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Dennise Erin D.

Lozada

September 26, 2012

The Role of Nutrients in the Body* ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS=In addition to supplying energy and raw materials for metabolism, a person's diet must also supply certain substances in a preassembled form. Nutrients a human requires but cannot make are known as "Essential Nutrients". Missing just one of these Essential Nutrients puts the body into a state of being malnourished. ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS:=There are 20 Amino Acids required to make proteins, some can be created by the body while others cannot be, these are known as Essential Amino Acids. Eight to nine are essential for humans (nine for infants). It is important to note that while eight Amino Acids are considered Essential Amino Acids all twenty are needed by the Human body. When the human body is deficient in one or more of the Essential Amino Acids the result is a form of malnutrition known as "Protein Deficiency." ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS=Essential fatty acids are lipids that must be in the diet in a prefabricated form and that cannot be created by the body. These essential fatty acids are required to make some of the phospholipids B1 B2 Niacin B6 Folic Acid B12 Biotin Vitamin C ascorbic acid Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E tocopherol Vitamin K Coenzyme in the removal of Carbon Dioxide. Constituent of two coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. Constituent of two coenzymes involved in oxidation reduction reactions. Coenzyme involved in amino acid metabolism. Coenzyme in Carbon transfer in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. Coenzyme in carbon transfer in nucleic acid metabolism; maturation of red blood cells. Coenzyme in fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, glycogen formation. Maintains intercellular matrix of cartilage, bone, and dentin. Important in collagen synthesis. Constituent of visual pigment; maintenance of epithelial tissues. Promotes bone growth, mineralization; increases calcium absorption. Functions as an antioxidant, protects cell membranes.

Important in blood clotting, involved in formation of active Prothrombin. found in membranes required by the body in relatively large amounts compared to Vitamins. VITAMINS:=Vitamins are organic molecules that often serve as co-enzymes or parts of co-enzymes and therefore have catalytic functions. Vitamins are required in relatively small amounts compared to Amino Acids, Proteins, and Essential Fatty Acids, but are absolutely essential in a healthful diet. Deficiencies can cause severe syndromes. Vitamins are grouped into two compounds: water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins. Watersoluble Vitamins include the B complex, which consists of many compounds that generally function as coenzymes

in key metabolic roles. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is another example of a water-soluble vitamin. Ascorbic Acid is required for the production of connective tissue. Excess water-soluble vitamins are generally excreted with the urine (now known as having expensive urine) and mild overdoses are generally thought to be harmless. The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Vitamin A is incorporated into visual pigments of the eye. Vitamin D aids in Calcium absorption and bone formation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and it seems to play a key role in protecting the phospholipids in the vitamins are stored by the body so intake of fat soluble vitamins should be monitored more closely. MINERALS=As with vitamins, mineral requirements vary. Humans as well as other vertebrates require relatively large quantities of Calcium and Phosphorus for the construction and maintenance of bone. Calcium is also necessary for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles, and Phosphorus is also a necessary component of ATP and nucleic acids. Iron is an important component of the cytochromes that function in cellular respiration and of hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein of red blood cells. Magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cobalt are cofactors built into the structure of certain enzymes. Iodine is necessary to make thyroxine, a thyroid hormone that regulates metabolic rate. Sodium, potassium, and chlorine are important in nerve function. A healthful diet must supply enough calories for energy needs, carbon chains, organic nitrogen, and ample quantities of the essential nutrients. HERE ARE MORE MINERAL ROLES IN THE BODY: Calcium Phosphorous Sulfur Potassium Chlorine Sodium Magnesium Iron Fluorine Zinc Copper Manganese Iodine Cobalt Bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; nerve transmission. Bone and tooth formation; acid-base balance; ATP formation. Constituent of tissue compounds, Cartilage, and tendons. Acid-base balance; nerve function. Formation of gastric juice; acid-base balance. Acid Base balance; body water balance; nerve function. Activates enzymes; involved in protein synthesis. Constituent of hemoglobin and enzymes involved inenergy metabolism. May be important in maintenance of bone structure Constituent of enzymes involved in digestion. Constituent of enzymes associated with iron metabolism. Activates several enzymes, including one required for urea production Constituent of thyroid hormones. Constituent of vitamin B-12.