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Dimensioning and design of nitrogen removal technologies

Dipl.-Ing. S. Rettig
TU Berlin, Department of Urban water management Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, D - 13355 Berlin Phone: +49 / (0) 30 / 314 72356; Fax: +49 / (0) 30 / 314 72248

e-mail: stefan.rettig@tu-berlin.de

Introduction
Biological wastewater treatment: Fixed film (trickling filter, rotating disk filter) or suspended biomass (activated sludge system) Predominantly the activated sludge system is practiced Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment Basic of the activated sludge system: Combination of aeration tank
+ subsequent sedimentation (clarifier) + return of the separated biomass (return sludge)

Carrier of biological treatment - activated sludge Invention of the activated sludge system 1914 (Ardern, Lockett)

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Basis of dimensioning
basic possibilities
1. Evaluation of available data (normal case) 2. Additional specific investigations (series of measurements), if data is insufficient 3. Mathematical determination with known (exceptional case) Consideration of future development (mostly with the help of characteristic values)
Demography (population development) Residential areas Industry Tourism
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Cumulative frequency / Undercut frequency


Inflow rate
100 90

Summenhufigkeit Cumulative frequency[%] [%]

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400


3

COD-load, inflow Undercut [%]

500

600

Qo in m /d

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Bd,COD[1000 kg/d] COD-load

Dimensioning Flows and Loads


The following values are required from the influent to the biological reactor:

lowest and highest wastewater temperature organic load (Bd,BOD Bd,COD), load of suspended solids (Bd,SS) and of organic load and nitrogen load for the design of the aeration facility
for (as a rule) the highest relevant temperature
Loading condition: BOD/N; highest saisonal peak

phosphorus (Bd,P) for the determination of the sludge production and thus the calculation of the volume of the aeration tank

maximum inflow rate with dry weather QDW,h (m/h) for the design of
the anaerobic mixing tank and the internal recirculation flow rate

dimensioning inflow rate QWW,h (m/h) for the design of the


secondary settling tanks

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Biological Standard Processes


Activated sludge processes
Elimination of: COD, BOD5, NH4-N, NO3-N, P
anoxic zone denitrification
Influent (primary-treated)

aerobic zone COD-elimination & nitrification

Effluent

Aeration Recirclation sludge Return sludge Clarifier

Excess sludge

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Inhabitant-specific loads

g/(Inhabitantd)

German standard (ATV-DVWK A 131)


During biological wastewater treatment process for each kg BOD5 about 0,04-0,05 kg Nitrogen and about 0,01 kg Phosphorus are needed for the development of biomass and discharged in the waste sludge. *) The share returned in the sludge liquor has to be concerned. Thus the loads in the influent of the biological treatment stage can increase up to 20 %.
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Dimensioning of the activated sludge process I


1. Determination of the relevant flows and loads 2. Selection of the treatment process
=> Nitrification/Denitrification

Activated sludge tank (Part 1)


Set up of a Nitrogen-balance Selection of the treatment process
Nitrification/Denitrification; P-Elimination; Selector

Selection of the return sludge ratio;


intermitting DN time

Determination of the denitrification capacity Determination of the required sludge age Calculation of the sludge production
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Nitrogen balance
anoxic zone denitrification aerobic zone COD-elimination & nitrification
Effluent aeration Recirculation sludge Clarifier Excess sludge

Influent (primary-treated)

N in influent: Co,N = Co,org.N + Co,NH

Co,TKN

Return sludge

+ 4-N + 4-N

Co,NO

+ 3-N + 3-N

Co,NO

2-N

N in effluent: Ce,N = Ce,org.N + Ce,NH

Ce,NO
5

Ce,NO

2-N

N in sludge: CNWS = 0,04 - 0,05 Co,BOD


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German effluent regulations for municipal sewage; monitoring values

Size Category 1 2 3 4 5

PE based on BOD inlet 60 g BOD5/(PEd) < 1.000 1.000 bis < 5.000 5.000 bis < 10.000 10.000 bis < 100.000 > 100.000

COD mg/l 150 110 90 90 75

BOD5 mg/l 40 25 20 20 15

NH4-N *) mg/l 10 10 10

Ntot anorg.
*

tot P mg/l 2 1

mg/l 18 **) 13 **)

PE: population equivalent


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Abwasserverordnung (AbwV vom 2004)


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Nitrogen removal procedures (DWA-A 131e, 2000)

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Return Sludge Ratio I


The operating conditions in aeration tank and secondary settling tank are influenced through
Mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration in the influent to the
secondary settling tank SSEAT

Mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration of the return sludge


SSRS

Return sludge ratio RS = QRS/Q.

Suspended solids mass balance (neglecting XSS,EST)

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Return Sludge Ratio II

Influent QWW,h

Effluent

Recirculation sludge Return sludge

QRS = 0.75QWW,h max.QRS = 1.0 QWW,h

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Denitrification capacity

(DWA-A 131e, 2000)

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Important design parameter for activated sludge system


Sludge age tSS:
[d] Average retention time of activated sludge in the activated sludge system Amount of sludge in the aeration tank Removed amount of sludge tSS = 1/max MLSSAT VAT QES MLSSES + Q MLSSE

tSS =

tSS = 1/(SPdBSS)

tSS ..10 to 12 days


[g/l or kg/m3]

MLSSAT: Total amount of solids (MLSS) (measured) MLSSES: Total amount of solids in the excess sludge Enough time for the growth of microorganisms

Dimensioning sludge age in days dependent on the treatment target and the temperature as well as the plant size (intermediate values are to be estimated)
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Required Sludge Age (DWA-A 131e, 2000)

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Sludge production SPd


SPd = SPd,BOD + SPd,P
SPd,BOD= SPC,BOD * Bd,BOD,ZB

(DWA-A 131e, 2000)

SPd,P [kg/d] = Qd [m/d] (3 XP,BioP + 6,8 XP,Prec, Fe + 5,3 XP,Prec,Al)/1000

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Dimensioning of the Secondary Settling Tank


1. Selection of the sludge volume index 2. Selection of the sludge thickening time tTh; dependent on the biological process selected 3. Determination of the return sludge suspend solids concentration (SSRS) 4. Selection of the return sludge ratio (RS) and estimation of the permissible suspended solids concentration of the activated sludge in the biological reactor (SSAT). VAT reduces with increasing SSAT. AST and tST rises with increasing SSAT. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Determination of the surface area of the scondary settling tank (AST) from the permissible surface overflow rate qa or the sludge volume loading rate qav Determination of the depth of the secondary settling tank from partial depths for the functional zones and other sepcifications Dimensioning of the sludge removal (scraper) Verification of the selected thickening time by the sludge removal (scraper) performance Dimensioning of the return sludge and excess sludge pumps
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Transfering: SS-content

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Characteristic parameters
Mixed liquor suspended solids MLSS:
Content of biomass Common values: 3 - 6 g/l

Sludge volume SV:


Volume of sludge after 30 min. settling of 1000 ml activated
sludge

Measured value > 250 ml dilution the sample (factor) Common values: 200 600 ml

Sludge volume index SVI:



Quotient of sludge volume and liquor suspended solids SVI = SV / MLSS Common values: 75 - 180 ml/g Bulking sludge SVI > 150 ml/g
(Steinke, 2009) 19

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Standard values for the sludge volume index

= MLSS

Approximate values for the MLSS concentration in the biological reactor dependent on the sludge volume index for SSRS = 0.7SSBS

(DWA-A 131e, 2000) Departement of urban water management 20

Settlement in horizontal flow tanks

(Austermann-Haun, 2011) Departement of urban water management 21

Permitted Thickening Time (tTh)

Type of wastewater treatment


Activated sludge plants without nitrification Activated sludge plants with nitrification Activated sludge plants with denitrification

Thickening time tTh [h]


1.5 - 2.0 1.0 - 1.5 2.0 - (2.5)

An exceeding of the thickening time of tE = 2.0 h requires a very advanced denitrification in the biological reactor.

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Suspended Solids Concentration in the bottom sludge


Achievable suspended solids concentration in the bottom sludge SSBS
can be estimated
empirically in dependence on the SVI and tTh

(DWA-A 131e, 2000) Departement of urban water management 23

Surface Overflow Rate and Sludge Volume Surface Loading Rate


The surface overflow rate qA is calculated from the permitted sludge volume loading rate qSV and the diluted sludge volume DSV as:

(DWA-A 131e, 2000)

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Dimensioning of the Secondary Settling Tank

QWW,h (m/h) - Max. inflow rate SVI (l/kg) - Sludge volume index SSEAT (kg/m) - Suspended solids concentration in the influent to settling tanks
Effluent

QRS
Return sludge

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Settling Tank Surface Area


The required surface area of the secondary settling tank results as follows:

(DWA-A 131e, 2000)

For vertical flow secondary settling tanks the effective surface area at the mid-point between inlet aperture and water level is to be set With this the geometry of normal tank shapes is taken into account

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Horizontal flow circular secondary settling tanks

Settling Tank Surface Area

(DWA-A 131e, 2000) Departement of urban water management 27

Dimensioning of the activated sludge process II


Takeover: concentration of SS

Activated sludge tank (Part 2)


Calculation of the volume of the biological reactor Dimensioning of aeration (O2-demand; daily peak) Dimensioning of circulation units; design of circulation pumps Type of biological reactor Checking of acid capacity and pH

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Volume of the Biological Reactor


Required mass of suspended solids in biological reactor:
MSS,AT = tSS,Dim SPd [kg]

Usual values of MLSS,AT: 2 - 6 g/l

The volume of the biological reactor is obtained as follows:

As comparative figures the BOD5 volume loading rate (BR) and the sludge loading rate (BSS) can be calculated:

Bd = BOD5 Qo

Nitrification BR =0,35 kg BOD5/(md) Nitrification BSS= 0,10 kg BOD5/(kgSSd)

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Design of recirculation
Influent QWW,h
Effluent

Recirculation sludge Return sludge

RC with

S NH 4 , N S NO 3, AN

S NH 4 , N C N ,O S orgN ,e X orgN , BM Q RC Qt * RF Q RS Q Q RZ RF RS Qt Qt
30

therefore : Q Q RC RS RZ [ ] Qt Qt

bzw .

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Dimensioning of aeration (O2-demand)


Oxygen consumption for C-Elimination OUd,C [kg O2/d] = OUC,BOD,spez Bd,BOD,I
Specific oxygen consumption OUC,BOD [kg O2/kg BOD5, valid for CCOD,IAT/CBOD;IAT 2.2

(DWA-A 131e, 2000)

Oxygen consumption for Nitrification

OUd,N [kg O2/d] = Qd * 4,3*(SNO3,D SNO3,IAT + SNO3,EST)/1000


Oxygen consumption for Denitrification (+)

OUd,D [kg O2/d] = Qd * 2,9 * SNO3,D / 1000


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Dimensioning of aeration (Daily peak OUh)


f C * (OU d ,C OU d , D ) f N * OU d , N 24

OU h [kgO2 / h]

with fC and fN = Peak factors for load peaks (appear at different times)
Load cases: I fN = 1 with fC = x II fN = x with fC =1
fC fN for BC,BOD,I 1.200 kg/d fN for BC,BOD,I > 6.000 kg/d 4 1.3 -

Sludge age in d
6 1.25 8 1.2 2.0 10 1.2 1.8 15 1.15 2.5 1.5 25 1.1 2.0 -

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Summary
The calculated tank volumes are highly influenced by the correct evalution of the loads (Q, COD, BOD, N- and P-load) Design based on sludge age Design of denitrification: capacity of denitrification Design of secondary settling tanks based on sludge volume load
Simple calculation according to A 131 Computer-based models according to A 131 or equivalent
approaches

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