaee: If BOD; of a sample measured at 20°C is 250 mg/L, determine the 3-day BOD at 27°C. Assume a reaction constant K’ (to the base e) = 0.23 d' at 20°C. Solution: (a) Compute ultimate BOD Ultimate BOD is computed using the equation yy = Lgl ~ e*) Substituting the values from the given data, y, = 250 mg/L, Ko = 0.23 and 1 = 5 days, we get 250 = Lefl - €°2*} (at 20°C) or 250 = Lo[1 ~ 0.317] 2. Ultimate BOD, Lo = 365.8 mg/L. (b) Compute the reaction rate constant (at 27°C) The reaction rate constant at 27°C is computed using the equation Ky = Ky07- Assuming @ = 1.056 and substituting the values from the given data, Kyq = 0.23 x (1.056)27-20 = 0.34 d7 (c) Determine 3-day BOD (at 27°C) 3-day BOD is determined by the equation yee Lgl — eK) aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have 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either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 8.5.5 Design Examples BE ' Design an aerobic waste stabilization pond to treat 4.0 MLD flow of sewage having 200 mg/L BOD; for a desired effluent BOD; of 20 mg/L. Assume BOD removal rate constant to be 0.20 d“' at 20°C and the pond dispersion factor as 0.5. The wastewater temperatures in summer and winter are 35°C and 25°C respectively. Individual pond area and depth should not be more than 3.0 hectares and 1.2 m respectively. Solution: © CHAPTER @: DESIGN OF SECONDARY BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT UNITS: SUSPENDED GROWTH Process | [EE Considering the value of K x t = 4.0 for 90% BOD removal and dispersion factor 0.5, compute the detention time for the pond for winter and summer conditions. The value of K x ¢ is determined from the plot of (Kt) ys BOD removal efficiency for different (dispersion factors) available in literature [3]. (a) Determine BOD removal rate constants for winter and summer Assuming temperature constant, @ = 1.06 at 20°C (i) BOD removal rate constant for winter, Kas = Kx" = 0.20 x (1.06) = 0.27 per day (ii) BOD removal rate constant for summer, Kys = Kr" = 0.20 x (1.06) = 0.48 per day (b) Determine detention time for winter and summer From the relation, Kt = 4.0, (i) BOD removal rate constant for winter, or 0.27 x1 = 4.0 t= 14.8 days = 15.0 days (ii) BOD removal rate constant for summer, or 048 x 1 = 4.0 1 = 8.33 days = 8.0 days aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH w La 10. LL 12. Distinguish between the various kinds of activated sludge processes and describe the conventional activated sludge process with and without recycle system. Discuss the significant design criteria and steps for designing the complete mix Activated Sludge Process. . Explain how the extended aeration system is different from the activated sludge plant system. Clarify the difference between the aerated lagoon and the oxidation ditch with Tespect to process design. What are waste stabilization ponds? Describe the removal mechanism of waste stabilization ponds. It is proposed to design an activated sludge plant to treat 5 MLD flow of domestic wastewater to reduce the concentrations of settled BOD, from 200 mg/L to 20 mg/L. Compute the volume of the aeration tank and hydraulic detention time if the system is to operate at F/M of 0.3 d! and maintaining 3000 mg/L concentrations of MLVSS in the aeration tank by recycling 2200 m'/d flow of activated sludge from the secondary settling tank. An activated sludge plant is designed to reduce 90% of influent BOD of 250 mg/L. Compute (a) net sludge (solids) produced per day, (b) mean cell residence time, (c) hydraulic retention time, and (d) the F/M ratio for the assumed design data given below. (i) Wastewater flow = 2 MLD (i) Volume of the aeration tank = 500 m* (ii) MLVSS in the aeration tank = 2500 mg/L (iv) Kinetic coefficients, ¥ = 0.5 and K, = 0.08 d!, Assuming an organic loading on waste stabilization pond equal to 250 kg BODs/ha/d and detention time equal to 15 days, compute the pond area and the liquid depth in the pond if the wastewater flow is | MLD having influent BODs equal 10 200 mg/L. Assuming the surface loading (overflow) rate of 35 m/d and solids loading rate of 130 kg/m?-d, determine the size of the final settling tank (SST) for an activated sludge plant to be designed for following criterialdata. (i) Wastewater flow Gi) Recycled flow = Gii) MLSS in the reactor = 3000 mg/l. Determine the volume of an oxidation ditch proposed to design for the following conditions. (i) Flow of sewage = 1500 m/d (ii) Influent BODs = 175 mg/L (iii) MLVSS in reactor = 4000 mg/L (iv) Desired effluent BODs = 25 mg/L. (v) True yield coefficient = 0.45 (vi) Endogenous decay coefficient = 0.04 ¢* aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. _WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH When two or more filters are required to use, they will be provided in parallel. Effluent flow is usually not recirculated. Q Two-stage trickling filter: This system consists of two filters in series. Recirculation of effluent from each stage is normally adopted. In certain cases, an intermediate clarifier is used between the two filters. The system can be designed by adopting equal volumes for both filters or assuming equal efficiencies of two filters. Figure 9.3 shows typical flow diagrams of various trickling filter systems of single- and two-stage trickling filters that are generally used in the field as per the intended objective of wastewater treatment. ‘Two-stage filter system is normally used for treating high strength wastewater or when removal of nitrogenous organic matter is desired. 9.1.4 Design Criteria The operational characteristics and significant design criteria given in Table 9.1 are normally adopted in the design of various types of trickling filters. Table 9.1 Operational and design parameters of different types of trickling filters Design criteria Standard rate High rate TF Super rate TF or low rate TF (stone media) (plastic media) Hydraulic loading (m*/m?-d) 14 10-40* 40-200 Organic loading (BODs kg/d-m’) 0.08-0.35 0.35-2.4° 16 Depth of filter (m) 15-3.0 1.0-2.0 2-12 Recirculation ratio, R 0.0 14 1-14 BOD; removal efficiency (%) 80-85 65-80 65-85 Air supply Ventilating area in main channels and at the filter periphery should not be less than 1.0 m*/250 filter surface area for natural draft of air supply. cluding recirculation, “excluding recirculation 9.1.5 Design Equations Various research workers have developed empirical design equations based on their experience and analysis of experimental data. The empirical equations that are generally adopted for the design of TF are given as follows. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER 9: DESIGNS OF AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT UNITS, ATTACHED GROWTH Processes | FZEZJ Substituting the values in Eq. (9.2), we have or 70.0 = y 141.476 or 70.0 x 1 + 70.0 x 1.476 or 103.32 7 2.083 or Vy = 4271.15 m? (f) Compute the diameter of second filter tank, dy Adopting a depth of 1.5 m of filter media for the circular filter tank, the filter surface area, 4271.15 (m*) = 15m) = 2847.43 m? Therefore, the diameter of the tank, d, = [4% 2847.43 nu = 60.21 m = 60.5 m (g) Check for organic loading to the first filter tank, excluding recycled flow BOD, applied per day (kg/d) sa testi tae Organic loading, BODs/m?-d Wahine OPAL GA) Therefore, 2500 (kg BOD,/d) oe = 1.95 kg BODs/m*-d Organic loading = (Acceptable for the range of 0.35-2.4 kg BODs/m?-d) aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. ry WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH ] 8. 10. iu. 12. the design with respect to hydraulic loading of 20 m/d and for BOD loading of 0.6 kg/m'-d, if the influent BOD is 200 mg/L and BOD removal efficiency of the primary settling tank is 30%. Using NRC equations and the following data, determine effluents BODs of a two- stage trickling filter system designed to treat 5000 m'/d flow of wastewater. Q Settled influent BOD; = 250 mg/L Q Volume of first stage filter = 1000 m* Q Volume of second stage filter = 700 m’ O Filter depths = 2 m Q Recirculation ratios = 1.5 Briefly describe bio-towers. It is proposed to provide a bio-tower system to treat a wastewater flow of 15 MLD having settled BOD; of 250 mg/L. The depth of modular plastic media to be used is 6.0 m. The treatability constant determined at 20°C is found to be 0.06 min” and the treated effluent is to be discharged into surface water. The desired concentration of effluent BODs is 20 mg/L or less. Assuming a recirculation ratio of 2, design the bio-tower. Describe the removal mechanism in a rotating biological contactor. It is proposed to provide an RBC to treat a wastewater flow of a small colony of 1500 persons. The per capita generation of flow has been taken as 200 Lid. Assuming that 85% BOD removal can be achieved at an organic loading of 25 g BOD/m?.d by 3.0 m diameter discs placed at 5 cm apart, determine the effective size of tank and the volume of sludge to be wasted each day. The influent BOD to tank is 200 mg/L. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aks WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Type and quality of wastes: Though anaerobic treatment is becoming more common for low strength domestic wastewater, it is more suitable for high strength industrial wastewater. Low BOD or COD wastes usually do not generate adequate quantity of methane (CH4) gas to be used economically as energy source. Desired treatment efficiency: For high strength wastewater, the desired efficiency of removing more organic matter and having low suspended solids concentration in the effluent is usually achieved by providing a combined system of anaerobic treatment followed by aerobic treatment. Flow and organic content variations: Fluctuation in wastewater flows and variation in their organic content can cause an imbalance between acid formation and methane generation thereby affecting the performance of the system. ‘Temperature and pH conditions: Normally, the system is operated at mesophilic temperature range of 25°C to 35°C and neutral range of pH. Low pH may inhibit or affect methane production. Alkalinity in wastewater: Typically, concentration of 2000-4000 mg/L of alkalinity as CaCO; per gram of influent COD is required to maintain neutral pH. Nutrients and trace elements: Desirable concentrations of essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, etc. in the ratio of 50:10:5 (N:P:S = 50:10:5 mg/L) and trace elements such as iron, copper, nickel, zinc, etc. must be present in the wastewater. Toxic compounds: Concentrations of toxic compounds, which inhibit the growth of essential microorganisms, must be less than or within the specified limits. These are generally determined by treatability study and its proper analysis in the laboratory. Production of methane gas: The quantity of methane produced per unit of BOD/COD conversion or per unit of VSS destroyed is important if the system is designed to use the gas generated as energy resource. Normally, 350 L of CH, is produced from stabilization of 1 kg of COD at STP. 10.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE AND CRITERIA As the kinetics and material balance equations of an anaerobic process are similar to those of the activated sludge process, the design procedures for anaerobic treatment methods are similar to those of the complete mix activated sludge process. 10.4.1 Design Criteria At present well-established design criteria based on field performance for sizing anaerobic treatment reactors are not available. Therefore, the data available from the pilot plant and laboratory studies carried out mostly on high strength industrial wastewaters are assumed. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. [ ST a eee eG Contact Anaerobic Reactor The system is similar to an anaerobic complete mix type reactor except that the reactor biomass is separated in the clarifier provided downstream and a portion of the settled solids are recirculated as shown in Figure 10.7 to have a hydraulic retention time of 6 to 12 hours. As the reactor sludge contains gas, the use of a degasifier is essential prior to solid separation. Effluent Clarifier Influent Recycle line Figure 10.7 Schematic diagram of a contact anaerobic reactor. Some useful design criteria are as follows: Q Design solid retention time, SRT, 6, = factor of safety x minimum SRT = (2 to 10) x O¢mniny Q Temperature, T = 20-35°C O Reactor MLVSS = 3000-8000 mg/L Q Recirculation r: (Q/Q), R= 24 O Hydraulic loading = 0.5-1.0 m/h O HRT = 1-6d O Volumetric loading 1-10 kg COD/m*-d 10.6 DESIGN EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate the major steps to design various anaerobic reactors employed in domestic wastewater treatment. REO A Om! Design an anaerobic contact process to treat 1.0 MLD flow of wastewater having 30°C temperature and 1500 mg/L COD. Assume the following conditions of operation: Q Design SRT equal to 2.5 times minimum SRT Reactor MLVSS, X = 3500 mg/L Q Reactor temperature = 35°C aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH (g) Determine the reactor volume The effective volume of the reactor = 25 m x 17 mx 5 m = 2125 m*, (h) Check for volumetric organic loading total COD load applied volume of the reactor _ 4250 (kg/d) 2125 (m3) = 2.0 kg COD/m?-d (it is acceptable as in the range of 1-3 kg COD/m’*-d.) Volumetric organic loading = Design summary Q Volume of the reactor = 2125.0 m* O Length of the reactor 25.0 m OQ Width of the reactor 17.0 m O Side water depth of the reactor = 5.0 m Q Overall depth of the reactor 5.50 m O Sludge production 1430.0 kg/d AWS Design an anaerobic contact process to remove 90% COD from 1 MLD flow of domestic ‘wastewater to be treated in a plant operating at 30°C. Assume the following data and design criteria. Solution: (a) Compute design SRT O Design SRT, 0, = 1.5 x minimum SRT Q Reactor MLVSS, X = 4000 mg/L O Total influent COD, Soren = 3000 mg/L. O Soluble influent COD, So = 2100 mg/L Q Effluent total suspended solids, TSS) = 100 mg/L Q Ratio of COD:TSS = 1.75 Q Biodegradable portion of TSS = 80.0% Q Process kinetic constants: Y = 0.08 Ky = 0.03 K =3.125 1 K, = 360.0 mg/L For 90% COD removal, the effluent total COD, Stora) = (1 - 09) x 3000 300.0 mg/L aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 310 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH (v) Determine soluble COD removed each day Total biodegradable influent COD, Sp = 1000 + 180 = 1180 mg/L Therefore, (So - 5) = soluble COD removed or degraded each day = 1180 - 100 mg/L (g/m*) 1080 mg/L (g/m? ) and Q = 1.0 MLD = 1000 m¥/d (vi) Determine effluent biomass (sludge) wasting each day: We can determine it using the equation sludge wasting = Q x X, For effluent VSS = 120 mg/L, Q x X, = 1000 (md) x 120 (g/m?) (as mg/L = g/m?) 120000 g/d = 120 kgid (vii) Determine SRT: We can determine it by using the relation Pass) = Q X Xe and by substituting the values, compute Pyyss) by using following equation: QY(So - S) , fakgQ¥O(Sy - S) sbindee Paws) = "“G4k0) * (1* KB) + Q (effluent non-biodegradable VSS) = 1000 (m*/d) x 0.08 x 1080 (g/m*) (1 +0.03 (0°!) x 6.@)] 405 x 0.03(d™') x 1000(m*/d) x 0.08 x 8,(d) x 1080(g/m*) [1 +0.03 (d"') x 8.) + 1000 (m°/d) x 80(g/m?) 86400 388.8 a ee) (1+0.03x 0) (1+0.03x0,) es) So, from the relation, Q x X_ = Pyysys we have, 120000 = —86400_, _388.8 __. sag99 +0038) * +003x 0) 86400, 388.8 (1+0.03 x 8.) (1 +0.03 x 8.) or 40000 = aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. cits WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH (iii) Organic loading rate = 12 kg soluble BOD/m?-d (iv) Solids retention time = 15 d (vy) Volume effective factor = 0.85 8. Design a UASB reactor for 6000 m'/d flow and a peaking factor of 2 for the following assumed characteristics of influent and desired quality of effluent. (i) BOD = 300 mg/L i) COD = 800 mg/L TSS = 400 mg/L (iv) VSS = 280 mg/L (v) Effluent BOD = 100 mg/L or less (vi) Effluent SS = 100 mg/L or less aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONCEPTS AND DESIGN APPROACH Sludge origin Table 11.1 Sludge origin and its quality Sludge quality Primary sedimentation tank (primary sludge) Chemical precipitation (chemical sludge) Secondary clarifier after activated sludge process (secondary sludge) Secondary sedimentation tank after trickling filter (secondary sludge/humus) Aerobic and anaerobic digesters (digested sludge) Usually grey and slimy, has extremely offensive odour and can be digested very easily. Black with objectionable odour, and usually decomposes slowly giving off gases when left in tank. Normally brownish flocculent becomes dark when sludge is septic, good sludge has inoffensive odour and digests readily. Brownish flocculent usually contains more worms and becomes offensive quickly, undergoes decom- position more slowly, good sludge has inoffensive odour Brown to black in colour, normally does not have offensive odour and dries easily (dewatering is easy), Nore © Other characteristics such as alkalinity, organic contents and pH of sludge are important in the contral of anaerobic digestion process, while the concentrations of heavy metals, pesticides and thermal (energy) content of sludge are important when sludge is to be disposed by incinerations or landfilling or other combustion The concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P20s), and potash (K,0) (NPK value) in sludge are important when sludge is to be used as soil conditioner. 11.2.4 Volume—Weight Relationship The volume of sludge mainly depends on its water content which is normally expressed by percentage of total weight of sludge. For example, 10% sludge means that sludge contains 90% of water and 10% of solids by weight of sludge. The total solids (TS) consist of fixed or mineral solids (FS) and volatile or organic solids (VS). So, TS = FS + VS di) © The moisture content of sludge obtained from wastewater treated by various methods has been reported to vary from 99.00 to 90.0%. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER 11: DESIGN OF SLUDGE TREATMENT UNITS 500 (kg) SB) —_ 1.25 m? 1000 (kg/m?) x 1.02 x 0.04 Vary = (b) Compute the to1al solids in digested sludge Fixed solids FS in raw sludge = 40% of TS (as VS in raw sludge is 60%) = 04 x 500 kg = 200 kg Also, as 70% of VS is destroyed in digested sludge, 30% VS will remain in the sludge after digestion. Therefore, VS remaining in digested sludge = 0.30 x (0.60 x 500) = 90 kg So the total mass of solids in digested sludge is FS of raw sludge + VS remaining after digestion = 200 kg + 90 kg = 290 kg (©) Compute the volume of digested sludge having 10% solids content Using Eq. (11.5), 290 (kg) Volume of digested sludge, Vina» = 3695 Gin’) x 1. 08%0.10 = 2.788 m? = 2.8 m’ So, the volume of sludge after digestion is 2.8 m*. (a) Compute the reduction in sludge volume (volume of raw sludge) — (volume of digested sludge) x 100 % reduction in sludge volume = (volume of raw sludge) _ (12.25 3 28) (m*) 199 12.25 (m*) = 76.50% So, the reduction in sludge volume is 76,50%. Now, the sludge volume has to be computed when digested sludge is further dewatered to have 20% solids. (e) Compute the specific gravity of solids in digested sludge We can compute it, using the equation given below derived from Eq. (11.4) BxSy Tess) (8) Sse = aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. ca CHAPTER 11: DESIGN OF SLUDGE TREATMENT UNITS 33 (iv) Determine the quantity of solids in the digester Sludge solids in the digester = fixed solids + volatile solids after destruction = 450 + (1500 — 975) kg/d = 975.0 kg/d Therefore, the volume of digested sludge, W, . 975(kg) 1000 (kg/m?) x 1.04 x 0.08 = 11.72 md (©) Compute the volume of the digester, Vp Substituting the values in the equation 2 Vo = (Wane) = 5 Maury — Yun) Xt or = [364 (md) ~ 0.66 (36.40 ~ 11.72) (m'd)] x 15 (a) = 301.67 m* = 302.0 m Comparison of the digester volume determined by four approaches is as follows: Design approach Volume of digester Based on mean cell residence time 364.0 m* Based on volatile solids loading factor 350.0 m? Based on per capita volumetric loading rate 900.0 m* Based on sludge volume reduction in digester 302.0 m* Comment: The volume of a digester based on per capita volumetric loading is more than the volume determined by other methods. This may be due to lower empirical assumption of per capita solids contribution and/or a higher volumetric loading rate. Therefore, due care should be exercised to assume appropriate solids contribution rate. 11.6 QUANTITY OF METHANE GAS PRODUCED The gas generated during sludge digestion contains about 60 to 70% methane (CH,), 30 to 40% carbon dioxide (CO) and small amounts of other gases like nitrogen and hydrogen by volume. Determination of quantity of gas production is necessary to compute the volume aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. CHAPTER 11: DESIGN OF SLUDGE TREATMENT UNITS. 341 Q BOD, removed in PST = 0.15 kg/m? of flow Q Sludge contains 95% moisture and has sp gr = 1.02 Q MCRT, 6, = 10 days Q Efficiency of waste utilization = 80% Q Y= 005 kg cells/kg of BOD utilized Q K,= 0.04 d! Solution: (a) Compute the volume of sludge produced per day We can compute it using the equation, Vjia-— Po * Sy * Py For mass of dry solids generated in wastewater at 0.2 kg/m’ of flow, _ 0.2 (kg/m) x 40000 (m*/d) v, * "1000 (kgim?) x 1.02 x 0.05 = 156.86 md (b) Compute the BOD, loading BOD, loading is the sludge applied to the digester, which is equal to BOD, removed in the PST at 0.15 kg/m? of flow. Therefore, BOD, loading to digester = 0.15 (kg/m’) x 40000 (m’d) = 6000 kg/d (©) Compute the digester volume, Vp Vp = Ox @ where Q = sludge flow rate to the digester and @, = MCRT Vp = 156.8 (md) x 10(d) = 1568 m* (a) Volumetric loading rate to the digester 6000 (kg/d) The volumewie loading rae “OS® 1568 (m*) = 3.83 kg BOD, /m*-d The value is acceptable as it is within the permissible range of 1.6-6.4 kg/m’ of digester volume. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Wastewater Treatment CONS ETM AS ae OKO GL. Karia * R.A. Christian eed ie Re ol lle Le Re Cues LR cla le Cem un esl meu imsla Beginning with the bosic concepts of treatment of wastewater and the design considerations eM MMs mC am ors eu URS | eee sre Mer om Bere elmo oe oe RR le) ed procedures for design ee rela ee MUR NeW mC Ce oe tee eC Mea) types of reactors used for physical operations and biological processes in wastewater treatment ens De ey Colle) my oelico MN Meme Colo M UU cme Ie UCM eM Clea) CMel Mca (es Mod CPIM eRe tei Meci ec sets mel LS © Significant theoretical and computational information and useful design hints are encapsulated in Note ond Tip boxes. eee Mee eRe RM Re ee ae MR ele) Teenie This concise and well-designed book fulfils the needs of the students of civil engineering and Cu NCU ct Rm Re MRCS eager MR Re MM Mee Deere uk lu Meo RRs i eS mre Cd CT ea loc CCl et TIS mCe OM MM CSM Tm Cmts tem eee} undergraduate and postgraduate students. He was also a Senior Research Fellow, NEERI, Nagpur eerie Renee ome ia een me ame ie ee eS R.A. CHRISTIAN, Ph.D.. is Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SV. National Institute Aa ere ae cen R Me MRC Cake lM RMS Ma Me ele cum arf fee eR Mellel oS cel ocelot lolllel Reese Says a le Hii Sau LCE