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3/29/2012

Frequenc y Respons e

Chapter 4

BJT & FET Frequency Response


Spring 2012 4 Semester Mechatronics SZABIST, Karachi
th

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CH 4

Frequency Response

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ebooks :
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CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse

Chapter Contents

BJT & JFET Frequency Response Introduction Logarithms and Decibels General Frequency Considerations Bode plot Low Frequency Analysis Low Frequency Response BJT Amplifier Low Frequency Response FET Amplifier High Frequency Response BJT Amplifier High Frequency Response FET Amplifier Multistage Frequency Effects*

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Frequency Response

Introduction

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CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse Frequency Response:

Introduction

Phase and amplitude plots and equations of an amplifier Frequency Response Prerequisites: 1. Logarithms 2. Semi-log plots 3. Decibels 4. Normalization

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Frequency Response

Logarithms

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Frequ ency Resp onse Logarithms:

Logarithms

The logarithm of a number is the exponent by which another fixed value, the base, has to be raised to produce that number.
a ::: : ::: og a
10

Common logarithms: Natural logarithms: Relationship of CL and NL: Benefit s:

::: og10a
y ::: og a
e

oge a ::: 2 . og10a

Plotting of a variable between wide limits Compression of large data

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Frequ ency Resp onse Logarithms: Broccoli, which grows in a logarithmic spiral

Logarithms

A low pressure area over Iceland shows an approximately logarithmic

piral pattern

The whirlpool Galaxy

A nautilus displaying a logarithmic spiral

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-1:

Logarithms

Using the calculator, determine the logarithm of the following numbers to the base indicated: a. log10 106 b. loge e3 c. log10 102 d. loge e1 Example 9-2: Using the calculator, determine the logarithm of the following numbers: a. log10 64 b. loge 64
10

c. log 1600

d. log10 8000 12 29 CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse og101 :: :0 10 10 10


og
a

Logarithms

::: og a

og

1 og10

:::

og10

Example 9-3:

og10a ::: og10a

og10

Using calculator, determine the antilogarithm of the following expressions: a. 1.6 = log10 a b. 0.04 = loge a Example 9-4: Using calculator, determine the logarithm of the following numbers: a. log10 0.5 b. log10 (4000/250) c. log10 (0.6 x 30) 12 29 CH 4

Frequency Response

11

Semilog Plots

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Frequ ency Resp onse


2

Semilog graph paper

Semilog Plots

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Linear
1

30%

lo

g 2=0.3010
10

48%

l o g
1 0

= 0.9543 log 8 =
10

0.9031 log 7 =
10

9 Log 3 = 0.4771
10

0.8451 12 29 log 6
10

CH 4

log104 = 0.6021

( 60% )

= 0.7781 log 5 =
10

0.6999

Frequ ency Resp onse

Semilog Plots

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Identifying the numerical values of the tic marks on a log scale

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Frequ ency Resp onse


d1jd2

Semilog Plots

14

Va ue ::: 10 x 10

d1 d2
10

10

+1

Example 9-5: Determine the value of the point appearing on the logarithmic plot in Fig. 9-4 using the measures made by a ruler (linear).

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Frequency Response

15

Decibels

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Frequ ency Resp onse


P2 ::: og 10 P
1

Decibels

16

e)

10 og dB 10 P1
dB

::: P2

dB )

::: 10 og10

P2 P1 R Oh s)

dBrr ) dB )

vdB

10
::: 20 og
V

V2

A vT = A v1
dBT

A v2
dB2

A v3
dBn

A vn

dB1

+.....+

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-6:

Decibels

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Find the magnitude gain corresponding to a voltage gain of 100 dB.

Example 9-7: The input power to a device is 10,000 W at a voltage of 1000 V. The output power is 500 W and the output impedance is 20 .

Example 9-8: An amplifier rated at 40 W output is connected to a 10 speaker. Calculate: a) The input power required for full power output if the power gain is 25 dB b) The input voltage for rated output if the amplifier voltage gain is 40 dB 12 29 CH 4

Frequency Response

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General Frequency Considerations

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Freq. Considerations

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General Frequency Considerations: 'r The frequency response of an amplifier refers to the frequency range in which the amplifier will operate with negligible effects from capacitors and device internal capacitance. 'r This range of frequencies can be called the mid-range. At frequencies above and below the midrange, capacitance and any inductance will affect the gain of the amplifier.

At low frequencies the coupling and bypass capacitors lower the gain. At high frequencies stray capacitances associated with the active device lower the gain.

Also, cascading amplifiers limits the gain at high and low frequencies. 12 29 CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse A Bode plot indicates the frequency response of an Amplifier:

Freq. Considerations

20

General Frequency Considerations:

The horizontal scale indicates the frequency (in Hz) and the vertical 19

scale indicates the gain (in dB) The mid-range frequency range of an amplifier is called the bandwidth of the amplifier The bandwidth is defined by the lower and upper cutoff frequencies Cutoff any frequency at which the gain has dropped by dB CH 4

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20

Frequ ency Resp onse

Freq. Considerations

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General Frequency Considerations:

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Frequency Response

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Normalization

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Frequ ency Resp onse Normalization Process:

Normalization

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'r In communication, a decibel plot vs frequency is normally provided rather than gain vs frequency 'r A process in which the vertical parameter is divided by a specific level or quantity sensitive to a combination or variables of the system 'r The band frequencies define a level where the gain or quantity of interest will be 70.7% or its maximum value

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Frequ ency Resp onse Normalization Process:

Normalization

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Normalized gain versus frequency plot

Decibels plots of the normalized gain versus frequency plot

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Frequ ency Resp onse

Normalization

25

Example 9-9: Given the frequency response: a) Find the cutoff frequency f1 and f2 using the measurements provided b) Find the bandwidth of the response c) Sketch the normalized response

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-9:

Normalization

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Frequ ency Resp onse


A /A
v vmid

Normalization

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A /A
v

|
vmid dB

1 0.7 07 0 . 0. 35 0. 25

0 3 6 9 1

dB Plot:

Decibel plot of the normalized gain versus frequency plot 12 29 CH 4

Frequency Response

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Low Frequency

Analysis

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Analysis Bode Plot

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Low frequency response for the R-C circuit

Low Frequenc y RC Circuit Analysis: 12 29

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Analysis Bode Plot

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Low Frequency RC Circuit Analysis: Av ::: 0 707 Xc=R


f1 ::: 1 2rrRC Av ::: 1 1
1 f f

Av dB) ::: 20 og10

1 2
1 f1

Av dB) ::: 20 og10 12 29

f1
f
f<f

CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Analysis Bode Plot

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Low Frequency RC Circuit Analysis:


f f1 f1 f1 1/10 f1 f /f
1

A
v(dB)

1 2 4 10

0 -6 -12 -20

12

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Frequency Response

LF Analysis Bode Plot

32

Low Frequency RC Circuit Analysis:


f f1 f1 1/10 f1 f1 f 1 /f 1 2 4 1 0 A
v(dB)

0 6 1 2

12

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Frequency Response

LF Analysis Bode Plot

33

Low Frequency RC Circuit Analysis: The piecewise linear plot of the asymptotes and associated breakpoints is called a Bode plot of the magnitude versus frequency A change in frequency by a factor of 2, equivalent to 1 octave, results in a 6-dB change in the ratio as noted by the change in gain from f1/2 to f1.

29 For a 10:1 change in frequency, equivalent to one decade, there is a 20-dB change in the ratio as noted by the change in gain from f1/10 to f1.

V+o Av dB)/20 () ::: tan-1 A v::: V ::: 10


i

f1

f CH 4

12

Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Analysis Bode Plot

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Low Frequency RC Circuit Analysis:

Phase response for the RC circuit Example 9-9

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Analysis Bode Plot

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Example 9-10: For the network of fig. 9-20: (R = 5 k, C = 0.1 F) a) Determine the break frequency b) Sketch the asymptotes and locate the 3 dB point c) Sketch the frequency response curve
d) Find the gain at A = 6 dB
v(dB)

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-10:

LF Analysis Bode Plot

36

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Frequency Response Example 9-10: % bode plot of Example 9-10 f = 10:10^4; fo = 318.5; A = 20*log(1./(1+ (fo./f).^2).^(1/2)); semilogx(f,A), xlabel('f (log scale)'), ylabel('Av(dB)') grid Av(dB) 4 0 5 0 6 0
-70 10
1

LF Analysis Bode Plot Computer Analysis 0 -10 -20 -30

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10

10 f (log scale)
3

10
4

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Frequency Response

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Low Frequency Response

BJT amplifiers

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Frequ ency Resp onse BJT Amplifiers: .

LF Response BJT Amplifiers

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Response BJT Amplifiers

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Effects of Cs on the LF response:

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Response BJT Amplifiers

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Effects of CC on the LF response:

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Response BJT Amplifiers

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Effects of CE on the LF response:

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LF Response BJT Amplifiers

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Effects of Cs and CE on the LF response: The cutoff frequency due to CS can be calculated by f 1 = 2 (R + R where )C
Ls s i s

R i = R 1 ||R 2 || re The cutoff frequency due to CC can be calculated with


f

LC = 2 (R
o

1 + R )C
L c

where 12 29

R = R ||r
o C

CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Response BJT Amplifiers

44

Example 9-11: a) Determine the lower cutoff frequency for the network of Fig. 9.23 using the following parameters: CS = 10 F, CE = 20 F, CC = 1 F,
o CC

R = 1 k, R = 40 k, R = 10 k, R = 2 k, R = 4 k, R = 2.2 k, 2 V E C L S= 100, r = 1 , V = 20

a) Sketch the frequency response using a Bode plot b) Verify the result using a Simulator.

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-11:

LF Response BJT Amplifiers

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Frequency Response

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Low Frequency Response

FET amplifiers

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Frequ ency Resp onse FET Amplifiers:

LF Response FET Amplifiers

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Frequ ency Resp onse FET Amplifiers:

LF Response FET Amplifiers

48

The cutoff frequency due to CG can be calculated with


f
LG

= 2 (R

1 + R )C
sig i G

where
R=R
i G

The cutoff frequency due to CC can be calculated with


1

where 12 29

LC

= 2 (R + R )C
o L

R = R || r
O D G

CH 4

Frequ ency Resp onse FET Amplifiers:

LF Response FET Amplifiers

49

The cutoff frequency due to CS can be calculated with 1 f LS = 2 R eq CS where R


eq

eq

= R ||
S

g1
m

r
d

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Frequ ency Resp onse

LF Response FET Amplifiers

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Example 9-12: a) Determine the lower cutoff frequency for the network of Fig. 11.32 using the following parameters: CG = 0.01 F, CC = 0.5 F, CS = 2 F
DSS P d DD

R = 10 k, R = 1 M, R = 4.7 k, R = 1 k, R = 2.2 k G =4Vr D = , VS = 20 V L I sig = 8mA, V

b) Sketch the frequency response using a Bode plot.

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-12:

LF Response FET Amplifiers

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Frequency Response

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High Frequency Response

FET amplifiers

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Frequ ency FET Amplifiers: Resp onse

HF Response FET Amplifiers

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Frequ ency Resp onse FET Amplifiers:

HF Response FET Amplifiers

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Frequ ency Resp onse FET Amplifiers:

HF Response FET Amplifiers

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Capacitances that affect the high-frequency response are Junction capacitances C ,C ,C gs gd ds Wiring capacitances C ,C wi wo Coupling capacitors CG , CC Bypass capacitor CS

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Frequ ency Resp onse FET Amplifiers: f Hi = 2R1 C


Thi i

HF Response FET Amplifiers

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Ci = C Wi + Cgs + CMi C Mi = (1 A v ) Cgd

Figure 9-64 (a) & (b)

T h i

Ho

1 = 2R
Tho

C
o

C o = CWo + Cds + CMo C = 1 C ? Mo A? gd ? v?


R
Tho

1 ?

= R ||R ||r
D L d

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Frequ ency Resp onse Example 9-14:

HF Response FET Amplifiers

57

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Frequency Response

58

Square Wave

Testing

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Frequ ency Resp onse Square Wave Testing:

Square Wave Testing

59

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Frequ ency Resp onse Square Wave Testing:

Square Wave Testing

60

58

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59

Frequ ency Resp onse

Square Wave Testing

61

Example 9-15: The application of a 1-mV, 5-kHz square wave to an amplifier resulted in the output waveform of Fig. 9-72. (a) Write the Fourier series expansion for the square wave through the ninth harmonic. (b) Determine the bandwidth of the amplifier (c) Calculate the low cutoff frequency.

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Frequ ency Resp onse Reading: 1. Summary 2. Equations 3. Computer analysis Problems: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sec 8.2: (odd) Sec 8.3: 17,18 Sec 8.4: 19,21 Sec 8.5:23,25 Sec 8.6: 27,29

Home Task

62

6. Sec 8.7: 31 7. Sec 8.8: 33,35,37 8. Sec 8.10: 39,41 9. Sec 8.11: 43 10. Sec 8.12: 45 11. Sec 8.14: 47 12. Sec 8.15: 49 12 29

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References

63

FET 1. Bolestad 2. Paynter

CH 1 12 29