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CARBON STEELS

EN BS970 NOTES

Mild Steel that is very easy to machine to a good surface finish, it cont percentage of lead which makes it unsuitable for welding. It is most co used in mass produced (CNC) items because of the ease of which it ma which aids extended tool life.

Common uses: Low stress hubs, casings, handles, linkages and shafts

Not suitable for: Stressed items subjected to tensile loading such as studs or wear likely applications as the surface will tend to dull and 'pic EN1A 230M07 onto mating materials. Material rusts very readily if left unprotected. A this steel can be welded, it is not recommended as the parent material to 'rip' about the welds when stressed, shear loading will cause failour.

Machining: To achive the best finish and accuracy, EN1A should be m at high surface speeds and feeds with a general purpose carbide tool, H be used to good effect. Most lubricants are suitable, but beware that cu will cause surface staining.

Mild Steel, fairly easy to machine but with a tendency to 'rip' if unlubric is very easy to weld and is used as a more general purpose steel for m applications.

Common uses: Lightly stressed bolts, fixings, shafts, spacers, hubs a bushings. Bracketry, linkages and baseplates would be fine to produce EN3. EN3 070M20

Not suitable for: Stress components such as torque loaded shafts, hig bending forces and shock loading. The material will yield and distort un stress conditions, bending before shear.

Machining: Surface 'ripping' is more evident in EN3 so lubrication is e Fairly high surface speeds should be used with moderate feeds. Screwc easy with cutting oil and achiving a fine finish is achived with slight pol Very nice to weld with good flow and strength.

EN8

080M40 Medium strength steel that is suitable where good all-round performan

required. Much better quality than EN3 but with the drawback of mach

Common uses: Hydraulic rams (chromed) , key steel, medium torque medium bending and compression loading applications. Good corrosion resistance. Material bends considerably before failour.

Not suitable for: High shock loads as the material tends to shear und extreme conditions. High bending forces.

Machining: Achiving a fine finish is more difficult because the materia 'rip', especially evident during fine pitch dry screwcutting. Plenty of hig content lubricant is recommended. Final polishing is very likely require a fine finish though will never quite look as bright as EN3. Welding is v and achives a strong joint.

High strength steel that shares many of the good mechanical propertie but is far more resistant to shear loading and frictional wearing.

Common uses: Tolerant shear pins, connecting rods, crossheads, pist load couplings and hubs. Resists shearing and bending but with plenty before breakage.

Not suitable for: EN16 is a very good 'all round' performer, with the e of material cost to hold against it. May be used in most higher loading EN16 605M36 applications.

Machining: The material is very similar to machine as EN8, showing a reluctance to polish to a bright finish and has a very slight golden colou surface which develops over time. Screwcutting is fairly easy with less than EN8, though copious quantities of high pressure cutting fluid is recommended to achive the best surface.

High strength steel to be used when a very high tolerance to shock loa required, suitable to be used in areas of very high loading such as gear etc. Material has slight corrosion resistant properties and is possible to very accuratly to a fine surface finish. Can be induction hardened. EN19 709M40

Common uses: Tow pins, high load studding, gears, shafts, racks, pa load bearing tie rods.

Not suitable for: Suitable for most applications where strength is the

requirement, but higher material cost should be considered.

Machining: Quite tough material to machine as turning can be long an like, especially with HSS cutters - though the application of plenty of co aids tool life. Easy to obtain a high surface finish with carbide tipped to should be machined at a medium surface speed. Polishes very well and machine to fine dimensional tolerances. Generally a stainless grade of should be used if possible.

Very high strength steel that is easy to thru' heat treat and temper wit minimum surface scaling.

Common uses: Used for the production of punches and dies because hardenability, drill bushings, bearings surfaces, high strength shafts, g hubs, screws and fixings.

Not suitable for: Shock shear loading is more limited than EN19 to EN because failure will be more likey to occur in shear loads. Cracking and distortion can occur during heat treatment so sharp edges should be ro EN24 817M40 where possible.

Machining: Tough to machine, especially with HSS. The use of carbide recommended - though chip breaking is easilly achived with moderate feeds. Easy to produce a high quality surface finish to high tolerances a higher surface speeds can be used on final cuts. Best roughed out at a speed but higher feed then finished with high speed and moderate feed be machined when hardened with stainless grade tips or ceramics.

To be used when very high surface strength is required with a softer co material.

Common uses: High quality crank shafts, high strength gearing, shafts and couplings. Maintains a soft core after heat treatment to resist shea very hard surface will aid friction mechanical faces. EN36 633M13

Not suitable for: Material is produced for high strength, cost would be a when selecting its use.

Machining: In un-heat treated state the material machines similar to o steels but with a slight dulling to the surface when compared to such a or similar. After heat treatment, surface grinding should be performed

mechanical faces as scale can be quite previlant. Ceramic tips may be high surface speeds.

The original 'EN' or 'Emergency Number' material designation was developed during the years of WW2 to aid the standardisation of steel referance specification and production of components produced from materials. The EN referance has continued to be used from that time - many attempts over the years have been made to update and circulate a new standard, but the original EN designation tends to remain in the workplace. The second most common material designation used in the UK is probably the BS970 standard - although officially this has been superseded by another european standard, confusingly also named the 'BS EN' number. The BS970 standard however was designed to clearly detail the carbon content and the specific type of steel via the numbers and letter given to the material. (as shown below)

Steel Type: This three digit number indicates the type of steel: 000 to 199 - Carbon manganise steel, number shows the manganise content. (x100) 200 to 240 - Free cutting steel, the 2nd and 3rd digit represents the sulphur content. (x100) 250 to 250 - Silicon manganise steel. 300 to 499 - Stainless steels and steels resistant to heat. 500 to 999 - Reserved for alloyed steels.

Letter: The single letter will be one of four designations, A, H, M or S: A - The steel is supplied to a chemical composition as attained from a chemical batch. H - The steel specification is 'hardenable'. M - The material is produced to certain mechanical properties. S - The steel is stainless in specification.

Carbon Content: The last two numbers represent the average material carbon content. (x100)

Sometimes a further letter can be added to the designation when a certain heat treatment condition has been applied.

EN Numbers:

One can only generalise the structure of the EN system without producing a chemical make-up chart that details the complete steel composition. The designations can therefore be generalised as follows: The higher the EN number, the better the quality of steel - and the more carbon, or blended elements are added to the chemical content. EN1 to EN3 - Low carbon, general purpose steel. EN5 to EN16 - Medium carbon content with general purose strength.

EN19 to EN24 - Higher carbon steels with good hardenablity. EN32 to EN36 - Hard wearing materials. EN40 to EN45 - Spring steels. EN56 to EN60 - Stainless steels. It is often found that a further letter is added to the EN number to indicate a heat treated condition, more commonly used amongst the higher carbon steels to denote the hardness state.
This list should be used only as a open generalisation to aid in material selection.

En1A to En 7 - Page 1
Chemical Composition Mechanical Properties Related Specificatio ns

General Information

C Si Mn

N C M V i r o a

Tens Yiel 0.2 Elon Brin ile d % g- Izo ell Stre Str Pro atio d No: ngth ess of n

BS

SAE

Spec Type CondBS97 of % % ition 0 Steel

% %

To Tons ns / / Sq Sq In In Min Mi n

To ns Ft / % Lb Sq No:- No:Min Mi In n Mi n

No:-

En 1A

Free Cold 0. 0. 0.8 0.2 Cutti Rolled 0 1 0 0.07 0 to 7 ng or 0 to -- - -- - 0.3 % to Mild Draw max % 1.2 0% 0. n Steel m 0% 1

--

--

--

10 to 26 a)

--

--

32/ 4

--

5 ax % 0. 0 Cold 7 Rolled to or 0. Draw 1 n 5 %

En 1B

Free Cutti ng Mild Steel

0. 1 0 % m ax

1.0 0.3 0 0.06 23 - 0 to to -% to -- 0.6 1.4 max 27 a) 0% 0%

--

--

10 to -24 a)

--

32/ 5

--

G/Pu 0. 0.0 rp Rolled 2 0.8 6 0.06 En 2 Cold or 0 0 % % ---ma b) Form Forge % ma max m ing d x x Steel ax Sp/P 0. urp 0.5 0.0 1 Cold STCO 0 - 5 0.05 2 ---Form ma c) - ma max m ing x x ax Steel

20

--

--

28

--

--

144 9 1016 162 1019 7 29

En 2A

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9 162 7

1006 1010

Sp/P 0. urp 0.5 0.0 1 En Cold STCO 0 - 4 0.04 0 ---ma 2A/1 Form c) - ma max m ing x x ax Steel Sp/P 0. urp 0.5 0.0 1 Cold STCO 0 - 5 0.05 5 ---Form ma c) - ma max m ing x x ax Steel

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9

1006 1008

En 2B

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9 162 7

1006 1012

En 2C

0. 1 0.4 Sp/P As 5 0 urp 0.0 Rolled to to Cold - 5 0.05 or 0. -- 0.6 --Form - ma max Forge 2 0 ing x 5 ma d Steel m x ax 0. 1 0.4 Sp/P As 5 0 0.0 urp Rolled to to Cold - 5 0.05 or 0. -- 0.7 --Form - ma max Forge 3 0 ing x 0 ma d Steel m x ax 0. 1 0 0.5 0.0 to - 6 0.06 0 0. --ma - ma max 3 x x 5 m ax 0. 0 5 1.0 0.0 to 0 - 6 0.06 0. --ma - ma max 3 x x 5 m ax

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9

1017 1020

En 2D

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9

1017 1020 1025

Cold As 0. Form Rolled 1 or 5 En 2E ing Fully Forge m Killed d ax

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1009

As 0. '20' Rolled 2 Carb or 5 En 3 on Forge m Steel d ax

--

--

--

--

--

--

14, 29 400 150 6 /10 2

1017 1022

En 3A

0. As 1 '20' Rolled 5 Carb / to on Norm 0. aSteel 2 lised 5

0. 0 0.4 0.0 5 0 - 6 0.06 to to --- ma max 0. 0.9 x 3 0 5

28

--

--

25

--

--

14, 29 32/ 2 400 150 6/ 101

1017 1022

En 3C

As '20' Rolled / Carb on Norm aSteel lised

0. 1 7 to 0. 2 3

0. 0 0.6 0.0 5 0 - 5 0.05 to to --- ma max 0. 1.0 x 3 0 5 0. 1.0 0.0 3 - 6 0.06 0 5 --ma - ma max m x x ax

28

--

--

25

--

--

14, 29 400 150 6/ 101

1022

En 3B

0. '20' Cold 2 Carb Draw 5 on m n Steel ax

28

--

--

17

--

--

32/ 2 150 6/ 121 14, 29 32/ 2 400 150 6/ 101

1017 1022

En 3D

0. 1 '20' Cold 5 Carb Draw to on 0. n Steel 2 5

0. 0 0.6 0.0 5 0 - 6 0.06 to to --- ma max 0. 1.0 x 3 0 5

28 to 35 a)

--

--

15

--

--

1017 1022

0. '25' Norm 3 Carb a0 En 4 on lised m Steel ax

0. 0 1.0 0.0 5 0 - 6 0.06 to --ma - ma max 0. x x 3 5

28 to 38

--

--

25

--

126 150 to 3/ 179 151

1025

En 4A

0. '25' Cold 3 Carb Draw 0 on m n Steel ax

0. 0 1.0 0.0 5 0 6 0.06 to --- ma ma max 0. x x 3 5 0. 0 0.0 0.0 5 6 - 6 0.06 to to --- ma max 0. 1.0 x 3 0 5 0. 0 0.6 0.0 5 0 - 5 0.05 to to --- ma max 0. 1.0 x 3 0 5 0. 0 0.7 0.0 5 0 - 6 0.06 to to --- ma max 0. 0.9 x 3 0 5 0. 0 0.7 0.0 5 0 - 6 0.06 to to --- ma max 0. 0.9 x 3 0 5

32 to 42

--

--

12

--

--

--

1025 1026

0. 2 '30' Norm 5 Carb a- to En 5 on lised 0. Steel 3 5 0. 2 '30' Norm 5 En 5K Carb a- to on d) lised 0. Steel 3 5 0. 2 '30' 5 Carb STCO to on c) 0. Steel 3 0 0. 2 '30' 8 Carb STCO to on c) 0. Steel 3 3

32

16

--

25

143 1026 144 1030 20 to 9 29 193 1033

32

16

--

25

143 144 20 to 9 193

1030

En 5A

--

--

--

25

20

--

144 9

1026 1030

En 5B

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9

1030

En 5C

0. 3 '30' 0 Carb STCO to on c) 0. Steel 3 5 Harde ned '30' Temp Carb ered on +Cold Steel Draw n 0. 2 5 to 0. 3 5

0. 0 0.7 0.0 5 0 - 6 0.06 to to --- ma max 0. 0.9 x 3 0 5

--

--

--

--

--

--

144 9

1033

En 5D

0. 0 0.6 0.0 35 5 0 - 6 0.06 to to -to -- ma max 0. 1.0 45 a) x 3 0 5 0. 0 0.5 0.0 5 0 38 - 6 0.06 to to -to -- ma max 0. 0.9 48 a) x 3 0 5 0. 0 0.5 0.0 5 0 35 - 5 0.05 to to -to -- ma max 0. 0.9 45 a) x 3 0 5 0. 0 0.5 0.0 5 0 32 - 6 0.06 to to -to -- ma max 0. 0.9 48 a) x 3 0 5

--

--

15 to 20

10 229 144 to to 9 40 255

1026 1030 1033

0. Med. 4 Carb En 6 Bright 0 on m Steel ax

--

--

10 to 12 a)

15 to 20

--

--

1035

Medi 0. um 4 En 6K Carb Bright 0 on m Steel ax

--

--

12 to 15 a)

10

--

32/ 1

1035

En 6A

Medi 0. um 4 Carb Bright 0 on m Steel ax

--

--

10

--

--

32/ 1 46/ 1

1035

0. Semi 1 0. 0.7 Free0.1 Cold 0 2 0 30 Cutti - 0 to 0.06 Draw to 5 to -to En 7 -ng - 0.1 max 0. m 1.3 n 50 a) C/Ste 8 3 ax 0 el 0

--

--

12 to -15 a)

--

32/ 1 46/ 1

1115

Semi FreeC ut'g En 7A '15' Mild Steel

Cold Drawn or Normal -ised

0. 2 M ax %

1 35 0. 5 1 to 0.1 1.0 10 0.0 t 0 -45 0 0 to - to 6 % o -a) -- --- 1B ma 1.5 - 0. ma 2 2 18 x x% 0% 5 0 28 % b a) b) )

1115

En 8

'40' Carbo n Steel

Normal -ised

1 1 1 0. 0 1 5 0.0 0. 35 0.6 0.0 35 8 t 5 2 5 to - - 06 to 0 to - 6 % to to o to to 0.3 -- % -0. 1.0 - Ma 45 3 2 2 2 5 M 45 0% x c) 2 0 5 5 % ax % c) c c) 5 ) d) -- - ---- -- -- --

32 /1 46 /1

1040

'40' Supplied Carbo To En 8A n Comp'n Only Steel '40' Supplied Carbo To En 8B n Comp'n Steel Only '40' Supplied Carbo To En 8C n Comp'n Steel Only '40' Supplied Carbo To En 8D n Comp'n Only Steel En 8E '40' Supplied Carbo To

---

---

-----

n Steel

Comp'n Only ---

'40' Carbo Normal n -ised En 8K or Steel Spec H/Temp'd App '40' Carbo n En 8M Steel FreeC ut'g CD Norm H/Temp

---

En 8AM

'40' Carbo Supplied To n Steel Comp'n FreeC Only ut'g '40' Carbo Supplied n To Steel Comp'n FreeC Only ut'g '40' Carbo Supplied To n Steel Comp'n FreeC Only ut'g '40' Carbo Supplied n To Steel Comp'n FreeC Only ut'g '55' Norm Carbo CD n H/Temp'd Steel

---

En 8BM

---

En 8CM

---

En 8DM

---

En 9

---

'55' Norm Carbo CD En 9K n Hard'd & Steel Tempered '55' Carbo n % Nicke l Steel

---

En 10

Finally Heat Treated

---

En 11

'60' Carbo Hardened n and Chro Tempered mium Steel Norm 1% -alised Nicke Hardened l & Steel Tempered

---

En 12

---

1% Supplied Nicke To En 12A l Comp'n Steel Only 1% Supplied Nicke To En 12B l Comp'n Steel Only 1% Supplied Nicke To En 12C l Comp'n Steel Only Mang' ese Hardened Nicke En 13 & l Tempered Moly Steel En 14A Carbo n Norm'd Cold

---

---

---

---

---

Mang' Drawn ese & Steel Tempered Carbo n Mang' H/Rolled En ese 14A/1 Spec Norm'd App Steel Carbo Norm'd n Cold En 14B Mang' Drawn ese & Steel Tempered Carbo n Mang' Hardened En 15 ese and H/Te Tempered nsile Steel

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CATEGORY PLAIN CARBON STEEL

CARBON - Mn STEEL SEMI FREE CUTTING STEEL CHROME + MANGENSE STEEL CHROME + NICKEL STEEL

STEEL GRADES AISI / SAE DIN 1010 CK10 1015 CK15 1025 CK25 1035 CK35 1045 CK45 1055 CK55 1065 CK65 1541 28Mn6 40Mn4 1137, 1141 1541 16MnCr5 20MnCr5 1320 15CrNiM06

B.S. EN2A EN32B EN3B EN8, EN8A EN43B EN9 EN43D EN15 EN15AM EN352

JIS S10C S15C S25C S35C S45C S55C S58C SMn420H SMn433H SMn433H, SUM41 SCR415, SUM420 -

LOW CARBON CHROME + NICKEL MOLYSTEEL

8620 4320 5130 5140 4130 4135 4140 4340 SAE52100 SAE5160

CHROME STEEL

CHROME + MOLYSTEEL

EN353, EN354 SNCM420H 17CrNiM06 EN36C, EN 361, 362, 363 EN18A, 34Cr4 SCR435 EN18C 41Cr4 SCR440 25CrM04 EN19C SCM440H 34CrM04 SCM435, SCM420 42CrM04 100Cr6 EN24 EN31 EN45A SNCM431, SNCM439 SNCM447 SUJ1, SUJ2 etc SUP6, SUP9, SUP11

MEDIUM CARBON CHROME + NICKEL + POLYSTEEL BEARING STEEL

GRADES (As per Indian & Various International Standards) CARBON AND ALLOYSTEELS (Automobile Sectors) 1. Carbon Steel A. Forging B. Boilers C. Auto 2 Wheelers Cars Tractors D. Seamless Tube E. Exports Transmission 2. Low Alloys A. Forging B. Auto 2 Wheelers 4 Wheelers C. Seamless Tube 3. High Alloys A. Forging B. Auto Heavy Engineering SPRING STEELS BALL BEARING STEELS ANY OTHER SPECIAL GRADES OF STEEL AS PER CUSTOMER'S REQUIREMENTS PRIMARY ALUMINIUM SMELTERS CATHODE/ANODE STEEL BARS.

Steel grades are used to classify various steels by their composition and physical properties. These grades have been developed by a number of standards organizations. These are those standards organizations: SAE steel grades British Standards International Organization for Standardization ISO/TS 4949:2003 For alloys in general (including steel), unified numbering system (UNS) of ASTM International and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Japanese steel grades: JIS standard Germany steel grades: DIN standard China steel grades: GB standard Austrailian Standards French Standards