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The Simple Tenses

Tenses
SIMPLE PRESENT a. It snows in Alaska xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx b. I watch television every day

Examples

Meaning
In general, the simple present expresses events or situation that exist always, usually, habitually; they exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the future

SIMPLE PAST c. It snowed yesterday x d. I watched television last night At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past.

SIMPLE FUTURE e. It will snow tomorrorw x f. I will watch television tonight

At one particular time in the future, this will happened.

The Progressive Tenses


(also called the continuous tenses: present continuous, past continuous, and future continuous)
Form: be + -ing (present paticiple) Meaning : The progressive tenses give the idea that an action is in the progress during a particular time. The tenses say that an action begins before, is in the progress during, and continuous after another.

Tenses
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

Examples
a. He is sleeping right

Meaning
He went to sleep at 10.00 tonight. It is now 11.00 and he is still asleep. His sleep began in the past, is in progress at the present time, and probably will continue.

10.00 X

11.00 X

now.

PAST PROGRESSIVE 10.00 X X 11.00 b. He was sleeping when I arrived

He went to sleep at 10.00 tonight. I arrived at 11.00. He was still asleep. His sleep began before and was in progress at a particularly time in the past. It probably will continued. He will go to sleep at 10.00 tomorrow c. He will be sleeping night. We will arrive at 11.00. The action of sleeping will begin before we arrive and it will be in progress at a aprticularly time in the future. Probably his sleep will continue. when we arrive.

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE 10.00 X 11.00 X

The Perfect Tenses


Form : have + past participle or event. Meaning : The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time

Tenses
PRESENT PERFECT eat x now x

Examples

Meaning

I finished eating some time a. I have already eaten before now. The exact time is not important

PAST PERFECT eat x arrive x b. I had already eaten when they arrived. First I finished eating. Later they arrived. My eating was completely finished before another time in the past.

FUTURE PERFECT eat X arrive x c. It will already have eaten when they arrive. First I will finish eating . Later they will arrive. My eating will be completely finished before another the in the future.

The Perfect Progressive Tenses


Form : have + been + -ing (present participle) immediately before, up to, until another time or event. The tenses are used to express the duration of the first event. Meaning : The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in progress

Tenses
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

Examples

Meaning

a. I have been studying x x for two hours.

Event in progress : studying . When? Before now, up to now. How long? For two hours.

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE b. I had been studying for two hours before my friend came. x x Event in progress : studying . When? Before another event in the past. How long? For two hours.

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE c. I will have been studying for two hours by the time you arrive. X x Event in progress : studying . When? Before another event in the future. How long? For two hours.

NOTES ; SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


Apabila subyeknya adalah I, we, you, they, maka kata kerja tidak boleh berakhiran s (contoh : drive). Sedangkan , bila subyeknya adalah he, she, it maka kata kerjanya harus berakhiran s (contoh : drives)

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
Kata-kata di bawah ini hanya dapat digunakan untuk simple present dan biasanya tidak digunakan dalam present progressive. Misalnya : tidak boleh mengatakan I am wanting, seharusnya I want. Want, need, prefer, like, love, hate, belong, see, hear, know, realise, believe, suppose, mean, understand, remember, forget, seem.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE


Kata kerja yang digunakan bentuk kedua . (regular/ irregukar verbs)

PAST PROGRESSIVE PRESENT PERFECT


Kata kerja yang digunakan bentuk ketiga.

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE