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Initiating

Initiating
1) Select Project Manager 2) Determine company culture and existing systems - Enterprise Environmental factors 3) Collect processes, procedures, lessons learned, and historical information - Organizational Process Assets 4) Divide large projects into phases 5) Identify stakeholders 6) Document Business Need What does the business hope to gain from the project? Is it realistically attainable? Is there a time frame requirement? Is it realistic? Part of need is monetary return: Net Present Value - Benefit less the Costs over several periods. Pick project with biggest NPV Internal Rate of Return IRR - the bigger the better Payback period - how quickly does project pay for itself Benefit Cost Ratio = Benefit / Cost, bigger better Opportunity Cost - opportunity lost by choosing one project over another Working capital = current assets - current liabilities, money available to invest Constrained optimization - (mathematical approach) a method of project selection using multi-objective project algorithms Not Value Analysis - which is a way method of finding the least expensive way of doing something.

7) Determine Project Objectives What is the end result and purpose. How will the end be determined? 8) Document assumptions and constraints For assumptions document what is the affect if the assumption is not true. This is the beginning of Risk identification! A Normal constraint is pre-determined delivery date 9) Develop project charter Integration Knowledge area Contains: 10) Develop preliminary project scope statement Integration Knowledge area Contains:

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Planning

Planning 1) Determine how you will do planning - part of management plans The Art of Project Management What needs to be done for a project is determined by it's size and complexity but... When "Tailoring" a project to omit a process the reason for omission needs to be documented Develop Project Management Plan - Integration KA 2) Create project scope statement Scope Management plan - Scope KA Scope definition - what is and is not included in the project - Scope KA Product Scope - requirements that relate to the product of the project Project Scope - the work to deliver the product of the project A precise description of a deliverable includes a specification 3 Determine team Persons to help plan the project: EA, QA, Contracts/Procurement, Risk Mgmt, Regulatory, specialized areas depending on the project. In this early part of the project, the PM will most likely be "Directing" the team to get things moving. 4) Create WBS and WBS dictionary - deliverable oriented - ALL deliverables even PM deliverables - is the foundation from which the project knows what to do - is a hierarchal decomposition of the work, a layer at a time, into Work Packages (work packages cannot be broken down further, can be completed quickly, without need for more information) WBS is the tool, Decomposition is the process to create the WBS. There are many benefits of WBS, some are: reduces chance of missing work, helps team see where their piece fits, provides proof of staffing needs, cost and time requirements The WBS does NOT show dependencies, that is in the Network Diagram. WBS Dictionary - Identifier, work to be done, person responsible, milestones or due dates. Output: Scope baseline = Project Scope Statement, the WBS, the WBS dictionary Project Scope Statement is updated Scope management plan is updated 5) Create Activity List - is the decomposition of WBS items. Activity Definition - Time KA 6) Create Network Diagram Activity Sequencing - Time KA Float = LF - LS or EF - ES Total Float - time a task can be delayed w/o affecting project completion. Free Float - delay that will not affect the next task in the sequence

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Planning

7) Estimate Resource requirements Activity Resource Estimating - Time KA Directing - Telling others what to do Facilitating - Coordinating the input of others Coaching - Instructing others Supporting - Providing assistance along the way Autocratic - Do it "my" way Consultive - Invite ideas and discussion Consensus - Problem solving in a group, with group agreement 8) Estimate Time and Cost When there is uncertainty regarding one or more aspects of a project then one of the first steps to take is to increase the Cost Estimate (not to be confused with padding where the is no uncertainty). Bottom up estimating Analogous Estimating - something similar Parametric Estimate - lines of code or industry standard Definitive estimate - -10% to + 15% Cost of Quality Cost of PMO Activity Duration Estimating - Time KA Cost Estimating - Cost KA Considerations: Life Cycle Costing - overall cost of the life of the product Value Analysis - Finding less costly way to do same work Cost Risk - who has the most risk for a contract. 9) Determine Critical path Proves how long a project will take Shows where to focus efforts Shows which issues need immediate attention Shows where schedule compression can take place Shows affects of float

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Planning

10) Develop Schedule Schedule Management Plan - The schedule baseline is the final schedule. Schedule Development - Time KA, Outputs = Project Schedule, Resource Rqmts (updates), PM plan (updates) Schedule Network Analysis uses one or all of: PERT - see formulas Critical Path method Schedule compression What if scenarios - Monte Carlo Analysis, simulate schedule outcomes Resource Leveling - lets schedule slip and cost increase due to limited resources Critical Chain method - the use of built in buffers, milestones Schedule compression: Re-estimating - to reduce/remove risks Fast tracking - running critical path activities in parallel, increases risk because of potiential re-work Crashing - to make cost and schedule trade offs 11) Develop Budget Cost Budgeting - Cost KA Cost Baseline - includes Contingency Reserve Cost Budget - includes Management Reserve Funding Limit Reconciliation - if the funds to pay for the project are not available then Schedule will be impacted, the project would be delayed because there is no way to pay for it.

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Planning

12) Determine Quality Standards, Processes, and Metrics Qaulity = the degree to which the project fulfills requirements, ie scope Quality Planning - outputs: Quality management plan (p 243) Checklists - items to inspect Process Improvement plan - Review of: are there repeated processes? how status updates and other stats gathered? Quality Baseline - measure of what? Defects after implementation Quality Metrics - how is project going, are there a lot of defects in testing causing rework. Benchmarking - uses past projects for improvement ideas and sets guidelines for quality improvement. Quality Assurance is determining whether standards are being met, work is continuously improved, and deficiencies corrected. Done mostly in Executing. Continuous improvement. Improvements to company standards Tools are: Quality Audits - standards followed, lessons learned Process Analysis - Qualit improvement of repeated processes Quality Control = measure results against standards. Changes to Quality baseline. Defect repair. Done during Monitoring and Controlling, using tools: Cause and Effect diagram (Fishbone or Ishikawa), Flowchart, Histogram, Pareto Chart (80/20 rule) fix 80% of problems from 20% of causes, Run Chart, Scatter Diagram, Control Chart - customer specification versus quality control limit. 13) Determine Roles and Responsibilities Human Resource KA Outputs of Human resource planning: 1) Roles and Responsibilities 2) Org Charts - RACI chart 3) Staffing management plan See chapter 9 for specific roles of sponsor, team, etc In a Matrix organization the Functional manager controls the resources. Similar to Cardinal On test assume Matrix orgization if not stated. For comparisons between organization structures, think Functional Project Expediter - staff assistant, cannot make decisions Project Coordinator - has some decision authority

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Planning

14) Determine Communication requirements 90% of pm time Communications Planning - Communications KA What, Why, Between who, Method, Whose responsible, When, How often Escalation process, Management chain to assist in Issue resolution Channels = N(N - 1) / 2 Formal written - complex problems, pm plans, charter, over long distances Formal verbal - presentations, speeches Informal written - emails, notes Informal verbal - meetings, conversations Nonverbal communication = 55% Paralingual = pitch and tone Feedback - make sure understood 15) Risk 1) Identification, 2) qualitative and 3) quantitative risk analysis and 4) response planning Risk Management planning - Risk KA Uncertainty (lack of knowledge) about the eventual conclusion of an event. When there is uncertainty regarding one or more aspects of a project then one of the first steps to take is to increase the Cost Estimate (not to be confused with padding where the is no uncertainty). Contingency Reserves for Known Risks - is part of the Cost baseline Management Reserves for Unknown Risks - is part of the overall budget but not part of the Cost baseline Risk review and identification should be primary purpose of Update meetings Know stakeholders: Risk Tolerance - whether a risk is acceptable Risk Threshold - how much risk is acceptable Risk Register - Trigger (the root cause), What will occur, the chance it will occur, when it would occur, how frequently occurs, response, response owner, reason for risk going to the watch list Ways to determine risks: Sources of Risk / Risk Categories - areas that need to be reviewed for risks (pmp prep 333) Brainstorming Delphi technique - anonymous expert participation to reach a consensus (of risk response id'ing) Root Cause Analysis - the cause of the risk could reveal other risks SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) of the project to find risks. RISK is continued in next cell.

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Planning

15) Risk Identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis and response planning Qualitative Risk Analysis - subjective feel for the risk events probablity and impact. Qualitative risk analysis are probability and impact definition, assumptions testing and probability and impact matrix development Risk Matrix - probablity and impact ranking Risk Quality assessment - how accurate and understood is the risk Risk Urgency assessment - how quickly will the risk occur OR will it take along time to plan a response Watch List - non-critical, low priority risks to be reviewed later, an output from Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis - a "risk assessment" that is a numerical analysis of probablity and impact Monte Carlo analysis - using 3 point estimates to simulate project outcomes and overall project risk Sensitivity Analysis - what risks have the most potiential impact to the project Expected Monetary Value - the probablity of a risk Times the risks monetary impact Decision Tree - maps out possible choices that are mutually exclusive and their impact to determine best choice. Uses expected monetary value Risk Response Planning - first, look to get rid of the cause of the risk Strategies for threats: Avoid (eliminate cause), Mitigate (reduce probability), Transfer (also Deflect, Allocate) Strategies for opportunities: Exploit (make it happen), Enhance (increase probability), Share (ie partner to enhance Acceptance (if it happens, it happens) is a strategy Risk Response Owner - person that owns, inititiates, and oversees the risk response plan for a specific risk 16) Iterations - Go back 17) Determine what to purchase Plan Purchases and Acquisitions Procurement Management plan Contract Statement of Work Make or Buy decision Contract types: Fixed Price (FP) - the best for the buyer Seller may under bid then try to make up with difference with change orders, more work for buyer to write SOW, seller has strong incentive to control costs Time and Material (T&M) - medium risk to buyer, usually for smaller projects Requires auditing of invoices, hard to manage requires day to day oversight, no cost control incentive. Good for quick startup and staff augmentation Cost Reimbursable (CR) - buyer has most risk because costs are unknown Requires auditing of seller invoices, hard to manage, seller has no incentive to control costs The Contract Manager is the ONLY person that can change the Contract.

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Planning

18) Prepare procurement documents Protect relationship with seller Outputs: Plan Contracting Procurment documents 1) Request for Proposal RFP - price and how work will be done. Cost Reimbursable (CR) contract 2) Invitation for Price IFP, or Request for Bid RFB - one price to do all the work. Fixed Price (FP) contract 3) Request for Quotation RFQ - request price per item, product, etc. Time and Material (T&M) contract A letter of intent is not a contract 4) Statement of Work SOW - can be changed and updated as it moves thru procurement process (Herman W) Privity is a contractual relationship. If A contracts with B, and B subcontracts with C. C does not have to listen to A. A needs to talk with B, then B will talk with C. Evaluation Criteria of sellers - should be in the Procurement docs so Sellers know how they will be judged Single Source - Preferred Supplier Sole Source - Only one Supplier

19) Determine the "How to Execute and Control aspects of all management plans 20) Create Process Improvement plans As planning occurs, where are the points where improvements could occur? What are these touch points? 21) Develop final PM plan and performance measurement baselines 22) Gain formal approval This is making sure that all of the major Stakeholders buy-in to the project and the plan to guide the project. 23) Hold Kickoff meeting First thing, in the kick-off is to discuss/review the Roles and Responsibilities of both individuals and teams. There should be no surprises as the persons should already have been involved but it needs to be re-iterated.

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Executing

Executing
1) Acquire final team Should be according to the Staffing management plan Human Resource KA Outputs: 1) Staff assignments 2) Resource Availability 3) Updated Staffing management plan Is according to how the Budget and Schedule were determined 2) Execute the PM plan Direct and Manage project execution - Integration KA Outputs are all of the deliverables from all the activities in this process group 3) Complete the Product Scope - requirements that relate to and describe the product of the project 4) Follow processes 5) Use Work Authorization system To help schedule when and by who the work is to be performed. 6) Hold progress meetings Agenda should have team input Have meeting ground rules 7) Continuous Improvement Quality Assurance is determining whether standards are being met, work is continuously improved, and deficiencies corrected. Done mostly in Executing. Continuous improvements to company standards Tools are: Quality Audits - standards followed, lessons learned, Quality Plan followed Process Analysis - improve repeated processes Lessons Learned - gathered throughout project

8) Recommend changes and corrective actions

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Executing

9) Send and Receive information Information distribution - Communications KA Making information available in a timely manner to stakeholders. This includes: Performance reporting against baselines, Requested changes Forecasts, Issues, Lessons Learned Nonverbal = 55% of communication Paralingual = Pitch and Tone of voice 10) Implement approved changes, defect repair, preventive, corrective actions, AND contingency plans Integration is Key at Interface points in the project, where different processes interact (ie. Request changes, Defect repair, Approve and Implement changes)

11) Team Building Develop Project Team - Human Resource KA Output is Team Performance assessment - how effective is the team, how can it be improved PM powers: 1) Expert, 2) Reward, 3) Formal, 4) Referent 5) Penalty Get training for team members to improve skill set. Constructive team role of PM is Initiator, Encourager, Gatekeeper Project Performance Appraisals - of each employee Team Performance Assessment - team effectiveness 12) Give recognition and awards Manage Project Team - Human Resource KA 13) Request Seller responses Protect relationship with seller Bidder Conferences Keep all questions and answers in writing; issued to all potential sellers Outputs: 1) Qualified Seller list 2) Procurement Document package 3) Proposals

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Executing

14) Select Sellers Methods of evaluating: Weighting based on criteria Independent estimate - reasonableness check Past Performance, Presentations, Negotiations tactics Some of the outputs: 1) Selected Sellers 2) Contract An offer with Acceptance, that has a Consideration (ie some form of payment), Legal Capacity, Legal Purpose (cannot have a contract for illegal activity) 3) Contract Management plan - have a summary of milestones, deliverables, reporting, etc 4) Resource Availability

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Monitor and Control

Monitoring and Controlling OVERSEES the Entire project thru ALL of the process Groups
1) Configuration management Subset of Project Management System, documents the procedures used to give guidance to the project. Allows for the documenting of all Requested Changes and that they were reviewed thoroughly for "Triple Constraints" Is a repository of all documents especially the Baselines for all pm plans Configuration Management is used to ensure that the product description correct and complete via the repository of information. A precise description of a deliverable includes a specification 2) Integrated change control - Integration KA Every change request must go thru the Change Control process to seek approval Stakeholders may need to approve changes that affect them. For every change request the affects to scope, schedule, budget, quality, risk, and customer satisfaction must be considered. 3) Use Issue Log Manage Stakeholders - Communication KA Is used from the beginning of a project to make sure all stakeholders requirements are addressed. Assists in keeping stakeholders aware of change requests and corrective actions. Can be used to track team member concerns 4) Facilitate conflict resolution Confronting (Problem Solving) - Win/Win confronting the problem to solve the real problem Compromising - Lose/Lose - some degree of satisfaction but not totally happy Withdrawal (Avoidance) Smoothing - focus on agreements rather than differences of opinion Forcing - push one point of view. For personal issues Forcing is not a good thing, work related issues it is more ok. Top 4 causes of conflict: 1) Schedules, 2) Priorities, 3) Resources, 4) Technical opinions. Not personality issues. Manage Project Team - Human Resource KA

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Monitor and Control

5) Risk Audits Are processes being followed, are there ways to improve Risk Monitoring and Controlling - Risk KA Risk review and identification should be primary purpose of Update meetings Are assumptions of risks still valid. Respond to Risk Triggers 6) Measure against the performance measurement baselines: Monitor and Control Project Work - Integration KA Monitor and Controlling oversees all of the other process groups, even during Initiatiing Process Group Scope Control - changes will occur but they must be managed. Look for where scope changes can occur Schedule Control Cost Control - outputs are Estimate at Completion EAC, Budget Updates, Revised Cost Estimates Quality Control - Quality audits = measure results against standards. Changes to Quality baseline. Defect repair. Done during Monitoring and Controlling, Tools: Cause and Effect diagram (Fishbone or Ishikawa), Flowchart, Histogram, Pareto Chart (80/20 rule) fix 80% of problems from 20% of causes, Run Chart, Scatter Diagram, Control Chart customer specification versus quality control limit. Risk Control below Use of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) for CPI and SPI 7) Measure according to the management plans 8) Determine variances and if they warrant corrective action or a change

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Monitor and Control

9) Scope verification Tool: Inspect a deliverable Inputs: Project Scope Statement, WBS Dictionary, Project Scope Management plan, Deliverables A precise description of a deliverable includes a specification Output: Get formal (written) acceptance of a deliverable from the customer else Request changes, Defect repair, Corrective actions An example of Scope Verification is reviewing the performance of an installed software module Scope Verification is concerned with acceptance of deliverables While Quality Control is concerned with meeting Quality requirements Note: Corrective actions are an OUTPUT of both Scope Verification AND Scope Control

10) Recommend changes, defect repair, preventive and corrective actions 11) Manage reserves - Time and Cost Reserve Analysis - accommodate time and cost risks thru the use of reserves Contingency Reserves - Known Risks - is part of the Cost baseline Management Reserves - Unknown Risks - is part of the overall budget but not part of the Cost baseline

12) Approve changes, defect repair, preventive and corrective actions 13) Measure team member performance Manage Project Team - Human Resource KA Project Performance Appraisals - of each employee Team Performance Assessment - team effectiveness 14) Create forecasts Performance reporting - Communication KA

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Monitor and Control

15) Administer contracts Protect relationship with seller The PM is responsible for assuring that all things in the contract are done, however small, and that the PM must uphold all parts of the contract. If there is some item of the contact not being performed then it needs to be called out immediately. Outputs: Contract Documentation PM Plan updates - Procurement plan, Contract Mgmt plan Force Majeure - act of God 16) Report on performance This relates to BOTH the project performance as well as the team and individual performance Performance reporting - Communication KA Motivation theories: McGregor's theory X (employees need to be watched) and Y (people can take initiative to work on own) Maslow's Hierarchy - Self actualization, Esteem, Social, Safety, Physical needs Herzberg's Theory - Hygiene factors (things surrounding work) vs. Motivating agents (things within work)

Bribes are never to be paid, ever! If it looks like a bribe, smells like a bribe, then it's a bribe.

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Closing

Closing - not in any specific order EXCEPT that Release Resources is always last.
1) Develop Closure procedures Projects always need to be formally closed regardless of what causes the project to end. Contract Closure - Closes a contract that is part of the project. Occurs before administrative closure. Addresses all the terms and conditions of the contract. Documents the acceptance of all exit criteria for contract closure. Uses term "Procurement audit" Administrative Closure - done at end of project or project phases. Documents the approval all changes. Documents that all deliverables have been formally accepted. Documents the acceptance of all exit criteria. Uses term "Lessons Learned". Is done after Contract Closure

2) Confirm work is to requirements Do project deliverables meet completion or exit criteria set at the beginning during planning

3) Gain formal acceptance of the product Formal, written signoff of acceptance from customer 4) Hand off completed product Turn over to the Maintenance/Run teams, Operations, etc. 5) Complete Contract Closure Make final payments, complete cost records. Complete Contract Closure - Product verification, Financial closure, Final Contract Performance reporting 6) Final performance reporting Update team information, new skills acquired, overall performance, etc 7) Index and archive records 8) Update lessons learned knowledge base 9) Release resources

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