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1. Introductory concepts

1.1 The Concept of State

By way of an introduction, consider the following system: And lets assume that for say a step input, u(s) = 1 , you wanted to determine the s

output time response x(t). Hopefully you remember how to do this – you must obtain

the Inverse Laplace Transform of x(s) i.e.

s + 2

(1.1)

The unique solution of x(t) being, of course, determined by initial conditions for x,

at t= 0. To solve (1.1) you must first factorize the cubic polynomial and

then apply partial fraction techniques to obtain:

( ) =

xt

L

1

(

ss

3

+

2

s

2

++ 21

s

)

dx

dt

d

2

x

dt

2

and

( ) =

xt

L

1

a

++ b

ss

+ 1

cs

+

d

s

2 + s +

1

(1.2)

And having solved for a, b, c and d you then look up the inverse Laplace Transform of each term and, well done, you’ve solved it. I shall not do it because its too boring.

The point is that the process is an analytic one and totally unsuitable for solution on a computer. (As it so happens, all simulation -i.e. Finding time responses- and nearly all control design is nowadays done with the aid of a computer). Firstly computers don’t like solving polynomials (the cubic of (1.1) has to be factorized) and secondly, the computer does not like working with mathematical operators – how indeed would “s” be represented on a computer?

Instead, we revert to the original differential equations defining the physical system. As far as the computer is concerned we abandon the Laplace operator s. We work in the TIME DOMAIN and not the frequency domain (or s domain).

The third order system above is defined by the 3 rd order differential equation:

x + 22 +=+ 2u

+

x

xxu

(1.3)

u is the forcing input and x is the solution variable. As it happens computers don’t like (1.3) either – they don’t like higher order differentials. Instead (1.3) can be reduced to three 1 st order differential equations:

2

x

x

x

1

2

3

=

a

11

x

1

+++

a

12

x

2

a

13

x

3

bu

1

=+ a x

21

1

a

22

x

2

++ a x

23

3

bu

2

=+++ a x a x

31

1

32

2

a

33

x

3

bu

3

(1.4)

Don’t worry how this is done – we’ll look at the methods later. We notice a few salient features of (1.4). The derivatives of u have disappeared. This will be true for all PHYSICAL systems. Second, and most important, whereas we originally had one n’th order equation with one solution variable, we now have n 1 st order equations with n solution variables. Before the solution variable was the output x but now we have

and they can’t all be outputs of the system! They are not outputs. For an n’th

order system they are a set of n variables, which may or may not be physical real, which define the state of the system at any given point in time. They are termed STATE VARIABLES.

x , x , x

123

GIVEN A PHYSICAL SYSTEM, THEN AT ANY POINT IN TIME, KNOWLEDGE OF THE STATE VARIABLES (at that point in time) TOGETHER WITH KNOWLEDGE OF THE FORCING FUNCTION u IS SUFFICIENCT TO UNIQUELY DETERMINE THE SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR FOR ALL FUTURE TIME.

at time t then (1.4)

calculates the slopes

This becomes our new starting point and the process of calculating the slopes from the states continues. In principle this is exactly what the computer does with (1.4) It

at t + Δt .Using numerical

calculates

analysis, the error magnitude of this prediction can also be obtained from (1.4). The prediction can then be modified or corrected to keep numerical errors within given bounds

x , x , x can be determined at t + Δt .

This statement can be seen from Eq (1.4). Given u and

x , x , x

123

, x , x

x

123

at time t. Hence

x

1,

123

xx

2,

3

x

n

xx

x

123

,

,

x

n

at time t and predicts

Note the following:

i. The n states of a n’th order system are mutually independent. Eg. given a 3 rd

x cannot be derived from

x and the system

order system at time t, if

. would be only 2 nd order.

x

1

and

x are known then

2

3

x and x

1

2

If it could,

x would be ‘dependent’ on

3

x and

2

1

ii. The choice of state variables for a given system is not unique (Section 1.3). This means that a choice of state variables can be made purely for mathematical convenience. It is this fact which makes the state variable approach so powerful in control theory.

1.2 Definitions

Before considering the choice of state variables for real physical systems we will first define all our terms.

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1 State Vector

2 State Space

The state vector, x , is the set of states

an n ×1column matrix.

can be said to form the axis of n-dimensional

Cartesian space. At any point in time, the numeric values of

x =

(

1

,

x

n

)

t

. It is

xx

,

2

,

(

x

1

,

x

2

,

,

x

n

)

x

1

,

x

2

,

,

x

n

thus form a vector in the space.

3 Input vector

If a system has m inputs,

uu

1

,

2

,

,

u

m then these form the vector

u =

(

uu

1

,

2

,

,

u

m )

t An m ×1 column matrix.

.

4 Output vector

If a system has r outputs,

,

measurements or “variables of interest” of the system.

column vector,

vv

,

,

v

r

,

these

form the

v

is

the

r ×1

set of

1

2

,

v =

(

1

,

v

r

)

t

. Note that

vv

,

2

5 State Space Equation

Considering equation (1.4) it can be seen that the set of n 1 st order equations can be written

x = Ax + Bu

(1.5)

A is the n × n “system” matrix. B is the input matrix and is n × m . Since x defines the state of the system, it follows that the outputs or system measurement must be a function of x (some outputs may in fact be states). In general we have

v = Cx + Du

(1.6)

C is the output matrix and is r × n . D is the input-output matrix of order r × m . It is

included for generality but for most system you will find that D is null ie. . Eq (1.5)

is termed the state equation. Eq (1.6) is the output equation.

6 Linear, Time-invariant System

change with time then the system is said to be linear, time-invariant and the matrices

If all the plant components are linear and do not

A,,,BCD consist only of numbers.

1.3 State Space Equations for Physical Systems

Before the states (space) equations (1.5) and (1.6) for a particular system can be derived it is necessary to have some convention for the choice of state variables. These derive form the ENERGY STROAGE (or DYNAMIC) elements within the system. Note that the state variables are associated with the plant dynamics ie. the energy interchange which causes the plant to move from one state to another.

A common convention is as follows

Choose state variables as …

4

i ,current through each INDUCTOR

L

⎪ ⎪ V , voltage across each CAPACITOR C

v , velocity of a lumped mass

⎩ ⎪ x , position/extension of spring

m

K

dynamic elements for electrical system

dynamic elements for mechanical system

Those for other system eg hydraulic, magnetic circuit, thermal, chemical, economic etc can be found from “system modelling” text books. Note also that since Ψ = Li , q = Cv then flux and charge can also be used as state variables since for linear C and L they are proportional to i and v respectively.

Example 1.3.1 No

elements. No state variables. Order of

ie,

current (and everything else) determined by INPUT

alone.

system = zero. u = (V ) , the input. Note

L

or

C

i =

u

R

Example 1.3.2 Two energy storage elements. Order of system = 2

x

u

=

=

(

(

xx

,

1

u

1

,

u

2

2

)(

t

= iV

L

,

C

t

)( )

=

EI

,

)

t

t

Let the ‘measurement’ variables or variables of interest be

want expressions for x

ie

di

L

dt

dv

c

,

dt

.

=

v

L

L

and

i

c

C

v

r

,

i

C

KCL to node A yields (if R=R 1 =R 2 ):

KVL to mesh B yields:

Hence

i

E

= + −=

LCR

i

i

IC

dv

c

+

v

c

dt

R

I

iR

=++ = +

v

r

v

v

LCL

L

di L

dt

di

L

dt

R

= −−

L

L

i

1

L

V

C

+

E

L

+

V

C

ie

v =

(

vi

r

,

c

) t

. We

(1.7)

(1.8)

(1.9)

5

i.e.

x

dV

C

1

=

dt

C

1

i

L

RC

V

C

+

I

C

==⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎟ ⎞

x

1

x

2

R

1

LL

11

C

RC

⎞⎛⎞ 1

⎟⎜⎟

⎟⎜⎟+ ⎜⎟

⎟⎜⎟⎝⎠

⎟⎜⎟

⎠⎝⎠

⎛⎞

x

1

x

2

0

1

C

L

0

⎛⎞

⎜⎟

u

1

u

2

since (

x

1

,

hence

x

2

)(

t

= iv

L

,

C

)

t

and (

u

1

A

u

2

,

=⎜

⎜ ⎜

t

)( )

=

EI

,

t

R 1

LL

11

C

RC

⎞⎛

⎟⎜

⎟⎜= ;

⎟⎜

⎠⎝ ⎟⎜

B

1

L

0

0

1

C

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Finally

Hence

Hence

V

R

C

=

= Ri

R

1

L

Example 1.3.3

and the other output is

i

C

=

⎛⎞ ⎛ ⎞

⎜⎟ ⎜

⎝⎠ ⎝ ⎠

v

1

V

r

v ===

v

2

i

C

0

1

R

,

D

=

0

0

0

1

R

1

0

1

R

C

dV

C

dt

i

=−

L

1

R

VI

C

+

⎛⎞ ⎛

⎜⎟ + ⎜

⎝⎠ ⎝

xu

11

0

0

0

1

⎞⎛⎞

⎟⎜⎟

⎠⎝⎠

xu

22

(1.10)

from eq (1.10). Take care here. There are 3 inductors and is tempting to choose the states as

i 3 is NOT independent. (see section 1.1 note i).

The system is only 2 nd order.

(

x = iii

123

,

,

)

t

, But,

iii=

3

+

21

so that

x

⎛ ⎞

i 1

⎝ ⎠

==

i

2

;

uE

(

)

; Let`s choose the output:

(

vv

=

r

2

)

KVL mesh A :

E

iR

=+

11

L

1

di

1

dt

+ L

2

di

2

dt

6

KVL mesh B :

L

2

di

2

dt

=

L

3

di

3

dt

+

iR

32

=

L

3

Hence

di

2

L

3

di

++ R

12

L

L

i

1

L

R

2

L

i

2

23

dt

L

L

23

dt

=

−−

23

di

di

21

dt

+

L

3

dt

iR

++

12

iR

22

Substituting into the KVL mesh A equation yields:

Where

and

V

R2

Hence

'

L =

(

di

1

dt

=−

⎝ ⎜

LL −+LL

12

13

= iR + iR

12

22

RL

12

RL

13

+

RL

22

'

L

⎠ ⎟

ii L R L

1

22

2

+

L

2

L

3

(

)

''

L

LL

23

)

. Similarly eliminating

di

1

dt

yields:

di

2

L R

12

LR

31

=

dt

'

L

i

1

L R

12

L

3

++ iE

'' 2

L

L

E

A

=⎜

⎜ ⎝

(

R L

12

−+ RL

13

RL

22

)

LR

12

'

L

L

R

31

'

L

L R

2

2

⎞⎛ L

2

⎟⎜

⎟⎜=

⎟⎜ ⎟⎜

LL ⎠⎝

L

3

''

LL

L R

1

2

;

B

L

3

''

C =

(

)

RRD;

2

2

=

()

0

;

Note; the existence of ‘dependent’ variables associated with energy storage elements often leads to messy mathematics as the dependent variable is eliminated.

Example 1.3.4 Now for a mechanical example which Electrical Engineering students always find positively delightful: Follow the procedure: Assign positions/velocities of masses relative to ground. Assign positions/velocities of ends of other elements if different from those of masses.

7

We’ve now assigned

damper connections. u = (F ) , the applied force as shown.

yv,

22

(

v

2

= y

2

)

to the mass and

yv,

11

(

State variables are:

v

2

yy

2

on mass

1

across spring

= x

Note; element characteristics are:

F =

m

M

'

hence

x =

v

x

2

'

dv

dt

;

'

F

kx

kB

==

;

F

Bv

Need

v

2

'

, x equations:

Newtons Law on mass:

Mv

2

=

FF

k

'

= F

kx

v

1

1

= y

1

)

to the spring

which is of required form since only states or inputs on right-hand side.

F

B

'

xy

2

= − =−=− =−

2

B

2

yvvv

1

21

v

= v

k

2 B

'

x

F

K

B

Since, obviously the spring force

F

k

must equal the damper force

Hence

x

v

' ⎟ ⎠

⎝ ⎜

2

==⎜

x

⎜ ⎜ ⎝

1

⎟ ⎟

0

− ⎟ ⎠

k

m

k

B

'

v

2

'

x

1

⎛ ⎞

⎟ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

0

+ ⎜

F

F

B

.

Example 1.3.5 Now for a mixed electromechanical system – a DC motor drive: R

a

,

L are the resistance and inductance of the armature. E is the back emf

a

E = ki ω

f

where ω is the shaft speed. The motor torque

component Jω , a friction component Bω and an applied load torque

T = ki i

a

f

is balanced by an inertia

which may

T

L

8

change in time but is assumed independent of ω . What are the state variables? The energy storage components are :

L

J

L

a

f

state variable

state variable

i

a

ω

state variable

i

f

BUT if

motor field winding.

i

f is kept constant then we can “remove the dynamics” associated with the

i

f

will just become a number. There are no C ’s and no springs.

x

=

i

a

ω

;

u

=

V

a

T

L

There are 2 equations.

di ki

a

+

dt f

ω

Bω

T

L

a)

b) T = ki i =++Jω

Electtrical:

Mechanical

V

a

=+ i R

aa

f

a

L

a

Hence

⎜ ⎝

i a

⎟ ⎠

==

x

ω

x

=

⎜ ⎜

R ki

a

LL

aa

ki

f J

B

J

f

⎛⎞

⎟ ⎟

i

a

ω

+⎜

− ⎟⎜⎝

⎜ ⎜

A

x

+

1

L

a

0

0

1

J

⎟⎝

V a

⎟ ⎠

T

L

Bu

Vote the linearity of the system given that

i f is just a number. If

V was varied we

f

di

f

f

should have

dt then be non-linear on account of ki ω , ki i

V

f

=

Ri

ff

+

L

and

f

i would be a state. The state equations would

ie two state variables multiplier together.

f

f

a

Non-linearities are treated in the next chapter.