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Power Plant Operation - (GF-4)

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF POWER PLANT OPERATION Introduction Safety Role of operation engineers Unit operation Some general operating instructions Shift routine OPERATION OF BOILER & AUXILIARIES. Line-up Boiler feed water system. Line-up boiler water and steam system. Boiler filling. Draft system. Fuel firing system Boiler purging & lighting up Boiler loading Normal shut-down to cold Auxiliary steam system Routine checks Emergency operations OPERATION OF LMW TURBINE & AUXILIARIES. Line up. Starting of turbine from cold state Rolling instructions Loading the turbine Warm and Hot start Hot start Planned shut down Important instructions during turbine running 21 1-20 1 1 3 4 14 18 -75 21 22 23 26 28 40 45 55 64 67 69 77-106 77 81 84 88 91 95 99 100

3.9 3.10 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Note:

Do's and Don'ts during turbine running Emergencies in turbine and auxiliaries. OPERATION OF KWU TURBINE & AUXILIARIES Line-up Cold start up. Loading the turbine. Start up after 48 hours shut-down. Start up after 8 hours shut-down. Normal shut-down of turbine. Emergency shut-down. Do's & Don'ts for turbine operation. OPERATION OF GENERATOR & AUXILIARIES Lining up the system Pre-synchronising checks Steps for generator synchronising Routine operation and periodic checks Operational limits of 210 MW Generator Emergency operation

102 103 107-128 107 110 117 123 124 124 125 126 129-148 129 132 133 137 142 145

For schemes of various systems, whose operating procedures are described in this chapter, please refer "Thermal Schematic Diagrams (210 MW)" published by Power Engineers Training Society.




Operating procedures vary with unit size, design, system requirement etc. This volume describes operating procedure of thermal units, having BHEL Boiler and210 MW BHEL-LMW/500MW BHEL-KWU turbo-generator. However, certain steps or procedures are common with almost every type of boiler, turbine and generator. They, with the logics behind them, have been explained in the beginning of this volume before proceeding to the operating details of 210 MW/ 500 MW units. But this volume is meant for training only and hence should never be considered as on Operation Manual for 210 MW /500 MW units.



Operation Engineers should

Ensure safe working condition. Use himself and provide other necessary protective equipment to operating staff. Assign employees the jobs which they are capable of doing safely. Study and understand the safety procedures mentioned in operation manual and other relevant documents. Take immediate steps to correct any violation of safety rules. Investigate every accident and report to the concerned authorities. Be familiar with relevant safety regulations like Factories Act, Boilers Act etc. Ensure the provision of first aid box in the work place and should themselves know how to give first aid.

Permit to work system

Operation of thermal power plants involve dealing with vessels and pipes carrying Quids of high temperature and pressure, hazardous chemicals, electricity of different voltage levels, rotating equipments etc. Therefore, a well planned permit to work (PTW) system must be followed strictly to ensure safety during work on any equipment or system (A typical PTW form has been reproduced in page 2)

It must be noted that

All equipments, in service or available, are under the custody of operation section. Maintenance section has to request in writing the operation section for clearance to work on any equipment or system. Operation section must isolate the equipment and place proper tags so that the workmen are not exposed to any hazard.

A Typical PTW

Thermal Power Station BREAK DOWN INTIMATION SLIP Book No Unit No. I Permit No II III

....Thermal Power Station

Book No.
Expected time of return



Permit No. B. D. P.M. OPP.

Unit No.


Type of Maintenance


I hereby declare that all men and materials under my charge have cleared the site, equipment/ pipe line and men have been warned that it is no longer safe to work on the equipment specified , on this card. Nature of defect notice to

I hereby declare that the following equipments are isolated and safe to work. Caution notice have been affixed to all Controlling valves or Electrical switches. Name of the equipment Equipment Isolations Made Type of defect.






Equipment Stopped



Details of work done

Issued by Issued to Cancelled by

Vltc Section incharge


Time Date Name Designation Signature

Trial Run Carried





Time. )ate

Representative of Maintenance Name Designation Signature ...

Representative of Operation Name Signature of Controller

fame ignature of Controoler hift Charge Engineer ..

It is the responsibility of the operation section to deliver the equipment to the maintenance section in such a condition that no hazard is faced by the work men during work. Before issuing any PTW the operation engineer should ensure that the persons collecting/ requesting PTW are fully familiar with the job and understand the associated systems, if any. All PTWs must be issued in writing in prescribed forms and all copies of PTW must be signed both at receipt and at clearance. PTWs should be issued between specified hour only. Before receiving back any PTW, the operation engineer must ensure personally that the job has been carried out as schedule and there is no danger in charging the equipment/system.

Fire Protection
The operation engineer must be familiar that the fire prevention and protection systems provided in the plant. Should know his responsibility clearly if a fire breaks out. Should be able to lead the other operating staff in fire fighting operation till the fire brigade or others concerned take over.

House Keeping
Operating engineers should : Be Aware of the importance of cleanliness and proper house keeping inside the plant Ensure all floors, steps, stairs, passages are kept free from any obstruction and foreign substances likely to cause a person to slip. Ensure that no combustible or hazardous material is lying unattended in the plant. Ensure that the fire fighting equipment and emergency exits are conspicuously marked and are not obstructed by anything. Ensure that adequate lighting has been provided in the work areas.



Safety of equipment and personnel Reliability of supply, and Generation of energy at economic cost.

The operation engineer is meant to ensure :

His responsibility is to : Start up the equipment in a safe and systematic manner. Connect the unit to the transmission network in a proper manner so that the consumer can draw power. Watch the equipment to ensure its run under safe working conditions.

Adjust the different control inputs, like fuel, air, water makeup to match the electrical output of the unit. Maintain proper cooling of the different teeajing surfaces, by assuring lubrication and heat dissipation by cooling. Maintain salient levels in the different subsystems. Maintain the specified pressure and temperature and levels at various points. Normally, automatic devices are provided but the operation engineers should be able to intervene and modulate the control to maintain the parameters within the specified limits. Maintain proper chemical conditions and concentrations. Watch the mechanical behaviors of all moving equipment-noise, vibration, bearing lubrication, cooling, control valves and dampers etc.



Unit system is the trend of the day. An unit consists of a boiler, a turbine (single or multicylinder) and a generator coupled with turbine along with their auxiliaries and subsystems. The unit is, infact, a self contained power station in its own right, and on load producesthepoweito drive its own auxiliaries via its unit transformed. The main functions of unit operation are : i) ii) iii) Starting and loading On load activity Off loading and shut down.

Operating procedures vary from unit to unit due to differences in unit si?es, design criteria, auxiliary systems, manufacturer etc. Still there are some common basic steps which are to be followed systematically to ensure smooth operation of any unit.


Unit Start Up and Loading

STAGE-1 STAGE-2 STAGE-3 STAGE-4 STAGE-5 : : : : : Preparation (Pre-start checks, ensuring availability of fuel and other essential services) Pressure raising on boiler Putting turbine on barring gear Steam admission to turbine and running it to speed Synchronising and loading.


STAGE-1 Preparation for unit operation involve the following :

i) ii) iii)

Checking supplies Checking availability of services, Investigation of Permit to work (PTW) system.

The supplies include : Fuel (coal & Oil) Cooling water Service water DM water Chemicals for water treatment plant Lubricating oils and greases CO2, Hydrogen The Services include : Electric supply availability Water treatment plant availability Compressed air (or Instrument air) availability Ash and dust disposal system availability Fire Fighting system availability Coal Handling Plant availability.

Investigation of PTW involves :

Investigation of permits issued and returned Identifying the plants and systems disturbed during maintenance,this will enable the operation staff to exercise special care when recommissioning such items. STAGE-2

Pressure raising on boilers CAchJevf .?iri\iog steam |j*an>QW*? 35-5ovwPressure raising on boiler involves the following activities in boiler and turbine sides. Before engaging into the activities mentioned below it is necessary that pre-start inspection and check has been carried out in each equipment and system. For example : Sensors, gauges, recorders correctly set up for monitoring All boiler access and inspection doors shut C fosznWdet \x> be.'&uibad.) All soot blowers fully retracted Ash hoppers door shut, ash hopper seal full No obstruction to free boiler expansion 6>Precipitator inspected and ready Draft system (ID, FD fans, dampers) thoroughly checked Pre-start checks carried out for ID, FD fans, feed pumps, chemical dosing, pumps, mills, air heater etc. ^

Boiler Activities
Fill boiler and obtain drum level indication Charge boiler ring main. 2 comer burners" cracked on recirculation Start both APH (air pre-heaters) Start ID fan Start FD fan with 30% air flow Complete PURGING of the boiler Light the boiler with oil burners and establish circulation. (Recently, in some boilers arrangement has been made for direct firing of coal. In these boilers oil burners have been replaced by special coal-ignition burners) Regulate firing, drains and vents for metal temperature control and raise pressure IF HP/LP Bypass is available take it into system. This will ease reheater metal temperature control. At high pressure main p.f. burner may also taken into service. Monitor water/steam quality and act according to chemists'instructions

Turbine Activities
Establish CW flow though condenser. Fill hot well, start extraction pump Fill Peaerator Prime and start standby feed pump Prime HP feed system It may be noted that the some activities mentioned above can be performed simultaneously (parallel), some one after another. Fig. 1.1 shows the PERT Network of pressure raising activities. STAGE-3

Putting Turbine on Barring Gear

i) ii) iii) Turbine oil system Aux CW system Generator system

Turbine Oil System

Turbine main oil tank has enough oil and high and low level alarms are working Commission oil purifier, check oil flow through sight glasses Check pump automatic start-up sequence


Start jacking oil pump and AC flushing pump Start the exhauster fans

Auxiliaries CW System
Aux. CW pump run up Priming aux CW system (This system includes cooling water for pumps' bearings oils and other coolers)

Generator Systems
Commissioning seal oil system Run AC seal oil pump. Control seal oil pressure manually. Inspect seal oil return sight glasses. Excessive or very low oil flow shows seal malfunctioning. Wait till turbine is put on barring gear for some time allowing the seals to re-align. Gassing up Replace air with CO2 Admit Hj till 25% purity is obtained Raise gas pressure to designed value % Gassing up operation take long hours (5-6 hours). So may also be done after putting the turbine on barring gear Observe safety regulation strictly during Gassing /Degassing procedure. Commissioning stator water system Run stator water pump intermittently and vent after each run. The system thus is primed and pressurised Check leakages in the system and monitor pressure differential across stator inlet and outlet Monitor water quality (mainly conductivity) Putting turbine on barring gear Lubrication oil pressure should be satisfactory Jacking oil pressure should be satisfactory Engage barring gear with the main turbine shaft Start barring motor/Admit pressurised oil to gear turning mechanism Fig. 1.2 shows the PERT network for commissioning barring gear. STAGE-4

Steam admission to turbine and running it to rated speed.

Ensure that pre-start check has been carried out on :Turbine valves and lines for steam admission. Gland packing and vacuum system Exhausthood spray and flange heating sperm 8

Cooling water culvera check __ / ^ ) Am ..cooling system check Cooling witw pumps priming check i Aux. cootiiig pump chock Slan aux. cooling pump Pnme aux. cooling system Prime condenser; _,->

Stator coolani system check Seal oil system in service y^. Gas-up Pnme stator cooling system _^ Stator coolant system

Turt>m* lubricating oil system check pit punfier m service

OI pumps stan A auto operation check

^^-^urbme lub oil system in s

Turbo-alternator tuming gea/ 1-5


Hydrogen cooling system and stator cooling system can be commissioned with turbine on or off turning gear. The hydrogen cooling system must be commissioned prior to commissioning stator water system. Condenser priming is not mandatory prior to tuming gear operation. It is desirable in many cases in order to check deflection. Seal oil must be applied to seals for lubrication purposes prior to commissioning turning gear.

L.P. feed system Turbine protection devices


Testing of Steam Valves Emergency stop valves (ESV) of HP and IPT cylinders are to be open and their closure should be checked by hand trip. This is most important for protection of plant and personnel. Drainage regulation On many modern installations main and reheater drains are thermostatically controlled and close automatically when the desired temperature is achieved. In manual operation usually the drains are not shut until a substantial flow is passing through the associated pipe work. Substantial quantities of valuable water and heat will be lost due to prolonged drainage. General procedure is to close the leg drains when temperature in legs is 50C above saturatiqn temperature at that pressure. Note that reheat steam drain must be routed to condenser flash box if vacuum raising process has already been started. Vacuum raising and gland steam system Methods of applying gland steam and raising vacuum vary according to size, manufacturer etc. Sequences could be : Seal glands and then raise vacuum, or Raise vacuum to a certain value and then apply gland steam, or Apply gland steam and commission vacuum raising equipment simultaneously.

The turbine is to be warmed before it can be run up to rated speed. Warming is done by admitting steam in the turbine. The quality and quantity of steam depends on the size of the machine and on temperature difference between the machine metals and the steam. The mass of metal in turbine rotor is less that of stator (or cylinder as commonly called). So, when steam is admitted in the turbine the rotor absorbs heat faster and expands^faster than the cylinder. The difference in expansion between rotor and cylinder is termed as differential (expansion) and should be near zero to maintain axial clearance of blades and glands. To achieve this the turbine is heated slowly and uniformly. Apart from limiting differential expansion it also reduces chance of high stress and distortion. In order to heat the machine uniformly the temperature and quantity of steam must be raised uniformly at a rate suggested by the manufacturer. Also to reduce the amount of differential expansion and the stresses imposed on bolts and flanges, the flange heating system is provided. The methods of applying flange heating steam may vary to suit individual design. On some machines, flange heating is used as a precise form of control, more or less steam is being admitted to the flange as required. In others, manufacturers recommend that the flange heating steam Is to be applied at the commencement of the run-up and remains on until the turbine has been carrying a substantial load for some time. Rolling Of various methods of turbine rolling, the two common methods are as following : 10

Soaking method In this method, the machine is given a soaking time just before the critical speeds. In a typical example, the turbine is rolled to 5Q0 rpga. and held at this speed for 15 minutes. Again at 2000 rpm. the machine is held for 45 minuets and then at 3000 rpm. a soaking time of 30jninutes is given.

Constant acceleration method

The machine is rolled and speed is increased at a constant rate (i.e. constant acceleration) from 0 to 3000 rpm. The acceleration rate should be as per manufacturers guidance. With modern throttled governed turbines a combination of above two methods are also used. During the entire rolling period the turbovisory equipments should be carefully monitored. Turbovisory equipments are : 1 < Diffential expansion detector I, Eccentricity recorder j . Total expansion recorder /ft Tachometer r Vibration recorder. Overspeed Bolt Testing Before synchornising the unit it is necessary to prove that overspeed bolts operates, if : The bolts have been adjusted The u,nit was under prolonged shut down The legal period between testings has elapsed. The start up activities so far described is cold start-up. The other type of starts are warm start up and hot start up. This catagorisation depends on the metal temperature of HP Turbine casing in the regulating zone. Metal temperature above 350G . Hot start Warm start Cold start

Metal temperature between 150-350C Metal temperature below 150C

Warm or hot start of the machine is required when the unit is stopped for few hours. But with the advent of two shifting operations hot start up of the machine may become a routine affair. Most important thing in_vvarm/hot start up is to match the steamtemperature with that of H.P. cylinder before steam admission to turbine. Loading Loading of turbo-generator (TG) from zero to full load during cold start up involves many operations and keeping constant watch on the supervisory conditions like : / Differential expansions of all cylinders I. Axial shift



Metal temperature

4- Vibration $ Electrical parameters etc. The TG should be loaded as prescribed by the manufacturer, For a 210 MW set (LMW - Soviet design) it takes around 6 hours to attain full load. The major operations during loading are : f Charging LP and HP heaters <r" Commissioning of mills and cutting in PF burners as per requirement. Cutting off oil burners as per requirement

f Starting second BFP a" Operating the excitation system etc. Loading operation during Warm and Hot start up is more or less similar. Only the time required to attain full load is reduced to around 2^ hours. Fig 1.3 shows PERT Network for unit start-up and Loading of a 500 MW unit

1.4.2 On Load Activities

Basic activity of operating personnel when the machine is on load are : ^ <f~ mA^*P

Adjust or ensure (in case of automatic control) that various control Inputs, like fuel, air, water etc. match the need for generating required electrical output Maintain or ensure (in case of automatic control) that specified pressure, temperature, level, chemical composition, concentration etc. are maintained at various points .

*" Record various parameters regularly and study them <^ Attended and rectify various faults, trippings and emergencies.

1.4.3 Off Loading & Shut Down

Shut downs are primarily of two typesplanned and emergency. PLANNED SHUT DOWN In planned shut down load is reduced gradually (3MW per minute in case of 210 MW-LMW Unit) as per manufacturers instructions. Accordingly firing rate is reduced. Reduction of steam temperature and pressure is mainly decided by turbine limitations. With reduction of load gradually HP heaters, LP heaters, one BFP etc. are switched off. Control system is generally taken on "manual" mode. At a very low load (about 5 MW for 2._10 MW units) the unit is tripped through any protection. Turbine will start loosing its speed. At around ^0% of rated speed AC_oil pumps should cut inBarring gear willengage at 250/500 r.p.m..for 50Qi2Ifl_MW_KWXLsets while for 2l^Js^W_LJ^IW-unitsJLt has to be engaged just after the rotation of TG has come to stand still. Supply of steam for gland_sealing and ejectors are to be stopped. Turbine drains are to be opened when metal temperature goes belowj00C and_barring gearand lub oil pumps may also be stopped. ~ 12

After the unit has been tripped SH start/up vent is to_t>e_Qpengd.. Vents of SH and Drum is to be opened when pressure is very low (around 2 kg/cm2). Boiler must be purgedjor at 5 minutes with 30% air flow. Afterwards ID and FP fans may be stopped and dampers closed. Drum level should be maintained. If the shut down is for a longer period boiler may be emptied of water and proper action for preservation must be taken. EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN Emergency shut down can be of various types due to different reasons. A healthy unit may be instantenously out of the grid due to system trouble, or it may be due to some serious problem of some equipment of the unit itself. Depending on the nature of emergency the shutting down procedure of the unit is to be decided. This will be discussed in details in later chapters.



Operating engineer and his team have to be fully familar with the details of the system, the design limits, the sequence of operation, the interdependance of equipments, unsafe conditions of operation and seriousness of each malfunction. One must know WHY he is carrying out certain operations and its implication on the system as a whole; Following are some important operations and the logics behind them.


Air Vents

Air vents are provided to boiler, heating surfaces, heat exchangers, main steam lines etc. The proper operation of these vents is essential to prevent any emergency situation later on. For example, precaution must be taken to expel all the air from boiler tubes while boilerfilling. For this purpose all the air vents are kept open and boiler filling rate is kept slow. If the air pockets are left in the system then it can cause hindrance to fluid flow, and overheating of boiler tube causing their failure. Care also must be taken while depressurising. The air vents must be opened as the pressure approaches atmospheric air.


Charging and Pilling

The operations of charging and filling are much the same regardless of the application. The procedure normally followed is : Open the air vents Open the drain valves Start the pump (if the pumps is already is service, open the filling/charging line valve as follows): Crack open pumps discharge or filling valve until a satisfactory charging flow is obtained (this is usually detected by the sound of the flow through the partially opened valve) Check that the drain is free from any obstruction and close it Expell the air and close the air vent after a steady flow of water has been obtained from it While charging, care should be taken to avoid any water hammer The air must be expelled gradually and completely. To ensure this the rate of charging should be slow, this will also avoid overloading of fill pump. The slow charging is also essential to avoid thermal stress where there are temperature differences between the water and the item being filled.




Warming differs from charging is that the admission of warm steam results in the production of large quantities of condensate arising from the warming process. This condensate must be drained away before the lower portion of the pipe can be warmed. Precaution also must be taken to carry out this operation slowly to prevent large thermal stresses.


Drain Valve Operation

Due to the tremendous amount of damage which can be caused by maloperation, it is important to know the correct sequence in which drain valves must be operated. Almost invariably drain valves are fitted in pairs, two valves in series on the same drain line. The upstream valve (valve nearest to source of pressure) is isolating valve and its companion is the regulating valve. Drain lines should be warmed up judiciously, avoiding sudden admission of steam or hot fluids which could result in large temperature gradients in the drain lines and possible 'hammer' or thermal shock. To avoid this, charging up should be slow, throttling the flow of steam or fluid by restricting valve opening. This introduces another problem; as the passage of steam or fluid through the restricted valve opening creates a phenomenon known as 'wire, the valve becomes damaged. To prevent this, the valve operation sequence must be as follows : (Refer fig. 1.4).

SOURCE OF PRESSURE v Isolating valve

Regulating ""** Valve

To charge drain line : Crack open isolating valve. The small length of drain line between the two valves will be pressurised almost immediately. Wire drawing is virtually nil. Open isolating valve fully Crack open regulating valve. This valve is subject to wire drawing. Charge drain line slowly. Regulate as required using regulating valve only. To shut off drainage : Close the regulating valve. Wire drawing takes place as the regulating valve throttles the flow. Close the isolating valve. Flow is already zero. So on wire drawing takes place. Crack open the regulating valve to release the pressure trapped between the valves.


As mentioned, the damage due to wire drawing is inevitable but, at least, by using correct operation techniques we can restrict the damage to regulating valve only. This means that we can reasonably expect the isolating valve to give tight isolation when closed, thus preventing losses via passing drains.


Drum Metal Differential

The boiler drums are filled with water in the bottom and steam in the top due to which the cooling and heating rates vary between the top and the bottom. This results in temperature differences between the top and the bottom. Stress analyses show that the principal criterion for reliable rates of heating and cooling should be based on the relationship between the temperature differential through the drum wall and the temperature differential between the top and the bottom of the drum, both measured is same circumferential plan. Stress analysis also shows that the allowable temperature differentials are based on tensile strength, drum diameter, wall thickness, and pressure; therefore, each steam drum has its own allowable temperature differential curves, one set for cooling and one set for heating. To keep the thermal stress values within the limit, operation engineer must ensure that under all operating conditions actual temperature differential is below the allowable temperature differential. Normally the temperature differential should not exceed 50C (see fig. 1.5).

i .

70 Ho Jo " f . DRUM PRESSURE KO/Cm*/



Drum Gauge Glasses

Normally two gauge glasses (sometimes three) are1 provided to boiler drum. It must be ensured prior to light up that gauge glasses are available for service and are in charged condition - especially, during cold start. The remote indication is availablejibove JLO_kg/cm?_drum. pressure. During light up operation there are large drum level fluctuations. At about 5^ to 10 kg/cm 2 thejgauge gg l ^ j g g ^ ^ ^ id to t clear l off ffany; dirt d blocking b l k i the h port. As per IBFLboiler must riot be J side

operated with all the gauge glasses provided out of servipe.

1.5.7 SCAPH - Operation

While lighting up the boiler from cold state, since most of the furnace is relatively cool, large amount of heat is absorbed in the furnace. This reduces the temperature of flue gas leaving the boiler. The fuel oil which is fired for light up has 1.5 to 3.5% sulphur depending upon the quality. This sulphur forms SO 2 /S0 3 after combustion and combines with HjO to form highly corrosive sulfuric acid when temperature of flue gas is low during lighting up the boiler from cold state. Due to large percentage of sulphur in

oil, special care must be taken when oil is being fired. The sulfur ic acid thus formed corrodes air heater and sometimes economiser tubes also. To prevent this cold ^Lnd corrosion, heat transfer in air heater is minimized by raising the temperature of air going to air heater. This is done by putting Steam Coil Air Pre Heater (SCPAH) at thedischarge of F. D. Fan. Steam is passed through SCAPH when heavy oil is being fired which raises the temperature of airgoing to air heater and flue gas temperature in air heater remain high. When boiler gets sufficiently warm up, the flue gas temperature the exit of air heater starts increasing, then gradually steam supply to SCAPH is cut off keeping watch on air heater gas exit temperature.


Boiler Expansion Measurement

Normally for all utility boilers (i.e. power station boilers) the entire boiler, casing and insulation are suspended from top. The provision for free expansion for all parts of the boiler is important but in the case of furnace tubes it is vital. Since the boiler is suspended from the boiler house steel work, the expansion is mostly in downward direction. On a typical 500 MW boiler, the total expansion from cold to lull load can be as high as 340 mm. Expansions, in other directions are also significant of the order of 70 . to 80 mm. The boiler must be allowed to expand freely in all directions. Scales are provided at different elevations to measure the expansions. Readings must be taken and free expansion must be ensured. This is very important especially when the boiler is being taken into service after major shut down because it is likely that during shut down some temporary piping, scaffolingwere welded with the boiler structure.


Economiser Recirculation Valve

During pressure raising period, very little amount of water passes through the economiser and there is a danger of the economiser overheating, and in extreme cases, vapour locking. To prevent this condition the economiser recalculation valve is kept open during the pressure raising period. The recalculation in economiser takes place in similar manner as in water wall tubes. Once a steady flow is established to the drum, economies recirculation valve can be closed.

1.5.10 Barring Gear

When shutting down hot machine or before turbine start up, the turbine must be on barring gear. When a turbine is shut down, due to its heavy weight, high temperature and uneven cooling the turbine rotor will have permanent deformation (hogging/bending). So the main function of the barring gear is to promote even cooling of the rotors, and cylinders when turbine is shut down. The barring gear is engaged immediately after turbine becomes stand still or at 250/500 r.p.m. for 500/210 MW KWU sets. The barring speed is usually low.(3 to 4 r.p.iru) for LMW sets but high speed barring gear (about 200 r.p.m.) are provided in KWU_set&, The provisions of high speed barring gear enables to bring the turbine off barring gear with minimum steam admission while rolling the turbine.

1.5.11 Soaking of Turbine

Depending upon the type of the start up (cold, warm, hot), turbine is soaked at some particular rpm. for predetermined time interval. During soaking period turbine speed is held constant and steam parameters kept steady. Care should be taken to see that soaking speed is not near critical speed (Turbine manufacturer's recommendations to be followed). Soaking helps in bringing differential expansions within limits, also the operator gets sufficient time to check up other turbovisory parameters like turbine expansion, turbine vibrations, bearing drain oil temp, drain oil flow etc. After satisfying himself of healthiness of turbine he can proceed for further rolling of turbine. The soaking time is more for cold start compared to warm and hot start.

1.5.12 Critical Speed

When shaft or rotor, revolving in bearings, speeds up to where centrifugal force tending to whip 17

it sideways just balances the elastic stiffness tending to keep it straight, the slightest mechanical unbalance builds up a whirling motion whicrftnay be of destiUctive amplitude. The rotor then is revolving at critical speed. This phenomenon is due * the resonance frequency when the rotation speed corresponds to the natural frequencies of lateral vibration of the rotor. It is inadvisable to run any rotor at or near critical speed for any length of time regardless of perfection of balance. The operation engineer must be well aware of exact critical speeds of the turbine. Care must be taken NOT to hold the turbine speed nearby critical speed value and the speed rise should be kept uniform without any interruption.

1.5.13 Use of Common Auxiliaries

In a power station consisting of number of units, there are many auxiliaries common to all the units. So for the operation engineer it is essential to know how the adjacent units will be affected by his operation. For example, aux. steam supply, fuel oil supply, compressed air supply, cooling water supply, reserve power supply etc. are common for all the units. Now if a unit is to be started, before charging, say, aux. steam header from adjacent unit they should be informed about this so that in case of any problem it can be immediately sorted out without creating any emergency. If not given prior notice, the unit controller of adjacent unit will have less time to correct the fault developed and this can endanger the operation of his unit. To prevent such mishaps proper communication must be maintained between the units especially while using common auxiliaries.

1.5.14 Proper Use of Instruments

As the unit sizes are going on increasing, more and more operation is carried out from remote. For an operator in UCB, therefore it is very important to have correct knowledge of system parameters. For this purpose there are large numbers of meters, graphs and other instruments provided in UCB. For one parameter there could be more than one instruments available in UCB (e.g. drum level, steam temp, furnace draft etc.) The operator should see that the readings in such instruments are matching within reasonable limits. In case of any discrepancy^the operator should not take convenient correct reading for granted, instead should believe the worst reading as correct one and investigate the matter. If the result of such investigation proves that there is fault in the instrument, then it should be rectified from maintenance department immediately. For other parameters also (where only one instrument is provided in UCB for indication) in case of any deviation from standard value, the matter must be investigated and instrument fault must be attended.

1.6 1.6.1

SHIFT ROUTINE Major observations

Following are some major observations/checks to be made at intervals within each shift and at the commencement of each shift. MAIN A.C. CIRCUITS :

Note the position of: 220 KV/400 KV bus bar distribution, distribution of feeders, generator and station transformers etc. ii) iii) Auxiliary supply position. The position of interconnectors of H.T. and L.T. supply, Note whether the unit is on station or unit supply for HT and LT systems.

18 BOILER FEED SYSTEM Note the feed pumps on load and If the standby pumps are available. Observe whether they are selected to auto or manual. i) ii) iii) Drum level control - is it on auto or manual, Which feed line is charged and the position of standby feed line Note the availability and condition of standby condensate extraction pump. TANK LEVELS : i) Inspect all tank levels. C P **~v,, nemj&e&, Oe*\*S^uki>*-w*M-; ii) Check also the levels for F.O. tanks, D.M. make up water tanks etc. MILLS : Examine mill system : i) ii) iii) iv) Check which mill systems are on load and the position of standby milling systems. Note mill temperature and see whether controls are on auto or manual. Examine P.A. fan differentials and see whether they are on auto or manual. Check R.C. feeder controllers - see whether on auto or manual. COMBUSTION CONTROL i) ii) iii) Check whether furnace draft is on auto or manual, Check whether oxygen control is on auto or manual, Check furnace draft reading. TURBOGENERATOR Note : i) ii) iii) Which ejector/air pumps is in service and the position of standby pumps, Extraction pump on load and position of standby. Lub. Oil System. a) Auxiliary oil pump b) D.C. Emergency oil pump. c) Turning gear oil pump (if provided) iv) v) vi) ) ) ) Auto or manual selection.

Availability of A.C. and D.C. seal oil pump and auto manual selection, Stator water pump in service and position of standby pump. Generator transformer oil pump and intercooler water pump on load and whether standby available and auto/manual selection.

The reason why any plant Is not on auto should be determined. EFFICIENCY CONTROL Particular attention should be given to following items to monitor efficiency. 19

i) ii) ill) iv) v) i) ii) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)

Ensure that all parameters are at their specified values. Load in particular must not be lower than suggested by grid control. Examine milling and combustion. Ensure that they are in good order. Examine D.M. water consumption. Check total auxiliary power consumption. Check condenser vacuum. Check static condition for grit emission and smoke density. (Where these are continuously monitored and each fitted with alarms, this problem is eased). Check C.W. conditions to ensure that statutory limits are being observed. Check all bearing and glands for any of abnormality. Check oil level of bearing. See whether oil is clean; if in doubt change Inspect for fresh oil leaks. This will be easy if the plant is clean and almost impossible if it is dirty. Check transformer oil levels. Check fire fighting equipments. Check state of charge of station batteries (quick/trickle) Check state of lighting - particularly emergency lighting. Attend to steam, water and coal leaks wherever possible. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS: MISCELLANEOUS:


Shift Change Over :

It is observed that large number of mishaps in power station operation take place at the time of shift change over. This shift change over period is such that operator tends to take things easy after days work-out or he is busy in writing log book. So, there are chances that he may overlook certain operational parameter going"astray. Similarly when some operator takes over the charge, then~~he is busy~ln~reading tne logboolTof previous shift. He also may ovejjcok__thejaulty parameter. Under such_circumstances emergency situation can arise. It is important for operattorTstaff, therefore, to take care for avoiding such situation. The logging of each event hould be done immediately after it occurs with all the details including the remedial action taken. The logging should be systematic. At the time of charge hand over, the incoming operator should be briefed about various important operations in the shift, especially if any abnormal situations had been handled. The problem areas that can endanger unit working or can cause load reduction must be briefed to incoming operator. The status of standby auxiliaries must be mentioned in the logbook. This systematic approach taken while shift change over can, therefore, help in performing safely. At the same time during the shift also the operator has to be vigilant, so that the unit generation is kept at optimum level. Here, also, the systematic approach can be very productive.




Close R.H. Attemperat-ior control valves' inlet isolating valves

Close Boiler Feed Pumps discharge valves

Close Boiler feed pumps, discharge valves bypass valves

Open feed line vent valve

Close Main Feed Control valve Close B.F. Pumps discharge header drain valve

Close isolating valves Close Standby Feed Control valve and isolating valves

Close feed water isolating valves

Open feed line vent valve

Open feed line drain valves

Close bypass valves of Standby Control valves' isolating valves

Close H.P. heater F.W. inlet valve


Close Low Load Control valve and isolating valves

Close H.P. heaters F.W. outlet valve


Close bypass valves of isolating valves of low load control valves

Open H.P. heater F.W. bypass valve

Open F.W. line drain valves

Open Feed Control station drain valves

Close S.H. & R.H. Attemperator header isolating valve

% f

Close boiler filling isolating valves from Boiler Fill pumps

Close R.H. spray block isolating valve

Close Hydrazine sampling valves' before economiser.

Close S.H. Attemperator Control valves inlet isolating valves

Close economiser drain valve to water wall header


2.2 2.2.1


Close remote level indicator gauge glass drain valves Open saturated steam sampling branch line valves Check that Drum safety valves are in service condition.

Open economiser inlet valve & close its bypass valve

Open economiser recirculation valves
\ t

Close economiser drain valves

Open economiser valves outlet lines vent

2.2.3 W.W. Drain Header

Close filling valve from Boiler fill pumps Open S.H. headers & link vent valves Open startup vent valves isolating valves

Close economiser outlet lines drain valves



Open Drum vent valves


Open startup vent regulating valves Open impulse safety valve isolating valve Establish electric supply to impulse safety valve. Check that final S.H. header safety valves are in service Close M.S. shut-off valves & their bypass valves Open M.S. drain valves to before boiler Stop valves Close Scot Blower steam isolating valves Open isolating valves of local pressure gauges, pressure transducers etc.

Close C.B.D. Isolating valve


Close Phosphate dosing isolating valves

Check I.B.D. valves are closed.

Open Drum level gauge glass (Left and right) isolating valves quick closing valves.

Close Drum level gauge glass drain valves.

Open isolating valves for local pressure gauge, level & pressure transducers.

Open isolating valves for remote drum level-indicator.



Close the isolating valves tank level control standby valve


Open Reheater headers vent valves Open H.R.S. header motorised vent valves Close Sampling line valve Check that R.H. header safety valve are in service. Open R.H. desuperheater left & Right drain valves Close R.H. spray line drain valve & after spray control valves.

Close standby C.B.D. tank level Control valve


PutC B.D. level Control valve for auto mode of operation.

2.3 2.3.1

BOILER FILLING Boiler Filling Using B.F.P.

Fill the Deaerator with D.M. water using boiler fill pump Prepare Hydrazine & Ammonia solution in the L.P. Dozing mixing tank Take water in L.P. dosing metering tank Open Hydrazine dosing valve in B.F. suction line & run Hydrazine dosing pump. Turn on feed water heating steam & O heat up the feed water gradually to 80 to 85C. Maintain deaerator pr. just above atmospheric = 0.2 to kg/cm2 (g)


C.B.D. Tank

Open isolating valves of main C.B.D. control valve


Close C.B.D. control valve


Close isolating and control valves of standby line


Open C.B.D. tank atmospheric vent valve Check C.B.D. tank safety valve is in service Close C.B.D. tank vent valve to deaerator Open the isolating valves, Flash tank level control valve

Run Boiler Feed Pump on recirculation Continue to run B.F.P. on recirculation with Hydrazine amonia dosing


Check water condition before filling: should be pH 8.5 to 9.5 at 25C. Dissolved O2 0.005 ppm. Temperature 80 to 85C. Hydrazine in F.W. 0.05 to 0.1 ppm Check F.W. system is lined up

Ammonia content should be 0.2 to 0.3 ppm.

Close economiser vent valves when water starts coming through it Feed water lines charged

Refer feed water system line up

Open BFP discharge valve & close its bypass valve


Crack open BFP discharge valve bypass valve and slowly charge the FW lines Throttle vent valves, as the air is being released Close Feed line drain valves Close F.W. line drain valves after H.P. heater after flushing for few minutes. Close the feed line vent valves before H.P. heaters when water starts coming through vent

Maintain moderate feeding about 40 t/hr, for easy -\p purging ofair & gradual heating of drum & W.W. tubes.

Add make up to deaerator as the FST level goes down

Continuously monitor Drum metal drum level when temperature rise water is just visible * rate should be in gauge glass less than 110C/hr.

Close BFP discharge valve when drum level approaches - 120 reading
\ t

Ensure that BFP recirculation valve opens when flow reduces to 100 t/hr.

Boiler is filled up. Close the feed line vent valves before feed station when water starts coming through vent Open bypass valves of feed control valves isolating valves. Open low load feed control valves and charge the line upto economisef . Open isolating valves of low load control valves.



Boiler Filling Using Boiler Fill Pump

This method of filling shall be used when cold filling of Boiler is required viz. hydro-static testing.

Check Boiler steam and water system lined-up

Refer Boiler steam & water system line up

Close S.H. filling valve


Open economiser inlet valve & Close it bypass valve Close isolating valves & its bypass valves of Feed control valves down stream side.

Boiler filling solution is prepared in C.S.T. Open fill pump suction header inlet valve from C.S.T. Open Boiler fill pump 'A' or 'B' suction valves Close fill pump discharge valves

Check the level of water in C.S.T. Establish electric supply to Boiler fill
pump A & B

Start Boiler fill pump Prime Boiler fill pump


Open isolating valves of pump discharge control valve Open fill pump discharge bypass control valve isolating valves. Close fill pump discharge bypass control valve Close fill pump discharge control valve Close filling line isolating valve to second unit Close deaerator filling water isolating valve Open economiser filling water valve & after feed control station & before econmiser inlet valve

Open Boiler fill pump discharge valve when it attains full shut-off pressure, check pump discharge pressure.

Regulate filling rate by opening fill pump discharge control valve


Water is filled up through economiser When drum level comes to 'O' reading close the fill pump discharge control valve. Stop boiler fill pump.

Close the economiser filling line isolating valve Boiler is filled up.



Draft System consists of Induced Draft Fans (2/3 Nos.), Forced Draft Fans (2 Nos.), Air Preheaters (2 Nos.), Steam Coil Air Pre-heaters (2 Nos.), Ignitor Air Fans (2 Nos) and Scanner Air Fans (2 Nos). This system provided the air required for combustion of fuel and pushes out the combustion products and maintain a balanced draft in the furnace. This system also supplies air for cooling flame scanners.

2.4.1 ID Fan Operation

1. Starting Pennissives i) ii) ill) iv) 2. Regulating vane in minimum Outlet damper closed Lub oil pr. adequate Fan/Motor bearing temp, not high

Flow chart for typical ID Fan operation Check No PTWs are pending Flue gas path lined up Check ID Fan motor selected for low speed if two speed motor provided Ensure that all permissives are OK Check Air Heater in service Check that bottom ash hopper is filled up/filling line is open

Ensure cooling \vater supply


START ID FAN Open discharge Damper

Load the fan by IGV 3. Checks immediately after starting i) ii) ill) Discharge damper should open automatically after 0-60 seconds, Check ID Fan Motor current Other ID Fan suction and guide vanes should get close command and remains closed.

2.4.2 F.D. Fan Operation

1. Starting Permissives i) ii) iii) iv) v) ID Fan selected in combination is started, Control oil pr. is adequate (8 Kg/Cm?) Fan impeller blades are in minimum position Outer damper is closed Fan/Motor bearing temp, not high 26


Flow chart for typical FD Fan operation Check that concerned FD fan air path is lined up Ensure all permissives Check cooling water supply START FD Fan motor Increase Fan Loading by increasing impeller blade pitch Maintain 30% air flow and -20 mm WC furnace draft


Checks immediately after starting i) Discharge damper should open after 0-60 secondg. ii)

.Other FD Fan discharge damper and blade position should get close command and should remain closed. Check that furnace is not getting pressurised. Check A.P.H. interconnecting damper operation Interconnecting damper opens if one APH is on/ closes when both the APH's 'ON*.

2.4.3. Starting Air Preheater

Check that air preheater guide bearing circulating oil system is lined up Check that air preheater support bearing circulating oil system is lined up Check that air flow path is lined up Check that gas flow path is lined up Check that A.P.H. water washing top/ bottom valves are closed Check that station air supply is available for the air motor Establish electric supply to A.P.H. motor. Take out the charging push button of electric motor. Start A.P.H. Electric motor.

Check operation of air motor



Trip electric motor-air motor should start

Run air preheater electric motor, keep air motor on xAuto' standby

Check that support bearing oil pump starts when oil temperature exceeds 30C.

Check that pump develops correct pressure

Check that guide bearing oil pump starts when oil temperature exceeds 30C.

Open cooler inlet outlet water valve/ maintain oil temp, at about 40C.


Draft System Starting

Start ignitor air Fan Start Scanner air Fan


Line up ID Fans/Motors lub oil system

I Line up FD Fans/Motors lub oil

system Line up APHs guide bearing and support bearing oil circulating system

Light up and load boiler upto 50 MW


Start Second ID Fan

Line up flue gas path Line up secondary air path

Equalise Loading on Both ID Fans


Start*second FD Fan Equalise loading on FD Fans

Take both APH in service Stablise furnace draft Start one ID Fan Put furnace draft control on Auto Start one FD Fan



Fuel firing system comprises of three types of fuels and their associated systems for fuel preparation, handling and firing. They are : i) ii) iii) Light Oil (L.O) system for warm up (W/U), Heavy oil (H.O/LSHS/HPS) system for pressurising, and Pulverised fuel (PF) (i.e. Coal) firing system for taking on load.

In 210 MW BHEL boilers, fuel firing system is operated through a system called FSSS (Furnace Safeguard Supervisory system). Boilers of other makes and ratings also, now-a-days, have such automatic firing control mechanism with different trade names likes BMS (Burner Management System) etc. As FSSS controls the operation of all fuel firing systemsin an integrated fashion, the milling system, H.O. W.U oil system etc. are not described separately. Recently BHEL has also developed DIPC (Direct ignition of pulverised coal) system where pulverised coal is directly fired by special ignitors. Both L.O. and H.O. systems are dispensed with; DIPC helps in saving precious fuel oil.


Introduction To FSSS

F.S.S.S. facilitates remote manual /automatic control of fuel firing equipment through mechanised systems and suitable interlocks /logics. It is designed to ensure the execution of a safe, orderly

operating sequence In start up and shut down of fuel firing equipment and to prevent errors of omission of commission in following such a safe operating procedure. The system provides protection against malfunction of fuel firing equipment and associated air system. The safety features of system are designed for protection in most common emergency situations. F.S.S.S. comprises of control, indications and logics etc. to carry out the following : To start complete furnace purge when all technological conditions are fulfilled. To start, stop and monitor ignitors. H.O. guns/w.u. oil guns starting stopping and supervision. Pulverizer and feeder starting, stopping and supervision. Flame scanner intelligence and checking. Furnace flame monitoring and overall furnace flarne failure protection. To trip out all boiler fires when boiler safety is threatened. To start/stop Ignitor & Scanner air fans. To effect secondary air damper control with indication of auxiliary and fuel air damper modulation /close. To provide boiler trip signal to other equipment such as P.A. fan, turbine, generator etc. F.S.S.S. Equipment can be grouped under three heads : 1. The operating and indicating console insert on operator's desk : This consists of all switches for initiating controls and also indications of status of all fuel firing equipment and their auxiliaries. 2. Relay and Logic Cabinets : These cabinets of relays, timers, programmers, circuit breakers for AC and DC control suppliers flame scanner unit, no coal flow units etc. They control the process logic. 3. Field Equipment : Field equipments are those which help in actual remote" operation of fuel firing equipment and those which provide the status to the operating console and relay logic cabinet. Field equipments include : Ignitor/W.U. oil/H.O. Trip valves, H.O./W.U. Oil, atomising steam/air, scavenging steam/air nozzle valves (Hydrometer type), gun advance/retract mechanisms, oil gun assembly ignitors and its cabinets, flame scanner and ignitor air fans, pressure switches, temperature switches, flow switches and limit switches. Mill discharge valves, hot air gates, sealing air valves, tramp iron gate etc.

2.5.2 Furnace Purge

Furnace purge is required after a boiler tripout, before relighting the boiler to expel all unburnt fuel particles/gases, vapours, etc. from the boiler so that possibilities of explosion are avoided when boiler is lighted up. 29

Boiler Purging cycle is of 5-*rtlnute$iwith air flow being more than 30%. Purging can be started by pressing 'Purge Start' push button provided purge ready conditions are satisfied and 'PURGE READY signal will come. This is an indication that boiler M.F.R. is reset and now boiler can be lighted up. If any time during purging any of the "Purge Ready" conditions are violated, Purge Ready signal disappears and purging cycle is to be started once again after establishing "Purge Ready" conditions. Once purging of boiler is completed boiler will trip if any of 'Boiler trip' conditions occur. Purge Ready Conditions : 220 VD.C. & 110 VA.C. supply to F.S.S.S. panglgstablished. Boiler drum level normal. Atleast one I.D. and one F.D. fan running. Ignitor Trip valve proven closed. Warm-up oil Trip valve proven closed. Heavy oil Trip valve proven closed. All ignitor oil/air valves proven closed. All W.U. & H.O. nozzle Hydrometer valves proven closed All pulverizers are off. All R.C. feeders are off. All mills hot air gates closed and cold air dampers in minimum open position, (Less than 55 degrees). All auxiliary secondary air dampers modulating to maintain adequate windbox to furnace differential pressure. All elevation flame scanners show "no flame". No boiler trip command persisting.

2.5.3 Starting the Ignitors

2.S.3.1 IGNITOR TRIP VALVE INTERLOCK : i) Ignitor trip valve will open when Trip valve 'Open'. P.B. is pressed provided all the following conditions are fulfilled. a) b) c) d) e) ii) Ignitor oil supply pressure is adequate (more than 13 kg/cm2). All Ignitor valves are closed. No boiler trip command is persisting. Ignitor oil pressure is more than 9 kg/cm2. When Ignitor trip valve is fully open, 'Open' signal comes on F.S.S.S. Console,

Ignitor trip valve will close under following conditions :

a) "Close" Push button is pressed from console. or b) Ignitor oil header pressure falls below 9 kg/cm2 for more than 2 sees, and any Ignitor valve not closed. " ~



Boiler trip command present. When Ignitor trip valve is closed, Valve 'Closed' green signal comes on. IGNITOR STARTING There is no separate Ignitor start switch provided for any of the elevation AB, CD or EF ignitors. Pressing any one pair (L.O. or H.O.) of oil gun 'START' push button gives a starting impulse to all four ignitors of that elevation. The spark is applied for 10 seconds only for every pressing of ignitor start push button. IGNITOR STOPPING All four ignitors of each elevation are provided with one "STOP" Push button for taking out ignitors from service. Also ignitors get stop command at the end of stop time trial of H.V. elevation or W.U oil elevation. When individual ignitor gets stop command its motorised oil/air valve closes thus taking out ignitor from service.

2.5.4 Warm Up Oil Firing

Light (Warm up) oil can be fired only at AB elevation after selecting L.O. through L.O. Selector Push Button. Oil guns have been programmed to light up in pair basis diametrically opposite (1,3 and 2,4) corners from the pairs. Each pair has got a separate start/stop push button. Warm up oil guns can be lighted up, only if atleast 3 out of 4 ignitors at corresponding elevations are in service. The warm up oil guns are not self sustaining hence, ignitors corresponding to W.U. oil gun in service must remain on as long as W.U. oil gun is in service. There is no flame monitoring for warm up except making sure that they burn with the help of ignitors. LIGHT OIL TRIP VALVE INTERLOCKS

Light oU trip valve can be opened from F.S.S.S. Console 'Open' P.B. provided : i) ii) iii) Boiler Trip Circuit (M.F.R.) is reset, and, All the light oil nozzle valves (Hydrometer) are proven closed and, Light oil supply pressure adequate.

When L.O. Trip valve opens "Valve Open" red light comes on. Light Oil Trip Value will close if: i) ii) iii) iv) i) ii) iii) Light oil header pressure is low (2 sees, time delay) (less than 1.5 kg/cm2). Light oil to air differential pressure is low 0:3 kg/cm2 for more than 2 seconds. Boiler trip occurs. Valve 'Close' Push button on F.S.S.S. Console is depressed. D.C. Power, available. Ignitor Trip valve proven fully open. Light oil Trip valve proven fully open.

Light Oil elevation start permlssives

iv) Air flow adjusted between 30% to 40% of full load air flow (This condition is not required once any feeder is proven on). 31

v) vi)

Fuel air nozzle till placed in horizontal position (This condition is not required once any feeder is proven on). No boiler trip command persists.

Pennissives for each Light Oil Comer to be Satisfied for starting that corner gun. i) ii) ill) iv) The light oil gun is inserted in guide pipe and coupled, The local maintenance control switch is placed in remote. The light oil burner manual isolation valve is open, The light oil atomizing air manual isolation valve is open. LIGHT OIL GUN STARTING SEQUENCE & MONITORING When light oil pair Start push button is depressed pair of light oil guns are placed in service in following sequence, (provided L.O. elevation start permissives and corner start permissives are satisfied). In first 10 seconds of pair start time trial the assocjated_elevation ignitors are started. When ignitors are proven 'ignitor on' signal comes on. If the flame is noTpfovedrspark will cease and Jamesbury Valve will close after 10 seconds. ~~ , r W<SJ ii) When minimum of 3 out of 4 ignitors at the associated elevation are proven on at the end ^ of 10 seconds, a start command is sent to Light oil Corner 1 pair (When pair 1 aryl 3 is started) or Corner 2 (When pair 2 and 4 is started). ill) Twenty five seconds later a start command is sent to corner 3 (When pair 1 and 3 is started) or corner 4 (when pair 2 and 4 is started). When an individual light oil corner receives a start command and if its associated ignitor is proven on, it is placed in service in following sequence. i) ii) iii) Light oil gun advances to firing position "Gun Retracted" light goes out. When the gun is fully advanced the atomizing air nozzle valve opens. When the atomizing air valve is proven fully open the light oil nozzle valve opens placing light oil gun in service. i)

Note : If the light oil gun fails to advance or the atomizing air or light oil valve fails to open, check : a) b) c) Light oil start pennissives have remained satisfied. The associated ignitor is proven on. Power is available. UNSUCCESSFUL CORNER START At the end of 90 seconds of light oil pair start time trial a light oil corner trip is initiated for any corner where, a) b) Light oil nozzle valve is not proven fully open by 'Red' Light. Associated ignitor is not proven on.


At the end of 90 seconds of light off pair start time tried of the second pair of light oil guns at the elevation a minimum of 3 of the 4 light oil nozzle valves at that elevation must be proven open, or an "Unsuccessful Elevation Start" alarm is annunciated and all the light all guns at that elevation are shut down in an orderly fashion. WARM-UP OIL ELEVATION SHUT DOWN

Warm-up oil elevation is removed from service on a pair basis. Depressing the associated elevation pair stop Push button will initiate a 375 seconds stop time trial to shut down and scavenge the associated pair of L.O. guns as follows :1) During first ten seconds of stop time trial associated elevation of ignitors is started. (Ignitors associated with L.O. gun not in service will only acknowledge the start signal since the ignitors are already on at the L.O. gun in service).

2) At the end of ignitor start time a stop command Is sent to corner 1 (when pair 1 & 3 is stopped or corner 2 (when pair 2 & 4 is stopped). 3) Fifteen seconds later, a stop command is sent to Corner 3 (When pair 1 and 3 is stopped) or Corner 2 (when pair 2 and 4 is stopped). A Scavenge command for that corner is initiated and the W.U. oil nozzle valve closes. The atomizing air valve remains open. When the W.U. oil nozzle valve is proven fully closed and if the associated ignitor is proven on and the atomizing air valve has remained open, the Scavenge valve opens. When the Scavenge valve is proven fully open, a five minutes scavenge period is started. At the end of 5 minutes scavenge period, the atomizing air and Scavenge valves close. When both the valves are proven fully closed the W.U. oil gun is retracted from firing position.

When an individual warm up oil gun, that is in service, receives a stop command. a) b) c) d) e)

Six minutes after remaining (2nd) pair of W.U. oil guns stop is initiated, a back up trip signal is established which will remove the associated elevation of ignitors from service and initiate a close signal to all of the W.U. oil nozzle valves, all of the atomizing air valves and all of the scavenge valves at the elevation to ensure that they are closed. Fifteen seconds later on "Unsuccessful Elevation Shut Down" alarm is annunciated if: a) b) Any W.U. oil gun is not retracted from firing position at that elevation. Any W.U. oil nozzle valve is not closed at the elevation. SCAVENGING OF W.U. OIL GUN

A warm up oil gun that is in service can be scavenged individually by placing its local maintenance switch to the "SCAVENGE" position. The W.U. oil gun will be shut down, scavenged, and retracted as described above. The individual W.U. oil gun can only be restarted by initiating another pair start sequence. Scavenging using local maintenance switch is possible only if ignitor associated to the gun is proven on.


Scavenging will not take place during conditions which cause boiler trip or corner trip. In the event of ignitor trip out during scavenge (using local maintenance switch or during elevation pair shut down operation) cycle; scavenge and atomizing air valves will close interrupting the scavenge.

2.5.5 Heavy Oil Firing

Heavy oil can be fired at CD and EF elevation. It can be fired at AB elevation also provided H.O. is selected through H.O. Selector. Push button (ICRL 170 AB is on). Heavy oil gun have also been programmed to light up on pair basis, diametrically opposite corners (1,3 and 2,4) from the pair. Each pair is provided with separate start/stop push button. H.O. guns can be lighted up only if atleast 3 out of 4 ignitors at corresponding elevations are in service. H.O. guns are self sustaining only when elevation firing rate is above 30% Hence, ignitors corresponding to H.O. guns in service can only be removed when H.O. burner header pressure is above 3 kg/cm 2 (g) and at least three H.O. guns at the elevation are in service. Heavy oil gun flame is monitored by flame sensing scanners only when the following conditions are fulfilled : i) ii) iii) H.O. firing rate (elevation load) is above 30%. 3 or more H.O. guns at the elevation are in service, Ignition energy is removed. H.O. TRIP VALVE INTERLOCKS : H.O. trip valve can be opened by pressing 'OPEN' push button provided. a) Boiler Trip circuit (MFR) is reset, and b) All H.O. Nozzle valves of AB, CD, EF oil guns are proven fully closed, and c) H.O. supply pressure is adequate, (more than 7 kg/cm2) d) H.O. pressure not low (less than 1.5 kg/cm2 for more than 2 sees) e) When trip valve is full open valve 'Open' red light comes on. (ICRL 275 and 2 CRL 275 are on). H.O. Trip valve closes under any of the following conditions : a) b) c) d) H.O. header pressure is low for more than 2 seconds or Steam or heavy oil differential pressure is low (less than 0.3 kg/cm2) for more than 2 seconds and provided no guns are being started or stopped, or A boiler trip occurs, or H.O. trip valve 'Close, valve 'Closed' green light comes on H.O. RECIRCULATION VALVE INTERLOCK Opening : H.O. recirculation valve can be opened following a boiler trip and before starting furnace purge cycle by pressing valve 'Open' push button. Valve opens provided : a) b) All the H.O. nozzle valves (hydromoter) are fully closed, and H.O. trip valve is closed. 34

Closing H.O. decirculation valve closes automatically when.any one of the H.O. nozzle (hydromotor) is not closed. HEAVY OIL ELEVATION START PERMISSIVES a) b) c) d) e) f) g) D.C. Power available. Ignitor Trip valve proven fully open. No boiler trip command persists. H.O. Trip valve proven fully open. Heavy oil temperature above 100C. Air flow adjusted between 30% and 40% of full load air flow. Burner tilt placed in horizontal position. * These condition are no longer required once any one feeder is proven on. H.O. CORNER START PERMISSIVES At each main oil corner to be placed in service following conditions should be satisfied. a) b) c) d) The main oil gun is inserted in guide pipe and coupled. The local maintenance control switch is placed in remote. H.O. manual isolation valve is open. Atomizing steam manual isolation valve is open. H.O. GUN STARTING SEQUENCE Same as that for L.O. guns except. a) b) H.O. is to be put in place of L.O. Atomizing steam is to be put in place of Atomizing air H.O. elevation ignitors can be removed by pressing ignitor stop push button when : 3 out of 4 H.O.nozzle valves are proven open, and Elevation Loading is above 30%. Minimum 2 out of 4 flame scanners serving that elevation prove flame on. H.O. ELEVATION SHUT DOWN : Same as that of L.O. elevation shut down except Ignitors associated with H.O. giins in service may or may not be on hence when stop command is given in first 10 seconds elevation ignitors in service receive start command; H.O. is to be considered in place of L.O. Steam is to be considered in place of air. SCAVENGING OF H.O. GUN : Same as "Scavenging of L.O. gun".



Prior to starting any pulverizer, ignition energy must be adequate to support coal firing. This is accomplished as follows :Pulverizer. A i) A minimum of 3 out of 4 Elevation AB light oil (or heavy oil) nozzle vales proven open, or 11) Pulverizer B i) ii) Pulverizer C i) ii)

Boiler loading is greater than 30% and Pulverizer B is in service at greater than 50% loading. A minimum of 3 out of the 4 Elevation AB light oil ( or heavy oil) nozzle valves .prove open, or Boiler loading is greater than 30% and Pulverizer A or C is in service at greater than 50% loading. A minimum of 3 out of the 4 Elevation CD heavy oil nozzle valves proven open, or Boiler loading is greater than 30% and pulverizer B or D is in service at greater than 50% loading, or A minimum of 3 out of the 4 Elevation AB light oil (or heavy oil Nozzle valves proven open and pulverizer B is in service at greater than 50% loading. A minimum of 3 out of the 34 election CD heavy oil nozzle valves proven open, or Boiler loading is greater than 30% and Pulverizer C or E in service at greater than 50% loading.

Pulverizer D i) ii)

Pulverizer E i) A minimum or 3 out of-the. 4 Elevation EF heavy oil nozzle valves proven open, or

Boiler loading is greater than 30% and Pulverizer D or F in service at greater than 50% loading, or A minimum of 3 out of the 4 Elevation CD heavy oil nozzle valves proven open and pulverizer D is in service at greater than 50% loading. A minimum of 3 out of the 4 Elevation EF heavy oil nozzle valves proven open, or Boiler loading is greater than 30% and Pulverizer E is in service at greater than 50% loading.


Pulverizer F i) ii) PULVERIZER READY :

Prior to starting a pulverizer, a Pulverizer Ready condition for the respective pulverizer must be established by the following conditions being satisfied :

D.C. Power available.


ii) ill) Note :

Fuel and air nozzle tilts placed in the HORIZONTAL POSITION (see Note below). Air flow adjusted between 30 and 40% of full load air flow (see Note below).

Conditions (ii) and (iii) above are no longer required to satisfy a Pulverizer Ready condition when any feeder is proven on. However, the operator is still restricted to a minimum air flow above 30% of minimum continuous rating (M.C.R.). iv) At the respective pulverizer, all of the following conditions are to be satisfied. Pulverizer discharge valve open. (CRL 263 A is on) Seal air valve open. Cold air shut-off gate open. Pulverizer outlet temperature less than 90C. Feeder inlet gate open (operator check only). Tramp iron hopper valve open. Primary air adequate

When all of the above conditions are satisfied for the respective pulverizer, its associated "Pulverizer Ready" (white) light comes on. (CR 48, A,B,C,D,E,F are on). PULVERIZER START :

When both "Ignition Energy Available" and "Pulverizer Ready" condition are established for the respective pulverizer, it may be placed in service as follows : i) ii) Start the pulverizer by depressing its associated push button. When the pulverizer is proven on (ICRL 53, A,B,C,D,E,F are on) as indicated by its (red) start ("Pulverizer On") light being on, open the hot air gate by depressing its open push button and allow the pulverizer to come up to temperature. When the pulverizer is upto temperature (approx.) 60-70C, start the feeder by depressing its associated START push button (associated elevation of fuel air dampers to be proven closed for feeder starting).


Coal flow must be proven either by the coal flow detector or satisfactory pulverizer amps within five seconds after the feeder is started. Fifteen seconds after the feeder is started, the feeder output is released to automatic control, and the fuel air dampers are opened to modulate as a function of feeder speed. When a minimum of two feeders are on for fifty seconds the feeder speed is released to automatic control, and the fuel air damper are opened to modulate as a function of feeder speed. When a minimum of two feeders are established at greater than 50% loading, the associated elevation of oil guns may be shut down provided the feeder has been on for a minimum of three minutes. PULVERIZERS IN SERVICE : i) Either of the following conditions will run the feeder speed to minimum until the initiating condition is corrected, at which time the feeder will be returned to control.

a. b.

Pulverizer bowl differential pressure high. Pulverizer amps above maximum set point.

ii) Loss of coal flow and low pulverizer power as confirmed by low pulverizer amps will trip the feeder, open the cold air damper, and close the hot air gate. The operator should take appropriate corrective action, then reopen the hot air gas and restart the feeder. ill) A high pulverizer outlet temperature (above 90C) will open the cold air damper and close the hot air gate. iv) The following conditions will initiate a pulverizer trip command : a. b. Pulverizer discharge valve not open. Loss of unit D.C. power (for more than 2 seconds).

c. Pulverizer ignition permit is not satisfied wh&i support ignition is required and less than 3 out of the 4 associated oil guns in service. d. e. Boiler trip Primary air trip (see item v below).

(v) When both primary fans stop the primary air duct pressure falls below the low sejt point (for more than 5 seconds), all pulverizer in service receive a stop command. When the primary air duct pressure falls below the very low set point all pulverizers in service are tripped instantaneously. When only one primary air fan stops and four or more pulverizers are in service, a trip command will be given starting from the lowest pulverizer in service until the number of pulverizer remaining in service is reduced to three. PULVERIZER SHUTDOWN

Shut down of pulverizer is accomplished as follows : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) If not in service, start the oil elevation associated with the pulverizer to be shut down. Reduce the feeder speed to.minimum. Close the hot air gate by depressing the CLOSE push button. When the pulverizer outlet temperature is reduced to approximately 60C shut down the feeder by depressing its stop push button. Allow the pulverizer to run for approximately two minutes to ensure that it is completely empty of coal, then shut down the pulverizer by depressing its STOP push button. The associated oil elevation should be shut once furnace condition have stabilized.

Whenever pulverizer or feeder is shut down by the operator there will be steady indication of the respective off lamps at the console insert. Whenever a pulverizer or feeder is tripped a flickering indication will come in the respective "off lamp at the console.


Loss of 220V D.C. to F.S.S.S. Less than fire ball load and loss of A.C. on any elevation in service Flame failure trip Loss of fuel trip When at least one pair of ID & FD fan is not in service When Boiler load is less than 30% air flow falls below 30% Furnace Pressure High/Low (+ 200 mm) Drum level High/Low (+ 200 mm) Turbine trip Both Boiler trip buttons on console pressed Note : Loss of fuel trip occurs only when 3 ignitors have been proven and if one of the proven ignitor goes off or if trip valves on warm up heavy oil and ignitor closes or if any valve is open and its corresponding guns (minimum 3) are not in service, when both pairs are pressed. This condition is applicable when boiler is on oil firing without any coal feeders. A Fire Ball condition is established as follows for the main fuel indicated : a) Coal firing - any feeder established. b) Main oil firing - a minimum of three of the four heavy oil nozzle valves proven open at an elevation (AB or CD or EF) and the elevation loading is above 30%. When the ignition energy is removed the established FIRE BALL will be monitored by the optical flame scanners. A unit flame failure signal is initiated when there is a NO FIREBALL condition at all elevations and either any feeder is not working at any elevation (AB or CD or EF) where less than three of the four associated ignitors are proven on. An elevation NO FIREBALL condition is as described below for the respective elevations : Elevation A & B : i. Elevation AB flame scanner count shows no flame and any of the following : a) Loss of elevation (AB) A.C. power for more than 2 seconds, or b) Light oil is selected at elevation AB and less than 3 of the four elevation AB light oil nozzle valves are proven open, or c) ii) Heavy oil is selected at Elevation AB arid less than 3 of the 4 elevation AB ignitors are proven on. Loss or elevation (AB) A.C. power for more than 2 seconds, or Less than 3 of the 4 elevation AB heavy oil nozzle valves proven open. 39 FIRE BALL CONDITION :

Both feeder A and B are off either : a) b)

c) Elevation AB flame scanner count shows no flame and less than 3 of the 4 elevation AB igniters are proven on. Elevation C & D Same as above except delete condition AB and substitute elevation designation E and F for A and B respectively. Elevation E & F Same as that for elevation A & B except delete condition AB substitute elevation designation C & D for A & B respectively.



Start one F.D. fan


Refer F.D. fan

starting instruction Maintain 30% Air flow and 5 to 10 mm WCL furnace-.draft Put secondary air damper control system on "Auto" & check that auxiliary air dampers are modulating to maintain 35-40 mm WC windbox to furnace differential pressure.

Feed pump is started & Boiler feed line charged Boiler steam & water system is lined up Boiler is filled up to working level of gauge glass Refer Boiler water steam system line up. Refer Boiler filling instruction.

Air flow shall not be more than 40%

Check fuel air dampers are modulating with aux. air dampers.

B.F.P. run on recirculation Boiler air & flue gas system is lined up.

Refer Drafts system

Start E.P. rapping mechanism

Start Air Preheaters A&B Take lube oil system of I.D. fans in service Take oil systems of F.D. fans in service Start one I.D. fan. Refer F.D. fan starting instruction Refer I.D. fan starting instruction

Check that E.P. insulator heaters were switched on 24 hrs before boiler light up.

Start Scanner Air Fan A/B Start Ignitor Air Fan A/B Select Burner tilt control on manual, keep burner tilt in horizontal position Ensure that warm up oil^system is in service, L.O. system is charged



A.C. & D.C. power supply is established to F.S.S.S. related equipment Drum level is normal


iii) At least one I.D. fan one F.D. fan in service iv) Minimum of 30% air flow is established Ignitor.trip valve is proven closed. The light oil trip valve is proven closed. Purge start permissive

v) vi)

vii) The heavy oil trip valve is proven closed. viii) All the ignitor valves in all elevations are proven closed. ix) All the wajrmup and heavy oil nozzle valves at all elevations are proven closed. All feeders are off.


xiii) All hot air shut off gates are fully closed. xiv) All cold air dampers are less than 5 open. All elevation flame scanners show no flame. No boiler trip command is present




Check that atomizing air lines for ignitors & W.U. Oil guns are line up and charged. Make ready each W.U. oil corner individually Start furnace purge by pressing Start Purge After 5 minutes check that purge complete light comes on Open igniter trip valve from F.S.S.S. console insert OpenPB Purge cycle is of 5 minutes

Select light oil firing from FSSS insert control PB for AB elevation. Establish light oil elevation permit Check : i) D.C. Power available. ii) L.O. trip valve proven fully open.

This indicates that M.F.T. relay is reset.

Air flow between 30% &.4Q%

Igniter trip valves will open if i) M.F.T. relays is reset. ii) Igniter valves are proven closed. Igniter oil supply pressure is adequate (14 kg/cm2) ^

iv) Burner tilt placed in horizontal position. v) No Boiler trip command is persisting. vi) Light oil gun is inserted in guide pipe & coupled. vii) Local maintenance control switch is placed on "Remote" viii) Light oil Manual isolating valve open ix) L.O. Atomising air manual isolating valve are open. Start AB elevation are pair of L.O. guns by depressing pair start PB on FSSS insert console.


Open light oil trip valve from FSSS console insert Open PB

L.O. Trip valve opens if 1) M.F. trip relay is reset


Light oil nozzle valves are proven closed. Light oil pressure is adequate (5 kg/cm2).


Refer L.O. elevation start up.

Check associated AB elevation at least 3 out of 4 lighters are-proven on


Keep C.B.D. control valves fully open during warm up

Open C.B.D. Isolating valve full

Check that selected pair of L.O. guns are proven on in time sequence.


Maintain warm up oil pressure 4.5 kg/cm2 through pressure regulating valve. Also maintain oil/ air AP between 1 to 1-5 kg/ cm2. Maintain Warm up pressure 4.5 kg/cm2 through regulating valve.

Control flue gas temperature at furnace exit below 538C by controlling firing rate till adequate flow is established through reheater.


When boiler starts steaming throttle S.H. vents & drains

Start second pair of L.O. guns A.B. elevation by depressing start PB on

Warming up should be slow; steaming should start after 45 to 50 minutes of lighting up. See Fig. 2.1. Refer cold start curve for rate of pressure & temperature rise. Fig 2.1

Check that at least 3 out of 4 L.O. guns are proven on in timed sequence. Check i) ii) Light oil header pressure is adequate. Light oil/air differential pressure is more than 1 kg/cm2

When drum pressure reaches 2 kg/cm2. Close drum vents and outlet header vent


Close steam cooled wall extended side outlet header vents Close S.H. Desuperheater link vent valves Close platen S.H. outlet link vent valves

Otherwise L.O. trip valve will close. Check boiler expansion is free Check: Ignitor oil header pressure is adequate (14 kg / cm2.) Control firing rate during initial warming up such that boiler starts steaming after 45 minutes. Follow the cold start up curve while bringing up pressure & temperature. Fig. 2.1

Throttle following: S.H. drain, Radiant roof S.H. inlet header drain, & side steam cooled out let header drain, Rear Header drain, S.H. S.W.W. front roof inlet header.

Do not close these drain valves fully before rolling the turbine. Check that M.S. line drains are opened (near turbine).

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Open boiler stop valves L & R. Throttle start up vent valves to control pressure rise; do not close them fully until turbine is under light load/or HP & LP by pass system is taken into service. Close reheater vents & Drains before vacuum raising. Bring up the Boiler steam parameter to 5 kg/cm2, 195C, ^_

Check H.O. system is in service on recirculation before H.O. pressure heaters.


Check atomising steam lines are charged.


Take SCAPH corresponding to running F.D. Fan in service & maintain average cold end temperature above acid dew point.


Refer cold startup curve for rate of pressure & temperature rise & steam flow (fig. 2,1)

Check auxiliary steam is given to feed storage tank heating and deaerator pegging. Put H.O. on recirculation through F.O. trip valve F.O. burner headers

Boiler lighted up & main steam pressure & temperature are 5 Kg/cm2, 195C Prepare for Heavy oil firing

Refer H.O. recirculation instructions. Put H.O. heater pressure and H.O. temperature control on auto.


Check H.O. temperature at burners


Before H.O. firing

check flue gar temp, at APH outlet is above 90-100C. Refer auxiliary steam system

Proceed to take H.O. elevation in service


It is preferred to take lower elevation in service (CD elevation)

Check auxiliary steam header is charged through inter-connection

Establish H.O. elevation start permit.


Depress associated elevation pair start PB

Check H.O. pair is placed in service in programmed sequential order. Ref:H.O.Elevatior starting.

Check auxiliary steam line F.O. heaters & tracing steam lines are charged.

i r

Maintain Heavy oil burner header pressure. Also Maintain oil/steam AP 1 to 1.5 Kg/cm2

Check both corner burners are proven on Depress start PB for 2nd pair start of same elevation

Main steam Pr 6 ATA M.S. temp 225C

Check H.O. pair is placed in service in programmed sequence Close start-up vent valves when flow is established through bypass system
Throttle Main steam line drain valves Take drum level protection in service

Ref: H.P. & L.P. bypass operating instruction; ensure steam throw off device condensate spray valves are open. Give clearance to start turbine rolling

Maintain H.O. burner header pressure above 3 kg/cm a and temp. 110- 130C Increase H.O. firing rate through H.O. regulating valve Warm up oil guns can be taken out once the boiler is warmed up and heavy oil elevation is in service. Check that vacuum is raised in the condenser by the time M.S. parameters come to 6 kg/cm 2 and 275C Take H.P. and L.P. bypass system in service when condenser vacuum is 540 mm Hg Max. H.O. burner pressure 8 kg/cm2

Get boiler water analysed and start phosphate dozing if required

At least 3 out of of 4 H.O. guns at one elevation should be in service.

Warm-up M.S. lines, Boiler parameters C.R.H., H.R.H. line > are raised to & transfer lines M.S. pressure and temperature Check M.S. parameters of E.S.V. Check M.S. pipe metal temp, is above 150C and C.R. pipe metal above 100C. H.P. transfer pipe line metal temp 150C and IP transfer pipe metal temp 100C

Refer vacuum raising instruction

Ensure B.F.P. and condensate pumps are in service

H.P. and L.P. bypass system is cut out and turbine rolling is started


Close M.S. lines drains and C.R.H. line drains to condenser.


After the M/C is synchronised and load is taken, check furnace probe is retracted automatically


M.S. pr. 30kg/cm2 before E.S.V. M.S. temp. 350C before E.S.V. Retract the furnace temperature Probe if flue gas temp, reaches 540C and probe is not retracted through interlocks.

With phosphate dozing control C.B.D. valve opening to maintain boiler water T.D.S.

Check that C.B.D. tank water level is maintained normal. Put drain control value on auto. Refer silica limit curve for boiler water. Fig. 2.3.

Start Scraper Conveyor and slag crasher.


Before increasing the drum pressure ensure that silica content in boiler water is within permissible limits at operating pressure

Maintain average cold end temp at A.P.H. outlet above acid dew point by controlling steam flow to SCAPH

Regulate steam supply control valves & check air temperature before and after SCAPH, check flue gas temp after A.P.H.

Prepare for coal firing Start one PA Fan. Charge Electrostatic precipitators fields. Make S.H. Spray control system ready Close drain valves. Open spray control valves inlet isolating valves. Open spray control valves isolating valves Close spray line drain valves Open super heater header inlet water isolating valves bypass
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Check that E.P. rapping mechanism is in service Inform chemist to check the quality of Boiler water and Feed water as frequently as possible

Refer recommended chemical composition of Boiler Water and Feed Water in TableJ_&JTable II Page:49?:50 Refer coordinated phosphate treatment curve and boiler water limiting values in Fig. 2.2

Check phosphate dozing to boiler water. Maintain boiler water alkalinity

Check that spray control valves are closed.







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0 5 10 15


8.0 20






FIG 2.2

10.0 20.0

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Characteristics Drum Pressure Kg/cm2 10 pHat25C 10 T.D.S. Max ppm Chloride Max ppm PO 4 lppm SO 3 ppm SiO Max ppm Specific Electrical conductivity us/cm Max. 40-70 10.70 40-70 10.70 40-70 10.70 600 10-20 5-11 500 21-30 250 Limit Recommended 31-50 51-75 3.5-10.5 76-100 9.5-10.5 100 5-10 101-125 8.5-10.3

126-150 151 and above 9.5-10 8.5-9.0

50 50

200 175 NOT ALLOWED 15-30 8-15




Hydrazine Dozing shall be employed According to Curve shown











Characteristics Drum Kg/cm2
Pressure M Pa Hardn.ess max ppm pH at 25C Oxygen Max ppm+ Iron Max ppm Copper Max ppm Silica Max ppm Total CO Max Permanganate Max ppm Specific Electrical Conductivity at 25oC Max. OH Max ppm + (i) 3
Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.5

Limit Recommended
10.00 1.00

11-20 1.1-2.0

21-30 2.1-30

31-50 3.1-50

51-75 5.1-7.5

76-100 7.6-10

101-125 10.1-12.5

126-150 12.6-15

151 and above 15.1 & above



8.5 0.5 0.5




8.5-75 0.007 0.02 0.005 0.02


8.9-9.5 0.007 0.02 0.005 0.02


9.5-9.5 0.005 0.01 0.005 0.02


0.03 .0.3 o:i

0.3 3 0.1

0.007 0.03 0.01

0.1 0.5

0.007 0.02 0.005 0.05


0.2 2.0

0.2 2.0

0.3 1

5 10+

5 10++







NOT ALLOWED Hyd-rozine dosing shall be employed for scavanging last traces of disolved oxygen Maximum permissible limit is 0.10 ppm Residual N2H4. (2) Condensate pH will stabilise in range of 8.5 to 9.5 if 0.06 ppm of N2H4 residual is maintain at Boiler inlet. Where feed water is used for desuperheating max. conductivity of F.W. shall not exceed 2 us/cm.



Make R.H. spray control system ready

Close spray control station. drain valves Close spray water line drain valves Open spray control valves inlet isolating valves Open spray control valves isolating valves. Check that reheater spray block valve is closed.

Take main feed control valve in service and isolate low load valve

a. Open bypass valves of main feed regulating valve (FRV) b. Open isolating valves of main F.R.V. c. Close bypass valves of main F.R.V. isolating valves d. Regulate F.R.V.

Make ignition , Refer mill energy available to > ignition energy instruction the lowest mill to be taken in service

Close economis-er recirculation valves when continuous flow is established through economiser Close the S.H. header drain, Radiant roof S.H. inlet header drain, inlet header drain, and side steam cooled wall outlet header drain, Steam cooled wall rear header drain, SH.S.WWW. front roof inlet header drain and final S.H. header drain Increase firing rate and pick-up 30MW load. M.S. pressure, temp65Kg/o* 1 "'

Start first mill. Preferably lowest and work it up. Start its R.C. feeder. Put mill air temperature and flow control on auto check mill outlet temp around 65-75C

Keep drum level on lower side *> just before starting mill and feeder.

RHS temp 420C

TakeAB/BP elevation H.O. guns in service as per the requirement, preferably takeAB elevation H.O. guns.

Control drum level and furnace draft carefully.

Drum level and furnace pressure are likely to shoot up suddenly when feeder is started.

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Monitor furnace flame stability


Increase the feeder Check ash speed upto 50% * handling system is of rated taken in service. Check mill differential 1 pressure is less than 250 mm WC

Switch on E.P. hopper heaters Increase the main steam/R.H. steam parameter as per cold start curve At no time boiler - > drum temperature increase rate should exceed 100C/hr.

When load on unit is 70 MW check check H j ^ , heaters are taken in service


M.S. pressure at boiler outlet 105Jtg/cm^ T^TSTtempat boiler outlet j>OO?C__H.R.H. temp, at boiler outlet 495-500C

Maintain S.H. steam temp control by spray water control Maintain R.H. steam temperature by burner tilt.



Check heater drip_pumpcutjn automatically at around 70 MW load


R.H. spray control should be used as a last resort for temp control. Follow cold start up curves for raising load (fig. 2.1)

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at load 60^MW

Control furnace draft carefully, check that flue gas interconnecting dampers open

Increase the load in generator as boiler output increases and maintain boiler pressure Start second mill when first mill is loaded to 80%

Equalise loading on both I.D. fans


Start 2nd F.D. fan

Check that air interconnecting dampers open

Preferably the mill adjacent to first mill

Equalise loading on both F.D. fans Maintain necessary total air flow and furnace draft Check stack P exhaust colour for proper combustion Check O2, CO, and CO2 content in flue gas

Start associated mill feeder when mill is warmed up


Increase the feeder speed; equalise the loading on both the feeders

Put mill air temp and flow control on auto. Check air temp = 75-80C, mill air flow = 54T/hr. Mill differential pressure about 200 mm WC.

Take SCAPH corresponding to second F.D. Fan in service if necessary Check that auxiliary air and flue air dampers are modulating and necessary windbox to furnace differential is maintained

At 30% load , furnace to windbox differentia should be 90 mm

Start 2nd P.A. fan and equalise loading on both P.A. fans. Put P.A. pressure control on Auto Check that 2nd condensate pump and 2nd boiler feed pump are started

Maintain P.A. Pressure above 600 mm WC

Put M.S. & R.H. Steam temp control system on auto


Put B.F.P.'s scoop tube control on auto Before starting standby BFP it must be warmed up


Check that 5 kg/cm2 differential pressure is maintained by scoop tube position controller. Check that drum level is maintained by the controller Check that 10 mm furnace draft is maintained.

Check that deaerator pressure is increased to 6 kg/cm2 gauge

Put deaerator pressure control on auto

Put main feed control yalve on auto

I Put both I.D.


Inform laboratory to check boiler and feed water quality for intermittent phosphate dozing if situation demands
f :

Fans and inlet vane control i.e. Furnace Draft control on auto

Take 3rd pulverizer and its feeder in service when loading on running pulverizers exceeds 80%

- >

Ensure that ignition energy is established.

Put total air flow control on auto. F.D. Fan impeller vanes control on auto

Check O2, CO and CO2 content in flue gas at APH inlet. Ensure that sufficient excess air is maintained Refer "Pulverizer start up instruction"

Equalise loading on - > Select pulveriser all the 3 pulverizers nearer to the elevation already in service.

Increase load on the generator and simultaneously increase boiler firing rate

Refer to boiler cold start up - > curve. Increase total air flow with increase in firing rate; check excess air.

When load on running mill is above 80% take 4th mill and its feeder in service and equilise loading on all 4 mills.

i r

Boiler pressure 120 kg/cm2 M.S. Temp 530C, Load 120_MW


Flame support HO guns can be removed once boiler loading is above 60% and more than 2 mills are in service at 50% loading and at least two adjacent mill are in service

Check flame condition before and after removing H.O. support guns Retain H.O. guns in service if furnace flame is unstable.

SCAPH's can be cut out when flue - gas outlet temp, increase to or when H.O. is removed. Put thermal load control on "AUTO"

Cut SC air preheater out

Check M.S. TEMPERATURE LOW trip interlock comes in service when M.S. temperature goes above 520C

"M.S. temp protection out" visual annunciatior will be reset. Ensure that low steam temp, protection switch is on.

Increase load on generator. Check that thermal load control maintains boiler parameters by controlling firing rate.


Check M.S. & R. H. steam and tube metal temperature

Take SPUG in service - > Refer turbine if provided operation Take load limiter in service if provided Refer turbine operation

Check that total air flow is automatically maintained.


Increase load on generator Check the Boiler Parameters Drum pressure 145 kg/cm 2 M.S. Pressure 138 kg/cm 2 M.S. Temp. 540 +

R.H. Steam Pressure 24 Kg/cm2 R.H. Steam temp 540 + 5C Feed water temperature 245C




Suitable for shut down of medium duration when Boiler or Turbine inspection is planned.

Unit is operating at 210 MW with Combustion control, Fuel control, Total air control, Feed water control, Steam temperature control Furnace, draft and all other controls on "Auto"

Final steam conditions at the time of unit tripping will be M.S. Pressure 90 kg/cm 2 M.S. Temp 465C R.H. Steam Temp. 465C

Load Reduced to 160 MW


Take HP heaters out of service Check that deaerator steam is changed over from Ext. 3 to Ext. 2 through interlocks

Take "Combustion control" on Manual Take "M.S. Temperature low" trip protection out Isolate initial steam pressure unloading gear Gradually reduce load on the unit reducing firing rate. MS/HRH steam temperature and MS pressure shall be reduced at the rates permitted by the turbine but not exceeding the rate of saturated steam temp drop Refer "Boiler shut down curve" pressure change limits (fig 2.4) Rate of load drop may be about 2MW/min Carefully monitor turbine conditions and adjust the load, temp., pressure drop rates such that
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Load reduced to 150 MW: approximate parameters at turbine inlet are : M.S. Pressure 120 kg/cm2 M.S. Temp 520C R.H.S. temp 520C

While reducing load check that following conditions are maintained :


Total air flow is reduced in proportion with load upto 30% load. Check drum level is maintained normal on Auto Check S.H. & R.H. steam temperatures are maintained at set points. Furnace draft is maintained. Check the boiler expansion/ contraction movements as the load is reduced. When the load on mills is reduced to 40% Prepare to take upper most mill out; reduce the feeder speed to minimum. Check that associated elevation fuel air dampers are modulating/ closed as per feeders speed. Check furnace to windbox differention is 90 mmWC

HP/IP I\JL*JI rntnr

differential expansion. vibration, eccentricity, shell differential temperatures, turbine cylinder top/bottom metal temps, Left/Right cylinder flange temp. diff. are within limits.


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Take upper elevation oil guns in service.


Take heavy oil guns associated with remote elevation mill in service. Prepare to take the next upper elevation mill out. Reduce feeder speed to minimum & stop feeder. Stop the mill after cooling down and completely evacuating it. Take heavy oil guns at lower elevation in service Take out next higher mill from service when loading on mills is reduced to 40% See that load is transferred on the running mills.

Simultaneous with this transfer load on other mills in service. Stop the upper most feeder.

Take the upper mill out of service after cooling if down to 40C emptying it out completely.

When load on unit is reduced to 100 MW M.S. Temp 510C M.S. Pr. 112 kg/cm2 H.R. H.Steam temp 510C

Check that deaerator steam supply is switched over from 2nd extraction to auxiliary steam header through interlocks. Carefully monitor turbine conditions. Ensure that auto standby B.F.P. does not start on stopping of running BFP through interlocks.

Refer H.O. firing instructions.

At 90-100 MW take out one boiler feed pump from service. Check that full load is smoothly transferred on running B.F.P. before stopping the pump.

Check that load is transferred to running mills

- >

Check that Auxiliary and Fuel air dampers are modulating Check that associated Fuel air dampers are closed. Take M.S. and R.H. steam temp, control on hand. Continue reducing firing rate, steam pressure and temp, with reduction in load.

Continue reducing firing rate, steam temperature and pressure alongwith drop in load.

When the load on mills is reduced to 40% take next upper elevation oil guns in service


When adjacent mills are not in service it is advisable to take in service oil remote to other mill in service before reducing feeder speed to 40%

At load 70 MW : MS temp. 49&C R.H. Steam temp 490C M.S. pressure 105 kg/cm2

Take drum level control on hand & maintain drum level


Stop one PA fan after transferring full load on running P.A.

Check damper operation

Firing rate is reduced further and when load on mill is reduced to 40%; reduce feeder speed to minimum & stop the feeder. Cool down mill to evacuate it completely and shut it down

Check that all elevation H.O guns are taken in service by now. Check A.H. cold end average temperature is above acid dew point. Charge SCAPH corresponding to running F.D. fan in service if average cold end , temp, is below acid dew point. Open low load control valve isolating valves; open low load control valve gradually & simultaneously. Gradually close Main F.C.V. Close isolating valves of Main F.C.V.

Stop lube oil pumps of tripped P.A. Fan motor and fan bearings after oil bearing temperature is reduced Stop one F.D. fan; corresponding to P.A. fan tripped. Check furnace draft and air flow. r Stop one I.D. fan corresponding to tripped F.D. fan: check furnace draft.


Before stopping F.D. fan increase load on other F.D. fan and reduce load on this fan to minimum. Transfer load from this I.D. fan to other and completely unload this I.D. fan before tripping It.

When load is reduced to 40MW Take low load Feed Control Valve (FCV) in service and isolate main F.C.V.

Switch off supply to the electrostatic precipitators associated with tripped I.D. fan. Carry out soot blowing of complete boiler. Unit load reduced to 30%. Maintain 30% air flow at all loads below 30%. At 30% load. Check that secondary air damp ers set point is ramped to maintain windbox tc furnace differential pressure of 35-40 mm WC

Switch off supply to field of Electrostatic precipitator. Unit at 25-30 MW with H.O. firing. Change over auxiliary electrical supply from unit auxiliary transformer to station transformer.

Stop P.A. Fan

Check that seal air fan trips on interlock. Check the P.A. damper operation. Refer P.A. System Close sealing air valves to mills from station air system

Maintain 30% air flow and purge the . boiler for at least five minutes

Check that turbine coasts down safely Start S.O.P/AC oi) pump Break the vacuum when turbine speed comes to zero. Put turbine rotor on barring gear. Check that F.C.N.R Vs in extraction lines closed.

Check that all the feeders and mills are off.


Reduce load on unit to 5-7 MW M.S. Pressure Boiler outlet 90 Kg/cm2 M.S. Temp Boiler 465C R.H. Steam Temp 465C Charge auxiliary steam header from running units through inter connection, isolate auxiliary P.R.D.S. unit. Trip the unit through M.F.T. pushbuttons on F.S.S. console/or through Protection Check that H.P. cylinder evacuatior valves open

Individual burner H.O. M.V. oil, Atomising air and steam nozzle valves and Ignitors valves (air/oil) are closed. .

When boiler is to be tripped, trip it through protection. Maintain log of protection used each time for tripping. Use different protection each time so that all are checked. Check that Boiler fire is completely out Check that all the flame scanners sense no flame & check boiler actually from peep holes & ensure that fire is completely out

Check that Attemperation SH & RH isolating valves and its bypass valve are closed. r Open S.H. Start-up vent isolating valves and partially open - S.H. start-up vents and reduce pressure

Close isolating valves of S.H. and Reheater spray control valves

Rate of pressure drop must not exceed the limits specified in the curve to limit saturation temp, drop rate to less than 83C/hr (Fig. 2.4)

Open Reheater vents and closed CBD valves Close Boiler Main steam stop valves and their by-pass valves

Open M.S. line drains


Refer Turbine operating instructions. Refer Turbine operating Instructions

Following is the procedures if, after shut down: (i) Fast cooling of (ii) If Boiler is to Boiler is desired be Natural by cooled (iv) Boiler is to be Boxed up

Open C.R.H. & H.R.H. line


(iii) Boiler is to be preserved

Shutdown H.O. System Do not stop warm up oil pumps if it is common for other units

Boiler is to be forced cooled fast after shut down Keep I.D. fan and F.D. fan in service. Regulate air flow to effect desired rate of cooling Open starting vent valves At any time saturated steam temperature drop shall not exceed 83C/hr.

Top up the drum level upto +180 mm


Stop Boiler feed pump

Ensure that auto starting of auto standby B.F.P. is prevented Keep B.F.P. as hot standby

Stop Hydrazine dozing pumps

Stop phosphate dozing pump if it is in service.


Regulate opening of vent valves, match the rate of cooling but not exceeding above mentioned limit Start boiler feed pump for topping up the level. Stop boiler feed pump afterwards

Cut off deaerator pegging steam supply by closing valve

" ^r

Turn on deaerator F.W. heating steam to maintain F.W. temperature

Bring up drum level to+180 mm when it drops to-180 mm

Do not stop A.P. Heaters till flue gas temp, at A.P.H. inlet is less than 205C Air Flow through furnace shall be controlled to effect the desired cooling rate Boiler cooling rates can be controlled by : 1. Opening S.H.H. vents 2. Air flow through boiler

Open following vents and drains of S.H. at low pressure (2-3 kg/cm2) : SH drains; Steam cooled wall header drain. Roof and Rear steam cooled wall drain.

At 1.8 kg/cm2 drum pressure open drum vents


Stop F.D. fan and I.D. fans when flue gas temperature at A.P.H. inlet is reduced to below 25C and boiler is cooled If required stop air preheaters otherwise keep them rotating

Check that A.P.H. do not stop on interlock take deinterlock switch is on "deinterlock" position before stopping F.D. / I.D. fan Check that A.P.H.'s lube oil pumps stop on interlock when oil temp, goes below 40C.

Bring up Drum level to + 180 mm Stop Boiler feed pump and keep it in warm condition Boiler feed pump shall be started when level drops to - 180 mm and shall be stopped after bringing level to + 180mm. Gradually feeding should be done. Preferably keep Air Heater rotating even after this unless they are required to be stopped for works. Check A.P.H's lube oil pumps stop when oil temp, is reduced to 40C. Turn on F.W. heating steam maintain F.S.T. water temperature and slight pressure in deaerator (Approx. 1.5. Ata)



When Boiler water temperature goes below 94C. Drain the boiler Open economiser vents; open low point drain valves from W.W. low header and downcomers to W.W. drain header. Open economiser drain valves in feed line aftei economiser inlet valve. Open W.W. drain header drain valves

When gas inlet temperature at A.P.H. inlet is reduced to below 205C Air Heater can be stopped.

Stop A. P. Heaters if required


Cut out deaerator pressuring steam by closing steam isolating valve


Natural cooling of Boiler is desired after shut down One I.D. Fan and one F.D. Fan in service Bring I.D. inlet vane and F.D. Fan impeller blade pitch to minimum. Stop F.D. Fan Stop ID fan Bring Air heater deinterlock switch in deinterlock position. Check that Air heaters are starting. Check that all secondary air dampers open. Check that all flue gas dampers open. Check that all auxiliary air dampers open

Stop hydrazine dosing pump Close economiser inlet valve its bypass valve.

At 1.8kg/cm2g drum pressure open drum vent & S.H.H. vents.

Initially k e e p d r u m v e n t s throttled &

when pressure drops down open them full.

2.8.3 If Boiler is to be preserved. Drain the boiler when Boiler water temperature is reduced to than 94c Open economlser vent valves & drain valves Nitrogen blanket shall be applied when drum pressure reduces to 1.4 kg/cm2 Refer Boiler lay-up procedure.

Stop B.F.P. & keep it in warm condition

Keep the S/S of autostand by B.F.P. in working position before stopping running B.F.P. Turn on F.S.T. heating steam. Keep Feed water hot & maintain slight pressure in deaerator. Open valves.

Cut out deaerator pegging steam by closing valve

Open low point drain valves. Open W.W. drain header drain valve 2.84 Boiler is to be boxed up One I.D. Fan & one F.D. Fan are running Reduce flow to minimum Stop I.D. Fan Stop F.D. Fan Keep A.H. deinterlocking switch in "deinterlock" position before stopping I.D. /F.D. Fan. Check that Air Heaters are not stopped.

Close startup vent valves Check S.H. outlet header vents and drains are tight closed. Close start up vent valves WhenA.P.H. inlet flue gas temperature reduces to 205c A.P.H.'s may be stopped A.P.H.'s shall be kept rotating unless they are required to be stopped.

When S.H. steam Pressure drops down to 3kg/cm2 open partially S.H. vents & open them full when pressure drops down to near zero. Open drum vents partially when drum pressure comes down and open them full when when pressure drops down

Close all Secondary air dampers, all flue gas dampers & all auxiliary air dampers.

Bring drum level to + 180 mm Close economiser inlet valve and its bypass valve.



During start ups and normal running of a unit steam at a low pressure (16 ata/11 ata) and temperature (200C) is required for various auxiliary purposes. During start ups till boiler is capable of providing/generating sufficient quantity of steam at required parameters, this auxiliary requirement of steam is to be met from alternative source, Auxiliary boiler or other running units. During normal running of boiler this auxiliary steam is tapped of from M.S. lines and pressure and temperature are suitably reduced in auxiliary Pressure Reducing & Desuperheating (P.R.D.S.) system. Two P.R.D.S., stations are provided-one for normal service and other as standby. Main P.R.D.S. station is a combined pressure reducing and desuperheating unit. Pressure is being reduced by throttling the pressure regulating valve and temperature is controlled by feed water spray into desuperheater through temperature control valve. Pressure and temperature can be controlled remote, manually or automatically through sliding set point. For effective temperature control feed water pressure is controlled by a pressure control valve before temp, control valve. In standby unit pressure is controlled by throttling the pressure control valve (remote operated) and then temperature is controlled by feed water spray through motor operated temperature control valve. Auxiliary steam is used for following purposes : In steam coil air preheater (during startup and at low loads). Deaerator pegging and P.W. heating during (startup and at low loads). H.O. heating and steam tracing of H.O. lines. H.O. atomising. Main and starting ejectors for vacuum raising (during start-up and at low loads). Turbine seals (during start-up and at low loads). To L.P. Heater-4 for condensate heating (during start-up and at low loads).

2.9.1 Lining Up P.R.D.S System :

Close PRDS main steam isolating valve Open PRDS downstream side isolating valve Close PRDS by pass isolating valves Crack open the drain control valve of M.S. supply line to PRDS unit. Close Main PRDS and bypass pressure control valves Open PRDS down stream line drain isolating valves Open steam supply valve to 16ATA header from PRDS unit. Crack open PRDS down stream line drain control valve

Open PRDS upstream side drain isolating valve Open bypass PRDS upstream side line drain isolating valve

Open bypass PRDS down stream line drain isolating valve Crack open bypass PRDS down stream line drain control valve Close PRDS feed spray line valve

Close steam supply isolating valve to ejectors and gland seals steam cooler with ejector from deaerator. Open drain valve in steam line to ejectors. Close isolating valves to ejectors

Close PRDS bypass feed spray line valves Close PRDS bypass feed spray line isolating valve Open PRDS line drain isolating valve after NRV Crack open PRDS line drain control valve

Close steam supply regulating valve to G.S.C. with ejector Close steam supply valves to Turbine gland seals Close steam supply valve for Deaerator tank heating Auxiliary steam header is lined up.

2.9.2. Line Up Aux. PRDS Header

Open 16-ATA Steam header vent valve Close auxiliary steam supply valves to: Deaerator SCAPH F.O. heating area F.O. control station L.P.H. 4 Close 16 ATA headers interconnecting valve Close interconnecting valves 11ATA header. Open steam supply isolating valve to ejectors and gland seals and gland steam cooler with ejector

2.9.3. Charging Auxiliary Steam

From 11-ATA Header : Check that Aux. steam system is lined up. Get clearance from existing unit for charging 16ATA header. Open interconnecting steam control valve isolating valves Crack open interconnecting control valve and slowly warm line. Check that condensate out through ejector steam line steam up the comes drain.


Close 16-ata header vent valve when air is completely purged and steam comes out through it.

Check that no hammering occurs in steam lines. If hammering is observed throttle steam supply valve When steam lines are warmed up open gradually steam supply valve and build up pressure in auxiliary steam header.

As the pressure in header increase throttle Ejector steam line drain valve. Do not close drain valve full until steam flow is established through ejectors. Attain 11ATA header pressure Auxiliary steam header.


Taking Auxiliary PRDS Station in Service

Check that main PRDS takes the load and Aux. steam header pressure and temperature are maintained. Close the D.S.S. spray valve. Fully close bypass pressure control valve. Close isolating valves
1 r

Auxiliary steam header is charged through bypass line. Check that M.S. line pressure is above 30 kg/cm2. Put auxiliary steam temperature control valve on Auto and Sat 295C on controller. Check that aux. steam temp, control valve remains closed. Put spray feed water pressure control valve on auto. Check set point. Select manual pressure control made and open the P.C.V. manually. Check that spray control valve opens as steam flow through P.C.V. and 215C temperature is maintained. Select auto mode on pressure control valve and set pressure at 16-ata. Gradually close bypass pressure control valve, and simultaneously close DSS spray control valve

Close bypass D.S.S. spray water isolating valve Check that feed water supply valve to PRDS. Crack open the drain control valve in auxiliary steam supply line to 16-ATA header from PRDS unit and open drain isolating valve Check that safety valve is in service.


2.9.5 Taking Aux. PRDS Standby Station in Service :

Check that auxiliary steam system is lined up. Check that main steam pressure is above 30kg/cm 2 Open bypass D.S.S. Spray water isolating valve Open gradually PRDS bypass main steam supply isolating valve Slightly open PRDS bypass pressure control valve Control opening of spray feed water pressure control valve and spray water temperature valve to get auxiliary steam temperature of 215C max. Open further the PRDS bypass valve Gradually fully open PRDS bypass main steam supply isolating valve and regulate 16-ATA pressure with PRDS bypass pr. control valve. Regulate temperature control valve to control steam temperature. Regulate spray water pressure control valve to contsol water pressure. Gradually close interconnecting valve for 11 -ata header as bypass PRDS takes over. Check that auxiliary steam header pressure does not drop.



1. A round of the complete boiler and auxiliaries area is to be taken for checking the following at least once in a shift to ensure the healthiness of the boiler and auxiliaries. a) b) c) d) Inspect the furnace flame condition and stability. Inspect the complete boiler pressure parts for any leakages. Inspect the flue gas and air paths for any leakage through ducting, manholes etc. Inspect the running auxiliaries like F.D. fan, I.D. fan, P.A. fans, mills A.P.H. etc. for any abnormal sound, high vibration, high lub oil bearing temperature, lub. oil pressure etc.

2. Drum gauges glasses may be blown once a day and. compare drum level readings of local gauge glass, remote level gauge glass and U.C.B. instruments (to be done by charge hand/ 18m Boiler Operator). 3. 4. Compare local instruments readings with remote U.C.B. mounted instruments once a day and if any appreciable discrepancy is observed bring it to the notice of C&I Division. Check that a continuous flow of sampling water is maintained through sample cooler. Also check for sufficient flow of cooling water through sample cooler.

5. Check stack emission visually. A white smoke indicates high excess air and black smoke indicates insufficient air flow, both should be avoided.

6. Check feed water temperature before, and alter economis-er. 7. 8. 9. Check R.H. & S.H. tube metal temperature and ensure that no overheating of tubes is existing. Check steam temperature at various stages of S.H. & compare with predicted values. Carry out soot blowing operation at regular intervals or as and when found necessary.

10. Carry out soot blowing of A.P.H. elements at least once in a shift. 11. Get ash sample. Bottom / Fly ash analysed once in a day for carbon content. Accordingly classifier adjustment must be done. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 19. Check the fineness of pulverized coal from each mill once a day. Carry out necessary adjustments. Check individual pulveriser for coal-air temperature, high differential pressure across bowl, air flow, classifier setting, abnormal sound, high vibration and oil temperature etc. Check raw coal bunker levels are normal while unit is in operation and empty out bunkers if unit is planned to be shut down for a few days or more. Check the continuous and satisfactory operation of slag scraper conveyor, slag crusher. Cheek for continuous and satisfactory operation of fly ash system Check electrostatic precipitator operation. (Field voltage, current, spark rate). Check rapping mechanism operation.

18. Check good fluidity of fly ash is maintained by hopper heaters. 20. Check that ignitors spark plugs are kept clean for immediate starting whenever required 21. Check that flame scanner show constant "flame on" condition. In case of flickering "flame on" and "flame off light, check furnace flame condition, take oil support. 22. Check that pulverisers are loaded to 80% capacity with reserve 20% capacity for handling emergency conditions.

23. Check that loading of parallel running I.D. fans, or F.D. fan or P.A. fans are equal as far as possible. 24. CheckH.O. temperature, burner header pressure/atomising steam pressure & temperature are maintained normal. 25. Check W.U. oil headers pressure and atomising air header pressure are maintained normal. a) b) c) d) e) f) Seal air fan. Ignitor air fan Hydrazine dozing pump. Phosphate dozing pump Coal mills (if gill the mills are available). Lub oil pumps of ID, FD & PA fans.

26. The following Auxiliaries should be changed over to stand-by equipments once in a week:


Check that bottom ash hopper sealing is maintained & water overflows through seal trough.


Major emergency situations in Boiler & Auxiliary areas and suggested actions :

2.11.1 High Furnace Pressure

Probable Reasons One I.D. fan tripped or mal-operation of control vanes of I.D./F.D./P.A. fans or closing of damper Action to be taken Take running I.D. fans control on manual & increase for loading. Check the cause of I.D. fan tripping and try to restart it if everything is normal. Check gas^dampers indication & draft reading along flue gas path. If some damper is closed try to open that damper. Take F.D./P.A. fan contro} on manual. Check control damper operation. Adjust air flow. Check air for correct flow. Check combustion regime, openings of Auxiliary air and fuel air dampers, windbox pressure. See cold air and hot air dampers. Watch Furnace flame. Trip Boiler if flame is very much unstable. Purge out explosive mixture by maintaining high air flow. Check Burner tilt at all corners is equal. Adjust Burner tilt between +10 to -10 and check control air pressure. See air-preheaters are rotating. Restart tripped air preheater and do A.H. soot blowing. Check Furnace seal, water flow through seal trough overflow. Re-establish seal. Stop the boiler in case of tube leakage as soon as possible.

Unstable furnace flame condition. Sudden starting of coal mill. Low windbox pressure (under normal F.D. fans loading conditions), improper air distribution at elevations

Un-equal burner tilts at corners or Burner tilt in extreme up or Down. Fouling in Air heater, air heater tripped. Furnace water seal broken, E.P.. or flue gas path manhole opened. Water wall tube rupture/leakage

2.11.2 Furnace Pressure Low

I.D. fan auto control failure I.D. fan vane control mechanism failure causing vanes to open wide Sudden decrease in air input or tripping of one F.D. fan.

Take I.D. fans control on manual & reduce load on I.D. fans. Check I.D. fan control mechanism for proper functioning. Check air flow, correct if necessary. After checking restart F.D. fan if it had tripped.

Sudden tripping of one or more mills or choking of mills/raw coal feeder pipe Partial flame failure Accidental closing of secondary air path

Control the furnace pressure by adjusting I.D. fan vanes. Simultaneously try to start stand by mill. Remove the chocking of affected mill/raw coal feed pipe. Take the oil gun into service to establish flame at that locations/corner. See the proper functioning of secondary air path damper.

2.11.3.Drum Level Low

Mai-operation of Feed Auto Control or Feed Regulator or Scoop auto. Take feed control valve on hand and increase feeding rate. Take scoop tube control on hand and increase scoop tube position. Check that feed water flow through each pump does not exceed }ts capacity. Check feed water control valve and scoop tube control linkages. Start reserve feed pump on tripping of running feed pump, if auto starting fails. Try to increase the load if not possible reduced firing irate accordingly to control drum pressure. Reduce firing rate by suitably adjusting the feeding rate of running mills.

Tripping of one of working feed pump (standby pump does not start) Sudden reduction of load Sudden increase in firing e.g. starting of mills having sufficient coal left before previous stopping. Tube rupture/puncture

Check water flow and compare with previous feeding rate and steam flow. High feed flow indicates tube failure. Inspect water wall and economiser or any tube leakage. If tube leakage is observed stop the boiler as soon as possible. Check drum drains and low point drain for tight closing.

Inadvertent opening of low point drain valves or Emergency drum drain valve.

Note : If drum level goes below gauge glass and low drum level trip protection fails, trip boiler at once.

2.11.4.High Drum Level

Mal-operation of feed water control Sudden increase in load resulting in drum pressure drop.

Take feed control valve on manual and reduce the feeding rate. Try to decrease the load as far as possible.

Sudden decrease in firing rate e.g. tripping of the running mills B.F.P. scoop tube position suddenly increased

Increase feeding range of running mills.

Check differential pressure across feed control valve and maintain 5 Kg/cm2 by adjusting scoop tube position.

2.11.5 Flame Failure At an Elewation

Closing of trip valves on H.O., : W.U. Oil/Ignitor (Causing loss of ignition support energy) Where F.O. is being used as support fuel or when only oil is being used. Sudden decrease of mill feeder speeds to minimum : Do not attempt to introduce ignitors or oil guns at elevation where "No flame" condition persist.

Trip out the coal mills of feeding elevation where "No flame" condition is persisting. Allow sometime for purging then introduce oil support adjacent to working mills until furnace flame is stabilised. Check that secondary air windbox dampers are modulating to maintain about 80mm windbox to furnace differential pressure. Check furnace for tube failure. If two elevations scanners show "No flame" trip the boiler manually

Too low or too high windbox pressure causing unstable combustion Water wall tube failure Malfunction of flame scanners due to supply failure or scanner air failure, slag or soot on scanner lenses etc. Burner tilt mechanism negative extreme due to air failure to power cylinders. Rapid load changes without adjusting air flow leading to improper combustion. :

Check burner tilt keep it between +10.

Check furnace flame condition.

2.11.6.One Fan Trips (Other in Service)

It is presumed that I.D./F.D./P.A. fan de-interlocking switches are on "Interlock" position. Fan Bearing temperature high and/or : i) Take draft control or manual, and/or increase the loading on running fan and maintain furnace draft.

Fan motor Bearing temperature high and/or 71


Check corresponding fan is tripped through interlock

Lube oil pressure for motor bearings low and/or Corresponding Air heater tripped (provided de-inter locking switch is on "Interlock" position) and/or Motor protection operated


Take secondary air flow controll on manual and maintain correct air flow. Cut in oil burner adjacent to working mills.



Check drum level is controlled on auto; if necessary, take drum level control on manual and maintain level. Check pulverizer in excess of 3 are tripped starting from bottom.

vi) vii)

Check>that the load on the generator has reduced to 100 - 120 MW (partial load relay energised). viii) Check that interconnecting dampers on air and flue gas side open and tripped fans are correctly isolated through interlocks. ix) x) xi) xii) Check windbox pressure left and right is maintained normal (about 75 mm WC). Maintain steam temperature Check furnace flame condition Check that tripped pulverziers are correctly isolated (hot air gates close, cold air dampers come to minimum).

xiii) Investigate the cause of trip. Correct it and restart the tripped fan.

2.11.7.One Feeder Trips

Support energy is removed within 3 minutes of feeder and/or No coal flow alarm comes & low current relay picks up simultaneously. (Feeder chear pin given way and/or Mill trips and/or Feeder motor supply fails


Check that hot air gate closes & cold air damper opens full if pulveriser is running. Clear the mill of the coal before stopping it.


iii) iv)

Stop the pulverizer if feeder cannot be restarted immediately. Check that running mills share the load if thermal load is on auto.

v) vi)

Reduce the load on generator and mainain steam parameters. If 3 mills at less than 50% feeder speed or 2 mills are left in service, cut in oil gun adjacent to working mills. Check furnace draft, air flow and drum level are normal.


viii) Check flame is table and scanners sense "Flame on". ix) Check that associated elevation fuel air damper close and windbox pressufe is maintained 70 mm WC.

2.11.8 One Mill Trips

Mill discharge valves are closed and/or Loss of elevation D.C. supply for more than 2 sees, and/or Support ignition energy is removed with 3 minutes of feeder starting, and/or Motor protection operates and /or One P.A. Fan trips (mill in excess of 3 will trip starting from bottom). i) ii) iii) Check the running mills share the load if thermal load control of mills are on auto. Reduce the generator load if pressure starts dropping. Start reserve mill and take load.

iv) v) vi) vii)

Check furnace draft is maintained normal Check the correct air flow is maintained. Check that drum level is maintain normal. Check that tripped mill is isolated (hot air gate closed, cold air damper minimum open, feeder tripped).

2.11.9.Coal Hangup in Mill

Choking of coal at inlet to mill. High moisture in coal and /or Too much fines in coal with moisture, and/or i) ii) Check feeder trip on "No coal flow & low current" protection. Check mill outlet temperature is less than 85C.


Foreign material at R.C. feeder inlet


Check mill hot air gate closes on mill outlet temperature high protection. Close hot air gate and check mill. Cold air damper opens full.

iv) v)

Check the flame condition at the sick mill elevation. Trip the sick mill after clearing it of coal.

vi) Increase the load on running mills if Thermal load control is on manual. vii) Start reserve mill

viii) Maintain steam pressure and temperature by reducing load, ix) Check that furnace draft and air flows are normal.

If 3 mills (or less) are in service with feeder speed below 50% take oil support at elevation adjacent to running mills in service.


Water Wall Tube Leakage

: :

Starved water walls due to very low drum level and/or Sustained flame impingement on water wall tubes and/or

Compare feed water flow and steam flow to assess the magnitude of tube leakage. Maintain drum level by increasing feed water low. Inspect the furnace for tube leakage.


Blocked tube, scaling of tube. : resulting in overheating of tube metal, pitting, corrosion of tubes and/or Soot blower steam impingement (wet steam impingement or direct impingement of steam) and/or Circulation affected due to opening of low point drains. :



If the tube leakage is minute then take the unit out as a planned shutdown to cold. If tube leakage is heavy and it is likely to damage other tubes or likely to disturb the flame stability trip out the unit. Keep close watch in furnace flame. As the load is being reduced try to locate the burst tube(s)


vi) vii)


viii) Check economiser hoppers for water leakage, steam noise etc. every shift. ix) Check that furnace draft is maintained normal.


Reheater/Superheater/Economiser Tube Failure

i) As soon as leakage is detected start load reduction and trip out the boiler at the earliest possible time.

Sustained high metal temperature due to waterwall Slagging or forcing boiler at the time of hot restart and/or Erosion on tubes due to high excess air, high ash content in coal, dislocated tubes, soot blowing and/or Blocked tubes causing overheating and/or Salt deposition due to high water level in drum, poor quality of water* and/or Inadequate flow due to open superheater, reheater drain and/or Fire side corrosion of tubes and/or Economiser tube can fail due to over heating if concentration of Fe, Cu is more in Feed water. Steaming in economiser occurs causing salt deposition and harming the tubes.


Try to locate leak through manholes before boiler Is depresurised.




Following is the brief description of the major steps/actions to be taken for operating (starting, loading, shutting down) the 210 MW LMW (Soviet Design) steam turbine.



Before starting the actual rolling of the turbine, the following auxiliary equipments and systems are to be commissioned.


Ensure C.W. System is Running Normal

Ensure that raw Clarifier Water Pumps, Clarified Pumps and Clarified booster pumps are in service.

Start the CW pump by closing control switch

See that the discharge valve CW 3/4 has opened fully.

Inform the operator to check the basin level and Cooling Tower pumps and C.T. fans running normal.

Observe and note down the amp. of the pump motor. Inform CW pump operator to give the prestart checks on CW booster pump At least one hydrogen cooler suction and discharge valve to be kept open, otherwise pump can be run on recirculation.

Ensure whether all permits from Maintenance Division are cleared.


Inform Electrical Controller to rack in breaker of Circulating Water pump for availability of power.


Carry out protection & interlock tests on C.W. pump if on long shut down. Before starting CW pump, close the valve CW-5 to lub oil cooler and openCW 1/2 valve.
Refer C.W. p u m p

Check the opening of CW discharge valve CW 1/2 or CW 3/4 and check P whether it has opened fully from UCB. After obtaining clearance from operator inform me operator through the intercom that CW pump is being started.

Start the CW booster pump by closing the control switch. Ensure from the operator the post start checks are complete and healthy After 5 minutes run of the booster pump, the pump is to be stopped and to be started again when turbine speed comes to 1100 rpm. CW System is running normal.

instructions for starting.


Ensure Condensate System is Running Normal

The motor current should be within * 18-23 amp and not hunting r Chemist to check the quality of condensate to ensure that there is no condenser tube leakage Check and maintain hotwell level at 3/4 of the gauge glass. Keep any of the other two available pumps as stand-by putting interlock switch to "ON" position.

Start the Demineralized Water (D.M.) make up pumps, if already not running after checking D.M. tank level and line up of connected lines. Open both the isolating valves for hotwell make up.


Maintain hotwell level more than 3/4thofthe gauge glass.


- >

Check the hotwell level Hi/Lo alarm is working alright.

Line up condensate system Inform Elect. Operator to restore power to that condensate pump. After obtaining clearance from condensate pump operator, announce through intercom that the pump is being started.

r Take water to deaerator after charging L.P^heater from water side


Condensate System is running healthy.


Ensure Feed System is Running Normal

Maintain pressure and temp, in D/A at 2 kg/em2 90C by auxiliary steam Ensure that protection & interlock are healthy. Inform Elect, operator to restore power to the pump. Inform turbine operator to line up HP heater after checking the interlock After getting clearance from BFP operator to start announce that the pump is being started.

Maintain Deaerator (D/A) level normal by running condensate pump system normal

Ensure that all permits are cleared from Maint. Divisions for BFP and HP heaters. Inform BFP operator to line up the pump.


Start the boiler feed pump

If there is delay in opening recirculation valves by more than 2 sec. then open the valve remotely from UCB otherwise trip the pump.

Inform turbine operator to charge HP heater on water side.

Check the other two BFP for their availability.

Keep the other BFP Pumps available on interlock by putting the interlock switch on 'P'.

Watch and note down the amperage of pump motor Feed water system is running healthy. After about 15 minutes when the bearing temp gets stabilised open the discharge valve

3.1.4 Ensure Generator Seal Oil & Hydrogen Cooling System are Normal
Ensure the Main Oil Tank (MOT) level normal and quality of oil to be O.K.

Run the oil

Centrifugal and MOT vapour fans atleast 6 hours before taking seal oil system in service.

Hydrogen pressure in Generator casing - > should be maintained at 3.5 kg/cm2

Sufficient No. of H2 bottles should be available.

<r Seal oil system and Hj cooling system running normal.

A.C. seal oil pump should be running.

Check the availability ofD.C. seal oil system

Protection & interlock for the

pumps should be tested.


Ensure Turbine Lum Oil System is Running Normal

Oil temperature at bearing should be around 40C r If it is more charge the oil cooler from water side also.

A.C. standby oil pump should be running. Lub. oil pressure 1 to 1.1 kg/cm2 at bearing header and also check the availability of D.C. oil pump.

Lub oil pump interlock switch should be 'ON1.

Check protection and interlock of lub. oil system.



Ensure Turbine Rotor is on Barring Gear and Normal

Barring gear should not start when lub. oil pressure falls to 0.3 kg/cm2. Barring gear engage lever is fully retraced. Note down the amp (61 amps) of the motor. r Check Barring gear protection and again restart Barring gear

Check the protection of Barring gear

Ensure that turbine rotor is at stand still position and lub oil system running.

Barring gear should trip at . 0.3 kg/cm2 lub oil pressure.

Engage the -> barring gear lever.

r Keep a constant watch on lub. oil pressure (1.1 kg/cm2) and temp 40C.

Start the Barring gear motor.

Barring gear is normal and healthy


Ensure Auxiliary Steam Line is Charged

Refer Aux. steam instructions in Chapter-2.

Inform boiler operator to charge the aux. steam line (16 ata header) from running unit or from M.S. line of its own unit. r Keep the drain valve near the gland steam cooler open and charge the steam line for ejector, gland steam cooler and steam seals by opening the valve.


Vacuum Pulling

Ensure CW pumps are in service. Ensure condensate system in service, main ejectors (both) and L.P. heaters (all) are charged from water side. All valves subjected to vacuum should be sealed by condensate water. Before charging check that the system inlet valves are closed.

Ensure that turbine is on Barring gear.

Ensure that auxiliary steam is charged from 16 ata. bus to turbine seal and ejector header.

After the line is heated up (for 15 minutes to 20 minutes) throttle the drain valve near gland steam cooler to avoid wastage of steam. 80

Close the vacuum breaker valves near main ejector and fill the funnel with DM water for sealing and open valves on condenser outlet.

Prior to start the starting ejector open the drain valve (after AS-4) and the isolating valve. Then open inlet valve for putting starting ejector in service and close the drain valves. Start gland steam cooler (GSC) ejecto r.

Open Air valve. See that condensei w vacuum rises to

100-150 mm.

Open the drain valves to the condenser from the first stage of the ejector.


Ensure that drain valve from stage III to UDT is open.

Open the steam to main ejector through motorised isolating valves when vacuum in condenser is 400 mrrTbf Hg. Open inlet valve
* and adjust

w W

See the steam pressure to main ejector is 6 kg/cm 2 and see that vacuum is steadily rising in the condenser r Stop the starting ejector by closing vent valve first and steam and steam valve afterwards.

pressure2 at 3 kg/cm and see that vacuum at GSC rises to 40-60 mm. of Hg column.

At about 600 mm of Hg check the vacuum protection.

Admit steam to seals.


Steaming from faces of end sealing is not permitted.


Check that all prestart requirements are over. Before HP/LP bypass stations are brought into operation check : i) ESV, IV are closed. ii) Oil system of the bypass station is put into operation by switching on its motor. iii) Vacuum in the condenser is 600 mm of Hg. iv) Condensate flow to steam throw off devices in the condenser are established by opening the motor operated valves.

Ensure that the valves of the bypass system are fully closed by reading the respective position indicators.

Set the temperature set point of HP bypass station at 200C

Do it with the help of push w button.

Put the pressure controllers and slave positioners of each HP bypass valve on manual mode

Do it with the help of push button.

After the internal superheater flow has beer established through start up vent, open the drain valves before and after bypass. Open the drain valves of MS, CR & HR lines and alsc open after LP by pass drain valves

Put the LP bypass valves on 'Auto' mode

Set the temperature set point of LP bypass station at 200C with the help of push button by reading its value on the indicator.

Open fully the MS valves for HP by pass with the help of push button and then open the boiler outlet MS valves

Check the temperature control loop is functioning normal

Switch over the temperature control loop of LP bypass valve on Auto mode with the help of push bottom.

If heating rate of steam lines exceeds prescribed limits, adjust the position of HP bypass valve from the control desk to bring down the temperature within limit.

Put the control of LP by pass valves on 'Auto'mode with pressure loop in circuit with the help of selector switch by making the contact in 'R' position.

Set the pressure set point as 6.0 ata with the help of push button.

Watch the rise of metal temperature of MS, CR & HR lines.

After 50C superheat is available at the superheater outlet open the bypass valves of MSV for heating the pipe lines upto turbine.

Open the ESV to CVS drain valves. Check that the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) evacuating valves and by pass valves across NRV on cold reheat line are tightly closed.


Open ESV by about 10-20 mm as per the scale and heat the steam admission pipe upto control valves to a temp, of 150C

Rise of metal temp, should not be more than 4C per minute.


Check that control valve of IPT remains closed complet^y during tne operation.

While opening the ESV, the control valves of HP turbine should remain tightly closed. Heat the HP turbine up to 150C Rise of metal temp, should not be more than 4C per minute. If the pressure exceeds 1 kg/cm 2 (gauge) adjust the set value at 1 kg/cm 2 with the help of push W button and indicator of LP bypass station

Open the bypass valves across the NRVs in the cold reheat line and the drain valves of HPT. Check the steam pressure in hot reheat line to be less* than 1 kg/cm2 (gauge) before starting the heating of steam admission pipe upto control valves of IPT.

Close bypass valve of MSV & NRV in the cold reheat lines when steam parameters before MSV are 20-25 kg/cm 2 and 280-300C and steam admission pipe of HPT and IPT are heated upto 150C & 100C respectively. Close ESV & IV.

Rise of metal temp, should not be more than 4C per minute.

Bring the control of LP bypass valves on 'Manual' mode with the help of push button. Manually close the HP bypass valves with the help of push button When the pressure in the reheat line comes to condenser pressure manually close the LP bypass with the help of push button.

If it still exceeds close a little the HP bypass valves.

Open the IV to CVs drain valves

Open the interceptor valve servomotor by about 10-15 mm as per the scale. Heat the steam admission pipes upto control valves to a w temp, of 100C


After having accomplished the heating, check and note down the following readings in the log-sheet before rolling the turbine. a) Metal temp, of pipes before MSV, and also before ESV. b) Metal temp, of steam admission lines. c) Metal temp, of hot reheat line. d) Metal temp, of interceptor valve. e) Metal temp, of HPT and IPT top/bottom. f) Steam parameter before MSV. g) Differential expansion of HP. IP and LP rotor. h) Axial, shift. total expansion ofHPT/IPT and condenser vacuum. Eccentricity of turbine rotor on barring gear.

While heating the main steam and reheat steam pipes the difference in temp, of pipes should not exceed 15C. But when the turbine is on load, this difference should not be more than 10C. Chamber heating should continue till temperature difference between the Upper and Lower halves of HPT and IPT casing goes 50C near the regulatin stage in the case of HPT and near the zone of steam admission in case of IPT. Continue flange and stud heating till metal temp, of flanges and studs has stabilized and difference of temp, across the width of the flange is 20-30C.

Turbine is ready for rolling.



Slowly open the bypass valves of MSVs

Allow the steam to roll the turbine. Check that barring gear has got disengaged and its motor gets switched off automatically.

Increase in rotor speed is prohibited if the turbine rotor eccentricity is more thai/ 0.07 mm.

During the process of raising the speed bearing vibration should not exceed 40 microns.

At a speed of 500 rpm.


Open the drain valves of HPT, IPT, HP and LP extraction valves.

Stop the steam supply to the turbine by closing the bypass valves of MSV and Listen carefully for any rubbing sound. If any abnormality is found stop the rolling of the turbine.

Open ESV, IV, control valves of HPT and IPT completely with the help of control gear.


If the turbine is in healthy state, again raise the speed to 500 rpm by opening the bypass valves ofMSV 1 &2. Soak the set for 5-10 mts. It is prohibited to raise the speed of turbine if the differential expansion of the turbine rotor reaches the maximum permissible values given below : For HPT rotor + 4.0 mm or -1.2 mm For IPT rotor + 3mm or - 2.5 mm For LPT rotor + 4.5 mm or - 2 mm (+ sign indicates that rotor is longer than cylinder and vice-versa for sign.)

Turn the control gear in the anticlockwise direction to keep the control valves completely open.

At a speed oi oOuu rpm

Hold the turbine ai ouuu rpm ior about 20-25 mts.


Carry out inspection and soaking of the turbine.


Perform the checking of protection and governing system and tightness test of ESV and control valves of HPT.

At a speed of 1200 rpm Soak the set for about 20 mts. Note that the control valves of HPT tend to close with the rise of speed.

Raise the speed of turbine to 3000 rpm from 1200 rpm in 5 mts. without any pause. The critical speed of the m/c should be passed as fast as possible to avoid the appearance of rotor vibration
i r


Critical speeds, are 1585, 1881, 2017 and 2489 rpm

Observe the temperature of

lUD Oil


entering the bearings.


Maintain the lub. oil temp at 40C by controlling the cooling water supply to the oil coole r s .



180 TIME ( MIN)

2 40




Stop the starting oil pump and keep it ready. NOTE : A.

Refer Turbine lub. oil system instruction.

At the speed of 500, 1200 and 3000 rpm note down the following readings in the log book


i) Condenser vacuum, ii) Axial shift. iii) Differential expansion of HPT, IPT and LPT. iv) Overall total expansion of HPT, IPT. v) Bearing vibration, vi) Turbine LPT exhaust hood temp, vii) Steam parameter at MSV. viii) M.O.P. discharge pressure. Watch that different metal temperatures have tendency to rise and note down the temperatures.


^ ? ! l l u 8 ^ ? ^ ;^ TURBINE ROLLING GUIDE LINES

Metal Temp* J Turbine Metal
*Temji> is nipre than SSQ^C* Speed 0-500 rpm = 5 mts. Hold at 500 rpm = 5 mts. for checking differential expansion, brg. vibration etc. Speed from 0-1200 rpm = 5 mts. Hold at 1200 rpm = 5 mts. for checking differential expansion, vibration etc.

ISo* < : li^fc&stiagi* less Speed from 0-500 rpm = 5 mts. Hold at 500 rpm = 10 mts.



Speed from 500 rpm to 1200 rpm @ 50 rpm = 14 mts. Hold at 1200 rpm (soaking) = 20 mts. Speed from 1200 rpm to 300 rpm = 5 mts. Hold at 3000 rpm (soaking) = 20 to 25 mts. Total = 75 minutes.

Raise the speed from 500 rpm to 1200 rpm = 5mts. Hold for 3 mts. for checking diff. expansion, vibration etc. Raise the speed from 1200 rpm to 3000 rpm. = 3 mts. without any pause. Hold the turbine at this speed (3000 rpm) for checkings. Total 26 mts.

From 1200 rpm to 3000 rpm = 5 mts. without any pause.





Total =15 mts.



Take a load of 10 to 15 MW Constantly watch the differential expansion, axial fchift, metal temp, difference between outer and inner surface of the wall of HPTafcd IPT casing (should not exceed 35C).

Synchronise the machine with the grid

Hold the turbine at this load for 30 mts. to carry out soaking and listen for rubbing.

After soaking, close all the drain valves on steam lines, steam admission pipes, HP, IP drain collectors.

Charge LP heaters from water side and steam side.

* f

Start flange and stud heating if diff. expansion comes to + 2.5mm. At the load of30MW. Close the drain valves in LP heater extraction. Note the thermal expansion of the turbine and all the other readings Should be around 20 mm as per the indicator installed at the front bearing pedestal At the load of 60 of 70 MW. Put the H.P. heaters in service, charge the HP heaters from water side and steam side, close the H.P. extraction drain valves. Charge deaerator by opening 2nd extraction steam valves.


Put the drip pump in service

*> stud heating. r

Stop the flange and

The difference of Thermal expansion of the turbine would -> temp, across the width of the be around 28 mm flange should be within 20C-30C. At about 80 MWload Start the second condensate pump & BFP and keep the third as standby. Change over steam supply to deaerator from 2nd extraction to 3rd extraction Change over steam supply for the ejectors and glands from 16 ata to deaerator when deaerator pressure stabilizes at 6 Kg/cm2 When condensate flow increases to 300 tons/hr. partly open the bypass valves of maijfi ejectors, gland system cooler andLPH-1.

At about 150 MW load.

Change over HP heater #6 drip from deaerator to heater #5. Similarly change ovei H.P. heater 5 drip from LP heater unit 4 to deaerator. At the load of210MW. Set the point of H.P. bypass valves pressure control loop at 140 ata with the help of push button. Change over the manual mode of pressure control loops of HP bypass valves to 'Auto' with the help of push button

Set the L.P. bypass valve pressure set point to 6.0 kg/cm2 (ata) and temp, set point to 200C. Change over the L.P. bypass operation from manual mode of'Auto' mode with pressure control loop in circuit.

oi;ii>f tares
si No* Metal temp* is less
1. Load upto 5 to 7 MW after synchronisation Live steam pressure.: 30 kg/cm 2 Live steam temp. 350C. Steam temp, before IPT : 320C. Soaking time : 30 mts. 2. Load 5 MW to 30 MW @ 3 MW/10 mts. in 70 mts. Steam pressure before ESV: 65 kg/cm 2 Steam temp : 430C Temperature of steam before IV: 420C. Soaking time : 20 mts. (All the drain valves in extraction lines of LP heaters to be closed). 3. Raise from 30 MW to 70 MW @1 MW/min. : 50 mts. Steam temp : 450C. Load 60 MW to 210 MW in 45 mts. (depending upon the other conditions).

Metal Temp*
Load after synchronisation : 20 to 30 MW. Soaking time : 10 mts. Steam press : 70 kg/cm2 Steam temp : 350C

Metal Temp* is more

Load after synchornisation 20 to 30 MW. After taking mills (one by one) in service load can accordingly be raised to 210 MW depending upor other conditions.

Load 30 MW to 65 MW in 35 mts. Soaking : 20 mts. Steam press : 90 Kg/cm2.

Steam press, before ESV : 105 kg/cm2 Temp, of steam before ESV : 490C. Temp, of steam before IV : 480C. Soaking time : 30 mts. Raise from 70 MW to 210 MW in 70 mts. @ 2 MW/mt. Pressure before ESV : 130 kg/cm2. Temp, of steam before ESV : 535C. Temp of steam before IV : 535C.




Depending upon the metal temperature of H.P.T. casing in the zone of regulating stage, the type of start can be chosen. 1. 2. 3. Metal temperature above 350C : HOT START Metal temperature between 150C to 350C : WARM START Metal temperature less than 15OC : COLD START.


Preliminaries For Warm or Hot Start

(i) (ii) Before warm/hot restart, the auxiliary equipment should be started in the same manner and order as in the case of cold start. Before hot or warm start, the starting oil pump should have been working and supplying oil to bearings, the turbine shaft is rolling on barring gear, and one of the condensate pump is operative. Check oil pressure in lubrication and governing system and see draining of oil from bearings. Check that all the control and measuring instruments have been switched on and are working alright.

(ill) If condenser vacuum had been killed, start vacuum pulling after supplying steam to the turbine glands. (iv) (v) Before starting the heating of steam lines, the vacuum in the condenser should be 600 mm of Hg. MSV, ESV, ISV, CVs of HPT and IPT should be tightly closed. Heating of main steam lines, body of ESV, reheat pipe lines, body of IV may be done in case the temperature of these elements is 80-100C less than the temperature of the lower half of the HPT casing in the zone of regulating stage and in the zone of steam admission in case of IPT respectively by opening the drains of relevant portion.

3.5.2 Warm Start

Read the actual metal temperature of H.P. casing at the regulating stage and should be within 150C to 350C. By using the temperature matching chart, (fig. 3.2) determine the desired steam temperature and pressure for rolling the turbine. However, the steam temperature must be more (atleast 25C) than the hottest metal temperature of ESV and steam admission pipes of HPT.


Heating and Rolling of Turbine


Select the operational mode of H.P. bypass valve

CM~i *A^fl T " l 1131 * U l l 1VXCU1UCU

Set the set point of L.P. bypass station at 6 ata by push button.

and L.P. bypass on 'Auto' and select for pressure mode of operation.


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Set the temperature control loop of H.P. bypass station on 'Auto' and set the temperature set point as per the requirement on the down steam side of H.P. bypass station

Temperature control loop of L.P. bypass stations should be on 'Auto' and temperature should be set at 200C.

During the process of heating of the steam pipe lines check the draining system is alright.

Having accomplished the heating, check and note down the Ensure that the evacuating valves and bypass valves ofNRVsinthe cold reheat lines are closed. temperatures viz. of steam pipes, ESV. IV IP casing and HPCatthe regulating stage. Manually close the HP bypass valves with the help of push button.

Ensure that the desired matching steam temperature is available at ESV.


Bring the control of L.P. bypass valves on 'Manual mode" with the help of push button. Open the L.P. bypass valves with the help of push button. When the pressure in the reheat line comes to condenser vacuum close the LP bypass valves.

Open H.P. bypass valve and raise the steam parameters of boiler to desired value.

Heat the main steam cold reheat and hot reheat lines. Open the bypass valves of MSV and ESV by about 15-20 mm and heat the steam admission pipes upto control valves. Open the IV servo motor by 10-15mir as per scale and heat the steam admission pipes upto control valve of IPT Control valves of IPT should remain tightly closed during this process.

> <r

Check that the eccentricity and differential expansion of the rotor are within limit. With the help of the speeder gear fully open IV, ESV, CVs of IPT and HPT.

Check that the steam pressure in hot reheat line should not exceed 1 kg/cm2. If required, manually close a little the HP bypass valve.

Slowly open the bypass valves of MSV and roll the turbine as per guidelines given to the synchronising speed.


Checking should be made during rolling as in the case of cold start up.




STEAM o> xj

en O o (AT A)


8 g 5




m O >


LOAD ( M W )

Synchronise the set and load the set to 20-30 MW. All the drains must be closed after some load has been taken on the turbine.

Thewaising of steam parameters and loading of the set is to be carried out as per the curve and guide lines of loading for the warm start.


After loading the unit, set HP and LP bypass stations as follows : i) HP by-pass station pressure control loop : 14 ata, automode. Temperature control loop : 380C, automode. ii) LP by-pass stations operational mode-pressure control. Pressure control loop : Auto with set point at 6 Kg/cm2 (abs) Temp. control loop : 200C, automode.

Read the actual metal temperature of the following elements :a) b) c) d) e) Metal temp, of body of ESV. Steam admission pipes of HPT and IPT. HPT in the zone of regulating stage. Steam admission chamber at IPT. Body of IV.

Now with the help of steam matching chart, determine the desired steam temperature and pressure for rolling the turbine. Steam temperature before ESV at the time of roll must be more (atleast by 25C) than the hottest metal temperature of elements mentioned above.


Hot Rolling of Turbine

Set the H.P. bypass valves on 'AUTO' mode and set the pressure setting at 5-8% higher than the actual pressure available in the main steam lines. Set the L.P. bypass station also on 'AUTO' with pressure control mode with set point at 6 kg/cm2. Heat the transfer pipes between IV and CV of IPT by opening IV 5-10 mm as p"er scale. The valves in the drains of these pipes should be kept full open, prior to the opening of IV, . After heating these pipes corresponding to the available steam temperature Close IV fuUy.

Ensure that all the pre-start conditions such as oil system in operation, vacuum in the condenser is more than 540 mm of Hg. flow of condensate in steam thro device is O.K.

Open fully MSVS and IV with the help of control gear.



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Turbine will start rolling tlirough IPT.

As soon as ttie speed of the rotor rises above 3.4 rpm, check that barring gear gets disengaged and its motor cuts out automatically. Check that the valves MS-22 and MS-23 in the evacuating lines of HPT casing are closed.



Inform, the boiler house that the turbine would soon be shut down.

Check the starting oil pump and also availability to A.C. & D.C. lub. oil pumps.

<r Start opening ofCVsoflPT and raise the turbine speed to 300 rpm without pause.


At 2800 rpm check that main oil pump takes over Stop the starting oil pump.

Reduce the load at a rate of 3 MW per minute at rated parameters by operating control gear motor

Watch the axial shift & differential expansion of the rotor and cylinder.

Synchronise the set and take around 20 MW load on the unit. Close all drains. <r Immediately load the turbine at the rate of 5 MW per min. As soon as the steam starts flowing through H.P. turbine ensure that the H.P. bypass valves starts closing. Load the set further as per -* ' the curve for hot start of turbine.

After reducing the load to 160 MW switch off the H.P. heater on steam side and drain heating steam condensate by opening the drain valves At load 90-100 MW switch off one of the condensate pumps and feed pumps and at 70 MW load check the drip pump gets switched off under automatic controller action and also ensure that auxiliary powei supply is changed from unit to reserve.

After loading the unit, set the H.P. L.P. bypass station similar to that in case of warm start (described earlier).

Maintain deaerator & condenser hotwell level normal.

At load 10 to 12 MW open by pass valve of MS before ESV and close valve on main steam line.


Reduce the load to about 5 MW slowly. Trip the unit through any protection.

Check the ESV, IV and control valves get closed. Isolate lub oil cooler from cooling water side one by one to maintain lub oil temp at 45C. After closure of the control valves immediately close the main steam valves near outlet and check that bypass of main steam valves are also closed. Stop the other BF pump depending upon the level of the boiler drum.

When the rotor comes to a stop, start the barring gear and roll the rotor continuously on barring gear till temp, of lower part of HP casing at regulating temp, stage drops to 170C, engage the barring gear lever at stand still condition of rotor and then start the barring gear motor and make sure that rotor rpm. is 3.4 when put on barring gear.

Ensure that generator is isolated through low forward power relay and the time for stopping the steam supply to turbine and isolation of generator should not be more than 4 minutes

Break the vacuum by opening vac. breaking valve and cut off the steam supply to main ejector, gland" steam cooler and steam to seals and closing the respective valves. When maximum turbine metal temp, comes down below 200C, open cylinder, transfer line and remain steam line drains. Barring gear and lub. oil pumps can be stopped if necessary. Condensate and C.W. pumps can be stopped when LP exhaust temp, comes below 40C.

At 2800 rpm. start AC lub oil pump and AC seal oil pump, check the lub oil press and A.C. seal oil press, is normal



ROUTINE CHECK : 1. The turbine is capable of accepting the variations from the rated conditions within the limits stated below : Live steam pressure Live steam temperature Reheat steam temp.

117-143 Kg/cm2 527-543C 527-543C

Sharp fluctuation of temperature and/or load on turbine should be avoided as far as possible. Sharp fluctuations consume the fatigue life of vital components.


Turbine operation with ihe steam exhaust to atmosphere is forbidden. In case of rapid drop in vacuum and opening of atmospheric valves, the turbine should be stopped immediately. The turbine may be restarted only if the exhaust part of the turbine and the condenser have cooled down to 55C. The main steam and reheat steam temperature should preferably be equal to or more than the metal temperature of steam admission elements. When the turbine is tripped due to action of protection or by turbine shut down switch, check the operation of the equipments mentioned below along with' the closure of emergency stop valves. a) b) c) Main steam stop valves must be closed. NRVs on extraction lines must get closed. Generator circuit breaker should be open.

4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

If there are more than one indicators for the same measurement, then the one which is giving favourable reading should not be assumed to be correct one. If any of the control valves gets closed accidentally the load on the turbine would get reduced. Trace out the valve by comparing the pressure reading after all control valves. The turbine must be stopped manually independent of the action of relevant protection under following situations :a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 1) m) n) Sudden appearance of excessive vibrations Water hammering Oil ignition Emergency governor out of order. Oil temp, rising upto 75C at the drain from the bearings. Drop of oil level in the tank below the lowest permissible value. Appearance of metallic noise in the turbine steam flow path. Axial shift of the rotor at the thrust bearings reaching limiting value. Accidental vacuum down to 540 mm. Increase of live or reheat steam temperature upto 655C. Lubrication oil pressure has dropped to 0.5 kg/cm2 gauge and lubrication pump (emergency) has failed to start. Sharp fall in the main steam temperature from nominal value to 450C. Increase in speed beyond 336O r.p.m. ESV, IV or control valves have seized.

9. 10.

In order to remove salts deposited on the guide and moving blades, the flushing of turbine flow path should be carried out with saturated steam during next cold start up. Analyse each drum of oil before filling in the oil tank, in case the filling is done from oil drums.


The generator should operate at a network frequency of 50 cps., which correspond to generator rotor speed of 3000 r.p.m. The net work frequency below 49.0 or over 50.5 cps is not allowed and immediate measure should be taken for restoring it within 49.0 to 50.5 cps. Turbine operation on load limiter is not recommended for a long time except in emergency. Such operation hampers control of network frequency. General temperature rise in oil supplied to the bearings at constant pressure and constant cooling water temperature indicates the choking of oil coolers.

12. 13.

14. Dust off the turbine at least once a shift, special care should be taken while cleaning the levers and links of governing and steam distribution systems.

3.9 3.9.1

DO's & DON'Ts Important DO's During Turbine Running

Close ESV & IV 15 mm by hand wheel by one and reopen back to full. Check by draining oil from bottom of MOT for checking water/sediment in the oil. Position of emergency governor- knob selector (both emergency governor should be in service). Check all vapour exhaust fans are in service. Check MOT level (280 mm) is normal. Dust off the turbine. Check the availability of R, & CO2 bottles. Check the quality (moisture, acidity, chemical impurities) of oil in Turbine MOT once in a day. Check the availability of AC & DC lub oil pumps.

Do every shift.

Do every week. Take out oil tank filters one by one for routine check up and clean by blowing dry compressed air through them. Operate the standby equipments in rotation and not equipment should be kept idle for more than one week. Do every month Check the operation of servomotors for forced closing non-return valves by operating solenoid valves at reduced loads. Check one the full closing of ESV and IV servomotor at reduced load (120 MW).


Important Dont's For Turbine Operation

Don't start the turbine if the control signals and protection system are not in working order. When turbine is on barring gear if rotor eccentricity exceeds 0.07 mm do not roll the turbine. Do not start the turbine with oil temperature at bearing inlet less than 40C 102

Do not run the turbine on load with control valves servomotor in full open condition. During shut down do not open the drain on steam adiftissidn pipes and cylinders till the metal temperature falls below 200C. Do not allow the turbine to run in the steamless conditions for more than 4 minutes. Do not drain the oil, saturated with hydrogen into Main Oil Tank. Do not allow hot rotor to stand without rolling (Barring gear). Do not allow to rotate the rotor by hand if there is not at all oil supply to bearings. Do not try to engage barring gear unless turbine rotor is completely stopped. Do not supply the steam to turbine and sealings if the machine is not on barring gear. Do not overlook abnormality in any important reading. Do not hold the set in the critical speed zone while raising the speed of the turbine.



Partial load throw off (due to high frequency). The steam pressure at ESV will increase The turbine load will decrease : : FSSS operator will control the boiler pressure. Governor will control the load. If it fails, then throttle the control valves suitably and maintain pressure to normal till the frequency comes down. There should be a constant watch on the supervisory instruments. Adjust and maintain the hotwell level Check and adjust ejector steam pressure and gland steam pressure Xo normal. Deaerator pressure tends coolers water flow as necessary. Deaerator pressure tends to fell, maintain it through extraction on 16 ata.

Disturbance in differential expansion, vibration, axial shift, eccentricity. Disturbance in condenser level. Disturbance in vacuum Turbine lub. oil temp, will change. Disturbance in Deaerator pressure Partial load thow off due to Aux. failure. There is a provision for initial load throw off by help of a relay without time delay which reduces turbine load to 100 MW in case of tripping of following equipments

In case of the tripping of these equipments operation of partial load relay will reduce the boiler output suitably in a sequential manner through FSS Scheme.


One C.W. pump in case both are running.

If the partial load relay fails/not in circuit reduce the turbine load and inform the boiler operator to control steam parameter in case one CW pump or one condensate pump trip. Careful watch may be kept on vacuum. Inform the local operator to check the cause of tripping. Maintain the deaerator and hotwell level.

One BFP in case two are running and standby does not come on auto remote/not available. One condensate pump in case two are running and standby does not come on auto/remote not available. And also due to tripping of any one of I.D. fan, F.D. fan P.A. fan. In case of full load throw off (due to opening generator breaker). The turbine may trip due to overspeeding (if the speed can be controlled by closing control valve immediately otherwise trip the turbine by emergency trip button) Sudden Increase of Load- from Pull Load Low frequency Since the turbine is on governor control the load will increase due to fall in speed. Reduce the load by the control gear and bring the boiler parameter andload to normal. Bring back the load/governing wheel pressure to normal by control gear and inform the boiler operator. Unit trip on protection if it is kept on T".

Close the control gear handwheel Check that ESV and Control valves are closed. Close the valves in the M.S. line. Close the Extr. steam valves.

Due to sudden rise of boiler drum pressure Vibration High Normally the vibration in bearings should be within 40 microns. If it exceeds the limit, turbine should be shut down

Check the turbine cylinder drain should not be cold (if necessary open the drain valve for few minutes if turbine is on load). Check brg. oil press flow and temp, to be normal. Check for any rubbing sound'etc.

: Turbine Bearing Oil Press Low

Reduce the load/speed.

Check the main line pressure and maintain it. Bearing Oil Inlet Temp. High Check the cooling water valves are open in oil coolers and vent the coolers. Put the standby cooler in service, ensure CWP is running normal. Check bearing oil outlet temp, (less than 65C). Differential Expansion Hi /Low Normally the rotor gets long during running and gets short during shut down. The expansion is to be controlled by admitting steam or shutting off supply to flange and stud heating, chamber heating accordingly. In case if it goes beyond control, the machine to be tripped. Axial Shift High In case of excessive shift the turbine will trip through the protection. Sudden change in load Abrupt change of steam parameter Sudden closure of FCNRV of heater (HP/LP) Variation in lub. oil temp, pressure and quality Control the load and maintain the steam parameter. Control the load and maintain the steam parameter. Control the load and maintain the governing pressure, if heaters are healthy open FCNRV. Maintain lub. oil pressure and temp. For quality get the oil tested from laboratory and if necessary oil is to be changed. Difference of oil temp, from thrust bearing front and rear outlet should not be more than 3C. Loss of Vacuum If there be any loss of vacuum, start the standby ejector at the earliest. Still if it does not improve, start starting ejector. With no further improvement of vacuum, reduce the load as required to maintain the vacuum at 700 mm. Meanwhile try to detect the specific reason which may be as follows : Check the steam temp. Reduce load/speed. Check the valve for flange heating are in open condition if rotor is long orclosedlf rotor is short. .Check and adjust gland steam temp. Check the vacuum to be normal


Steam ejector not properly functioning : High Level In Condenser Malfunctioning of condensate pump or valve

Check that steam pressure in 6 kg/cm2.

Check the normal running of the condensate pump, start standby. Check the operation of valve from UCB by taking it to manual, if not alright control the hotwell level bypass valve.

Malfunctioning of DM make up valve Condenser tube leakage

Close valve from UCB and watch that hotwell level falls. If the above operation fails to control, the hotwell level, get the condensate water tested by laboratory to confirm the leakage. If the tube leakage is very high, it may not be possible to pump out the condensate from the condenser when the condensate level will gradually increase. Ultimately if the water level rises up to the air suction space of condenser, water will be sucked into air s/iction pipe line of the ejector. When the same will be supercooled and ejector will not function. Shutdown the turbine at the earliest to get the leakage attended. If one pump is tripped, reduce the load. Meanwhile determine the cause of CWP failure and rectify the defects. Of course if both the CW pumps fails, there is no way out other than to trip the unit. Check sealing water pressure to valves under vacuum is normal. Check starting ejector air valve and vacuum break valve are tightly closed. Measure the amount of air leakage at air removal equipment outlet and investigate the source of leak. Check the CW inlet and outlet temperature.

CW pump failure

Air leak into system

Condenser tube chocking Loss of Barring Gear or Barring Gear Falls to Start For loss of electrical supply D.G. set will come automatically; otherwise start. Smoke from turbine seals. :

If not possible to start the DG set, attempt to turn the shaft by slings with the help of over head crane by 180C at regular intervals of 15 minutes after cutting in the D.C. emergency lub oil pump. Check differential expansions are normal Reduce seal steam temperature, if high.




This sections describes, briefly, operation of 500 MW KWU turbine. The difference in construction, control and other parameters between LMW (Soviet Design) turbine and KWU turbines have already been discussed in Power Plant familiarisation (Vol. Ill , Chapter 11 and 13). 4.1

Following auxiliaries and systems are to be commissioned before starting the turbine :


Condenser Circulating Water Systems

Ensure that air side and gas side seal oil pujnps are running. Verify that hydrogen purity in generator in more than 94%. Start Primary water pumps. Verify that fire protection channels 1 & 2 are not in operated condition Prepare the auxiliary oil pumps (AC) & emergency oil pump (DC) by opening the suction and discharge valves. Prime the pumps by opening air vent cocks. Start one auxiliary oil pump and gradually fill up the bearing oil system. When the system is filled, check the following : a) Oil level in the oil tank. b) Pressure in lub oil system (1.2 kg/cm2g) c) Sufficient flow through all bearings d) Oil temperature down stream of turbine oil coolers is within permissible limits (38-47C). Switch off auxiliary oil pump. Check automatic starting of the second auxiliary oil pump and emergency oil pump.

Open CW valves at condenser inlet. Ensure that condenser CW outlet pipe seal pit is established. Start water box priming pump so as to evacuate air in the condenser water boxes & CW. piping and establish initial vacuum in the water boxes to achieve desired syphon. Start circulating water pump(s). Establish cooling water flow through the condenser. Place the condenser on-load tube cleaning system in service.

4.1.2 Oil System

Ensure turbine main oil tank level. Check oil tank level annunciation (High/Low :- 900 mm/- 950 mm from top of tank). Start oil vapour extractors and generator bearing chamber exhaust fans. Place one turbine oil cooler oil side in service and both turbine oil cooler water side in service. Place oil temperature control valve in service.


Repeat steps (a), (b) & (c) for the following protection systems one by one : i) ii) iii) iv) v) Turbine over speed Axial displacement high Condenser vacuum too low Bearing Lube oil Press too low Emergency PB operated.

Ensure that all ESVs IVs and CVs are closed


Condenser Bvacuation System

Keep open gland sealing header drain valve*, till sound of steam is heard through this valve. Close the valve. Regulate seal steam control bypass valve to maintain seal steam header pressure, and to supply steam to turbine gland seals.

Verify that vacuum breaker is closed.


Verify also that seal steam condenser level is not high.


Switch on one seal steam condenser exhauster.


Open warming up drain valve. Open auxiliary steam supply valve to main turbine gland sealing system. Open sealing steam station inlet isolation valve. Close warming up drain valves when sound of steam is heard through this valve. Reopen the valve so as to drain any condensed steam. Repeat closing & opening until line becomes warm up. Open gland sealing steam header drain valve.

Open seal water supply valves and supply seal water to the vacuum pump system separator. Verify that the level in the separator is maintained by maximum & minimum level control valves.

Verify that the vacuum pump is also filled simultaneously, via the heat exchanger, to seal off the gaps & clearances.

Ensure cooling water supply to the heat exchanger.


Open condenser air supply valves from condenser to vacuum pumps. Close the condenser air inlet valve to the vacuum pump steam Open the bypass valve and close the motive air valve.

Crack open seal steam control bypass valve.


When steam comes out through vent valves close them and plug them. Ensure that while heating, differential temperature between parallel steam lines remains below 28C. Open MS shut off valves when pressure has built-up in MS piping.


Lub. oil temp, after cooler is more than 35C (38C-47C). i) Degree of superheat of MS before HP bypass is more than 50C (Also see pages to MS temp, before HP bypass is less than 400C. MS temp, before HP bypass is more than mid-wall temp, of HP control valves. MS press, before turbine is a function of mid-wall temp, of HP control valves.

j) k)

1) Gradually open HP bypass valves so as to establish 15% steam flow through them fully taking care to see that temperature control loop is functioning normally. Also ensure that L.P. bypass system is functioning normally. Steam flow thus established shall assist in heating main steam, cold reheat and hot reheat lines. HP bypass valves can further be opened to assist in increasing steam parameters. Put the Automatic Turbine Run-up System (ATRS) in service. Verify conditions, as under, are satisfied. a) Turbine on turning gear (Speed >15 rpm). b) Condenser pressure is less than 0.5 kg/cm 2 a. c) At least one condensate extraction pump is on. d) Trip fluid pressure is more than 5 kg/cm 2 . e) Diff. Temp, between HP casing mid section and top is less than 30C. f) Diff. Temp, between IP casing mid section and top (both from and rear) is less than 30c. g) HP control fluid temp, is more than 50C.

Raise starting device above 42%. Verify that all ESVs have opened. Verify also that drains before HP control valves are in Auto and these valves have opened.

Raise starting device about 56%. Verify that all IVs have opened.

Place 'Seal steam controller' and "oil temperature controller' in AUTO.



Verify that following generator conditions are fulfilled : a) One Gen. bearing chamber exhaust fan is on. b) H 2 temp, controller is in AUTO. c) H 2 purity is more than 94%. d) H 2 pressure is more than 3 kg/cm 2 . e) One air side seal oil pump is on. H 2 side seal oil pump is on. g) Diff. pressure between seal oil air side and H 2 side (both turbine end and exciter end) is more than 0.7 kg/cm 2 . h) Seal oil pre-chamber level (both turbine end and exciter end) is low. Generator bushing box liquid level i) is low (Less than 90. mm).

Verify that following conditions are fulfilled : a. Both auxiliary oil pumps are off. b. HR temp, before LP bypass is less than simulated mid-section temp. of IP shaft. c. Cold Hj gas temp, is less then
d. e. f.


Main excites air temp, is less than 45C Cold primary water temp, is less than 45C Primary water flow through bushings is more than 0.37 DM3/Sec. Diff temperature between primary water and Hj is more than 10C.


Warming-up and Starting the Turbine (Temp. & Pr. Curves and Formulae)

Temperature Criteria The admission steam temperatures should meet the metal temperatures as shown in the diagrams below in order to start and load the turbine in shortest possible time. Note . The criteria above represent approximate valves, which can be optimized by operation experience.

Turbines with Functional Group Automatic (FGA) for the start-up must undergo optimizing. The values obtained are given in the operational data record. Criteria for the opening of stop valves When opening the main stop-valves the main steam parameters should meet the following recommended values. - Minimum Main Steam Temperature tfMS > flS + 50C Fig. 4.1 ifrMS = Main steam at steam generator outlet OS and tfMS > f (-9MCV 50%) Fig. 4.2 Curve A
-QMS = Main s t e a m t e m p e r a t u r e at steam generator outlet flMCV 5 0 % = Middle wall t e m p e r a t u r e of m a i n control valve casing.

= Temperature of saturated steam (depending on main steam pressure)


If the control valve temperatures MCV 50% exceed the temperature of the saturated steam belonging to the main steam pressure the pressure criteria must not be observed.
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Place AVR on Auto and switch on field breaker. Verify that generator voltage is more than 95%. Switch on Synchroniser and synchronise the generator with the grid. Verify that generator breaker is on. Raise the starting device and take a block load of 10%. Close HP bypass, verify that LP bypass also closes. Raise turbine inlet MS press at the rate of 0.8 Kg/cm2 per minute upto 75 kg/ cm2 at 25% turbine load and turbine inlet MS temp, at the rate of 1,6C / min up to 485C at 50% turbine load.





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Auxiliary equipment and systems shall be started in the same manner and sequence as in case of cold start-up Check all auxiliary equipment and systems are working satisfactorily.

Put AVR on auto and switch on the Field Breakers. Verify that generator voltage is more than 95%. Switch on synchroniser and synchronise the generator with grid and take a block load of 10%.

Also check the healthiness of all protections and interlocks. Ensure that the boiler has been lightedup and steam flow established through HP and LP bypass systems.

Close HP bypass system. Verify that LP bypass system also closes. Close-all the drains.

Verify that all the conditions regarding MS and RH steam temp are satisfied.

From 60kg/cm gradually raise HPT inlet. MS press, at the rate of 1.65 kg/cm2 per minute such that 170 kg/ cm2 pressure is reached at 55% turbine load. Raise HPT inlet MS - temp, at the rate of 1.6C / minutes from 380C. to 485C. Maintain MS temp, at 485C upto turbine load 485MW. Thereafter raise MS temp, at the rate of 0.6C/min, such that 535C is reached when the turbine load has reached 500 MW.

Raise HPT inlet MS press, and temp, to 60 kg/cm2g and 380C, respectively prior to steam rolling.

Admit steam to the turbine ensure that permissible wall temp, of limit curves are not exceeded.

After holding the set at warming-up speed (300-360 rpm) for soaking purposes, verify that criteria for MS temp, is satisfied. Close all the drains. Raise the speed to 3000 rpm.
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Gradually load turbine at an average rate of 4 MW/min upto 475 MW.


At 40% turbine load cut in HP Heaters.


Verify that criteria for RH steam temp, is satisfied.


Follow Mill cutting-in sequence as under : No. of Mill Turbine Load (%) First : , 20 Second : 33 Third : 45 Fourth : 55 Fifth : 67 Sixth : ' 74

Unload the turbine by gradual closing of control valves through remote or manual operation of speeder gear. The unloading should be carried out at a rate governed by the margins shown on TSE. During unloading always keep watch on following parameters, such that they are always within permissible limits as under : a. Differential expansion HP casing : < + 5 mm > - 3 mm : < + 8 mm I.P. Casing > - 2 mm L.P. Casing : < + 30 mm > - 3 mm b. Bearing Vibration < 50 jiM c. Wall temperature of ESV, HP casing, HP & IP turbine shaft d. Differential temperature between parallel steam lines 28C.


ESVs, IVs and control valves get closed. b. All extraction steam line valves to HPH5, Deaerator, LPH 3 & 2 get closed. c. Initiate load run-back in ACS d. Initiate fast opening of HP bypass system. e. Generator is isolated through low forward power relay f. Synchronizer is OFF g. Field Breaker is OFF h. Drains before HP control valves are open. When turbine speed falls below 2790 rpm, verify the following : a. One auxiliary oil pump is on b. Oil temp, control valve is on Auto c. Gate valve gearing has opened. When turbine speed falls below 510 rpm. verify that one Jacking oil pump is on and the machine is running on barring gear. Operate HP-LP bypass systems to stabilize boiler conditions and maintain steam flow through reheater till the boiler is shut-down. Maintain condenser vacuum as long as firing in boiler in on.

Having unloaded the turbine to no load, trip the turbine manually. Ensure the following.


A variety of conditions may arise with the boiler and the turbine that can be considered as of emergency nature necessitating a shut down. This section details the major steps to be taken in the turbine side during an immediate emergency. Operate emergency push buttons from either the ATRS control insert or the local turbine front. Ensure that ESVs, IVs and control valves of both HPT & IPT have closed.

Isolated the generator and switch off field breaker and synchronizer. Break the vacuum.


xv) Regularly note readings of all the turbovisory instruments, take measures for abnormalities. At least once in a year check all the turbovisory instruments mounted on the turbo set.


i) ii) iii) iv) Do not operate the set if the condenser pressure is more than 0.3 kg/cm2a. Do not start the turbine if the condenser pressure is more than 0.5 kg.cm2a. Do not run the turbine if the bearing drain oil temperature exceed72C. Do not run the set continually at low load or no load. Do not run the turbine for a long time at no load or low load immediately after if has run for long duration at higher load, to avoid quenching of the internal parts. Do not allow the turbine to run if the LP exhaust temperature goes beyond 100pC. Do not drain oil saturated with hydrogen vapours into the oil tank, Do not rely solely on the lamp indications for the operation of pumps, valves and fans. Physical check has also to be resorted to.

v) vi) vii)

viii) Do not synchronise the machine with the grid without checking the operation of solenoid valves for load shedding relay. ix) x) Do not start the turbine without ensuring that standby oil pumps are healthy to operate, Do not start the turbine with faulty instruments. Get them rectified before starting.




5.1 LINE UP :
Before executing and synchronising; the generator following system are to commissioned.


Seal Oil System :

Wait till damper tank is full and the oil level in hydraulic seal rises to a point midway. Check the oil level in hydraulic seal oil tank'above lower gauge glass but below upper gauge glass. Cheek the alarms for high/low level'in hydraulic seal tank and damper tank to be working all right by simulating both the conditions by level switch with help of C&I personnel. Charge the cooling water flow to seal oil cooler. Check the centrifugal fan in service in the main oil tank. Check the suction and discharge pressure of A.C. seal oil pump. Check oil pressure before and after the filter. Apply thrust oil pressure by regulating inlet and outlet valve of P.O.R. carefully to get the required pressure. Open inlet and outlet valves of DPR. Open damper tank by-pass valve. Start the A.C. seal oil pumps and slowly open the discharge valve.

Seal oil system commissioning is required prior to filling of hydrogen in the generator. The turbine main oil tank filled upto the required level with centrifuged oil.

Following services should be made available : 1) Electric power for A.C. seal, oil pump motor, ii) D.C. power for D.C. seal oil pump motor, controls relays, starting and signalling panels, iii) Cooling water supply for seal oil coolers, iv) Dry clean compressed air for filling the generator.. Open the valves for suction and discharge of AC seal oil pump, its coolers and oil filters. Open the valves leading. the discharge oil to damper tank. Close all other valves. Charge the seal oil line with oil by gravity from MOT. Vent air from cooler, filter etc. and close the discharge valves of A.C. seal oil pump. Check the venting of pressure gauges is over.

Stop filling operation if theH, concentration attains a concentration of 98% and H, pressure attains rated value 3.5 kg/cm 2

During H, filling, continuously analyse the concentration of H 2 in gas mixture inside the machine. PURGING OF R, BY CO, Admit CO2 to the bottom of the casing through the CO2 feed pipe.

Hydrogen is discharged to the atmosphere through hydrogen feed pipe line.

Stop filling CO2 when CO2 concentration has reached 98%. PURGING OF COa BY AIR

When CO2 concentration in the CO2 hydrogen mixture reached 98%, air filling may be started to expel the CO2 before the machine is opened for maintenance. For this purpose dry instrument air is used.


Stator Water Cooling System

Open the stator bypass valve; start the pump and slowly open the discharge valve to full Adjust the cooling water pressure and flow. Charge the other cooler from D.M. water side and bring the temperature of D.M. water to 40C. Charge the cooling water for secondary stator water cooler. Charge rectifier for exactor (RCU) by opening D.M. water inlet valve and adjust the flow by the control valve.

Keep the pump interlocking switch in OFF position. Check up 415 V, 50c/s supply for stator water cooling pumps. Ensure that one D.M. make up pump/sis running and fill-up the expansion tank and D.M. water make up tank (if provided) upto their normal value by opening respective inlet valves. Supply clarified water to the water line valve to ejector by opening clarified water line valve to create vacuum and thus maintain vacuum in the expansion tank. Open the D.M. water valves before and after the stator water pumps, stator water coolers and mechanical filters.



Ensure the availability and completeness of all the equipment and circuits. Check bearing vibrations and rubbing etc. if any, inside the generator during rolling or any abnormal sound.

Take clearance from electrical division for synchronising.


Check temperature of bearing seal babbit and drain oil.

Ensure that the insulation resistance of the system is within permissible limits especially if the generator is being synchronised after a long time or in rainy season.

If the insulation resistance of the system is low, dry out of stator winding and associated bus duct should be carried out.

Throttle inlet and outlet valve of H2 gas coolers according to gas temperature, Do not allow the gas temperature to rise above 55C.

Ensure that the machine has attained the rated speed of 3000 r.p.m. Obtain a go forward signal from boiler and turbine operator to synchronise the machine.

Check seal oil system for seal oil pressure, flow and temperature.

Enquire from the switchyard control room about synchronising of machine to the required bus.

Close the isolator for bus. Check Hj cooling system for H2 pressure, purity and gas leakage. Ask switchyard control room operator to close transformer side isolator and report back to unit controller about proper closing of the isolators after physically verifying the same.

Charge stator winding coolers with distillate and ensure quality, pressure, flow and temperature of the distillate.

Check that generator breaker and generator field breaker are open

If not, open generator breaker or field breakers as the case may be.

Check that the synchroscope cut off switch is 'OFF and synchronising check relay "SKE" bypass switch is on "IN CIRCUIT" position. If not, put these switches in the said positions.

Advice rolling of turbine to rated full speed (3000 rpm>.


Put synchroscope switch to "OFF" position

Ask turbine operators to carry out necessary operations on turbine side required for raising the load.

Keep generator winding & core temperature, generator transformer winding temperature, H 2 gas temperature, generator seal and bearing metal temperature within limits by adjusting cooling water flow to generator gas coolers and oil coolers. Load the generator upto 150 MW as per guide lines available.

Put "antimotoring" protection switch on "ON1 position after taking some load on the machine (say 20 MW).

Gen. voltage and P.F. (power factor) will be maintained by AVR if the excitation mode is on "Auto"; otherwise, maintain generator Voltage and PF by varying the field rheostat from the gen. control desk. If excitation mode is on manual then change over to "Auto" mode after matching the parameters. (Refer Fig. 5.1).

Slowly raise the load on generator upto 80 MW (follow the guide lines given for loading the machine). Now the voltage and power factor will be maintained by the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). However, the level can be changed by' varying the rheostat resistance

At this load check generator bearing and seals temp, generator winding/core temperature, generator transformer winding temperature, H 2 gas temperature, performance of automatic voltage regulator and cooling water flow toR.C.U.

If generator wdg/ core temperature is higher adjust distillate flow and cooling water flow to gas coolers.

If Gen. T/Fwdg. temp, is high, check that ail the cooling fans and pumps of cooler banks are in service.

If the AVR is not functioning properly take the voltage control on "Man mode".

Check exciter winding temperature & slip ring sparking. Ensure that the exciter voltage and eurrent are within permissible limits. r Check H2 pressure, purity and temperature, performance of seal oil system and stator water cooling system.

r Changeover 6.6 KV auxiliary bus from station supply to unit auxiliary supply taking both the unit auxiliary transformer into circuit. Check that the unit auxiliary supply incoming breakers are racked in service position. Springs are changed and "Local/Remote" switches are on "Remote" position


Fill more H2 gas gas if pressure and purity are low. If the performance of seal oil system is not satisfactory take corrective measures.


Increase load on the generator as per loading guide lines up to full rated load. Check generator wdg/core temp. Gen T/F wdg. temp, and vibrations. If Gen. wdg/core temp, cannot be controlled by increasing cooling water flow to gas coolers and distillate to stator water coolers. Reduce load. If all parameters are within limits, maintain load on the Generator according to boiler and Turbine parameters and conditions.

If the vibrations increase beyond limits reduce load and investigate cause. Check that all the cooler bank fans and pumps are running, if not, start them. Even then if the temperature of T/F wdg. does not come down, reduce load.

5.4 5.4.1


It is important that the generator and its auxiliaries be kept under observation during operation. The annunciation system will give warning of abnormal conditions, but regular observation is needed to detect any gradual deterioration in the operating conditions and take appropriate corrective action even before any alarm comes. All those parameters should be noted by the operator in the log sheets specially maintained. These are over and above the automatic recording done by instruments. It is recommended that a full inspection of the generator should be made after it has been in operation for approximately one year after commissioning.


Hourly Checks : TEMPERATURE:

Hourly checking of temperature of following should be done and any abnormal rise in temperature should be reported to the concerned personnel without delay. Remedial measures should be taken. Stator winding Stator core Rotor winding Cold and Hot gas (Refer Fig. 5.2) Distillate temperature and inlet and outlet stator winding (refer Fig. 5.3) Babbit temperature of bearing and seal liner Inlet and outlet oil temperatures of generator bearings and shaft seals Inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water to gas coolers



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FIG. 5.3


Check the settings of all the electrical contact, pressure gauges and other instruments. Check the conditions of the lamps in tfte signalling system of H2 cooling, seal oil and stator water system. Check stator water system for presence of any gas. Check the leakage rate of H2. Check the H^ content in oil tank. Check the insulation of excitation system. Test run the stand by A.C. seal oil pump and the emergency D.C. Seal oil pump. Run them for few minutes to check that they supply oil at the correct pressure and also run smoothly. Check the interlock between two pumps.


Weekly Checks
Examine the conditions of brush gear. Replace if any, short brushes, Check that brushes are freely sliding in their holders. Adjust pressure on the brushes so that it is uniform on all the brushes and is about 1.1. to 1.3. kg., on each brush. Check interlocking between working and standby stator water pump for automatic take over. Run stand by pump for few minutes to check that it develops correct pressure of water ajd also runs smoothly. Check the operation of automatic D.C. Bridge recorders. Check the operation and calibration of hydrogen purity indicator. Check the differential pressure across the filters in the seal oil and stator water system to ascertain whether they are choked or not. If necessary switch over to stand by and take corrective action. Check interlocking between working and stand by H, cooler booster pump. Test run the stand by booster pump and check flow and pressure. Check resistivity of distillate by laboratory testing. Check purity of Hj by laboratory testing. Check for H^ concentration in bearing chamber. Check HJJ concentration in bus duct enclosure. Check the gas sample taken from hydraulic seal for oxygen content. Check the bearing vibrations by portable and accurate vibration measuring instruments.

Monthly Checks
Chock all accessible bolts for tightness. Check all the protection and signalling circuits. Check that all the alarms operates correctly by simulating abnormal conditions wherever possible or by manually operating the initiating contacts. Check once in three months the polarity of slip rings in order to have uniform wear of the slip rings. 141



Stator water flow low Check expansion tank level is normal and drains are closed. Check position of recirculation value. Check whether running pump has tripped. Reserve pump should start on Auto, if not start manually. Check differential pressure across the filter is normal.


Stator water conductivity high

Check D.M. water conductivity from the D.M. Plant. If normal, then purge same water from system. If D.M. tank Water conductivity is high then close D.M. make up valve. Check stator water cooler for leakage. Regenerate-polishing unit resin beds & take it into service.


Hydrogen pressure low

Charge fresh hydrogen. If consumption is high then investigate leaking points. If the pressure persist to drop then reduce load on generator. If the pressure can't be maintained then trip the set. Purge some hydrogen from casing and charge fresh hydrogen. Check seal performance is normal.


Hydrogen purity low


Seal oil differential high/low

Check DPR is functioning normally. If not change to the bypass line and get DPR attended. Adjust the pressure at injector/ pump discharge.


Liquid in generator

Open the low point drain of generator and check nature and amount of leakage. Check proper functioning of DPR. Check thrust oil pressure. Check stator water pressure.


Generator stator cooling water leakage Damper tank level low

Check gas trap and analyse the gas from it. In case stator water leakage is suspected then shut down the unit and attend the leak. Check DPR operation. If required open the bypass valve and make up the level. If the level approaches 16w unit will trip. 145


References :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. , PETS Training Materials CEGB Training Materials Modern Power Station Practice - CEGB BHEL/NTPC Mannuals NTPC Training Materials

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