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TEST ED

OCTOBER 2013

ISSUE

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POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

05

Diving o the coast of Cat Island in the central Bahamas, Andy Casagrande captures footage of oceanic whitetip sharks with his Red Epic camera.

IGNITION

10.13
P H O T O G R A P H S B Y N AT H A N I E L W E L C H ( D I V E R ) , W I L L I A M B R I N S O N ( D O G )

How Not to Die


Accidents happenespecially to men below the age of 50, for whom they are the leading cause of death. Here are 20 familiar, seemingly controlled scenarios where danger stalks. Plus, the steps you need to take to come back safe, from the backcountry or the backyard. BY JEFF WISE ................................ 64

When Can I Let Go of the Wheel?


Few things say The futures here! better than the self-driving car. But we have some questions. Namely, just how safe are robotic drivers? And what do we do with our hands?
BY ANDREW DEL-COLLE ........................................................................

74

Shark Shooter
Photographer Andy Casagrande combines inventive camera rigs and uninching nerves to capture unique footage of the oceans largest predators. BY BILL MORRIS ................................. 80

ON THE COVER

IGNITION

Photographer Bartholomew Cooke shot a timeless icon of survival preparedness for this months cover, as well as the pictures accompanying our cover story, beginning on page 64.

Letters, Complaints, Events 06

UPGRADE
Gear, Tools, Gadgets 25

CO LU M N S

Jay Lenos Garage For car


salesmen, Jays father was one tough customer. .......................... 54

T E C H WAT C H
News, Trends, Breakthroughs

15

Test Drives, Top Tech, Hot Rides 41


Woof!

AU TO I N T E L

NSA Data Mining: How It Works What the National


Security Agency really does with your data. BY JOE PAPPALARDO .... 59

25

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( A B O U T O U R J U LY/A U G U S T I S S U E A N D M O R E )
We read all of your comments, tweets, and letters. And weve read a few smoke signals too.
Curated by Steve Rousseau

weekend
22 Pages of DIY

What You Said

88 Home
Cut and split all that rewood for the fall? Great job. Now heres how to stack it like a true woodsman.

Tool Test

Members of Girls Get ITa Hillsboro, Ore., high school program that encourages girls to get involved in techscan the June issue for project ideas.

Simple to set up and d operate, these ve portable generators can keep your home necessities running when disaster strikes. Halloween Special Build your own lawn zombie, conjure phantasmal holograms, spin monstrous spider webs, and more. Home Clinic Refurbishing worn, hand-me-down steel tools.

100 Tech
How to take advantage of cloud-based Web servicessuch as document and photo sharing to collaborate over the Internet. Digital Clinic Co-opt any ordinary speaker to amplify the nastiest guitar licks.

112 Auto IGNI TION


For old paint and rust that resists detergents and elbow grease, theres media blasting. Car Clinic Debunking platinumspark-plug myths.

Our July/August feature The Case for Alien Life, details why current research suggests that life probably exists beyond Earth somewhere. Anyone who believes Earth is unique or important enough to have the only life in the universe has to be arrogant or delusional, comments Rich Glover via Facebook. Elliot Ofsowitz of Sarasota, Fla., agrees that extraterrestrial life is out there but takes issue with the practical side of things, such as rst contact. Looking for aliens can be fun and exciting, but most people fail to take into account the enormity of space and the endlessness of time, he writes. The existence of other civilizations may be predicted, but if they are over 100 light-years away how would we contact them? Thats a good question, Elliot, but perhaps its for the best: There may be ageless, cataclysmically hostile life out there
TA L K T O U S Email popularmechanics@hearst.com Snail mail 300 West 57th St., New York, NY 10019 Subscribe subscribe.popularmechanics.com

124 A Brief History of

the . . . Airship.

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to the photos in the Weekend section. Girls have to ght to get into the garage, to get our hands dirty; whereas boys are invited to join in as a matter of course. By not showing girls, youre perpetuating the stereotype that girls arent gearheads. Sebastian Frias points out a potential aw in our online analysis of Pacic Rim, How the Pentagon Could Destroy All Monsters. After killing the Kaiju with conventional weapons, youve splattered the city with highly toxic Kaiju blood, leaving the city uninhabitable. Congratulations! he writes. Lord Byng of Vancouver, British Columbia, complains that the ght is rigged. The worst part of ghting a ctional monster is that the writer can counter anything in the name of the plot, he writes. No wonder the Pentagon is helpless.

thats best left undisturbed. Rick Lowe of Leesburg, Va., thoroughly enjoyed our recent look into the revamp of Marine Corps tactics (The Range Is Hot, July/August) but thinks history might be repeating itself. The future as revealed resembles the past except with new technologies, he writes. Todays technology oers far better real-time intel, weapon delivery systems, and precise munitions, but the tactics described as the next generation are those used during the Vietnam War, tried and true. July/ Augusts Car Clinic item on automotive kill switches (Kill Your Car) brought back some memories for Stuart Pardee of Gardnerville, Nev. In the mid-1970s I owned a 1959 Jaguar XK-150 (which I sold in 1983 and have kicked myself in the butt every day since), and installed a toggle switch to thwart thieves. It worked perfectly, he writes. Then, one spring, I brought the car out and could not for the life of me get it started. After 2 hours, Stuart suddenly remembered the toggle switch, ipped it, and the Jag started right up. Kate Sullivan of Philadelphia objected to the imagery in our June Fatherhood Issue. Im a Popular Mechanics subscriber. Im also a woman and a former automotive journalist, she writes. The text itself was unobjectionableyour writers and editors made a valiant eort to be inclusive, but the visuals were notable for what they didnt showgirls. In particular, she points

?#@*&%!

IGNITION

C O M P L A I N T S D E PA RT M E N T

The stu about the military does not belong. I am not planning to invade a country anytime soon. NICK ERSKINE-SHAW, VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

What Were Up To
(POPMECH NEWS & EVENTS & STAFFERS ON THE SCENE)

Senior news editor Joe Pappalardo discusses his July/ August cover story, The Range Is Hot, on the future of Marine Corps tactics, and fields a bevy of defenserelated questions from callers, such as the increasing use of drones, the emergence of cyber warfare, and the evolving nature of war, on C-Spans Washington Journal.

 Orlando Mini Maker Faire Penumbral Lunar Eclipse  Bay Area Science Festival

WERE REALLY BUSY IN OCTOBER

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PUBLISHER NATIONAL DIRECTOR, INTEGRATED SALES Estee Cross EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, GROUP MARKETING Lisa Boyars FINANCE DIRECTOR Don Perri Integrated Marketing SENIOR MARKETING DIRECTOR Barbara Serino CREATIVE DIRECTOR Glen Fuenmayor ASSOCIATE MARKETING DIRECTOR Bonnie Harris SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER Amanda Luginbill ASSOCIATE MARKETING MANAGER Kirsten Kubiak MARKETING COORDINATOR Anna Chelak Administration ADVERTISING SERVICES DIRECTOR Regina Wall ADVERTISING SERVICES COORDINATOR Aiden Lee Digital NATIONAL DIGITAL ACCOUNT MANAGER Cameron Albergo MANAGER Amanda Marandola Production GROUP PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Karen Otto GROUP PRODUCTION MANAGER Lynn Onoyeyan Scaglione ASSOCIATE PRODUCTION MANAGER Karen Nazario Circulation CONSUMER MARKETING DIRECTOR William Carter Advertising Sales Oces NEW YORK EAST COAST SALES MANAGER Ray Rienecker 212/649-2876 ACCOUNT MANAGER Stephen Acunto, Jr. 212/649-2902 ASSISTANT Jennifer Zuckerman 212/649-2875 LOS ANGELES CALIFORNIA SALES MANAGER Anne Rethmeyer 310/664-2921 ACCOUNT MANAGER Amy Suprenant 949/610-0458 INTEGRATION ASSOCIATE Michelle Nelson 310/664-2922 CHICAGO MIDWEST DIRECTOR Spencer J. Huffman 312/984-5191 ACCOUNT MANAGER Rikka Runyon 312/251-5355 ASSISTANT Yvonne Villareal 312/984-5196 DETROIT REGIONAL DIRECTOR John Ir vine 248/614-6120 ASSISTANT Toni Starrs 248/614-6011 HEARST MAGAZINES SALES, LLC DALLAS Patty Rudolph 972/533-8665 PR 4.0 MEDIA DIRECT RESPONSE ADVERTISING SALES MANAGER Brad Gettelfinger 212/649-4204 ACCOUNT MANAGER John Stankewitz 212/649-4201 CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVE Kathleen Gleason 888/473-0788; FAX: 708/352-4094 KLASSMARK

J AM E S B. M EI G S
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF; EDITORIAL DIRECTOR, MENS ENTHUSIAST GROUP EXECUTIVE EDITOR David Dunbar DESIGN DIRECTOR Michael Lawton DEPUTY EDITOR Jerr y Beilinson MANAGING EDITOR Michael S. Cain Editorial SENIOR EDITOR, AUTOMOTIVE Michael Austin SENIOR EDITOR, HOME Roy Berendsohn SENIOR EDITOR, TECHNOLOGY Glenn Derene SENIOR EDITOR, NEWS Joe Pappalardo ASSOCIATE EDITORS Jennings Brown, Andrew Del-Colle ASSOCIATE EDITOR, HOME David Agrell ASSISTANT EDITOR, TECHNOLOGY Rachel Z. Arndt COPY CHIEF Robin Tribble RESEARCH DIRECTOR David Cohen ASSISTANT TO THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Theresa Breen WEST COAST EDITOR Ben Stewart SPECIAL PROJECTS EDITOR Joe Bargmann EDITORIAL INTERNS Will Dietrich-Egensteiner, Darren Orf Art SENIOR ART DIRECTOR Peter Herbert ASSOCIATE ART DIRECTORS Kristie Bailey, R. Scott Wells INTERACTIVE DESIGNER/ILLUSTRATOR Anthony Verducci Photography DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY Allyson Torrisi ASSOCIATE PHOTO EDITOR Devon Baverman PHOTO INTERNS Anna Buller, Barrie Tovar Editorial Board of Advisers Buzz Aldrin (APOLLO 11 ASTRONAUT) Shawn Carlson (SOCIETY FOR AMATEUR SCIENTISTS) David E. Cole (CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH) Saul Griffith (OTHERLAB) Thomas D. Jones (NASA ASTRONAUT) Dr. Ken Kamler (MICROSURGEON) Gavin A. Schmidt (NASA GODDARD INSTITUTE FOR SPACE STUDIES) Amy B. Smith (MIT) Daniel H. Wilson (ROBOTICIST) Wm. A. Wulf (NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING) Senior Correspondents Davin Coburn, Alex Hutchinson, Erik Sofge, Logan Ward, Jeff Wise PYROTECHNICS & BALLISTICS EDITOR William Gurstelle MYTHBUSTING EDITORS Jamie Hyneman, Adam Savage GARAGE PROPRIETOR Jay Leno RESIDENT CONTRARIAN Glenn Harlan Reynolds Production ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR Natalie Neusch Imaging DIGITAL IMAGING SPECIALIST Ken Pecca PopularMechanics.com ONLINE DIRECTOR Angela Diegel ONLINE EDITOR Andrew Moseman ONLINE PRODUCER Carl Davis Popular Mechanics Interactive PRODUCERS Spencer Lloyd, Jeff Zinn Contributing Editors Andrew English, John Galvin, Jim Gorman, Chris Grundy, Carl Hoffman, John Pearley Huffman, Dan Koeppel, Fred Mackerodt, Joe Oldham, Barbara S. Peterson, Elizabeth Svoboda, Kalee Thompson, Joseph Truini, James Vlahos, Basem Wasef, Kevin A. Wilson, Barry Winfield Contributing Photographers & Illustrators Chris Buck, Jamie Chung, Philip Friedman, Christopher Griffith, Dennis Kleiman, Martin Laksman, Mark Mahaney, Axel de Roy, Dan Saelinger, Sarah Shatz, Vladimir Shelest, Josh Simpson, Art Streiber, Dan Winters, Reed Young Special Projects Team Brian Carroll, Annette Deinzer, Paula Rackow, Steve Rousseau, Alyson Sheppard, Janet Stafford, David Tang, Katrina Zook

S I N C E 1902

I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y A N D R E W P A R R I S H ( E M P L 0 Y E E O F T H E M O N T H )

SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT & PUBLISHING DIRECTOR, MENS GROUP Jack Essig GROUP MARKETING DIRECTOR, MENS GROUP Jill Meenaghan

IGNITION
PUBLISHED BY

HEARST COMMUNICATIONS, INC.


Steven R. Swartz PRESIDENT & CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER H E A R S T David Carey PRESIDENT Gilbert C. Maurer PUBLISHING CONSULTANT M AG A Z I N E S William R. Hearst III CHAIRMAN Frank A. Bennack, Jr. EXECUTIVE VICE CHAIRMAN

D I V I S I O N John P. Loughlin EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT & GENERAL MANAGER Ellen Levine EDITORIAL DIRECTOR

Michael Clinton PRESIDENT, MARKETING & PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Mark F. Miller PUBLISHING CONSULTANT

T H E K I D WA N T S T O K N O W Are you a kid with a question? Ask Steve! Email popularmechanics@hearst.com.

Employee of the Month Are mechs effective, or even plausible, in a military setting?
Mac W., 14, Port Orchard, Wash. After watching Pacic Rim, we too pondered whether giant robots would ever grace our cities with wanton destruction. A few hobbyists are trying to make this a reality; but DARPAthe only government agency that might develop Jaeger-like titanssees walking mechs as bots of burden. This year the U.S. Marine Corps will test the Legged Squad Support System, a robotic mule capable of lugging 400 pounds of gear through rugged terrain. S T E V E R O U S S E A U

After mapping out the Milky Way galaxy (The Case for Alien Life, July/August), Kristie Bailey published a paper on the design process she used. Check it out in Parsons Journal for Information Mapping.

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LEARN MORE. SCAN HERE.

Plug it in your car, and see if your good driving could help you save big with Progressive. Well even let you try Snapshot before you switch to us, so youve got nothing to lose. Rewarding good drivers. Now thats Progressive.

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2013 Progressive Casualty Ins. Co. & afliates. Snapshot

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AUTOMOTIVE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY HOME H O W -T O C E N T R A L V I D E O

O N TH E WEB
On popmech.com, see the best and worst woodies, nd out how DARPA is pushing the boundaries of brainconnected bionic arms, and more: SCI-FI PREDICTIONS
Earbuds, Google Glass, and the Apple iPad: These devices and many more were predicted by prescient authors such as Ray Bradbury, William Gibson, and Arthur C. Clarke. popularmechanics.com/7predictions

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HUMAN-POWERED FLIGHT
Meet the team that built a human-powered helicopter and won the $250,000 Sikorsky Prize. popularmechanics.com/sikorsky

FOL L OW P OPM E C H

For plenty more from our editors, follow Popular Mechanics on: Twitter @PopMech Facebook facebook.com/popularmechanics Tumblr popmech.tumblr.com

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Offer ends 10/31/13. Restrictions apply. See fuelrewards.com for complete Fuel Rewards Network program details and Terms and Conditions. 2013 SOPUS Products. All Rights Reserved.

The editors of Popular Mechanics create a special tablet version of the magazine each month, featuring all of our print content, plus extra photos, video clips, and classic stories from our archives. And we are running a sweet little promotion right now just for iPad users. Z Subscribe here: deal.popularmechanics.com Z Youll get: PopMech for iPad, plus $10 on iTunes

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*Based on Sequence VG Sludge Test using SAE 5W-30. Viper comes factory lled with Pennzoil Ultra 0W-40. 2013 SOPUS Products. All Rights Reserved. SRT and Viper are registered trademarks of Chrysler Group LLC.

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POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

15

NEWS TRENDS BREAKTHROUGHS

Tech

W AT C H

Edited by RACHEL Z. ARNDT

If astronomers succeed in imaging the monster black hole at the center of the Milky Way, its gravitational vortex may look something like this.

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y J A S O N D E X T E R / T H E A S T R O P H Y S I C A L J O U R N A L , M A R T I N L A K S M A N ( D O E L E M A N )

By capturing the light in telescopes scattered all around the world, freezing it electronically, and bringing it together in a supercomputer, we can mathematically create a virtual mirror as big across as the Earth.
SHEP DOELEMAN MIT principal research scientist, assistant director at Haystack Observatory

ASTRONOMY

The Galactic Core Is About to Explode


WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE BLACK HOLE AT THE CENTER OF OUR GALAXY ACTS UP.
BY JEFF WISE

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News Brief
A Fossil Rewrites Evolution
After 10 years studying tiny bones unearthed by a farmer in China, an international team of scientists announced this summer that the fossil is the oldest known primate skeleton yet discovered. The earliest human ancestors lived about 55 million years ago, new research suggests. That changes scientists view of primate lineage, shifting the origins to Asia, not Africa. The ancient fossils, 7 million years older than any other primate bones yet found, belong to the tarsier group of primates. Because a split in primate lineage gave rise to tarsiers and anthropoids the group that includes humansthe existence of a tarsier 55 million years ago means anthropoids existed then too. The animal, Archicebus achilles, has the small eyes, long slender limbs, and even longer tail of a tarsier, but its foot and heel bones are more akin to the anthropoids. Living in a tropical environment, it was active during the day, leaping from tree to tree and munching on insects.
MA RY B E TH G R I G G S
P H O T O G R A P H S B Y ( F R O M T O P ) D AV E H A R V E Y / A R I Z O N A R A D I O O B S E R VAT O R Y , M . D U M K E / E S O / A P E X , C A LT E C H S U B M I L L I M E T E R O B S E R VAT O R Y , R . H I L L S / A L M A / E S O / N A O J / N R A O

othing is as tranquil as the expanse of the Milky Way oating in the summer night skyor so youd think. In reality, the center of our galaxy is a chaos of fast-whirling stars, supernovae debris, and intensely magnetic neutron stars, all orbiting around a monster black hole 4 million times the mass of the sun. And things are going to get even more violent. Astronomers have detected a blob of gas, called G2, thats being ripped apart as it plunges toward the black hole. Later this year the hole will start to consume that cloud of gas. As the gas accelerates to terric speeds, it collides with other incoming matter, heats up, and radiates energy at a ferocious rate. A similar are-up 100 years ago created a burst of light as bright as a million suns; we know because the light echoes are still bouncing around the center of the galaxy. According to radio astronomer Shep Doeleman, the upcoming annihilation event could last for a year or more and rank as a once-in-a-lifetime event.
HOW TO SEE THE CENTER OF THE GALAXY
Huge as it is, the central black hole is still a thousand times too small to be seen with the Hubble Space Telescope. Plus, its obscured by interstellar dust that blocks all visible light. But radio waves of about 1 millimeter wavelength can get through. Doeleman is organizing the Event Horizon Telescope, a project to create an international network of radio dishes that together will constitute a system with an eective diameter as large as Earths. 1 The radio dishes work like TV receivers: They gather the incoming microwave radiation, which is exactly like light but at a longer wavelength. Its a one-way process: That is, the dishes passively receive the radio signals that are emitted by sources in the center of the galaxy. 2 Theres no physical connection among the dishes: Data are recorded simultaneously by dishes around the world. 3 A supercomputer at MIT aggregates the data, storing them on huge hard drives and processing them to create, eventuallyDoeleman says by 2015an image of the shadow of the black hole itself.
Telescopes in Arizona, Chile, and Hawaii (above, respectively, and below in Arizona), collect data for the Event Horizon Telescope project.

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P M U P D AT E

Worlds Fastest Helicopter


Flying over the south of France in June, Eurocopters X3 helicopter (Tech Watch, January 2011) hit 293 mph, breaking the level-ight speed record, set in 2010, by 6 mph. The X3 has the speed of a turboprop aircraft with a helicopters vertical takeo and landing ability. Two oversize Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 turboshaft engines each produce 2270 shaft horsepower, while two short-span xed wings and propellers supplement the ve-blade main rotor up top. Eurocopter plans to use the X3s technology in helicopters designed for search-and-rescue, military troop transport, and possibly even intercity shuttle service. W I L L D I E T R I C H - E G E N S T E I N E R

P AT E N T E D H I S T O R Y

Photocopying Turns 75
Above a bar in Queens, N.Y., 75 years ago, Chester Carlson created the rst-ever xerographic images. Carlson worked as a patent attorney and was frustrated that the only way to copy documents was to retype or rewrite them. He came up with a process, free of liquid chemicals, that takes advantage of photoconductivity, the tendency of certain materials to become electrically conductive when hit by light. To make a copy, Carlson laid an image, held by a glass slide, on top of a photoconductive surface and then illuminated it. Where hit by light, the surface became conductive, draining its charge to the plate below; where the image blocked light, the surface stayed charged. After removing the

plate, Carlson sprinkled on a negatively charged powder, which adhered to the areas of positive charge, thereby re-creating the image. It was not until 1949 that the Haloid Company (later Xerox) released the rst commercial machine. Now that photocopying is digital, Xerox has added technology that enables law enforcement to track down counterfeiters. Serial numbers and other data can be encoded in nearly invisible yellow dots on copies.
R A C H E L Z . A R N DT

D I A G R A M B Y X E R O X C O R P O R AT I O N

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Every two years since 2002 college students show o the solarpowered homes theyve created for the Solar Decathlon. The competition, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and set this year in Irvine, Calif., pits college teams against one another to design and build the most eicient and eco-friendly houses. In 2013, homes that respond automatically to inputs, such as weather data, are all the rage, as are shape-shifting structures. In most cases they look, function, and cost more like aordable homes than oversize science projects. Here are a few bright ideas from the 2013 Solar Decathlon. But credit to where credits due: These innovations have roots in past competitions. B Y D A V I D A G R E L L

S H E LT E R S C I E N C E

The Search for the House of the Future

Team Kentuckianas Phoenix House is entirely selfsuicient, providing power, food, and water to its inhabitants.

C Concrete t Ideas

Then Maryland poured a concrete oor in 2002, but it wasnt until 2011 that New Jersey became the rst team to use concrete for its walls. Now North Carolinas 2013 entry, UrbanEden, has precast walls made of geopolymer concrete to create a tightly sealed envelope with a high thermal mass. The school says its material produces up to 90 percent less carbon pollution than portland cement. Then Illinois in 2011 built Re_home, a rapidly deployable one-family emergency structure, in response to recent devastating tornadoes. Other houses that year had shades and privacy screens that turned into shutters during hurricanes. Now Team Kentuckiana continues the trend in 2013 with a home that can be assembled in a week and whose bricked-in bathroom doubles as a safe house. Then Germanys 2009 winner contained 290 PV panels and generated twice as much energy as it needed, but it reportedly cost close to $1 million to build. Since then teams have been dinged points for overspending. One way to reduce costs is to prefabricate partsor even entire homes. Now Norwichs 2013 structure is sold commercially through Vermont manufacturer Huntington Homes, with prices starting at $150,000. We aimed to design and build something that a household earning 30 percent less than the Vermont median income could aord, says assistant professor Matthew Lutz. Then Two Maryland computer engineering students kicked o the homeautomation trend in the 2007 decathlon with their LEAFHouse, which allowed homeowners to track and control conditions from the Web. Now Missouri S&Ts Chameleon House gathers current weather data from onsite monitors and the Web to gure out the most eicient way to condition the space, whether thats opening windows, closing shades, activating radiant heat or a/c, or using forced air. Then Madrids 2005 entry, the Magic Box, featured a set of movable walls that could divide the house into three or ve spaces or leave it totally open. Now All of this years entries have some kind of ex-space concept. SCI-Arc/ Caltechs house, DALE, is the most extreme, with interior rooms that change size at the touch of a button. Sliding rail-mounted modules turn exterior spaces into interior spaces, and vice versa.

Disaster Response

The Bottom Line

Smart HVAC

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y A N T H O N Y D I M I T R E

Smaller Is Bigger

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GO-GETTERS WHO INVEST EVERY DAY WITH PASSION. And know savvy strategies can help them invest todayand retire tomorrowwith condence. Theyre THE INVESTIGETTERS like real estate lawyer NELSON KONG. Born to Korean immigrants in Buenos Aires, Nelson speaks three languages. But the language of investing is not among them. With a 5-week-old son and a jam-packed 3-year plan, hes turned to TD Ameritrade to get started on a path to retirement.

PARTNER, NELSON KONG LAW MARRIED, WITH INFANT SON

NELSON KONG, 33

3-YEAR PLAN: BUY A HOUSE, HAVE ANOTHER CHILD, EXPAND HIS BUSINESS AND INVEST IN A NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY

Im always thinking about investing in new offices or businesses. Its time to invest in retirement, too.
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the INVESTIGETTERS
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INVESTIGETTERS

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Visit www.investigetters.com for more life strategiesand find the one that works for you.

All investments involve risk, and successful results are not guaranteed. TD Ameritrade, Inc., member FINRA/SIPC/NFA. TD Ameritrade is a trademark jointly owned by WorldMags.net TD Ameritrade IP Company, Inc. and The Toronto-Dominion Bank. 2013 TD Ameritrade IP Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

WorldMags.net Visitors Guide to

Antarctica

No one lives in Antarctica full-time. It has just two seasons: summer and winter. Only the worlds most dedicated researchers attempt to outlast the winters six months of darkness and temperatures that fall as low as minus 129 F. Still, thousands of tourists ock to Antarctica every year to catch glimpses of its beautiful frozen landscapes. Its a fascinating area because its so remote, says Peter Fretwell, a geographer with the British Antarctic Survey. Its probably one of the least explored areas in the world. B Y S A R A H F E C H T

a shallow body of water buried under a halfmile of ice. In perpetual darkness and cold, the bacterial ecosystem likely has been isolated from the surface for thousands of years.
[4]

Lab on Ice
As the Brunt Ice Shelf slowly migrates toward the sea, it has left the Halley V Research Station in danger of oating away on an iceberg. The new Halley VI station (Tech Watch, May 2013) is tted onto skis so it can periodically be towed inland to safety.
[5]

SOUTH POLE
6 5 2 3 1

Glacier is 1300 feet deeper than anyone had thoughtat 1.8 miles deep, its the lowest point on any continent.
[2]

Cool Running
Every year people from all over the world don snowsuits to run the Antarctic Ice Marathon.
[6]

Meteorite Mecca
Meteorites suer less damage when they impact snow and are easier to nd against the white backdrop, making the continent the top spot for spacerock hunters. Scientists are studying the 50,000 extraterrestrial rocks collected from the Transantarctic Mountains to learn about the materials that make up asteroids and planets, as well as what conditions were like in our solar systems early days.
[3]

Meltdown
With warm ocean currents streaming beneath it, and warm air above, Pine Island is sliding into the sea at 2.5 miles per year, making it Antarcticas fastest melting glacier.
[7]

[1]

Antarctica Exposed
Last spring the British Antarctic Survey put together the most detailed map of what Antarctica looks like beneath all its ice and snow. The map, which comes from seismic, bathymetric, and satellite data, reveals that a trough beneath Byrd

Snowy Hotspot
The South Shetland Islands house research stations from a dozen countries. About 50,000 tourists also visit the islands annually to explore magnicent desolation.

P H O T O G R A P H B Y G E T T Y I M A G E S ; I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y V I C K U L I H I N

Extreme Life-Forms
In January scientists discovered microbes living in Lake Whillans,

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Though it seems a miracle that all but three of 307 people aboard Asiana Flight 214 survived a July crash landing in San Francisco, the low number of deaths is the result of design improvements mandated by the FAA over the past 30 years. Those safety enhancements stemmed from hard lessons learned from earlier crashes. B Y B E N I A N N O T TA
mined that some victims of the Air Canada Flight 797 re at Greater Cincinnati International Airport failed to nd the exits because of smoke, and mandated that emergency lighting be installed to guide passengers to the way out.

AV I AT I O N S A F E T Y

How Airplanes Save Lives

3.

Fire Prevention
It took about 90 seconds for ight attendants to spot ames outside the Boeing 777 and decide to evacuate it. Passengers made up for lost time and got out before the re engulfed much of the plane, whose parts are less ammable than in earlier models. June 2, 1983: After the crew of Air Canada Flight 797 reported smoke in the DC-9s aft lavatory, pilots made an emergency landing at Greater Cincinnati International Airport. Moments after the crew opened the planes doors, a ash re raced through the interior of the craft, killing the 23 passengers who were still onboard. To delay the onset of ash res, the FAA introduced new ammability standards for seat cushions and baggage compartments.

Despite the fast-moving re inside Asiana Flight 214, hundreds escaped the crash.

1.

Stay-Put Seats
Asiana Flight 214 went from ying at more than 100 knots to a dead stop in seconds, and yet photos show that its seats stayed in place. If the seats had come loose, the passengers in them could have been killed, and those who survived the impact might have been

too injured to escape the ames. August 2, 1985: In a crash at Dallas/ Fort Worth International Airport, some of those who died were ejected from the plane and struck the ground still strapped into their seats, according to the National Transportation Safety Board. Three years later, the FAA required seats to be

able to withstand the force of 16 gs.

2.

Floor Lighting
If the haze and dust in the Asiana cabin had been thick enough to obscure vision, passengers could still have found their way to the exits. June 2, 1983: Investigators deter-

PHOTOGRAPH BY AP PHOTO

Fusion Blanket

Creating a plasma thats 10 times hotter than the suns corenecessary if we are to realize the dream of fusion powerrequires a serious containment system. Otherwise, dangerous levels of heat and radiation can escape from the reactors core. To prevent that, scientists at ITER, the international nuclear power project, designed a protective barrier. The shield will line the inside of a reactor to hold in heat, radiation, and electromagnetic forces. That requires a specialized alloy, actively cooled by water pipes and protected by 440 4-ton modules with inner walls of radiation-resistant beryllium. Fabrication begins at the end of 2013 and should be completed by 2021. A L E X H U T C H I N S O N

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DOMAINS
Choose from over 500 new top-level domains! Create a short, memorable web address that perfectly ts your business or brand, such as your-name.blog, auto.shop or events.nyc. You can also make your website easier to nd by getting new extensions for your existing domain. With 1&1, it is easy to connect a registered domain to any website, no matter which provider is hosting your website. Find out more at 1and1.com

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25

Upgrade
GEAR TOOLS GADGETS Edited by Edi JENNINGS JEN BROWN BR

Dog-Tag Tech
Your dog keeps watch over you constantly; the Whistle monitor ($100) lets you return the favor. The waterproof device records data such as time spent walking, playing, and resting, and even whos with the pet at a given moment. The data is accessible via iPhone, allowing you to track trends, set goals, share information with your vet, and check in on your best friend no matter where you are.
JAIME NETZER

STYLING BY SUSAN BRINSON; MODEL: NERO BRINSON

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hunters specialties i-kam xtreme ($110)


No need to wait for Google Glass. Whether youre skiing an epic slope or reeling in a lunker bass, document the adventure just as you see it with i-Kam Xtreme video sunglasses. The frame incorporates a mobile video recorder into a pair of lightweight glasses and oers 4 GB of built-in memory. J . N .

APP AID

Friday Night
breathometer ($50)
Had a few craft beers? Reach for the Breathometer, the rst smartphone-enabled gadget that tests your blood alcohol level using only your phone and the portable device. Plug the box into your headphone jack, exhale into the vents on the gadget, then make smart decisions based on the data. The app interface is simple enough that even someone with a righteous buzz can gure it out. J . N .

beercloud app (free)


Were big fans of craft brewing. But it seems every bar has turned into a brewpub overnightstocking shelves with trails of artisanal ales that can be diicult to navigate. The free app BeerCloud provides a directory of nearby breweries and retailers, arms users with tasting descriptions and brand history, and even suggests food pairings. Its never been easier to become a can-noisseur. J E N N I N G S B R O W N

pizza compass app ($1)


Boy, are we glad you decided to take a cab, ride with a designated driver, or walk. Now you need carbs. Designer Dan Blackman was inspired to create the Pizza Compass (surprise) after a night of drinkingand the inability to nd an open joint with a simple Web search. The app guides you to the nearest pie palace via a spinning slice (and slice-covered map) that points toward cheesy satisfaction. R A C H E L Z . A R N DT

PHOTOGRAPH BY JEFFREY WESTBROOK (GLASSES)

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HUSQVARNA DAYS ARE HERE!


October 1-31, 2013

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EXTEND YOUR WARRANTY UP TO A TOTAL OF 4 YEARS


Purchase at least 3 bottles of 32oz Husqvarna brand pre-mix fuel or 6 bottles of Husqvarna brand 2-stroke oil, regardless of size and/or type, at the same time as the product to qualify. Both purchases must be on the same product invoice/receipt to qualify.
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rainy day / / l.l.bean bean boot ($89)
The Bean has been the quintessential rain boot for more than a century, remaining largely unchanged except for the Gore-Tex membrane and Thinsulate inner lining.
1

PHOTOGRAPH BY W IL L I A M BRINSON

Seven Boots That Every Man Should Own


The PopMech man should be prepared for anythingbe it a long winter, a friend in need, or the end of days. We understand if you make a quick detour to pick up the right tools or supplies, but you wont always have time to nd the perfect boot and break it in before a big project. We talked to experts, including woodsmen, soldiers, searchand-rescue workers, and cobblers, to put the nger on the right boots for every situation. J.B.

tough love, but they look better with each additional scu.

work / / thorogood 6-inch steel toe wedge sole work boot ($145)
PopMech home editor Roy Berendsohn says American-made Thorogoods stomp out competitors. Its not easy to nd craftsmanship like thisespecially at this price.
4

office / / danner jack hummus 7-inch casual boots ($230)


Just because you want a handsome boot for work doesnt mean you shouldnt be ready for action. You never know when youll need to respond to a disaster, and loafers wont cut it to escape from Kaiju monsters. Danners start out sti as concrete but ease into soft, supple perfection.
2

adventure / / asolo tps 520 gv ($250)


These sturdy behemoths of Gore-Tex and leather are the gold standard for backpacking. Weighing in at 3 pounds 10 ounces, and about as comfortable as well-worn tennis shoes, the little tanks get you through any journey, no matter what the terrain or cargo.
5

weekend / / timberland earthkeepers original leather 6-inch boot ($180)


On the weekend you need a boot to wear around the house or while running errands. Youll have to resole these after a few years of
3

woods / / chippewa 8-inch redwood logger ($175)


Logger boots are not purposelessly amboyant. The high heel helps prevent slipping when walking down a hill or over logs, and the replaceable kiltie prevents dirty, wet laces from cutting into the shoe.
6

armageddon / / 5.11 recon urban boots ($150)


A favorite of soldiers and search-and-rescue experts, 5.11 boots are light and require no break-in period. Which means theyll be good to go come judgment day.
7

6 4 5

STYLING BY SUSAN BRINSON

Saddle soap is an underappreciated weapon that should be in every mans shoe-care arsenal. Grime and dirt can break down leather, but the lanolin or glycerin in saddle soap keeps it softer, more exible, and as good as new. HENRY LINDER, 93-year-old cobbler and owner of Linder Shoe Service in Landrum, S.C.

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COOL WAVE DEODORANT

DONT MASK ODOR. ELIMINATE IT.

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EDITOR TESTED
makita x2 lxt lithium-ion cord cordless rd dle l ss chain saw ($360 for saw only)
Gas-powered chain saws are the right tool for big jobs, such as felling trees or carving up logs larger than 8 inches in diameter. But a cordless electric model is the way to go for brushing and slashing. Recently, with piles of debris in my yard that could use this treatment, I got down to business with the cordless Makita. While gas-powered saws can scream louder than 110 decibels, the Makita generates just 89 but still produces the cutting power of 1650 feet per minute. Thats much less than many gas-powered saws but t was suicient for my job. With both batteries fully charged, , I worked steadily for 90 minutes, reducing the de debris piles or to small stacks of logs and branches nches ready to be b bundled o r burned. J O E B A R G M A N N , S P E C I A L P R O J E C T S E D I T O R
P H O T O G R A P H S B Y B E N G O L D S T E I N ( C H A I N S AW ) , B R I A N F I N K E ( S T E A K , B R A N D I N G I R O N )

olympus tough tg-2 ihs ($380)


Its handsome, sure, but it also performs. The TG-2 is the only rugged camera on the market to include an ultrabright, high-speed f2.0 lens, strengthening the cameras shooting capabilities, and it takes great photos anywhere, including underwater at depths of up to 50 feet. We were also impressed with the 3-inch, high-resolution OLED display, which was legible even in direct sunlight. The c camera also lives up to its name: Drop it from 7 feet, crush it beneath 220 pounds, or leave it out in 14 F temps, and, st still, the camera keeps on clicking. J . N .
1

dci bbq branding iron ($17) dc


Ever wish you could customize your cuts? The BBQ Branding Iron allows you to stamp your grilled chops B and s steaks with a searing seal of approval. The iron comes equipped with the entire alphabet, plus extra letters and spacers, so you can really get creative with the ABCs AB of BBQ. J . N .
2

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I WAS THERE.
Now Im a member of the
World Trade Center Health Program .

Were you there? Providers in the New York City area, and across the country,
monitor and treat conditions related to the September 11th terrorist attacks like asthma, heartburn, certain cancers, depression, and PTSD. These providers treat responders and volunteers who participated in rescue, recovery, or clean-up on or after 9/11, as well as those in the WTC dust cloud or who lived, worked, or went to school or daycare in lower Manhattan south of Houston or into parts of Brooklyn.

Learn More.
Call 1-888-982-4748 or visit www.cdc.gov/wtc

WTC Health Program


Image is a model portraying an actual member of the World Trade Center Health Program.

World Trade Center | Pentagon | Shanksville, PA

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PHOTOGRAPH BY MON T E ISOM

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POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

35

mtm special ops silver warrior watch ($600) m

ABUSIVE LAB TEST

H Here at PopMech we enjoy a challenge. So when MTM told us to try by whatever means necessaryto destroy their Special Ops Warb rior, we happily obliged and put it through three tests that no man or r machine should ever have to endure. J . B . m

DROP

THR ASH

SMACK

We hurled the watch onto pavement 75 feet below: The minute hand was slightly bent but completely repairable. The rest of the watch was still in great shape.

After running it over with a lawnmower (uh-huh), it was still going strong. No signicant blemishes.

Executive editor David Dunbar and his son Oliver used the survivor as a puck. It made it through dozens of wrist shots, but the links started popping o on the seventh slap shot. Once our players began ring the Warrior at the boards and plexiglass, the watch exploded into 18 pieces.

BOT TOM LINE If youre willing to lay down six Benjamins for a watch that will outlast you, this stainless-steel timepiece, which is also visible at night and water-resistant up to 660 feet, is built so tough you can treat it like you hate it.

vapur eclipse anti-bottle ($12)


Less wasteful than disposable plastic and more convenient than its hard-bodied cousins, the Vapur Eclipse Anti-Bottle can be rolled, attened, or folded when empty. Its freezable and made of three layers of durable, BPA-free plastic, so its perfect for picnics, outdoor sports, and concerts. And an attached carabiner makes it easy to clip the bottle to your belt loop, purse, or pack, so youve got no excuse not to stay hydrated. J . N .

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Celebrity Headphones C

PHOTOGRAPHS BY DE VON JA RV IS

Ever since Dr. Dre released his Beats headphones in 2008, its been the fashion for celebrities of all sorts to slap their names on headphones. But putting aside self-promotion, are they any good? We tested nine pairs, listening to everything from Bach to Britney Spears. R . Z . A .
SOUND COMFORT LOOK BEST FOR

beats s by dre re ($300) 0) tim mcgraw ar on-ear headdnes phones ($80) )

The quality is pretty great over ov overall, with strong bass, bu ut when there are more but tha an a few instruments than play playing simultaneously, the sou sounds smudge together. The sound is decent gen generally, with nothing spe special at either end of the range, and a tendency tow toward muled vocals.

Good t, but you have to remove the cord at the ear cup to turn them o.

Less about conspicuous consumption than the rst-gen Beats.

Lady Gaga, minimalist Kanye West, the hum of active noise cancellation.

Very comfortable; the ear cups bring to mind plush bath towels.

Kind of cheesy, with McGraws name just slapped on willy-nilly.

Music whose lyrics you dont want to pay attention to.

skullcandy roc nation ator aviator z] [jay-z] ($150) 0)

Youre far from the music, as if i youre listening to it a ro room away but getting the best of the rap vocals, som some of the bass, and non none of the treble. Oppressive bass drowns out everything and makes eve even the twinkliest folk mu music sound as if its com coming from speakers in ac cavernous arena. Making no particular frequen quency stand out makes all m music sound mediocre, and anything acoustic seem as if its coming from dink dinky computer speakers. The warm sound is more akin to t an AM radio emulators t than to an AM radios. Still, the Liberate does prod produce a pleasing midra range, if not much else. Crisp vocals and bass oversha overshadow the imsy midrang midrange, but, overall, the quality suits s most music, unlike the th headphones competi competitor, Beats by Dre.

Triangular ear cups t nontriangular ears surprisingly well.

Straightforward and bold.

Jay-Z and, maybe, Kanye West.

B-

sony x n [simon ll] cowell] ($300) )

Like having half a cantaloupe attached to each side of your head.

Massive, like Simon Cowells ego.

American Idol auditions.

sol republic mau5 deadmau5 heades phones ($150)

Rigid and sharp.

Extremely minimalist, but with a nice splash of color.

Computer alert sounds.

PHOTOGRAPHS BY GETTY IMAGES (CELEBRITIES)

house of y marley liberate te n [rohan y] marley] ($100) sy sync by 50 [50 [5 50 cent] 5 ($400) ($ $400)

Ear cups jut out; headband digs in.

Like a Phish fans idea of reggae style.

Bob Marley.

C-

Too big but very comfortable, with generously large ear cups.

Sleek, as youd expect for the price tag.

Anything you want to play really loud.

B-

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2013 CSC BRANDS LP

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CLAY DEVOURS A

PHILLY
FAVORITE

Introducing Campbells Chunky Philly-Style Cheesesteak Soup. Go for it like Clay Matthews.

OFFICIAL SOUP SPONSOR OF THE NFL

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ESQUIREs 80TH
SEPT 23 MONDAY 9 | 8 c

KNIFE FIGHT
SEPT 24 TUESDAYS 9 | 8 c

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Introducing a new television network 80 years in the making.

STARTING SEPT23

BREW DOGS
SEPT 24 TUESDAYS 10 | 9 c

THE GETAWAY
SEPT 25 WEDNESDAYS 9 | 8 c

BOUNDLESS
SEPT 25 WEDNESDAYS 10 | 9 c
2013 Esquire Network

To find the Esquire Network in your area go to EsquireTV.com/channelfinder

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Whats green and has its own gravitational pull?


Huge savings from GEICO. Get your quote today.

geico.com | 1-800-947-AUTO (2886) | Local Ofce

Some discounts, coverages, payment plans and features are not available in all states or all GEICO companies. GEICO is a registered service mark of Government Employees Insurance Company, Washington, D.C. 20076; a Berkshire Hathaway Inc. subsidiary. GEICO Gecko image 1999-2013. 2013 GEICO.

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I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y S I N E L A B

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41

              

     

Auto

INTEL

 

O C TO B E R
DOWN THE ROAD

Chevrolet Corvette Stingray

AUTO TECH

A Vending Machine for Cars


THE FUTURE OF PARKING IS AUTOMATED.
BY BRETT BERK

When you pull into one of the 12 brightly lit underground entry-andexit rooms in the 697-car parking garage just beginning construction beneath Brooklyns forthcoming Willoughby Square, you will not be greeted by a valet harboring Mario Andretti fantasies.

Acura MDX

Chevrolet Cruze Diesel Nissan Versa Note Fiat 500L

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vation and construction. In a city like New York, where space means serious money, the ability to AUTOMOTION ESTIMATES park 700 cars in an area ordinarTHAT ITS FUTURE AUTOMATED GARAGE IN ily occupied by 350 is a boon for BROOKLYN WILL RESULT developers. IN BIG SAVINGS. The benefits of automated garages are not reserved just for big cities, either. Robotic lots are also starting to find support on suburban planning boards, where theyre seen as a means of fostering Main Street retail density and combating the draining sprawl of big-box stores. Projected number of cars In addition to space and in and out each year materials savings, there are other advantages to automated garages. Removing the driving from parking yields environmental benets through the elimination of engine idling and emissions. Automated garages also eliminate Miles of driving the need for ventilation systems, eliminated annually a fact thats particularly salient in the Brooklyn project. In a regular garage, with cars driving underground, you have to create O O huge systems of mechanical ventilation to suck up the pollution and blow it somewhere else. C Milstein says. The somewhere else in this case would have been a park with kids in it. By eliminating the possibilMetric tons of CO2 ity of human error from the sysemissions saved annually tem, theres also a reduction in collateral damage. The garage industry averages about one insurable incident for every hundred cars. Yet in parking more than 300,000 cars since 2007, AutoMotion maintains that its had zero claims. Milstein adds that every car in his underground lots remained undamaged in the highwater inundation of Hurricane Gallons of fuel saved Sandy, though after the citys annually power failure, the vehicles were immobilized below street level. Notwithstanding concerns about your car getting stuck underground, the automated garage is likely to become more common for its sheer sensibleness and eco-friendliness. As for those drivers who might worry about nding themselves being shuled about in the mechanical belly of a robot garage, Milstein insists that AutoMotions record is unimpeachable. No one has gotten swallowed yet, he says.
A GREENER GARAGE

And you wont have to navigate a labyrinthian maze of concrete. Instead, youll confront nothing but a bumper-level sh-eye mirror and a large at-screen TV. Connected to a quartet of laser guidance sensors, the monitor will help you position your vehicle on a pallet in the floor with tire-width ruts: MOVE TO THE LEFT, INCH FORWARD. (The mirror provides a visual assist.) After you set the parking brake and turn o and exit the vehicle, the screen will then walk you through a series of safety questions to ensure that youve closed your doors, removed your valuables, and verified the departure of all occupants (motion detectors conrm this last bit). As you exit the room to collect your retrieval receipt, a metal gate will roll down behind you, and your vehicle will, without a solitary human interaction, vanish into subterranean mystery. Conventional parking garages are inefficient. They require ramps, driving lanes, room for doors to open and close, and significant chunks of concrete and metal between each level. AutoMotion Parking Systems, a builder of automated garages and the company behind the Brooklyn project, will do away with all of this, replacing those bulky and disorienting double helices with a half-dozen 200-foot-long bays, each lined on both sides with carsize cubbies stacked three to ve high. Via five automated hoists, vehicles will be whisked on metal pallets from the entry rooms to their temporary homes and back again. Its like a vending machine for cars, Ari Milstein, executive director of AutoMotion, says. Upon completion in 2016, this vehicular Funyuns dispenser will be the biggest automated garage in the country. And by condensing the space required for parking cars by half, the Willoughby garage will yield major savings in the materials and costs of exca-

250,000

250000

152

17,000

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y K R I S T I E B A I L E Y

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TEST DRIVES

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PHOTOGRAPH BY BREN T HUMPHRE YS

PRICE: $51,995 AVA I L A B L E : N O W M P G ( C I T Y / H W Y ) : 1 7/ 2 9

2014 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray


Rolling through the streets of Detroit, the new Corvette Stingray gets the kind of attention usually reserved for minor celebrities. At every red light pedestrians squeeze o smartphone photographs, while drivers in neighboring cars unleash a urry of questions. But nobody asks what kind of car were driving. Its clear that, despite entirely new bodywork, it is unmistakably a Corvette. And yet the differences inside and out between the 2014 model and the old sixth-generation car are so stark that its hard to believe both versions rolled o the same assembly line only months apart. As impressive as the Corvette looks, the way it uses technology to improve performance is downright stunning. Consider the electronic limited-slip dierential that comes as part of the $2800 Z51 handling package. By constantly varying the amount of lockup every fraction of a second, the e-di gives the Stingray the quick reexes of an open dierential with the surefootedness of a limited-slip rear. Driving the road-course track at GMs Proving Grounds in

Milford, Mich., we found the new Corvette handles as if a hundred pounds had been removed from the front end; in reality, the car is about 100 pounds heavier. Old Corvettes gave the driver the feeling that a leery slide or spin could come at any moment as the car approached its limits. The Stingray, by contrast, is more responsive at low speeds and more predictable on the edge. Under the hood, the venerable 6.2-liter pushrod V-8 now has 455 hp (or 460 hp with an optional exhaust) and adds direct injection, variable valve timing, and cylinder deactivation as fuelsaving technologies. And in what Chevrolet claims is an industry rst, the new Stingray monitors the temperature of the tires and adjusts the stability and traction control systems to take advantage of warm rubbers extra grip. The new Corvette boasts performance figures that are unheard of for cars that cost less than $60,000: 0 to 60 mph in 3.9 seconds, the quarter-mile in 12.2 seconds at 117 mph, 1.08 gs of lateral grip, and 70-to0-mph braking in 146 feet. It also over-delivers for the price range in its high-quality interior. Soft-touch trim surrounds the cabin, the seats are now sturdy and supportive, and the digital instrument cluster is as crisp as an Apple Retina display. Oh, and did we mention you can hit 30 mpg in real-world highway driving? The shortcomings of the old car have all been xed. Whereas the old Corvette oset its limitations with performance and an attractive price, the new Stingray requires no such compensations. If theres anything missing in this car, its the feeling of compromise. MICHAEL AUSTIN

AUTO INTEL

Engine Knock

A metallic or pinging noise that occurs when the airfuel mixture in a gasoline engine self-ignites before the spark plugs re. Especially prone to happen in high-compression engines when using low-octane gas. Occurs less frequently in direct-injection engines, where the fuel spray helps cool the airfuel mixture.

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Sleep Better on DualAir


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*For a summary of independent clinical studies and their results, visit sleepnumber.com. Research conducted at Stanford University, Duke University and Abbott Northwestern Hospital and the Physical Therapy at The Marsh Health Center in conjunction with The Sleep Fitness Center. Warranty available at sleepnumber.com. The 100-Night trial begins the day your new Sleep Number bed arrives in your home. If not satised, call within 100 days of delivery to arrange return. Well reimburse the purchase price less your initial shipping or Home Delivery and Setup fees. You pay return shipping. There are no returns or exchanges on Upholstered Collection, adjustable bases, closeout or demo bed models. **Restrictions apply. See savings card for details and expiration date. 2013 Select Comfort

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WorldMags.net WHEELHOUSE 46
OCTOBER 2013 / POPULARMECHANICS.COM

AUTO ODDS & ENDS


2004 MILES DRIVEN PER YEAR 25 K

2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel


Whats dierent: At a glance, its hard to tell the new diesel Cruze from a gas-burning Cruze, but a tiny 2.0 TD badge on the trunklid gives away the 151-hp, 264 lb-ft compression-ignition engine under the hood. Whats nice: Chevy engineers used extra sound insulation from the Buick Verano to make this the quietest Cruze in the lineup. Whats excellent: The torque, of course. And lots of it. All around, the Cruze rides like a more expensive car, and compared with other m Cruzes, it is$2390 more than an equivalent C gas model. But the diesel pays back with g eight more highway mpg than the Cruze Eco. e Whats convenient: Diesel exhaust uid llW u ups, oil changes, and tire rotations are free for fo the rst two years or 24,000 miles. With o without incentives, though, the Cruze is or good g enough to convert buyers to the diesel side. s M.A.
P R I C E : $ 2 5 , 6 9 5 AVA I L A B L E : N O W M P G ( C I T Y / H W Y ) : 2 7/ 4 6

23 K

21 K
PER HOUSEHOLD

19 K

PER LICENSED DRIVER

13 3K

11 1K

PER REGISTERED VEHICLE PER PERSON

9K

7K

85 90

95 00 YEAR

05

5K 10

2014 Nissan Versa Note


A note on the Note: The second generation of Nissans Versa hatchback is now dierentiated by its surname. In this iteration, fuel eiciency takes top priority, with new aerodynamic styling giving the Note a gutsier guise than its predecessor. In addition, the optional CVT ($1250) comes with active shutters in the grille. Under the Notes hood, a more eicient 109-hp 1.6-litershared with the Versa sedanreplaces the old 122-hp 1.8-liter. The Note is also about 300 pounds lighter than the old hatchback, which further aids mpg and softens the blow of that lost horsepower. But whats most impressive about the Note is how well the whole package comes together. This hatchba rises above econobox status hatchback goo steering and quick throttle with good respons and despite the modest power, response, doesn feel slow. Our biggest qualm is it doesnt with the CVT, which dampens the expew rience with inconsistent responses to the gas pedal. Still, if youre looking for t new Versa Note is that and a a deal, the ext little extra. J A M E S TAT E
P R I C E : $ 1 4 , 7 8 0 AVA I L A B L E : N O W MPG (CITY/HWY): 2731/3640

2004: THE YEAR DRIVING PEAKED?

Yet another study points to the declining driving habits of the American public. This one, from Michael Sivak at the University of Michigan, found that driving in four key categories peaked way back in 2004 and has been falling since.

TEST DRIVES

Percentage drop-o in registered convertibles since 2006. Suspected reasons: recession, dwindling consumer options, more cars with large panoramic roofs, and an increase in eagle attacks.

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WorldMags.net Great Products and Promotional


FROGTAPE BRAND PAINTERS TAPE
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TEST DRIVES
INTRODUCTIONS

CARS WE LIVE WITH

2014 Acura MDX


                 . B E N S T E WA R T
               
                 

2 0 1 3 H Y U N DA I ELANTRA GT

THE LOWDOWN

manual transmission and plenty of space inside the ve-door hatchback cabin, the Elantra GT reminds us that fun-to-drive, fuel eiciency, and versatility can all be found in one car at an aordable price.
SPECS

With a six-speed

BASE PRICE/AS TESTED $19,170/$22,015 POWERTRAIN 1.8-liter I-4, 148 hp, 131 lb-ft; six-speed manual transmission; FWD EPA FUEL ECONOMY (CITY/HW Y) 26/37
2013 RAM 1500 S LT C R E W C A B

P H O T O G R A P H S B Y S A R A H S H AT Z ( E L A N T R A ) , A A R O N W O J A C K ( R A M )

THE LOWDOWN

2014 Fiat 500L


What is that? Its Fiats all-new Urban Utility Vehiclea ve-door hatchback to compete with the Mini Countryman. The good points? The cabins panorama of glass makes it airy and provides great rearview sightlines. This is also the rst Fiat

to get Chryslers Uconnect infotainment system. How does it drive? The turbocharged I-4 makes the L quite a bit peppier than the Countryman, but anemic electric steering and a lackluster interior make it feel cheaper. Which it isby $3000. Who wins? The Mini by an English bulldogs nose. But if your wallets hurting, youll still be happy with the 500L. J .T.
                   
       

Sporting a host of engineering upgrades (including an air spring suspension) and fresh sheet metal, the new-and-improved Ram will live in Detroit, where we plan to give it plenty of work.
SPECS

BASE PRICE/AS TESTED $35,175/$44,125 POWERTRAIN 5.7-liter V-8, 395 hp, 407 lb-ft; eight-speed automatic transmission; RWD EPA FUEL ECONOMY (CITY/HW Y) 15/22

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*On 4 QUALIFYING FALKEN TIRES. WILDPEAK H/T ($100 Rebate) AZENIS FK453 ($80 Rebate) AZENIS FK453CC ($80 Rebate) AZENIS PT 722 ($60 Rebate) WILDPEAK A/T ($50 Rebate) ZIEX S/TZ05 ($50 Rebate) ZIEX ZE912 ($50 Rebate)
By mail with the purchase of 4 Falken Tires September 1st to October 31st, 2013.

GET UP TO

For additional information, please visit the following link:

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OCTOBER 2013 / POPULARMECHANICS.COM

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2014 CHEVROLET SILVERADO 1500

PHOTOGRAPHS BY PE T ER BA K ER

2013 RAM 1500 SLT

popmech tested
2013 NISSAN TITAN PRO-4X

2013 TOYOTA TUNDRA SR5

2013 FORD F-150 XLT

2014 GMC SIERRA 1500

Half-Ton Trucks
BRAND-NEW PICKUPS FROM CHEVROLET, GMC, AND RAM FACE OFF AGAINST FORD, NISSAN, AND TOYOTA.
BY MIKE AUSTIN

ickups just refuse to fade away. While electric vehicles and fuel-eicient compacts get plenty of attention in the news, half-ton trucks quietly remain the biggest sales category in the U.S. automotive market. The popularity of trucks is bolstered by the fact that horsepower, hauling capacity, and creature comforts increase year after year. Modern half-tons not only do things that used to take a heavy-duty pickup,

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& do it yourself.

Save money
Die sel

1627
Was 17.27
each,

ROLLBACK

ROLLBACK

Valvoline Synthetic Motor Oil r RUT

22

47
each, Was 24.97

Valvoline Conventional Motor Oil r RUT

1597
each

Rotella Triple Protection HD Motor Oil r RUT

1297

each

rRUT

Valvoline High Mi

leage Motor Oil

1194
Bosch Distance Plus Oil Filter

594

starting at

Fram Tough Guard Oil Filter

327
Purolator Classic Oil Filter

7 92
15-Quart Oil Drain Pan r $MPTFEUPQEFTJHO r &BTZUSBOTQPSUIBOEMF r )PMETVQUP 2 oil changes

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Lucas Oil Deep Clean Fuel System Cleaner r )FMQTEFFQDMFBO entire fuel system r 6TFFWFS Z  miles r G MP[

494
Gumout 2X Regane Fuel System Cleaner r G MP[

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STP Super Concentrated Fuel Injector Cleaner r 4BGFGPSBMM gasoline engines r G MP[

422
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3594

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A/C Pro Refrigerant r )FMQTTFBMBOE protect AC system r *ODMVEFTSFVTFBCMF extra-long charging hose r P[

Oil & battery recycling not available in all stores. Visit Walmart.comSM to find your nearest Walmart Auto Care Center.

WALMARTS ADVERTISED MERCHANDISE POLICY We intend to have every advertised item in stock. However, we may not offer some items in all locations, and quantity or availability may vary due to unexpected demand or other circumstances beyond our control. Prices offered on Walmart.comSM may vary from prices offered in our stores. If an advertised item is out of stock at your Walmart store, upon your request, we will issue you a Rain Check so that you can purchase the item at the advertised price when it becomes available. In addition, we may offer to sell you a similar item at the advertised price or a comparable price reduction. One-Time Offer items, Bonus items, items identified as being available in limited quantities, and items that are not carried at your Walmart do not qualify for Rain Checks or offers of substitute items. ONE-TIME OFFER items are items that we carry at a special price for a limited time only. BONUS items are items that include a bonus amount of the same item or an additional bonus item at no extra cost. ROLLBACK means that the advertised price is even lower than the previously offered Every Day Low Price. In all cases, we reserve the right to limit quantities to normal retail purchases or one per customer or household, and to exclude dealers. Our advertising circular may vary by geographic region, and any particular regional circular will apply only to stores in that region. Offers and limitations void where prohibited by law. We apologize for, but will not be bound by, any errors in our advertisements. This advertised merchandise policy does not apply to SM our Prescription Program. Prices and/or items available only in the USA (may vary in Alaska, Hawaii, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Puerto Rico, or online at Walmart.com ). For the store location nearest you, please call 1-800-881-9180 or check online at Walmart.comSM. The spark design , Walmart, and Save money. Live better. are marks and/or registered marks of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 2013 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR. Printed in the USA. Event Dates: Monday, August 26 Sunday, September 29.

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OCTOBER 2013 / POPULARMECHANICS.COM

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2014 CHEVROLET S I LV E R A D O 1500 Z71 LT Crew Cab 2013 FORD F-150 XLT SuperCrew

like towing more than 10,000 pounds, but they do so while giving back better fuel economy than ever before. Since we last reviewed the category four years ago (January 2009), half of the truck models have been redesigned. The newest are the GM twins from Chevrolet and GMC, nearly identical except for the front-end styling. Close behind is the Ram 1500, which launched last year. Joining the Silverado, Sierra, and Ram are the Ford F-150, Nissan Titan, and Toyota Tundra. The Ford was the freshest truck in our previous test and took home top honors. Nissan rst oered the Titan back in 2004 and has made few changes since; a new model is expected by 2015. Toyota, meanwhile, barely missed getting the new Tundra into our test well be driving the 2014 model shortly after press time. The 2013 Tundra we tested traces its roots back to 2007. This time around we teamed up with PickupTrucks.com, the truck-obsessed arm of online shopping portal Cars.com, to help manage the massive task of testing all six half-tons currently on the market. From our base of operations in Ann Arbor, Mich., we spent four days and hundreds of miles driving both unladen and hauling trailers loaded with 8500 pounds of lead and steel. We recorded straight-line performance, peeked into every nook and cranny of the interiors, and even drove each truck through an autocross course. The results of the companion piece on the PickupTrucks website include test data too expansive to list here, so our star ratings are based on the subjective portion of the test. In order to get similar equipment levels and mechanical trim, our test required a fourdoor crew-cab body style with four-wheel drive and a maximum price of $45,000. Five of the trucks came stued with V-8s under the hood. The outlier was the Ford F-150, equipped with a twin-turbo V-6 packing enough power and torque to make us forget about the missing two cylinders. In a similar bucking of conventional truck wisdom, the Ram sits on an optional adjustable air suspension at all four corners instead of the traditional front-coil, rear-leafspring setup found on the rest of the eld. Looking at the group from oldest to youngest, its clear that trucks are getting faster, more comfortable, and more efficient, but, interestingly, not lighter (at least not yet). And while these trucks might be cushy on the inside, they can still get the job done. Read on to see which one handled the workload best.

Base price/as tested: $40,525/$44,715 Powertrain: 5.3-liter V-8, 355 hp, 383 lb-ft; six-speed auto L x W x H: 230.0 x 80.0 x 74.0 inches Wheelbase: 143.5 inches Curb weight: 5480 pounds Max. payload (as tested): 1720 pounds Max. towing (as tested): 9320 pounds Likes: The dashboard layout, with easy-toreach buttons for all the major controls and plenty of storage. The Chevy and the GMC set the standard for a quiet interior, especially on the highway, where wind noise is greatly reduced. It rides nice too. Dislikes: The seats lack lateral support. Also, the steering wheel is slightly o-center to the drivers torso, a weird ergonomic aw. Fuel economy without a trailer was worse than the Sierras.

Base price/as tested: $39,325/$44,7805 Powertrain: twin-turbo 3.5-liter V-6, 365 hp, 420 lb-ft; six-speed auto L x W x H: 231.9 x 79.2 x 76.7 inches Wheelbase: 144.5 inches Curb weight: 5820 pounds Max. payload (as tested): 1830 pounds Max. towing (as tested): 11,080 pounds Likes: The turbo V-6 impressed us with its power and achieved the second-best fuel economy without a trailer. As equipped, the Ford oers the most towing and payload. We also liked the big towing mirrors. Dislikes: Fuel economy in the F-150 suered when the trailer was attached. And we derived little pleasure from the cheap plastics in the interior compared with the more luxe Ram and GM trucks. A high dashboard gives the driver a tanklike driving sensation.

BRAKING 600 MPH

FEET

0 6 0 M P H A C C E L E R AT I O N
NO TRAILER

SECONDS

TRAILER (8500 POUNDS)

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2014 GMC SIERRA 1500 SLE Z71 Crew Cab 2013 NISSAN T I TA N Pro-4X Crew Cab 2013 RAM 1500 S LT Big Horn Crew Cab 2 0 1 3 T OYO TA TUNDRA SR5 CrewMax

FUEL ECONOMY
UNLADEN 23

Base price/as tested: $40,650/$43,720 Powertrain: 5.3-liter V-8, 355 hp, 383 lb-ft; six-speed auto L x W x H: 230.0 x 80.0 x 74.0 inches Wheelbase: 143.5 inches Curb weight: 5420 pounds Max. payload (as tested): 1780 pounds Max. towing (as tested): 9380 pounds Likes: Our favorite exterior styling and nicer interior plastics elevated our opinion of the cabin above the Chevys. Drives with the same quiet, solid feel as its twin. A cutout in the back bumper helps for stepping up into the cargo bed. Dislikes: Small side mirrors make it hard to see the trailer and surrounding traic at the same time. One dierence from the Silverado was the Sierras uncomfortably hard headrests. Second-slowest 060 mph without a trailer.

Base price/as tested: $40,235/$44,515 Powertrain: 5.6-liter V-8, 317 hp, 385 lb-ft; ve-speed auto L x W x H: 224.6 x 79.5 x 76.9 inches Wheelbase: 139.8 inches Curb weight: 5520 pounds Max. payload (as tested): 1680 pounds Max. towing (as tested): 9379 pounds Likes: Despite its aged design the Titan is still sporty, with good brakes and a natural feel to the steering. Like the F-150, the Titan has big mirrors that include a convex view. A 400-watt AC power port in the cabin is a nice touch. Dislikes: When towing a trailer, the back end sags and the ride gets choppy under the heavy load. The interior looks dated, with too much hard plastic trim. Lowest horsepower in the test, and the worst fuel economy without a trailer.

Base price/as tested: $38,295/$44,730 Powertrain: 5.7-liter V-8, 395 hp, 407 lb-ft; eight-speed auto L x W x H: 229.0 x 79.4 x 77.9 inches Wheelbase: 140.5 inches Curb weight: 5600 pounds Max. payload (as tested): 1200 pounds Max. towing (as tested): 8350 pounds Likes: Boasts the best 060 time without a trailer. The way the engine and transmission combination work in perfect coordination. It narrowly beats the GM trucks in ride comfort. This was our favorite interior in the test group, especially the customizable digital instrument cluster. Dislikes: With a loaded trailer the Ram returned the worst fuel economy. That cushy air-suspension ride comes at the cost of the lowest cargo and towing capacities by a considerable margin.

Base price/as tested: $35,825/$41,199 Powertrain: 5.7-liter V-8, 381 hp, 401 lb-ft; six-speed auto L x W x H: 228.7 x 79.9 x 76.0 inches Wheelbase: 145.7 inches Curb weight: 5800 pounds Max. payload (as tested): 1400 pounds Max. towing (as tested): 10,000 pounds Likes: Second place in towing capacity, due in part to an optional max 4.30:1 axle ratio for zippy acceleration and passing maneuvers. Low price in anticipation of the model redesign. Dislikes: Theres nothing in the way of thoughtful convenience like the GMs bed step. And the interior doesnt work very well: Manning the radio and HVAC requires you to stretch across the dashboard, and most of the storage bins in the center console are too small or odd-shaped to be useful.

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10 MPG WITH TRAILER

130

135

140

145

150

7.0

8.0

17.0

18.0

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J AY L E N O S G A R A G E

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B Y J AY L E N O

Driving a Hard Bargain

JAYS FATHER WAS A CAR SALESMANS WORST NIGHTMARE.

Some of my fondest memories are of buying cars with my father. My dad was the kind of guy who would buy whatever was on the showroom oor, and he didnt care about options. He did no research of any kind, and once hed decided he wanted a new car, he didnt like to wait. My dad was not a great one for endless haggling, though he always started out by acting like it was his favorite pastime. How much is the car? hed ask, getting right to the point. When he heard the price, hed counter, Okay, Ill give you this. Then, when the salesman replied with his number, Dad would say, All right, Ill give you this. He always had to have the best possible deal. Eventually he and the salesman would get to a number they both could live with.

As I got a little older, I saw how my dad would mess with the salesmen in the dealership. I remember in 1964 we went to buy a four-door Ford Galaxie 500XL from Shawsheen Motors in Andover, Mass. I still remember the salesman. His name was Tom Lawrence. We went into the showroom, and, unfortunately for my dad but fortunately for me, a budding car enthusiast, this model had bucket seats, a 390 V-8, and the three-speed C6 Cruise-O-Matic transmission with the shifter on the console. My dad started right in: Bucket seats! What the hell do we need bucket seats for? He was trying to negotiate to get the bucket seats out of the car. Of course, you couldnt just take the bucket seats out of the car, but my dad didnt want to order a new car. So he tried to get a better deal by insisting he didnt want the seats. Although I dont remember the nal details, whatever he said must have worked, because we drove o in that car. By 1966 my dad was making good money as an insurance salesman for Prudential and felt he needed a Cadillac. So we went down to Wentworth Motors in Andover, where the price of the Caddy was $4850. Of course, my dad started arguing with the salesman. My dad said, Ill give you $4700. When the salesman wouldnt budge, my dad oered $4800. But the guy wouldnt come down that $50! So Dad stormed out of the showroom and we didnt get the Cadillac. Back in those days, salesmen used all sorts of old-school techniques. One was the good guy/ bad guy routine, like I wanna give you a good deal, Mr. Leno, but my managers a tough guy. Another was the hidden microphone. The scenario would usually start with a salesman inviting us into an oce and then leaving so that we were alone for a few minutes. Hed be in another room, listening to us talking, trying to gure out what we thought about the car. I remember one time when the two of us were in a dealership oce, my dad put his nger to his lips and whispered, Shhh. Theyre listening in the other room. Tell me you hate the car. So I said loudly, I dont like the car, Pop.

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y V I C K U L I H I N

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55

You dont? Well, were not lac with the regular interior, but buyin it if you dont like it. this car comes with the interior The salesman hurried back delegaaaance. So, of course, to the oce and started hagbeing Italian, my dad had to gling with my dad. He said, have the extravagant interior Look, Mr. Leno, I know your delegaaaance. My dad was a selfboy doesnt like this car, but its made man. He used to call the a terric automobile . . . Cadillac the Rolls-Royce of autoMy dad cut him o. How do mobiles. He didnt quite get the you know my boy doesnt like irony of that statement. this car? I dont like to bargain. So I And you could just see the said to my father, Youre not payguy start to choke because my ing for this. Im paying for this. I 1966 Cadillac Calais four-door sedan dad knew hed been listening told the salesman I wanted every in on us. option. Of course, my dad was Then Dad said, Im gonna go thrilled. But my mother could not nd a car my son likes, cause if have been more embarrassed. he doesnt like it, Im not gonna She was from Scotland, and she pay all this. The guy, seeing a believed anything that smacked sale slip away, eventually lowof showing o or wealth or sucered his price. My dad always cess was terrible. So she was thought that was hilarious. He always mortied to drive around was sure the hidden microin this Cadillac. When my par1986 Cadillac Fleetwood phone was a trick that all the ents would pull up to a light, if Jays father refused to buy a 1966 salesmen used. people alongside looked over at Cadillac after a $50 disagreement with One time, when I was a kid the car, my mother would motion the salesman. Twenty years later Jay and worked at a Ford dealerto them to put their window bought his father the bottom Caddy. ship, a guy drove in with a down and say: Were not really Chevy Impala that had 98,000 Cadillac people. My son got us miles on it. He was buying a this car. new Ford. They took his Impala And then my father would out back to the service department. During the negoshout: What the hell dya mean, were not tiations, something happened, and the guy demanded Cadillac people? Were drivin a damn Cadilhis car back. He got into his Impala and drove away. lac. Of course were Cadillac people. The But the used-car department thought the Impala was people in the car next to us would get so theirs, and theyd already turned the odometer back to frightened, theyd take o. Then my mother 15,500 miles for better resale value. Then the guy came and father would start arguing. back and said, Im ready to make that deal now. Look My mother was so embarrassed to ride at the odometer. Of course, now they had to make him around in a luxury automobile, shed sit low a better deal because theyd been caught. We used to in the seat, below the dashboard, so nobody call that trick odometer recalibration. would see her. Occasionally I would hear I always promised my dad that when I made it big, from peopleremember, this is before cellId buy him a Cadillac. Hed say, Yeah, yeah. He never phones in carsand theyd say, I saw your believed me. So when I started to make some money, I dad driving down the street, and it looked took my dad back down to Wentworth Motors to buy a like he was waving and yelling at nobody. brand-new 1986 Cadillac. And would you believe, the And Id have to say, No, no, my mom was same salesman was there. in the car. Oh, he says, Mr. $50 is back. My dad starts lookWhen it was time to trade in the Cadillac, ing at the car, and the salesman takes out an aerosol I bought my dad an 88 Lincoln. By that time can labeled bulls**t spray and starts spraying it over he was starting to slip a little bit. Hed insist my fathers headreal old-time salesman stu. Then he that they moved the damn post at the supersays, Yknow what Ive got here? Its b.s. spray. I have market because hed always dent the car to spray it every time someone like you comes in. when he backed up. Id say, Pop, they didnt My dad didnt have a very good poker face. You move the post. But hed swear that they could tell when he wanted a car. This Cadillac was didthe usual old-guy stu. white with a garish red tufted interior. The salesman Thats when I knew it was time for him said to my father, Well, Mr. Leno, you can get a Cadilto hang up the car keys. PopMech

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Milwaukee Makerspace Morgifying Marble Manipulator (aka: M6)


Milwaukee Makerspace | Milwaukee, Wisconsin
These brainiacs from Brew Town made a simple marble roller coaster into something more by incorporating RadioShacks classic Armatron toy from the 80s. The joystick-controlled robotic arm helps move a ball along a contraption full of twists and turns. The structure was built using everything IURPVFUDSPHWDOWRPDJQHWVWRDSDSHUFXS6SHFLF materials were fabricated with a laser cutter and 3D printer. Controlling everything is a programmable Arduino board, which monitors the balls position with sensors and switches built into the track.

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They could win $1000. And so could you.


Its time to revealand vote onthe projects in this years challenge. The theme: From something old, make something new. Two teams are vying for bragging rights and $1000 in prize money. And it all comes down to this: their ideas, and your appreciation for them.

Lets Play

Vote at popmechnow.com/radioshack and you could win a $1000 RadioShack gift card.*

Police Call Box Lander (A Biofeedback-Controlled Game)


Inspiration Labs | Tampa, Florida
The Tampa teams project puts a fun spin on a classic arcade game that allows a gamer to control a small spacecraft and DWWHPSWDOXQDUODQGLQJ,QVSLUHGE\DVSRSXODU%ULWLVKVFL show, the team built a life-sized replica of a police call box and installed an open-source clone of the game and all its controls inside. Whats unique is that they also used EEG sensors (think biofeedback machine), so the game essentially monitors your meditative state, which controls the spacecrafts thrust. The challenge is trying to keep your cool as the noise, music and UXPEOLQJRRUEXLOGXSWRDIHYHUSLWFK

*No purchase necessary to enter or win. RadioShack Hackerspace Challenge Sweepstakes. Sponsored by Hearst Communications, Inc. Beginning
September 1, 2013 at 12:01 AM (ET) through September 30, 2013 at 11:59 PM (ET). Open to residents of the U. S. and Canada who have reached the age WorldMags.net of majority. Void in Puerto Rico, Province of Quebec and where prohibited by law. See complete rules at www.popmechnow.com/radioshack.

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WANTS YOU!
Give Us a Piece of Your Mind and Enter to

WIN $5000
The editors of Popular Mechanics would love to hear your opinion of the issue youre reading right now. Your responses positive, negative, lukewarmwill help us shape future issues of the magazine. Take a quick survey and youll be eligible to win $5000.

Visit octsurvey.popularmechanics.com to get started.

No purchase necessary to enter or win. Reader Feedback Sweepstakes. Sponsored by Hearst Communications, Inc. Beginning January 1, 2013 at 12:01 AM (ET) through December 31, 2013 at 11:59 PM (ET) go to octsurvey.popularmechanics.com and complete and submit the entry form pursuant to the on-screen instructions. One (1) Grand Prize winner will receive $5,000, one (1) Second Place winner will receive a $500 American Express gift card, and ten (10) runner-up winners will receive a $100 American Express gift card. Odds of winning depend on the total number of eligible entries received. Must be a legal resident of the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, or Canada who has reached the age of majority in his or her state, territory, or province of residence at time of entry. Void in the Province of Quebec and where prohibited by law. Sweepstakes subject to complete oicial rules available at octsurvey.popularmechanics.com.

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I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y K E L L I A N D E R S O N

N AT I O N A L S E C U R I T Y

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BY J O E PA P PA L A R D O

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NSA Data Mining: How It Works

Most people were introduced to the arcane world of data mining when National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden allegedly leaked classied documents that detail how the U.S. government uses the technique to track terrorists. The security breach revealed that the government gathers billions of pieces of dataphone calls, emails, photos, and videosfrom Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and other communications giants, then combs through the information for leads on national security threats. The disclosure caused a global uproar over the sanctity of privacy, the need for security, and the perils of government secrecy. People rightfully have been concerned about where the government gets the datafrom all of usbut equal attention has not been paid to what it actually does with it. Heres a guide to big-data mining, NSA-style.

The Information Landscape


Just how much data do we produce? A recent study by IBM estimates that humanity creates 2.5 quintillion bytes of data every day. (If these data bytes were pennies laid out at, they would blanket the earth ve times.) That total includes stored informationphotos, videos, social-media posts, word-processing les, phone-call records, nancial records, and results from science experimentsand data

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N AT I O N A L S E C U R I T Y

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CONNECTING THE DOTS: PHONE-METADATA TRACKING
The NSA collects metadata from phone records, enabling it to identify terrorists without examining the calls contents. Amid millions of calls, patterns can emerge, as our hypothetical scenario below demonstrates.

that normally exists for mere moments, such as phone-call content and Skype chats.

Veins of Useful Information


The concept behind the NSAs data-mining operation is that this digital information can be analyzed to establish connections between people, and these links can generate investigative leads. But in order to examine data, it has to be collectedfrom everyone. As the data-mining saying goes: To nd a needle in a haystack, you rst need to build a haystack.

Call from Terror Supporter Person of Interest Saudi Arabia Cluster

Call to Terror Supporter

Data Has to Be Tagged Before Its Bagged


Data mining relies on metadata tags that enable algorithms to identify connections. Metadata is data about datafor example, the names and sizes of les on your computer. In the digital world, the label placed on data is called a tag. Tagging data is a necessary rst step to data mining because it enables analysts (or the software they use) to classify and organize the information so it can be searched and processed. Tagging also enables analysts to parse the information without examining the contents. This is an important legal point in NSA data mining because the communications of U.S. citizens and lawful permanent resident aliens cannot be examined without a warrant. Metadata on a tag has no such protection, so analysts can use it to identify suspicious behavior without fear of breaking the law.

California Cluster

any system that makes links among dierent kinds of datasuch as video, documents, and phone records. For example, data mining could call attention to a suspect on a watch list who downloads terrorist propaganda, visits bomb-making websites, and buys a pressure cooker. (This pattern matches the behavior of the Tsarnaev brothers, who are accused of planting bombs at the Boston Marathon.) This tactic assumes terrorists have well-dened data prolessomething many security experts doubt.

Finding Patterns in the Noise


The data-analysis rm IDC estimates that only 3 percent of the information in the digital universe is tagged when its created, so the NSA has a sophisticated software program that puts billions of metadata markers on the info it collects. These tags are the backbone of

Open Source and Top Secret


The NSA has been a big promoter of software that can manage vast databases. One of these programs is called Accumulo, and while there is no direct evidence that it is being used in the eort to monitor global communications, it was designed precisely for tagging billions of pieces of unorganized, disparate data. The secretive agencys custom tool, which is based on Google programming, is actually open-source. This year a company called Sqrrl commercialized it and hopes the healthcare and nance industries will use it to manage their own big-data sets.

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1 The phone records of a known terrorist supporter in Saudi Arabia form a cluster of possible accomplices. 2 A call from the known terrorist supporter is made to a person of interest in the United States, a U.S. citizen. 3 The phone metadata from the person of interest in the United States forms a cluster of associates in California. 4 Phone records show one of the associates in the California cluster called someone in the Saudi Arabia cluster. The NSA alerts the FBI to the connection, enabling the agency to obtain a wiretap.

POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

61

from a government agency to authorize a search of data collected by the NSA. Once authorizedand most applications aredatamining requests rst go to the FBIs Electronic Communications Surveillance Unit (ECSU), according to PowerPoint slides taken by Snowden. This is a legal safeguardFBI agents review the request to ensure no U.S. citizens are targets. The ECSU passes appropriate requests to the FBI Data Intercept Technology Unit, which obtains the information from Internet company servers and then passes it to the NSA to be examined with data-mining programs. (Many communications companies have denied they open their servers to the NSA; federal ocials claim they cooperate. As of press time, its not clear who is correct.) The NSA then passes relevant information to the government agency that requested it.

What the NSA Is Up To


Phone-Metadata Mining Dragged Into the Light
The NSA controversy began when Snowden revealed that the U.S. government was collecting the phone-metadata records of every Verizon customerincluding millions of Americans. At the request of the FBI, FISA Court judge Roger Vinson issued an order compelling the company to hand over its phone records. The content of the calls was not collected, but national security ocials call it an early warning system for detecting terror plots (see Connecting the Dots: Phone-Metadata Tracking).

PRISM Goes Public


On the heels of the metadata-mining leak, Snowden exposed another NSA surveillance eort, called US-984XN. Every collection platform or source of raw intelligence is given a name, called a Signals Intelligence Activity Designator (SIGAD), and a code name. SIGAD US-984XN is better known by its code name: PRISM. PRISM involves the collection of digital photos, stored data, le transfers, emails, chats, videos, and video conferencing from nine Internet companies. U.S. ocials say this tactic helped snare Khalid Ouazzani, a naturalized U.S. citizen who the FBI claimed was plotting to blow up the New York Stock Exchange. Ouazzani was in contact with a known extremist in Yemen, which brought him to the attention of the NSA. It identied Ouazzani as a possible conspirator and gave the information to the FBI, which went up on the electronic surveillance and identied his coconspirators, according to congressional testimony by FBI deputy director Sean Joyce. (Details of how the agency identied the others has not been disclosed.) The NYSE plot zzled long before the FBI intervened, but Ouazzani and two others pleaded guilty of laundering money to support al-Qaida. They were never charged with anything related to the bomb plot.

The Miners: Who Does What


The NSA, home to the federal governments codemakers and code-breakers, is authorized to snoop on foreign communications. The agency also collects a vast amount of datatrillions of pieces of communication generated by people across the globe. The NSA does not chase the crooks, terrorists, and spies it identies; it sifts information on behalf of other government players such as the Pentagon, CIA, and FBI. Here are the basic steps: To start, one of 11 judges on a secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance (FISA) Court accepts an application

Mining Data as Its Created


The slides disclosed by Snowden indicate the NSA also operates real-time surveillance tools. NSA analysts can receive real-time notication of an email event such as a login or sent message and real-time notication of a chat login, the slides say. Thats pretty straightforward use, but whether real-time information can stop unprecedented attacks is subject to debate. Alerting a credit-card holder of sketchy purchases in real time is easy; building a reliable model of an impending attack in real time is innitely harder.

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OCTOBER 2013 / POPULARMECHANICS.COM

N AT I O N A L S E C U R I T Y

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having a massive data set may be a liability. When a program examines trillions of connections between potential targets, even a very small false-positive rate equals tens of thousands of dead-end leads that agents must chase downnot to mention the unneeded incursions into innocent peoples lives.

What is XKeyscore?
In late July Snowden released a 32-page, top-secret PowerPoint presentation that describes software that can search hundreds of databases for leads. Snowden claims this program enables low-level analysts to access communications without oversight, circumventing the checks and balances of the FISA court. The NSA and White House vehemently deny this, and the documents dont indicate any misuse. The slides do describe a powerful tool that NSA analysts can use to nd hidden links inside troves of information. My target speaks German but is in Pakistanhow can I nd him? one slide reads. Another asks: My target uses Google Maps to scope target locationscan I use this information to determine his email address? This program enables analysts to submit one query to search 700 servers around the world at once, combing disparate sources to nd the answers to these questions.

Analytics to See the Future


Ever wonder where those Netix recommendations in your email inbox or suggested reading lists on Amazon come from? Your previous interests directed an algorithm to pitch those products to you. Big companies believe more of this kind of targeted marketing will boost sales and reduce costs. For example, this year Walmart bought a predictive analytics startup called Inkiru. The company makes software that crunches data to help retailers develop marketing campaigns that target shoppers when they are most likely to buy certain products.

Pattern Recognition or Prophecy?


In 2011 British researchers created a game that simulated a van-bomb plot, and 60 percent of the terrorist players were spotted by a program called DScent, based on their purchases and visits to the target site. The ability of a computer to automatically match security-camera footage with records of purchases may seem like a dream to law-enforcement agents trying to save lives, but its the kind of ubiquitous tracking that alarms civil libertarians. Although neither the NSA nor any other agency has been accused of misusing the data it collects, the publics fear over its collection remains. The question becomes, how much do you trust the people sitting at the keyboards to use this information responsibly? Your answer largely determines how you feel about NSA data mining. PopMech
2020 The amount of data will be 50 times greater in 2020 than in 2010.

How Far Can the Data Stretch?


OopsFalse Positives
Bomb-sning dogs sometimes bark at explosives that are not there. This kind of mistake is called a false positive. In data mining, the equivalent is a computer program sning around a data set and coming up with the wrong conclusion. This is when

2019 Emerging markets predicted to account for 62% of the worlds data.

2012 Emerging markets (Brazil, China, India) produce 32% of global data.

2009 Global data output begins to double every two years.

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The Easy to Install Floor Tile
Patent Pending TwoShot Process

The Rubber Goes Through

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Snaps Together!
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Specialists in Original Equipment and Aftermarket Automotive Accessories

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Pepper spray designed to stop a charging bear can save you, but for Petes sake, dont wait until the animal is inches from your hand.

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POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

Accidents are the leading cause of death among U.S. men 18 to 50 years old, accounting for 37,000 of the roughly 148,000 annual fatalities. Some instances of unintentional death, to use the official term, are unavoidablewrong place, wrong timebut most arent. Staying alive requires recognizing danger, feeling fear, and reacting. We interpret external cues through our subconscious fear centers very quickly, says Harvard Universitys David Ropeik, author of How Risky Is It, Really? Trouble is, even smart, sober, experienced men can fail to register signals of an imminent threat. Here we present 20 easy-to-miss risks, and how to avoid or survive them.

AT T S E L A N0T AY T0D

1.
OUTSMART WILDLIFE.
If you come face-to-face with a wild animal, the natural response is to bolt, but that can trigger the animals predatory instinct. On July 6, 2011, Brian Matayoshi, 57, and his wife, Marylyn, 58, were hiking in Yellowstone National Park when they came upon a grizzly bear and ed, screaming. Brian was bitten and clawed to death; Marylyn, who had stopped and crouched behind a tree, was approached by the bear but left unharmed.

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S TAT: Each year three to ve people are killed in North America in wild animal attacks, primarily by sharks and bears. D O : Avoid shark-infested waters, unless you are Andy Casagrande (page 80). As for bears, always carry repellent pepper spray when hiking; it can stop a charging bear from as much as 30 feet away. To reduce the risk of an attack, give bears a chance to get out of your way. Try to stay in the open, says Larry Aumiller, manager of Alaskas McNeil River State Game

BY JEFF WISE
PHOTOGRAPHS BY BARTHOLOMEW COOKE

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OCTOBER 2013 / POPULARMECHANICS.COM

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y M E R C I G L E S I A S M A J

Sanctuary. If you have to move through thick brush, make noise by clapping and shouting.

2.
DONT MESS WITH VENDING MACHINES.
You skipped lunch. You need a snack. You insert money into a vending machine, press the buttons, and nothing comes out. You get mad. S TAT: Vending machines caused 37

ings. But anecdotal evidence shows that ESD is widespread. ESD prevention groups have successfully urged some states to enact safety standards, including the installation of ground-fault circuit interrupters and a central shuto for a docks electrical system. D O N T: Swim within 100 yards of any wired dock. But do check whether docks follow safety standards.

4.
KEEP IT ON THE DIRT.
On the morning of July 14, 2013, Taylor Fails, 20, turned left in his 2004 Yamaha Rhino ATV at a paved intersection near his Las Vegas area home. The high-traction tire treads gripped the road and the vehicle ipped, ejecting Fails and a 22-year-old passenger. Fails died at the scene; the passenger sustained minor injuries. S TAT: One-third of

deaths between 1978 and 1995, crushing customers who rocked and toppled the dispensers. No recent stats exist, but the machines are still a danger. D O N T: Skip lunch.

3.
STAY ON THE DOCK.
On May 20, 2013, Kyle McGonigle was on a dock on Kentuckys Rough River Lake. A dog swimming nearby yelped, and McGonigle, 36, saw that it was struggling to stay above water. He dove in to save the dog, but both he and the animal drowned, victims of electric-shock drowning (ESD). Cords plugged into an outlet on the dock had slipped into the water and electried it. S TAT: The number of annual

66

deaths from ESD in the U.S. are unknown, since they are counted among all drown-

fatal ATV accidents take place on paved roads; more than 300 people died in on-road ATV wrecks in 2011. D O : Ride only o-road. Paul Vitrano, executive vice president of the ATV Safety Institute, says, Soft, knobby tires are designed for traction on uneven ground and will behave unpredictably on pavement. In some cases, tires will grip enough to cause an ATV to ip, as in the recent Nevada incident. If you must cross a paved road to continue on an approved trail, go straight across in rst gear.

Dockside water can become electried by a short in an onboard appliance, a faulty wire connecting a boat to the docks power outlet, or exposed wiring in the docks power source. The current courses through a swimmers body and can lead to electric-shock drowning.

5.
MOW ON THE LEVEL.
Whirring blades are the obvious hazard. But most lawnmowerrelated deaths result from riding mowers ipping over on a slope and crushing the drivers.

S TAT: About 95 Americans are killed by riding mowers each year. D O : Mow up and down a slope, not sideways along it. How steep is too steep? If you cant back up a slope, do not mow on it, Carl Purvis of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission advises.

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Escaping the hydraulic requires swimming to the bottom and resurfacing beyond the boil point, just downstream from the vortex.

BOIL POINT

6.

BEWARE LOW-HEAD DAMS.


Found on small or moderate-size streams and rivers, low-head dams are used to regulate water ow or prevent invasive species from swimming upstream. But watch out. Theyre called drowning machines because they could not be designed better to drown people, says Kevin Colburn of American Whitewater, a nonprot whitewater preservation group. To a boater heading downstream, the dams look like a single line of at reective water. But water rushing over the dam creates a spinning cylinder of water that can trap a capsized boater. S TAT: Eight to 12 people a year die in lowhead and other dam-related whitewater accidents. D O : Curl up, drop to the bottom, and move downstream if caught in a hydraulic. Its a counterintuitive thing to do, but the only outow is at the bottom, Colburn says. Surface only after youve cleared the vortex near the dam.

7.
DONT HOLD YOUR BREATH.
If you want to take a long swim underwater, the trick is to breathe in and out a few times and take a big gulp of air before you submerge. Right? Dead wrong. Hyperventilating not only doesnt increase the oxygen in your blood, it also decreases the amount of CO2, the compound that informs the brain of the need to breathe. Without that natural signal, you may hold your breath until you pass out and drown. This is known as shallow-water blackout.

8.
KEEP YOUR FOOTING.
One mistake is responsible for about half of all ladder accidents: carrying something while climbing. S TAT: More than 700 people die

annually in falls from ladders and scaolding. D O : Keep three points of contact while climbing; use work-belt hooks, a rope and pulley, or other means to get items aloft.

9.
FORD CAREFULLY.
A shallow stream can pack a surprising amount of force, making fording extremely dangerous. Once youve been knocked o your feet, you can get dragged down by the weight of your gear, strike rocks in the water, or succumb to hypothermia. S TAT: Water-related

S TAT: Drowning is the fth largest cause of accidental death in the U.S., claiming about 10 lives a day. No one knows how many of these are due to shallow-water blackout, but its prevalence has led to the formation of advocacy groups, such as Shallow Water Blackout Prevention. D O N T: Hyperventilate before swimming underwater, and dont push yourself to stay submerged as long as possible.

deaths outnumber all other fatalities in U.S. national parks; no specic statistics are

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1.

available for accidents while fording streams. D O : Cross at a straight, wide section of water. Toss a stick into the current; if it moves faster than a walking pace, dont cross. Unhitch waist and sternum fasteners before crossing; a wet pack can pull you under.

2.

10.
LAND STRAIGHT.
You have successfully negotiated free fall, deployed your canopy, and are about to touch down. Safe? Nope. Inexperienced solo jumpers trying to avoid an obstacle at the last minute, or experienced skydivers looking for a thrill, might sometimes pull a toggle and enter a low-hook turn. If you make that turn too low, your parachute doesnt have time to level out, says Nancy Koreen of the United States Parachute Association. Instead, with your weight far out from the canopy, youll swing down like a wrecking ball. S TAT: Last

3.

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year in the U.S., low-hook turns caused ve of the 19 skydiving fatalities. D O : Scope out your landing spot well in advance (from 100 to 1000 feet up, depending on your skill) so you have room to land without needing to swerve.

11.
STAY WARM AND DRY.
4.

Cold is a deceptive menacemost fatal hypothermia cases occur when it isnt excessively cold, from 30 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Wet clothes compound the eect of the temperature. S TAT: Hypothermia kills almost 1000

people a year in the U.S. D O : Wear synthetic or wool clothing, not moisture-trapping cotton. If stranded, conserve heat by stuing your clothes or shelter with dry leaves.

12.
LET LEANING TREES STAND.
The motorized blade isnt always the most dangerous thing about using a chain saw. Trees contain enormous amounts of energy that can release in ways both surprising and lethal. If a tree stands at an angle, it becomes

Descending on a straight path (1) becomes perilous when a parachutist attempts a turn too close to the ground (2). In midturn both the canopy and jumper are spiraling down rapidly (3). Without enough time and elevation to complete the turn and level out, the jumper hits the ground at a dramatically elevated speed (4).

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Increased awareness of commotio cordisa blow to the chest that causes ventrical brillationhas led municipalities and sports leagues to require debrillators at events including baseball, ice hockey, and lacrosse games.

DODGE LINE DRIVES.


Americas national pastime may seem a gentle pursuit, but it is not without its fatal hazards. The 2008 book Death at the Ballpark: A Comprehensive Study of Game-Related Fatalities, 18622007 catalogs deaths that have occurred while people were playing, watching, or oiciating at baseball games. Among the causes is commotio cordis, a concussion of the heart that leads to ventrical brillation when the chest is struck during a critical 10- to 30-millisecond moment between heartbeats. About 50 percent of all victims are athletes (and the vast majority of these are male) engaging in sports that also include ice hockey and lacrosse, the U.S. National Commotio Cordis Registry reports.

13 .

S TAT: The registry recorded 224 fatal cases from 1996 to 2010. Commotio cordis is the No. 1 killer in U.S. youth baseball, causing two to three deaths a year. D O N T: Take a shot to the chest. Even evasive action and protective gear are not signicant deterrents. Of note: Survival rates rose to 35 percent between 2000 and 2010, up from 15 percent in the previous decade, due mainly to the increased presence of debrillators at sporting events.

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WorldMags.net HOW IT ENDS.


One-quarter of all fatalities among U.S. men ages 18 to 50 result from unintentional injury. Here, we break out the specic types of fatal accidents and show how they compare with all causes of death.
D ATA V I SU AL I ZAT ION BY O N F O R M AT I V E

REPORTING BY DARREN ORF

S FALL

ACCIDENTAL DEATHS

irs Sta er dd La

Ac

ts o Pe f Na Fir de tu e re s Fir trian ea rm

OT HE

4% 10% 4% 38%

DROW

NING

r Ca er g en ck ss Pa t Tru h le Lig orcyc t Mo e Truck Larg

O T U

SUFFOCATION

2% 42%

Other
Inuenza Hepatitis Anemia

PO

18%
Suicide

25%
1%

ISO

s ug Dr n tio ip s cr es tic ide Pr rco l ox Na oho Mon Alc rbon Ca

12%
2% 3%

Respiratory Disease Homicide HIV

7%

Diabetes Liver Disease

15%
2%

13%
Cerebrovascular Disease

2%

Heart Disease

CANCER

ALL DEATHS
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OTHER

Eighty-two percent of the 238 people killed by lightning strikes from 2006 to 2012 were male. Fishing, camping, and boating, in that order, are the top three activities on the lightning-death list.

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POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013 1. 2.

FALLS
Men are more than 11 times more likely than women to die on the job, because men tend to have more dangerous occupations. Consider: In 2011 falls accounted for 541 working deaths, and most of those occurred in construction, a predominantly male industry.

DUI
More than 25 percent of all male drivers involved in fatal car accidents have a blood-alcohol content over the legal limit of 0.08 percent, compared with 13.7 percent of women drivers.

top-heavy and transfers energy lower in the trunk. When sawed, it can shatter midcut and create a so-called barber chair. The bers split vertically, and the rearward half pivots backward. Its very violent and its very quick, says Mark Chisholm, chief executive of New Jersey Arborists. S TAT: In 2012, 32 people

died felling trees. D O N T: Saw into any tree or limb thats under tension.

14.
CLIMB WITH CARE.
Accidental shootings are an obvious hazard of hunting, but guess whats just as bad: trees. A tree stand hung 20 feet in the air should be treated like a loaded gun, because it is every bit as dangerous, says Marilyn Bentz, executive director of the National Bowhunter Educational Foundation. Most tree-stand accidents occur while a hunter is climbing, she says.

71

ROADKILL
Deer-related auto accidents take 150 to 200 lives annually in the U.S., which makes the lovable animal also the nations most dangerous.

POISON
Accidental overdose of prescription drugs including synthetic opioids, such as oxycodonekill more than 2000 more men than women every year.

S TAT: About 100 hunters a year die falling from trees in the U.S. and Canada, a number equal to or exceeding rearm-related hunting deaths, Bentz says. D O : Use a safety harness tethered to the tree when climbing, instead of relying on wooden boards nailed to the tree, which can give way suddenly.

CANCER
Cancer kills more men than women (301,037 and 273,706, respectively, in 2010), largely because men are more prone to malignancies of the lungs, esophagus, and liver.
I C O N S B Y S P E N C E R L L OY D

15.
AVOID CLIFFING OUT.
Hikers out for a scramble may end up on an uncomfortably steep patch and, nding it easier to climb up than down, keep ascending until they cli out, unable to go either forward or back. Spending a night freezing on a rock face waiting to be rescued is no fun, but

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16.

DONT DRINK TOO MUCH.


We all know that dehydration can be dangerous, leading to dizziness, seizures, and death, but drinking too much water can be just as bad. In 2002, 28-year-old runner Cynthia Lucero collapsed midway through the Boston Marathon. Rushed to a hospital, she fell into a coma and died. In the aftermath it emerged that she had drunk large amounts along the run. The excess liquid in her system induced a syndrome called exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), in which an imbalance in the bodys sodium levels creates a dangerous swelling of the brain.

S TAT: Up to one-third of endurance athletes who collapse during events suer from EAH. Between 1989 and 1996, when the U.S. Army mandated heavy uid intake during exercise in high heat, EAH caused at least six deaths. D O N T: Drink more than 1.5 quarts per hour during sustained, intense exercise. But do consume plenty of salt along with your uids.

Caused by excessive uid intake, hyponatremia can make the brain swell like a dehydrated sponge soaked in water.

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the alternative is worse.

S TAT: Falls are one of the top three causes of death in the wilderness, along with cardiac arrest and drowning. Clied-out hikers account for 11 percent of all search-and-rescue calls in Yosemite National Park. D O N T: Take a shortcut you cant see the length of. If you realize youve lost your way, either backtrack or call for help. Gadgets such as DeLormes inReach SE provide satellite communication to send a distress call from anywhere on the planet.

SUBMERGED SAND BAR

17.
USE GENERATORS SAFELY.

19.
GO WITH THE FLOW.

After Hurricane Sandy, many homeowners used portable genThe tourist season got o to a grisly start this year in Gulf Shores, Ala. During a erators to replace lost power, two-day period in early June, four men drowned after being caught in rip currents. leaving the machines running The unusually strong currents were invisible, not even roiling the surface. Rip curovernight and allowing odorless rents occur when water rushing back from the shoreline is channeled through a carbon monoxide to waft inside. narrow gap between two sand bars, accelerating the outward ow. S TAT: More The gas induces dizziness, headthan 100 Americans drown in rip currents each year. D O : Allow the current to aches, and nausea in people who carry you out beyond the riptides ow, then swim laterally until you reach a are awake, but when people go position where you can turn and stroke safely to shore. to sleep with a generator running, theres no chance for them to realize that somethings wrong, says Brett Brenner, president of the Electrical while glissading. D O N T: Glissade, period. Safety Foundation International. S TAT: But if you ever do it, you should be an expert

Carbon monoxide from consumer products, including portable generators, kills nearly 200 a year. Of the Sandy-related deaths, 12 were due to carbon monoxide poisoning. D O : Keep generators more than 20 feet from a house.

mountaineer with well-practiced self-arrest techniques. Glissaders should always remove their crampons and know their line of descent.

18 .
DONT SLIPSLIDE AWAY.
Hikers on a glacier or in areas where patches of snow remain above the tree line may be tempted to speed downhill by sliding, or glissading. Bad idea: A gentle glide can easily lead to an unstoppable plummet. In 2005 climber Patrick Wang, 27, died on Californias Mount Whitney while glissading o the summit; he slid 300 feet before falling o a 1000-foot cli.

20.
BEAT THE HEAT.
A rock formation in Utah called The Wave is remote and beautiful, but also arid and sweltering. This past July a couple hiking the area were found dead after the afternoon heat overwhelmed them. Scarcely three weeks later, a 27-year-old woman collapsed while hiking The Wave with her husband and died before he could get help. S TAT: An average of 675 peo-

S TAT: One or two people die each year

ple die each year in the U.S. from heat-related complications. D O : Carry lots of uids, hike in the morning, and let people know where youre going when trekking in the desert. PopMech

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THE SELF-DRIVING CAR IS COMING.

PHOTOGRAPH

BY

JAMES

WORRELL

ILLUSTRATIONS BY VIGILISM

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HERE

ARE

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12 QUESTIONS T H AT NEED ANSWERING
Q

RIGHT

NOW.

WHEN CAN I LET

GO OF THE WHEEL?
As soon as I hit the small black lane-centering button, I can feel the wheel stiffen in my hands. Suddenly the light bar atop it begins glowing a soft green, signaling that the car has taken over the task of steering. I had already surrendered control of the acceleration and braking to the vehicles adaptive cruise control, and now with my feet at on the oor,

BY

ANDREW

D E L- C O L L E

I slowly unwrap my fingers and release the wheel. Sitting in the passenger seat is Jeremy Salinger, who works on General Motors semiautonomous car program. Hes seen the car do this dozens, possibly hundreds, of times, but, if only to reassure me, he states the obvious: The car is in control now. My remaining sense of caution keeps my hands nervously hovering above the wheel for a few seconds as our 2012 Cadillac SRX test vehicle hurtles forward at 60 mph, effortlessly bending into one of the sweeping turns of the oval track at GMs Milford Proving Grounds in Michigan. In the rear of the heavily modied SUV, an onboard computer collects data from an array of cameras and sensors to electronically read the road and determine the vehicles position. Using this information, the car controls the electrically assisted steering to keep the car perfectly centered in the lane. Lets do something, like a lane change, Salinger says. The light bar switches from green to blue as I grab hold of the wheel and signal right, indicating that Im overriding the system. Once we are settled into the new lane, the light bar changes back to green and I let go of the wheel. We repeat the exercise, returning to the center lane of the ve-lane track, and then my hands drop down to rest on my legs. Now

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fully at ease, I watch the wheel periodically turn and straighten as we speed around the track. The sight is both mesmerizing and unsettlingas if a ghost were driving. But this is no spooky apparition, this is GMs Super Cruise technology, and it could be available in a production vehicle within ve years. lutionary. By fully taking over the task of highway driving, Super Cruise might represent the most important shift in the drivercar relationship in automotive history.

Q
HOW DOES THE CAR SEE THE ROAD?
Super Cruise and other similar systems do more than just see the road. Using an array of sensors, lasers, radar, cameras, and GPS technology, they can actually analyze a cars surroundings.
A

So, my next car will drive itself? Wait, how soon is this happening?
Very soon. Although GM hasnt confirmed a hard date for deployment of the system, it hopes to have Super Cruise as an option by the end of the decade, possibly as soon as the 2017 or 2018 model year. Super Cruise is part of a trend that has sneaked up on the car-buying public. The active safety systems in many modern production cars forward-collision warning, park assist, adaptive cruise control, blind-spot monitoring, and othersare inching the vehicles we buy toward autonomy. By using a combination of sensors, radar, GPS, and cameras, these systems enable a car to interpret its surroundings and issue warnings or even brake the car if a collision with another vehicle or a pedestrian is imminent. As these systems become connected, our cars become smarter. Technologically, GMs Super Cruise is similar to driverassistance systems provided by Mercedes-Benz and other carmakers. But these other systems also require that the driver periodically touch the wheel to ensure he or she remains engaged in the driving experience. Where Super Cruise diers is that for the rst time GM aims to allow the driver to completely let go of the wheel for extended periods of time. Functionally, this change is revoNot so fast. First off, lets get some semantics out of the way. The Super Cruiseequipped SRX I rode in is a self-driving car, but it cant do everything on its own. Super Cruise will only be available under select highway conditions and will have speed and turning limitations, so think of it more like autopilot for your car. By definition, this makes it semiautonomous (though much more capable, Googles selfdriving cars are also semiautonomous). A fully autonomous production carwhere you plug your destination into the GPS and settle in for a 2-hour movieis still a long way o, but the technology is advancing fast. Recently Audi and Volvo demonstrated vehicles that can park themselves; Volvo says this feature could be available as early as 2014. Still, systems such as Super Cruise challenge conventional notions of who or what is doing the driving, and this makes carmakers and regulators nervous. I think the one thing we will always want to maintain, and the manufacturers will likely tell you the same thing, is that the drivers still responsible for the driving task, David Strickland, administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, says. That will never change.

Super Cruise is a combination of two technologies. The rst is the increasingly common adaptive cruise control, which uses a long-range radar (more than 100 meters) in the grille to keep the car a uniform distance behind another vehicle while maintaining a set speed 1 . The second, lanecentering, uses multiple cameras with machine-vision software to read road lines and detect objects 2 . This information is sent to a computer that processes the data and adjusts the electrically assisted steering to keep the vehicle centered in the lane. Because Super Cruise is intended only for highways, GM will use the vehicles GPS to determine its location before allowing the driver to engage the feature 3 . In addition, GM is also considering using short-range radars (30 to 50 meters) 4 and extra ultrasonic sensors (3 meters) 5 to enhance the vehicles overall awareness. Cars with park-assist systems already have four similar sensors in the front and in the rear of the car. GM is also experi-

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Are these autonomous sorry, semiautonomous cars decent drivers?
Sure are. According to Nady Boules, a director within GMs R&D, semiautonomous cars perform better than human drivers in many respects. Unlike people, they can continuously monitor all sides of the vehicle, can react almost instantaneously, and are impervious to distraction. Theyre also more ecient drivers. One recent paper presented at an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers conference estimated that a eet of cars with sensors could increase highway capacity by 43 percent. If the cars could also communicate with one another, that number jumps to an incredible 273 percent. The NHTSA and several carmakers are already testing vehicles that can talk to each other. I got a chance to stop by GMs technical center in Warren, Mich., for a demonstration of this vehicleto-vehicle (V2V) communication. In a large parking lot GM engineers had me run through a series of exercises with two cars, each equipped with GPS and a small Wi-Fi transponder. Using the GPS to determine its location and the transponder to talk with the other vehicle, my car warned me when the other vehicle braked hard in front of me, was in my blind spot, or was approaching from around a corner that had an obstructed view. Unlike with radar and cameras, line of sight isnt required for V2V communication, and the transponders are relatively inexpensive compared with the hardware required for most active safety systems. On its own, V2V technology is compelling, but once it is connected to the other active safety systems in a vehicle, it has powerful potential.

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Is any of this even legal?


It is, but thats mostly because laws regulating self-driving cars didnt exist until recently. Currently legislation is being considered on a state-bystate basis, with Nevada, California, and Florida having passed laws for the testing of self-driving cars on public roads; Michigan is expected to follow. Generally these laws simply stipulate that someone must be in the car and be able to take control of the car in case of an emergency. In May the NHTSA released a set of suggested guidelines for the development of semiautonomous vehicles, but there are still no ocial federal regulations. Bryant Walker Smith is a fellow at the Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School and the Center for Automotive Research. He points out that along with creating new laws, we will also need to review our existing laws as semiautonomous systems proliferate. New York state, for example, requires drivers to keep one hand on the wheel at all times, Smith says. Figure how that reconciles with Super Cruise. He goes on: Regardless of what the traffic codes, what the vehicle codes specically say, when a crash happens, how will judges and juries decide what behavior was negligent? So even if youre in a state that doesnt expressly say you have to have your hands on the wheel, will not having your hands on the wheel, will not paying attention, be considered negligent? This is a big issue and one that the NHTSA and carmakers are tiptoeing around by insisting that the driver will be responsible at all times. Nevertheless, semiautonomous technologies have huge implications for insurance agencies. Loretta L. Worters is the

1 2

3 5

menting with cost-eective LIDAR units, which use lasers instead of sound and are more powerful and accurate than ultrasonic sensors. Its unclear whether LIDAR will make it into the same vehicle as Super Cruise.

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vice president of communications for the Insurance Information Institute. According to her, systems that improve safety are welcomed by the insurance industry, but as our cars turn into semiautonomous vehicles, we are entering new territory. For example, it would also likely increase the potential liability of the manufacturer and maintenance/repair business if an accident could be traced to a design or maintenance failure, Worters says. leaving Super Cruise ineffective. Thats no small hindrance.

Q
WHAT W WILL DRIVING BE LIKE IN THE FUTURE?
Semiautonomous cars and vehicle-to-vehicle communication could profoundly change how traic ows and even highway design. Here are three likely scenarios.
A

No napping behind the wheel, then?


Nope. No matter how capable the vehicle might be, a semiautonomous car cannot be left unattended. And the chance of someone falling asleep is a serious concern for carmakers. Eric Raphael also works on Super Cruise and gave me a technical walk-around of the modified SRX on my visit. We cant let someone crawl in the back seat and take a nap, but we know they might try that, Raphael says. To prevent a driver from spacing out or worse, GM has developed a monitoring system that will use audial, visual, and possibly haptic feedback to prompt the driver to take over if it detects an emergency or that the driver is too distracted. For example, the light bar at the top of the steering wheel turns bright red when the driver needs to take control of the car. Of course, at 60 mph and in the middle of heavy trac, the system cant physically force the driver to reengageand thats more than a little worrisome. Bryan Reimer is a research scientist at MITs AgeLab and the associate director of the New England University Transportation Center. Man, whos saying youre going to be awake when you actually need to put your hands back on there? Reimer says. All the literature in psychology tells us that we are terrible overseers of highly autonomous systems. We fall asleep. We get bored. Were inattentive.

How safe is all this?


Considering that semiautonomous cars rely on a network of active safety systems to work, theyre pretty safe. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has found that we are already seeing the benets of systems such as forward-collision warning in the reduction of accidents. That said, theyre not 100 percent fail-proof. Chris Urmson leads Googles self-driving car program and is an adjunct professor at Carnegie Mellon University, where he also worked on DARPAs autonomous car challenges. Although Googles test fleet has logged more than 500,000 miles without a major mishap, Urmson admits that the technology will never be awless. I think we can make vehicles that are better than human-driven vehicles, but something that wont fail is just an impossibility, he says. Aside from the possibility of a system failure, semiautonomous technologies also have general limitations. My Super Cruise experience was actually my second attempt at seeing the system in action. On my first trip to the proving grounds, a snowstorm thwarted my mission. The SRXs cameras were unable to read the lines on the snow-covered track,

NEAR-TERM Once enough cars on the road are able to drive themselves, the rst major change we will probably see is an HOV-style self-driving lane on highways. Just enter the lane, set your vehicle to the recommended speed, then leave your monotonous 3-hour haul to the car. MIDTERM As semiautonomous vehicles advance, expect them to start communicating with one another and eventually even with infrastructure. At intersections, smart stoplights could automatically turn to green if no other cars were approaching which would smooth out traic ow, reduce idling, and decrease accidents.

LONG-TERM When the majority of the vehicles on the road are semiautonomous and also able to talk with one another, high-speed motoring (were talking triple digits here), formation driving, and seamless merging could be possible.

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NEAR-TERM Dedicated lanes

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Will people become worse drivers? Is that even possible?


Generally speaking, the more we use autonomous systems, the more we come to rely on them. So it stands to reason that the less we drive, the rustier well get at it. Citing examples such as the pilot error responsible for the crash of Air France 447, MITs Reimer stresses the need for caution as we integrate these technologies into our cars: If we look at other domains, and I think the aviation world is a great example of this, it is now a well-accepted fact that autopilot is decreasing pilot skill.

MIDTERM Smart stoplights

LONG-TERM Formation driving

What if I want to drive?


The most important question of all. As long as there is a traditional steering wheel in your car, youll be able to drive. Now, things will get interesting if these semiautonomous systems become so safe and reliable that a human driving is actually viewed as irresponsible by insurers. That wont happen any time soon, but eventually it could. In one exercise during my Super Cruise demonstration, a Chevy Volt darted in front of our SRX as the car was driving itself. Still traveling at 60 mph, the SRX immediately braked, adjusted its speed to maintain a safe distance behind the Volt, and slightly shifted the wheel to stay centered in the lane. In a situation where a person might overreact and jerk the wheel, causing the car to careen into another vehicle or o the road, I didnt do a thing. I just sat there. I dont think I even flinched. I love driving, but who wouldnt want that as an option in their next car? PopMech

Can the car avoid something in the road?


Most forward-collision warning systems today can identify another car, a pedestrian, an animal, or a bike, and some can even activate the brakes in low-speed to midspeed situations. But as for avoiding an obstacle, no system out there does that yet. Salinger says cars in the future could have this ability, though its not

something GM is currently developing. Even the possibility raises an important issue: If a splitsecond steering decision needs to be made, would you want to leave this up to your car? Say the decision comes down to hitting a child in the road or swerving and potentially hitting a telephone pole. Would the car put passengers in danger in order to avoid hitting the kid? A technological issue swiftly becomes a moral one.

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My parents told me not to believe everything I saw on TV, so I thought the shark was fake! But I soon realized the sharks were real. From that point, sharks became my lifes passion.

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SHARK SH00TER
CAMERAMAN ANDY BRANDY CASAGRANDE BUILDS HIS OWN RIGS AND FILMS F E A R L E S S LY T O C A P T U R E S H O T S LIKE NO ONE ELSE.

By Bill Morris
Photographs by Nathaniel Welch

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work for the National Geographic series Great Migrations won him the 2011 Emmy Award for Outstanding CinematographyNature. But his dening work is his innovativeand, frankly, harrowingfilming for Shark Week, the Discovery Channels annual programming extravaganza featuring shows such as Into the Shark Bite and Impossible Shot. Casagrande has become a sort of poster boy for Shark Week. What sets him apart is his hacker ethos and methodology, which he has been honing since the day, more than a decade ago, that he made a waterproof housing for a video camera, attached it to a telescoping mop handle, and dangled it over the side of a boat to get eye-level footage of great whites. Among the dozens of other rigs hes invented and handcrafted since then is the bite cam, which snapped the now iconic closeup of a sharks gaping, razor-toothed jaws. His tinkering continues to evolve and has gone high-tech. For a 2012 episode of Impossible Shot, for instance, Casagrande captured the rst-ever seagulls perspective (his words) of a breach by a great white, using a rig with a 3000-frame-per-second camera carried aloft by a massive helium balloon tethered to the photographers boat; the shark attacks a sealshaped decoy positioned below the camera and thrusts skyward, 12-plus feet of sh getting airborne. For Shark Week this year he created a fin camessentially a ANDYS INVENTIONS GoPro camera attached to a pair of barbecue Casagrande builds tongsto record the many of his rigs using common items. (Camsharks point of view. era costs not includAll of this work (in ed in prices here.) addition to other wildlife footage hes taken with homemade rigs) places Casagrande at R OV E R C A M a Built on the chassis the forefront of the DIY of a Traxxas 4x4 (about adventure video genre. $400), this rig uses its Its the stu of millions fat, nobby tires to crawl of YouTube clips and over rough terrain to get closeups of lions, has become a mainstay hyenas, and other predaof extreme-sports TV. tors feasting on a kill. Hes known as the One of three cameras shark guy, but his work sits in a takeout sushi is much more diverse box covered in camo duct tape and reinforced than that, Travis Pynn, with bungee cords. Its a GoPro engineer, says. not really much of an Hes incredibly inveninvention, if you ask me, tive and resourceful. He Casagrande says. But it gets the job done! has unique vision.

ANDY CASAGRANDE HAD DREAMED of swimming with sharks ever since he was a kid growing up in a small town near Pittsburgh. He nally got his chance in 2005. Armed with nothing but a Sony Handycam in a DIY waterproof case and his own nerve, Casagrande slipped over the side of a boat and into the waters known as Shark Alley, off South Africas Western Cape province. Within seconds Casagandes dream was coming all too true: A great white shark came gliding toward him. The sleek, 4000-pound beast slid past, close enough to touch. Casagrande calls the moment surreal, but it was more than that. The biggest struggle is the mental battle, he says. Youre looking at a prehistoric predator, and everything in your body tells you to ee. But you just need to Zen out, slow down your breathing. Never swim away: If you act like prey theyll treat you like preychase you, catch you, and eat you. The shark turned and made another pass. Then another. Casagrande was winning the mental battle. His breathing remained slow and regular. He began to relax. When the shark made the third close pass and didnt eat me, I gured we were cool. HIS FULL AND PROPER NAME IS Andy Brandy Casagrande IV, an unusual moniker that bets an unusually talented person. His camera

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PHOTOGRAPHS BY N AT H A N I E L W E L C H

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CASAGRANDE, 35, DESIGNS AND BUILDS his rigs in the garage of his rambling two-story home on a quiet street in Naples, Fla., where he lives with his Swedish-born wife, Emma Walfridsson, 30. When I visit there earlier this year, the famous cameraman pops out of the front door and bellows, Dude! Welcome to Andy Casagrandes world. Eager to demonstrate how he makes a bite cam, he suggests a trip to the local Ace hardware for parts. (I assume hell drivesurely an accomplished, high-energy guy like Casagrande would have a killer ridebut we end up in my Chrysler 300 rental. He doesnt own a car, getting around instead on an Electra Townie bicycle with balloon tires.) Basically, he says, I go to the plumbing department, or I go to a sporting goods store or Walmart, and I gather materials. Today hes acquiring some plastic nuts and a length of rubber fuel line, both of which are pliable enough to prevent a shark from harming its mouth and teeth when biting the camera housing. I like to protect the animals that give me my livelihood, Casagrande says. His shopping list is short but our time at Ace grows long. Casagrande bounces around the store on fast-forward, picking up and inspecting a vast array of items, and providing a running narrative of what exotic contraptions he might build with them. At the checkout, clerk Sandra Rainey lights up when she learns that Casagrande is a Shark Week cameraman. eraman. I love it because it shows sharks for what they are, she

says. Dont mess with them; youre in their element. Then, with a wry smile and a nod toward Casagrande, she adds, I think hes crazy, but somebodys got to do it. The bill for the nuts and the hose comes to $11.77. Back at the house we enter his shop, which is like the laboratory of a mad wizard. There are cameras mounted on remote-control cars using such MacGyver-esque materials as takeout sushi boxes and camouflage duct tape which Casagrande deploys to get intimate shots of lions gorging on prey. There are tiny helicopters and wing cams for aerial shots. On one shelf sits the n cam, which he designed to slip over a sharks dorsal fin. It has a otation device and is secured via a dissolving fastener that releases the apparatus after about 24 hours. A VHF-tracking pinger locates the camera after it oats to the surfaceand Casagrande collects it and the unprecedented footage it contains. Its time to build the bite cam. Using a Stihl drill press, Casagrande bores a large hole in a pair of Styrofoam swim boards ($19.99 each at the Sports Authority), then four smaller holes for the plastic bolts that hold the boards together. Into the larger hole he inserts a foot-long length of 4-inch-diameter PVC pipe. Into each end of the pipe he places a GoPro Int

IN CAM F Casagrande had his

aha moment for the n cam when he picked up a pair of barbecue tongs. The $11 item is the backbone for what eventually became a very high-tech piece of handiwork. It includes a $1500 satellite tag, a $250 VHF pinger, and buoyant foam for retrieval. For Shark Week this year Casagrande slipped the assembly over a tiger sharks dorsal n, camera facing forward, to get the ultimate hunting POV footage, he says. Fasteners dissolve in salt water to release the n cam, which oats to the surface. Kinda expensive, since you might [expletive deleted] lose it! he adds.
c
ITE CAM B Protected by a high-

and bottom of a waterproof housing made of PVC pipe and plexiglass to get shots just inches from a sharks gaping jaws.

$111 c

$1766 b

a $404

density foam body, cameras shoot out of the top

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The kid with the shark xation Clockwise from near right: Casagrandes wife Emma decided at an early age that he is also his safety diver and wanted to become a marine biolvideo editor; Casagrande kicks back while lming a ogist. After briey attending the kill in Tanzania; with the Florida Institute of Technology in bite cam in his Naples, 1996, he transferred to the UniFla., shop. versity of Pittsburgh and entered the Semester at Sea program, where he circumnavigated the globe and photographed wildlife nonstop. It was a formative experience, a hint of things to come. In 2000 the itinerant student graduated from California State University, Long Beach, with straight As and a degree in abnormal psychology. Casagrande then worked as a tech-support engineer at a data-mining company in Silicon Valley, and in his spare time he created a website with the photos and videos hed shot during his semester at sea. He started researching great white sharks, learning as much as he could, feeding his boyhood passion. He even composed The Great White Shark Song and shot a video of it; the clip shows Casagrande singing underwater in a wetsuit, twanging a guitar: If I was a great white, I wouldnt bite you/But Id swim right next to you/And ask you, How do you do? That lighthearted ditty helped change Casagrandes life. In 2002, after two frustrating years behind a desk, he sent an MP3 le of the song, along with a job application, to the White Shark Trust, a research and conservation group in South Africa. After hearing the song, Michael Scholl, who was then head of the trust, oered Casagrande a position without even looking at his application. Scholl says Casagrandes passion for sharks, clearly shown in the song, mattered more than anything he could put on paper. At the trust Casagrande studied great whites and lmed their behavior, merging his twin passions for photography and sharks. Andy showed an ability to adapt quickly to dierent situations, Scholl says. He was always trying new rigs, new camera angles, new attachments. AND, OF COURSE, HE SWAM WITH the sharks. In fact, he was the rst person in the program ever to do so, in 2005. That same year a crew from the National Geographic Society arrived in Cape Town, South Africa, to lm a documentary on great white shark research, including that of the White Shark Trust. When the head cameraman, Andy Mitchell, learned that Casagrande had swum outside the protective confines of a shark cage, Mitchell hired him as an assistant. On their second shoot together they were both swimming with the sharks. Mitchell admits that he was scared to death. Now a freelance cameraman and producer based in Vermont, Mitchell recalls being impressed by Casagrandes inventiveness. He probably has the steepest learning curve of anyone Ive worked with, Mitchell says. He has pushed

Hero3 Black Edition camera ($400 apiece); the cameras are held in place by a length of Styrofoam tubing. Plexiglass discs glued to O-rings seal each end of the pipe. A protective rubber sleeve covers the tube. Stainless-steel cable is fed into the rubber fuel line, then wrapped around the PVC pipe, forming a loop for tethering to the boat. Voil! A masterpiece of low-budget DIY engineering is born. MEANWHILE, UPSTAIRS, EMMA GAZES into a computer screen, editing footage of one of her husbands shark dives. The couple met while he was lming lions in Tanzanias Serengeti National Park in 2007. A hairstylist visiting from Sweden with girlfriends, Emma arrived unannounced at Casagrandes campsite. They hit it o and, after an international courtship, wed in 2010. In addition to editing, Emma works as her husbands still photographer and safety diver. But thats on hold for nowshes pregnant and expecting their rst child. Emma makes her way downstairs and takes a seat with us in the Ikea-outtted living room. On the wall is a photo of the couple in a passionate lip-lock in front of a sandstone arch in Utahs Arches National Park. I used to have pictures of Swedish supermodels on my wall, Casagrande says. Then I married one. She giggles and smiles, flattered but maybe a little embarrassed by her husbands praise. Hes fun and wild, but hes also very grounded, Emma says. Hes open to everything in life. With him, its always work and its always vacation. The conversation takes on an earnest tone, and I realize that the couple shares not just a home, but also a mission. The point of our work is to teach people more about sharks and other animals, so theyll care more about themand the planet, Emma says. I have two motives while filming wildlife, Casagrande chimes in. One is to film it while its still here. Two is to show people that its mind-blowingly beautiful. I do this for the millions of people who will never go to the Serengeti or the Arctic. AS A BOY, CASAGRANDE obsessed about sharks, rode horses and mountain bikes, played guitar, tinkered with engines, and competed on his high school wrestling team. Hes still very fitripped, in fact175 pounds packed onto a 5-foot-7-inch frame. He was always very competitive, very focused, his father Dan Casagrande says. You have to have balls to wrestleits just you and your opponent.

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P H O T O G R A P H S B Y N AT H A N I E L W E L C H ( C A S A G R A N D E P O R T R A I T ) , C O U R T E S Y O F A N D Y C A S A G R A N D E ( E M M A C A S A G R A N D E , W I L D L I F E )

the boundaries of the gear and what it can dobuilding stu, creating things, always tweaking. He became an A-list cameraman in a third of the time it usually takes. Casagrande accomplished this feat, in part, by applying the GoPro DIY style and tech to wildlife photography. He may not have been the first person to do so, but he was early to the game and, arguably, has been the most successful. Casagrandes collaboration with Mitchell led National Geographic to oer him a sta job in Washington, D.C., as a eld producer and cameraman. He quickly became known as the gadget guy: National Geographic wanted unorthodox ways to capture wildlife killing, mating, and migrating. So I made rigs that could get motion-controlled time-lapse footage, shots at night via infrared camerasI made all sorts of stu. After seeing one of Casagrandes National Geographic documentaries in 2008, GoPro came calling and has been providing him with cameras ever since. Andys a GoPro fanatic because our cameras are tools that enable him to get shots he could never get before, Travis Pynn says. Our cameras are small enough and cheap enough to put in a spot you wouldnt be able to justify with a more expensive camera. This proved to be true in the Bahamas, where Casagrandes Shark Week shoot in March 2013 was a success: He managed to attach the fin cam to a tiger sharks dorsal n, capturing hypnotic sequences. BACK IN NAPLES WITH EMMA, THE COUPLE has no time to rest. In the Casagrande home on a Sunday afternoon the clothes washer is churning, the dryer tumbling. While Emma is upstairs packing for a trip to Sweden to see her

family, Casagrande is in his shop, organizing gear for a shoot in the South Pacic. The couple are leaving tomorrow on their trips. Casagrande chatters away as he darts around the shop, selecting and packing equipmentand then unpacking and repacking it, again and again. My kit has to be dialed in, he says. My gear is my lifeline. It not only keeps me making a living, it literally keeps me alive, whether its my underwater rebreather or my Red Epic camera housing. That can be handy for warding o a not-so-happy shark. As he fusses with his stuff, Casagrande muses on how he went from being a little boy watching sharks on TV to an award-winning cameraman. I dreamed of swimming with sharks, he says, and now, I think, maybe I can inspire people to live the lives they dream. If he falls short of his goal, well, hell have to settle for being the gutsiest shark photographer ever. PopMech

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new walls
W I T H O UT T E A R I N G T H E O L D O N E S D OW N .
Some of the ugliest walls imaginable can be given a new lease on life with a little prep and a fresh coat of KILZ primer. By blocking stains and unwanted colors, KILZ primer lays the foundation for a successful room transformation. Its like a fresh start for your walls. www.kilz.com

I just put up

Find your priming solution at solutions.kilz.com or scan here WorldMags.net

PHOTOGRAPH BY S T EP HEN L E W IS

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W
we ekend
WEEKEND

Schlepping rewood can be tedious. Get a canvas log sling and ease at least one of lifes petty burdens.

DIY HOME

Youve felled trees and split logs; now its time to turn that lumber pile into a sturdy stack of rewood. p. 88

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Home
TOOL R E PA I R H A L L OW E E N PROPS P O R TA B L E G E N E R AT O R S

BRING THE HEAT


PROPE RLY STAC K ED WOOD L O O K S G O O D A N D B UR NS WELL.
BY R OY B ER EN D S O H N P H OTO G R A P H S BY STEP H EN LE W I S

When it comes to preparing rewood, stacking may be the most pleasant part of the job. The hard and sometimes dangerous work of disassembling a tree with a chain saw is done. The tedious splitting is over. Now comes the time to convert a loose, messy pile of wood into an orderly stack a satisfying transformation that appeals to the builder in me. But, unlike real construction,

END-PILLAR
The key to making this classic stack is to save the most uniform pieces for the pillars and to t them tightly. This increases the pillars weight and helps to reduce their tendency to topple over as wood is stacked between them. Its also important to plumb each pillar like a post. That further increases its stability and strength.

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theres no noise or heavy lifting. You dont need tools. You just take each stick and t it with another while enjoying the woods pungent, earthy smell and the way its freshly split surface reects light. Give me a quiet afternoon and a pile of wood to stack and Im a happy man.

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Dry Is Good
Well-stacked wood is attractive, but its real virtue is that it will be dry by the time you need it. Seasoned wood burns eiciently, doesnt require constant attention to stay lit, and creates less pollution in the form of smoke (unburned wood vapor). There are a number of stacking strategies that put the combustion odds in your favor. If you have trees on your property that are about 13 to 16 feet apart, you can use them as end posts and stack split wood between them in whats called a hammock span. This can work just ne for a few seasons, but in the long term it can damage the trees bark. Another approach is to build a wood rack, which is fast, easy, and inexpensive (see The Stock Solution, June 2008; How to Build a Cheap, Good-Looking Firewood Rack: 2-by-Guy at popular mechanics.com/firewoodrack plans). On the other hand, split wood itself can be used as a building material. My two favorite stacks are the utilitarian end-pillar and a decorative German type known as a holzhaus, or wood

WEEKEND

HOLZHAUS
I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y G E O R G E R E T S E C K

This stack is counterintuitive in that the wood inside the house is not exposed to drying sun or wind. It is, however, exposed to interior air movement. Its crucial to

build the holzhaus in a sunny location so that when its baked by summer heat, a convection current of warm air moves through the base and out the top.

The stack is made in three stages. First, build a ring of split pieces, bark side facing out, split surface facing in. Next, stack wood on the ring with each piece sloping

downward. Inside the ring, stack wood on end to produce a cone-shaped pile. Rain that gets inside rapidly drains down. Last comes the tightly arranged conical roof.

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D I Y H O M E / S TA C K I N G F I R E W O O D

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PHOTOGRAPHS BY V IC TOR P R A DO

INDOOR STORAGE

Victor Log Holder


This racks designers chose forged steel. Good decision. Its built to resist heat, impact, and abrasion. (potterybarn.com, $60$100)
2

Log Cabin
If I were to build a steel rack, it would look like this: rust-resistant zinc nish, band-iron supports, bolts, and square nuts. (cb2.com, $80)
3 1 3 2 4

Paxton Copper Bucket


It looks distressed, but on closer inspection youll nd sheet steel and a verdigris nish. With a 26-inch diameter, it takes wood standing up or lying down. (potterybarn.com, $200)

WEEKEND

Ascende
This engineered lumber bench and rack melds modern design with good old steel reinforcement. (crateandbarrel.com, $200$250)

house, which makes a smaller footprint than the end-pillar stack with the same volume of material. Theyre both reliable ways to dry wood to about 20 percent moisture content by weight. Scientic research has found that you dont need to get wood much drier than that. Wood releases most of its moisture through its end grain, and both types of stacks expose the wood to capitalize on the heat of the sun and desiccating breezes.

After six to eight months in the stack, your wood is ready to be moved inside. If your stove or replace is small, you can lug a few sticks at a time in a simple canvas tote like the Custom LeatherCraft C390, shown on page 87. Its ruggedly built, with three rivets holding each leather handle to the canvas body. If you need to transport an armful or more, consider an eicient two-wheel caddie; Brookstone and Landmann both make sturdy models. But garden carts,

dollies, or a well-built childrens wagon can serve just as well. As for the indoor stack, sure, you could toss the kindling in a 5-gallon bucket and dump the firewood in a corner, but if you want to extend the order and aesthetics of the exterior stack into your living room or den, there are plenty of attractive wood-storage systems available from suppliers such as Pottery Barn. Or, peruse their oerings for inspiration and then build your own.

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iPad subscriptions that (almost) pay for themselves.


Get $10 to spend on iTunes with every subscription you order.

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PROMOTION

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Apple, Inc. is not a participant or sponsor of this promotion. iPad and iTunes are registered trademarks of Apple, Inc. WorldMags.net

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DIY HOME

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Tool Test

PHOTOGRAPHS BY GREGG DEL M A N

PORTABLE GENERATORS

Lift a garage door in the suburbs and youll likely nd a portable generator next to the lawnmower. It seems that fewer people these days are willing to put up with power outages. We tested ve recent models that can handle 5500-watt loads or more, analyzing them for ease of use, electrical output, and noise. All the generators in our test were simple to set up and operate, and they delivered adequate power. The output from some models was consistent enough for sensitive electronics. The best also oered convenient refueling, oil checks, and oil changes. Lubrication is critical in any machine that runs for days at a time. B Y R O Y B E R E N D S O H N

BEST OVERALL

WEEKEND

RIDGID
RD905712

Price: $700 Fuel/weight: 6 gal/190 lb

Power Quality

Its important to understand how a generator and its load interact with each other. The generator sends electricity to the load, and the load distorts the electrical energy sent to it, reecting back energy waves called harmonics. A measurement of this electrical interaction is known as total harmonic distortion (THD); the lower the THD, the more consistent the power. To measure it, we used each generator to power a laptop computer and a table saw as it cut oriented strand board. Then we measured voltage THD using a Fluke 345, a handheld oscilloscope and power-quality meter. All the generators proved to be electrically competent, but the Ridgid had the lowest THD.

Starting/running watts: 7125/5700 Decibels (A scale): 87, at idle Likes: Ridgid chose highquality silicon steel for the alternator laminations, and a 36-slot stator versus the usual 24-slot type. The result: stable power (see Power Quality). Portability also helped nail the top spot. The foldup handle is outstanding, PM contributing editor and tester Joseph Truini says. You can move the generator like a hand truck. Dislikes: Needs a gas gauge.

COMPUTER TEST Briggs & Stratton Champion Generac Ridgid Troy-Bilt 3.8% 6.4% 5.1% 1.8% 3.8%

TABLE-SAW TEST 14.2% 17.1% 14.6% 5.4% 16.7%

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BRIGGS & STRATTON


030468

CHAMPION
41135

GENERAC
GP5500

TROY-BILT
030431

Price: $763 Fuel/weight: 5 gal/185 lb Starting/running watts: 6875/5500 Decibels (A scale): 85.4, at idle Likes: A top-mounted gas gauge and a large gas cap make the Briggs a snap to fuel. We also liked its comfortable fold-down handle and the layout of its control panel, complete with a timer that helps you track hours of operation so you can change the oil and perform service at proper intervals. Dislikes: Needs a dipstick and a larger oil-ll port.

Price: $700 Fuel/weight: 6 gal/185 lb Starting/running watts: 6800/5500 Decibels (A scale): 87, at idle Likes: It may be a no-frills machine, but the Champion gets the job done. It is equipped with a handy volt meter on its side, a well-positioned gas gauge on its top, and a low-oil shuto switch. It also has a large oil-ll cap and port. Dislikes: These are small gripes, but it needs covers for the outlet receptacles, and a more comfortable folding handle.

Price: $690 Fuel/weight: 7.2 gal/170 lb Starting/running watts: 6875/5500 Decibels (A scale): 85, at idle Likes: Look! A dipstick and a large oil-ll opening, Truini says, noting the models ease of service. Every generator should have them. Hes right. Lack of lube can lead to failure, as many homeowners learned the hard way after Hurricane Sandy. The Generac also has thick vibration dampeners, a heavy frame, and a comfortable foldup handle. Dislikes: None.

Price: $700 Fuel/weight: 5 gal/150 lb Starting/running watts: 8250/5500 Decibels (A scale): 85, at idle Likes: It doesnt cost a fortuneits just a basic generator. What more can you ask for? We liked the gas gauge built into the gas cap. And its controls (on/o switch, choke, fuel valve) are located on the end, so starting is quick and easy, as with lawnmowers. Dislikes: Could use outlet covers and better oil-ll access. Otherwise, theres not a lot to complain about.

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DIY HOME / HALLOWEEN

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Window

The Creepiest House on the Block


Halloween is the one night of the year when frightening children is not only tolerated, but encouraged. Yet building Halloween props can be a chilling experienceespecially if they end up looking crappy, not creepy. PM teamed up with instructables.com, where DIYers share ideas, to unearth some hair-raising ghoultide projects. After all, if trick-or-treaters are going to hit you up for free candy, you may as well make them work for it.
BY DAVI D AG R ELL

Old Computer Monitor

Glass or Acrylic Sheet

COOL HOLOGRAM ILLUSION

Spook the neighborhood kids before they even reach your property with a Halloween Cemetery Fence from Instructables user Spiderclimber. Cut -inch PVC pipe to various lengths for the pickets, and cap them with plastic nials. Drill holes in 2 x 2 furring stock for the rails, assemble the pieces, and spray with at black paint.

Decorate with cobwebs and novelty skulls for extra-nightmarish eect. Who doesnt love Yard Zombies? Lots of people, which is why life-size cutouts of the undead make excellent Halloween props. Use a jigsaw to fashion them from -inch plywood or oriented strand board. Or, better yet, do what Lime3D did: Take a VCarve digital vector le of your design to a local TechShop, where a ShopBot can fabricate zombies for you. Glue lengths of -inch PVC pipe to the monsters legs, and slip them

over 3-foot-long pieces of rebar pounded 12 inches into the ground. Cute can often be unsettling. To make Electric_piano_5ks delightfully deranged Floating Glowing Ghosts, attach batterypowered LED lightsthe puck-shaped kind used for under-cabinet lightingto both sides of the lid to a large jar. Draw a face on the jar with a black marker, screw on the lid, and throw a white sheet over the assembly. Make a few

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Squirrel Jar Pumpkin

Peanut Butter LED Light Lid LED Light F L O AT I N G G L O W I N G G H O S T SELF-CARVING PUMPKIN

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y V I C K U L I H I N ( T O P ) , A N T H O N Y D I M I T R E ( B O T T O M )

more is betterand hang them from trees in swarms. Turn your well-kept home into an eerie wreck with professional-looking sets. Briansierra built his Halloween Mausoleum from rigid foam insulation boards, which are lightweight, easy to shape, and available in large sheets up to 3 inches thick. Carve the pieces with a Dremel rotary tool, and glue them together with foam adhesive. For a creepy Gothic look, add decorative moldings and coat everything in latex paint. Dont be scared o by the freakish number of knots in Nolte919s 20 x 12foot Gigantic Halloween Spider Web. If youre game, youll need more than 500 feet of braided clothesline rope. Anchor the outer frame to the ground with truckers hitches wrapped around bent rebar. Complete the web with a combination of bowline

knots, overhand knots, taut-line hitches, doublesheet bends, and literally hundreds of clove hitches. Rotting corpses emerging from the ground will bring life to any Homemade Halloween scene. To build anatomically correct skeletons, Garnoft suggests wiring together -inch and -inch PVC pipe. Create putrid-looking esh by covering the bones in papiermch. Use o-the-shelf Halloween skulls as heads. Create a classic graveyard eect with low-hanging fog. But to get the fog creeping slowly across the lawn, you need to chill it rst. Why? Warm air rises, leaving the cooler stu hugging the ground. Achieve this with Admanrockss Super Cheap and Easy Fog Chiller. Start with a 3-foot length of 4-inch dryer vent. Grab a Styrofoam cooler and cut 4-inch

holes near the bottom of each end. Pass the vent through the cooler, and cover it with ice. Attach your fog machine to one end of the vent. If the local kids make it to your front door, youve got to step up your game. A oating apparition should do the trick. NK5s Cool Hologram Illusion reects phantasmal images seen through a large window. Youll need an old computer monitorthe older the better; in fact, a CRT monitor works best. Lay it on its back in front of a window, and position a sheet of glass or clear acrylic at an angle above it so the monitors reection can be seen from outside the window. Finally, play back a spooky CGI moviea oating skull is idealand dim the lights. If all this sounds like work, why not have the beasts of the night do it for you? And by beasts

we mean squirrels. Though Igough calls his project a Self-Carving Pumpkin, its actually your local rodents that do the carving. Start by drilling -inch holes into a pumpkin around the areas where you want your jack-o-lanterns eyes, nose, and mouth to be. Drill right through the skin and the esh, but dont bother opening up the pumpkin to scoop out the guts. The squirrels do that for you, Igough explains. Next, spackle peanut butter into the holes, and leave the gourd outside for a few days for the squirrels to gnaw away at its face. Yes, its as horric as it sounds. For detailed plans and photos of each project, head to instructables.com and search for the projects highlighted in bold type.

WEEKEND

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and hard plasticscold chisels and punches are usually in the range of Rockwell C5759. That degree of hardness allows the tools to cut and strike metal, yet their edges are soft enough to be refreshed with a grinding wheel, file, or sharpening stone. For a point of reference, the steel of an ordinary woodworking chisel is rated around Rockwell C62, which means its harder than anything in the box. Given that grinding a woodworking chisel is pretty straightforward, whipping any of your dads old tools into shape shouldnt be a problem. For the ones that seem lightly damaged, first try reconditioning their cutting edges with a mill file and sharpening stones. If the damage is too extensive, use a bench grinder with a 6-inch or 8-inch wheel. Its important to get a grinding wheel that easily removes the chipped metal but will not overheat the tool and ruin its hardness. Try a 60-grit aluminum oxide wheel with a medium hardness rating. Before you start, soak the tools in an oven. This gradual heating will help prevent the metal from cracking under stress when you grind them, according to Scott Mackenzie, a metallurgist and heat- treating technical service manager for Houghton International, a Pennsylvaniabased manufacturer of quench oils and lubricants. Heat your oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit, and then place the tools inside for 2 hours. Once they cool to room temperature, carefully start

Home Clinic

B Y R O Y B E R E N D S O H N A N D D AV I D A G R E L L

Grinding Hardened Steel


My dad gave me a big box of cold chisels, punches, and other stuff. Most of the tools are in pretty rough condition, with a mushroomed face on one end and a chipped edge on the other. Can I grind these tools back into shape?
A bench grinder is all you need to turn rusty old hardenedsteel tools into usable workhorses. Just take your time, and dont overheat the metal.

WEEKEND

With the right equipment, you should be able to refurbish these tools because theyre likely made of metal thats soft enough to grind. According to the Rockwell scalea rating system that classies the hardness of metals

PHOTOGRAPH BY GETTY IMAGES

EXPERT

Sharpening chisels and other metal tools heats the cutting edge. Dont quench it in cold water, as this can create microscopic cracks and stresses in the metal. Instead, use a fast-quench oil available from industrial supply houses. If thats not available, use canola, vegetable, or peanut oil. Heat it to 212 degrees Fahrenheit to remove moisture, and then allow it to cool to about 140 F. After quenching a hot tool, wipe it dry before you continue grinding. SCOTT MACKENZIE, metallurgist and heat-treating technical service manager for Houghton International

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the repair work. To get a feel for grinding, first work on the mushroomed ends, and be sure to wear safety glasses and a face shield. Touch the mushroomed surface against the edge of the grinding wheel (never grind on the face of the wheel), and slowly turn the tool against the direction in which the wheel is spinning. As you grind away the mushroomed surface and work around the bar, youre liable to produce large, loose chips of red-hot metal, so pay close attention and take your time. Dont try to remove everything in one pass. Once the metal is o, grind a small bevel around the butt end of the tool. Got the hang of it? Good. Now try repairing the chipped or blunted surfaces on the business end of the tool. Dont overheat the tool grind a little at a time, and either let the metal cool on its own or quench it in oil (see Expert Tip) before returning its edge to the wheel. When youre done, use a wire brush to remove any rust, shoot some spray lubricant over the refurbished tools, and give them a place of honor in your tool kit. ber and igniting. Unfortunately, the filter screen that protects the flame arrestor can get clogged with dust, lint, and oil, restricting airflow to the combustion chamber, says Kenny

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Hart, a master plumber, HVAC expert, and founder of the website theplumbingandhvacguy .com. When this happens, heat builds up in the combustion chamber, which causes the heater to

TOOLS & TECH


RUST-OLEUM NEVERWET WATER REPELLENT ($20 FOR 18-OUNCE KIT)
Any surface treated with NeverWet repels water completely. The two-part coating employs nanotechnology that makes it super-hydrophobic, meaning it sheds water molecules at a contact angle of 165 degreesmore than three times that of an untreated surface. This wide angle keeps droplets in complete spheres that glide o the surface. Conversely, a nonhydrophobic coating causes droplets to atten and ultimately saturate the surface.
In the past weve only seen this technology used for industrial purposes. Its not a permanent nish, but its eective. Spray it on work boots to prevent mud and ice from sticking, or coat your 4x4s wheel arches and hubcaps to keep them clean.

WHY WE LIKE IT

Cold Shower
I have a 50-gallon gas water heater thats only four years old. Lately, though, the water runs cold before the end of the rst shower. It used to last for two or three showers. What changed? Your heater probably has a Flammable Vapor Ignition Resistant (often referred to as FVIR) safety feature, which became standard in gas-fired residential water heaters in 2003. This prevents ammable vapors, such as those from a nearby container of paint thinner or gasoline, from entering the combustion chamE-Classic Outdoor Wood Furnace

Do-It-Yourself Energy. Right in Your Back Yard.


If you choose to heat with wood, you know the value of having a readily-available heat source right in your back yard. You also know how much money you can save by heating with wood. Heating an entire home, shop and more with an E-Classic outdoor wood furnace makes good sense to a lot of people who choose to live in a rural settings. An E-Classic improves your familys living environment by HOLPLQDWLQJWKHUHKD]DUGVGLUWVPRNHDQGWLPHFRQVXPLQJFKRUHRI tending a traditional wood stove.
Visit CentralBoiler.com or call (800) 248-4681 for the dealer nearest you.
All E-Classic outdoor wood furnaces adapt easily to new or existing heating systems. Its important that your outdoor furnace and system be properly sized and installed. See your local dealer for more JOGPSNBUJPO$FOUSBM#PJMFSrBE

facebook.com/CentralBoiler

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I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y K E V I N D A V I S

shut down, Hart explains. Some units automatically relight once the temperature cools, but if this is happening, the output of the heater will obviously be diminished. To x it, rst turn o the appliance and allow it to cool for 15 minutes. Remove the screen (check your heaters service manual for instructions), and then clean it with a vacuum cleaner and, if needed, warm, soapy water. Replace the screen and reignite the pilot light. If the problem persists, the thermostatic gas control, the tempering valve, or the recirculating system may be malfunctioning. Or, worse still, your homes plumbing is leaking hot water, which is then being replaced in the tank by cold water. If thats the case, its time to call a plumber.

d iy

Tech
G U I TA R-A M P SPEAKERS M Y S T E RY GOPRO FILES

Coating Concrete
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GOT A HOMEMAINTENANCE OR REPAIR PROBLEM? ASK THE EDITORS.
Send your questions to pmhomeclinic@hearst.com or to Home Clinic, Popular Mechanics, 300 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019-5899. While we cannot answer questions individually, problems of general interest will be discussed in the column.

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CREATING IN THE CLOUD


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Lennon and McCartneys songs, Pound and Eliots poems, Hanna and Barberas cartoonsmany of the worlds greatest works of art are the result of collaborations. But if the collaborators arent in the same room, working together on a project can be a hassle. If youre sending material back and forth through the mail or email you can end up with multiple versions of the same le, and plenty of confusion about who is doing what. Recently, though, theres been an explosion of new cloud-based services that let you do everything from basic document sharing to elaborate group music creation. Whether you use a

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specially designed website or app, or just a le-sharing site such as Dropbox, these tools all provide convenient access to project les or assets in one location, nearinstant updates and notications of changes, and control over who can contribute to or edit the les. And online communities allow you to tap into the expertise of people you may have never met. The tools are so abundant that the biggest challenge is selecting the ones that make the most sense for the project. Because almost all online collaboration requires storing files in the cloud, the first thing you should do is grab as much free cloud storage as possible. Most services, including Dropbox, Box, SkyDrive, and Google Drive, give a few free gigabytesand sometimes as much as 50just for signing up. See How to Get a Ton of Storage for strategies that will help you rack up the most gigabytes.

Set Up a Group Website


Perhaps the most straightforward way to turn multiple peoples ideas into one cohesive whole is a group blog or website. Many years ago, a few of my friends and I used an easy tool to create a website for an independent movie we had collaborated on. Called Mambo, the now-defunct contentmanagement system basically let us all be webmasters through a very simple interface. Our process worked like this: At the start we decided what we wanted the site to do (showcase the movie and oer clips and a discussion area) and the kinds of pages it would have. After I created the templates for the main page and other sections, the other users could upload assets such as video clips and music les to the systems shared storage space. We could all create or edit pages, but,

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as a fail-safe, there were only two administrator accounts. Today we would likely use a free, template-driven service, such as Moonfruit and Weebly. Because of the template styles they oer, these website-creation tools are best used when building an entire site, such as one for a movie or business, rather than a more blog-like page. The two services support multiuser accounts, and they also both operate under the freemium model, oering bonus features, such as site search and larger le uploads, for a fee. But the free versions have plenty of customizable templates. Weeblys interface is a bit cleaner and easier to use, and Moonfruit oers slightly more control over page layout, but, overall, youll get essentially the same level of netuning with either. For a place to post straightforward photos, videos, and text entries, youll be better served by a blogging service, such as WordPress, Google Blogger, or Tumblr. These sites all have multiauthor capabilities and administrator hierarchies, though the paid version of WordPress (found at wordpress.org) offers more control than the others. If you have a self-hosted WordPress blog, youll need to use a multiuser plug-in, such as Co-Authors Plus or Advanced Access Manager. One of the benets of using plugins like these is you get more control over user rights and can set up editorial calendars, group commenting systems, and more. The most collaborative platform of all is the wiki. With their almost innitely malleable design, wikis are sites that let multiple people add, edit, or delete sections from a simple browser-based text editor. Theyre useful for creating a knowledge-based, community website or an internal, private site anything for which the entire

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organizational structure of all the information on the site might have to change often. So, while a blog displays a chronological account of everyones contributions about a topic, a wikis treatment of a topic reects the thinking of whoever last modified the text. The most famous wiki of all, Wikipedia, is a crowdsourced encyclopedia, but there are wikis dedicated to travel (Wikitravel), medical reference (Ganfyd), and even network names (Naming Schemes). To start your own wiki, you could use a wiki hosting service (aka a wiki farm), such as MyWikis, which oers free, personal hosting using MediaWiki, the software behind Wikipedia. The DIY approach is to install your desired wiki engine, such as Media Wiki or the compact TiddlyWiki, on your own server or computer. Also, many Web hosting services come with a control panel where you can easily install programs on your site, including wiki software. Once installed, all you have to do is grant people (or the whole world, if you wish) editing ability for your wiki. With so many cooks in the kitchen, so to speak, you can make sure your wiki stays organized and relevant by regularly discussing the wiki and its content with your team and by making sure someone is in charge of reviewing the wikimaintaining style consistency and deleting out-of-date information.


Being a webmaster may not be your thingmaybe photography is your passion. We all have photos to share with friends, family, and colleagues. With the tremendous number of photo-sharing sites on the Web (Flickr, Picasa/ Google+, Shutterfly, Snapfish, Instagram, and Facebook, to name a few), the problem isnt finding a place to share your photos onlineits consolidating everyones photos and turning them into meaningful stories. Avital Fryman, a multimedia specialist at a medical supplies company, works as part of a

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creative team that collaborates on photo presentations for clients. Both Fryman and his clients use a variety of consumer services, including SmugMug, Snapsh, Shuttery, and Flickr for their professional presentations. The same tools and methods Fryman uses can help with personal projects. For example, he uses the starring systemswhich allow users to easily mark the photos they likeon sites such as SmugMug, Snapfish, Shutterfly, and Flickr to let clients and other team members submit their choices for which photos to use for a project. Those stars crowdsource and simplify the task of selecting everyones favorite photos. If everyone in your circle operates within Apples walled garden of devices and software, they can create a shared Photo Stream, which syncs photos through iCloud to iPhoto accounts and multiple iOS devices. With Photo Stream various people can upload, and comment on, photos in the same stream. In general, I favor Flickr, which makes it easy to invite members to a group so they can upload their own photos directly to the site or via Apples iPhoto on Macs or Microsofts Photo Gallery on PCs. After choosing the best photos, any of the collaborators can download the selected photos and turn them into a slide show with desktop software such as iPhoto or Photo Gallery. These programs let you add transitions, choose themes, and put the whole thing to music. For those who prefer to stay in the cloud, Googles Picasa can do all this too. Service did in 2001, sending CD-Rs between L.A. and Seattle to complete an album bit by bit). With specially designed musicsharing sites you can avoid resorting to the USPS. Some sites serve as central locations onto which you can upload projects, leaving them for collaborators to work on, and other sites offer live online recording sessionsno need to rent a studio, clear out your garage, or even ever meet fellow band members. To tap into the energy and expertise of musicians online, join a service thats specically musicfocused, such as Kompoz, Indaba Music, Scratch Audio, or SoundCloud; upload a recording; and invite sidemen to contribute to it. Alternatively, you can browse open projects and submit your own tracks for possible inclusion. If you already have a collaborator in mind, the simplest way to work together may be to use an online storage service such as Dropbox. Ben Fowler, a producer, composer, and musician, describes the process like this: Save an early draft of a track to a shared Dropbox folder, then your collaborator can record dierent tracks over it and save each separate stem (a grouping of specic musical elements, such as percussion or background vocals). You might edit or record new tracks based on what you hear, adding an instrument, for instance, or modifying whats already there. Finally, piece the best of these snippets together into its full version. All the while, participating musicians can bounce ideas off each other through instant messaging or set up synced listening sessions via Skype. You can also upload versions to SoundCloud, where listeners can tag specic parts of songs with comments. To collaborate with people you dont know, try kompoz.com.

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D I Y T E C H / D I G I TA L C L I N I C

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Digital Clinic

Singer and guitarist Steve Bird, who goes by the alias chilledStrings on the site, has collaborated on 33 songs since joining last May. Based in Melbourne, Australia, Bird has contributed tracks or started projects with members in Alaska, Idaho , the Netherlands, and beyond, playing guitar, singing, and mixing. He says the biggest attractions of sites such as these are the supportive communities and other members pure desire to just make music together, without pushing any commercial interests. Like other online music collaboration sites, such as Scratch Audio and Hyped Sound, kompoz .com is both a social tool and an online work space for musicians. Members upload or download song tracks under Creative Commons licensing (so anyone can use and expand on the tracks) and comment on songs in progress. If music is more than just a hobby for you, though, some sites can also help build a career through networking and more exposure. On Indaba Music, for example, artists upload their music for fellow musicians and record labels to notice. Winners of Indaba contests have recorded with Yo-Yo Ma, created a remix for Linkin Park, and, in Fowlers case, worked with Grammy Awardwinning producer Rob Fusari (the guy behind Lady Gaga and other stars). As with website building and photo sharing, the main limitation in cloud music collaboration is analog: how dispersed team members communicate about the shared project. Fowler recommends that when seeking new collaborators on the Web, try to nd like-minded people with similar creative styles, at least at rst. As in the real world, one person will probably take the lead to get the project movingand as in the real world, thats just ne.

BY RACHEL Z. ARNDT

PHOTOGRAPH BY WILLIAM BRINSON

Shredding Through Speakers


I just got a new electric guitar, but I dont have a guitar amp, so I tried plugging it into some computer speakers. I could barely hear it. Am I doing something wrong?

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Electric guitars work because of electromagnetism: The pickups on a guitar, which are transducers, receive the mechanical vibrations of the strings and turn them into an electric current. Dynamic microphones work in much the same way, picking up the vibrations of sound waves and converting them into electric signals. These signals are weak, so they have to be highly amplied to be heard. Guitar amps do this; computer speakers do not. You can hear the guitar faintly through powered computer speakers because, though they dont boost the signal enough, they do still receive it. But theyre designed to play audio coming from a powered line-level source, such as an MP3 player or a computer, not
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an instrument pickup, which has a very weak signal. So for real oomph, youll need a real guitar amplifier. The tiny Pignose Legendary 7-100 costs $80 and provides a satisfyingly dirty classic rock sound. And for under $200, you can nd a small amp, such as a 15-watt Marshall, that includes digital modeling to replicate various amp characteristics and eects. But if you already have decent speakers, you should give them a shot. To get sound from your guitar (or microphone) to come out of computer speakers at the same relative volume as a regular input, you need a preampsomething that brings the signal up to line level before sending it on its way. The best way to set this up is to use an audio interface designed for the job, such as the Korg Pandora Personal Multi-Eects Processor ($230) or the Korg Pandora Mini ($100). A preamp is a more expensive solution than a cheap guitar amp, but combined with good speakers, itll give you much better sound. And it can come in handy for more than just shredding through computer speakers; both Korg models come with distortion styles, such as those created by eects pedals, and drum loops. Connect your guitar to the interface with a regular -inch guitar cord (or your microphone with an XLR-to--inch adapter), and plug either a guitar cord with -inch adapters on the ends or a -inch male-to-male headphones cord into the headphone line out (not the regular line out). Plug the other end into the line in of your speakers. Turn the audio interface on and your speakers should be transformed into an amp. Its worth trying more than one set of speakers, if you can; when I plugged my Telecaster in, some, such as the Libratone Zipp ($400) and the Audioengine 5+ ($400), sounded better than others.

Automation in Word
Im constantly writing letters in Microsoft Word in which I have to italicize, indent, and adjust the font size of certain parts of the text. Can I apply a style to cut down on the number of steps? You need to create a macro, short for macroinstruction, which is a scripted sequence of commands that can make tedious computing tasks a bit less wearying. Macros can automate nearly any process in Microsoft Word, from something as simple as typing the word Hello at the beginning of every document (for which a macro would arguably take longer than the old-fashioned typing-it-out way) to more complicated tasks, such as completing multiple ndand-replace searches and creating specically formatted tables.

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You can nd the Record New Macro option in the Tools menu. Give the macro a name with no spaces (Microsoft says this is what you must do; oddly, it still allows spaces in the name field), and dene whether it will be accessed by clicking a button in a toolbar or with a keyboard command. Youll also be prompted to choose where the macro is available: in all documents or just the one youre working in. Presumably, if youre going to the trouble of creating a macro, youll want to use it in more than one document. When youre ready to start recording your every move in Word, highlight the text you want it to aect, hit OK, and, in your case, begin formatting. When youre done, head back to the Tools menu to stop recording. Now whenever you want to automatically format text in the same way, highlight, press the macro button or keyboard shortcut, and the program will do the dirty work. les is a matter of keeping the card clutter-free, by all means, get rid of them. But if youre just concerned about these les taking up precious memory-card space, dont waste your timetheyre tiny and, in some cases, useful. For instance, GoPro mobile apps use them for previews when beaming over Wi-Fi. Also, because the les are low-resolutionthe thumbnails

POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

111

are 160 x 120 pixels, and the LRV movies are 432 x 240theyre easy to use on sluggish computers. Before you work with them, though, youll need to trick your computer into recognizing them. Change the .thm extension to .jpg and open the photo as you would any other; change the .lrv extension to .mp4 and youll be able to watch and edit the miniature videos. PopMech

Mystery GoPro Files


Along with the movie les on the SD card from my GoPro camera, Ive also noticed les that end in .thm and .lrv. What are these les? Can I delete them? Yes, though you may not want to. The .thm les are photo thumbnails, used for displaying miniature versions on the optional GoPro LCD-screen attachment. The .lrv les are low-resolution versions of videos, similarly used for the on-camera screen. If deleting these

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DISTRIBUTION NOTICE: SSB1910

RESIDENTS CASH IN: Pictured above are the Overstuffed Money Bags containing 10 individual Vault Bags full of money that everyone is trying to get. Thats because each Vault Bag is known to contain over 100 U.S. Govt issued coins some dating back to the early 1900s.

State zip codes determine who gets free Silver coins


Vault bags loaded with U.S. Govt issued coins are up for grabs as thousands of U.S. residents stand to miss the deadline to claim the money; now any U.S. resident who finds their zip code listed below gets to claim the bags of money for themselves and keep any valuable coins found inside by covering the Vault Bag fee within the next 7 days The phone lines are ringing off the FREE: RED BOOK COLLECTOR How to claim the bags of U.S. Govt issued coins: Read the important
hook. Thats because for the next 7 days Vault Bags containing valuable U.S. Govt issued coins are actually being handed over to U.S. residents who find their zip code listed in todays publication. Now that the bags of money are up for grabs U.S. residents are claiming as many as they can get before theyre all gone. Thats because after the Vault Bags were loaded with over 100 U.S. Govt issued coins the bags were sealed for good. But we do know that some of the coins date clear back to the early 1900s, including: a 90% pure Silver Walking Liberty Half Dollar, an Eisenhower Dollar, some of the last ever minted U.S. Dollars, Kennedy Half Dollars, Silver Mercury Dimes, rarely seen Liberty V Nickels, nearly 100 year old Buffalo Nickels and unsearched currently circulating U.S. Govt issued nickels, dimes and quarter dollars, but theres no telling what youll find until you sort through all the coins. said Timothy J. Shissler, Chief Numismatist for the private World Reserve. The only thing residents need to do is call the National Claim Hotline before the 7-day order deadline ends. Everyone who does is being given the 90% pure Silver Walking Liberty coin for free just by covering the fee for each Vault Bag loaded with over 100 U.S. Govt issued coins for only $99 as long as they call before the deadline ends. So, if lines are busy keep trying, all calls will be answered. N
information below. Then call the National Claim Hotline at: 1-866-646-2717 I keep calling and cant get through: This announcement is being so widely advertised because each Vault Bag is guaranteed to contain a free Silver Walking Liberty coin and just that one coin alone could be worth $15 to $325 in collector value. So thousands of residents are calling to claim as many Vault Bags as they can get before theyre all gone. In fact, since the Vault Bag fee is just $ 99 everyone is claiming as many bags as they can before the deadline ends. So if lines are busy keep trying, all calls will be answered. How much are the Vault Bags worth: Coin values always fluctuate and there are never any guarantees, but heres why U.S. residents are claiming as many Vault Bags as they can get before theyre all gone. After the Vault bags were loaded with over 100 U.S. Govt issued coins including: Silver, scarce, highly collectible, and a big scoop of unsearched currently circulating U.S. Govt issued coins the bags were sealed for good. But we do know that some of the coins date back to the 1900s. That means theres no telling what youll find until you sort through all the coins. So you better believe at just $99 the Vault Bag fee is a real steal since the free Silver Walking Liberty coin alone could be worth from $15 to $325 in collector value. Are the Silver Walking Liberty coins really Free: Yes. U.S. residents who beat the 7-day deadline are getting a Silver Walking Liberty coin minted between 1916-1947 free with each Vault Bag they claim. Why is the Vault Bag fee so low: Because thousands of U.S. residents have missed the deadline to claim the money the World Reserve has re-allocated Vault Bags that will be scheduled to be sent out in the next 7 days. That means the money is up for grabs and now any resident who finds the first two digits of their zip code on the Distribution List below gets to claim the bags of money for themselves and keep all the U.S. Govt issued coins found inside. Each Vault Bag fee is set at $149 for residents who miss the 7-day deadline, but for those who beat the 7-day deadline the Vault Bag fee is just $ 99 for as long as they call the National Claim Hotline before the deadline ends at: 1-866-646-2717.
VALUE $15 to $325

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ENLARGED TO SHOW DETAIL. YEAR VARIES 1916-1947

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Alabama 35, 36 Alaska 99 Arizona 85, 86 Arkansas 71, 72 California N/A Colorado 80, 81 Connecticut 06
Delaware 19

Iowa 50, 51, 52 Kansas 66, 67 Kentucky 40, 41, 42 Louisiana 70, 71 Maine 03, 04 Maryland 20, 21

Massachusetts 01, 02, 05

Nevada 88, 89 New Hampshire 03 New Jersey 07, 08 New Mexico 87, 88 New York 00, 10, 11, 12 13, 14 North Carolina 27, 28

North Dakota 58 Ohio* 41, 43, 44, 45 Oklahoma 73, 74 Oregon 97 Pennsylvania 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 Rhode Island 02

Virginia South Carolina 29 20, 22, 23, 24 South Dakota 57 Tennessee 37, 38 Texas 75, 76, 77 78, 79, 88 Utah 84 Vermont 05 Washington 98, 99 West Virginia 24, 25, 26 Wisconsin 53, 54 Wyoming 82, 83 Washington DC 20
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Florida* 32, 33, 34 Georgia 30, 31, 39 Hawaii 96 Idaho 83 Illinois 60, 61, 62 Indiana 46, 47

Michigan 48, 49 Minnesota 55, 56 Mississippi 38, 39 Missouri 63, 64, 65 Montana 59 Nebraska 68, 69

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OCTOBER 2013 / POPULARMECHANICS.COM

DIY AUTO / MEDIA BLASTING

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pressure washing, only at lower pressures and with projectiles that are a lot more abrasive than droplets of water. The most commonly used media include plastic beads, ground-up walnut shells, glass beads, and aluminum oxide. To media-blast at home, buy a blasting cabinet to contain the mess and to avoid covering your entire garage with a ne dusting of walnut shells. The cabinet usually consists of a closed box with a blasting gun and a pair of heavyduty gloves built into the structure. For less than $200 you can get a bench-top unit with a working area of about 22 x 18 x 12

niques utility extends to other home projects, including stripping old bike frames and metal lawn furniture, and even removing calcium deposits from tiles. The operation uses pressurized air to shoot tiny pieces of material (media) out of a nozzle to strip o the surface of a target. Its like

Untreated

Plastic Beads/Walnut Shells

Glass Beads

Aluminum Oxide

THE NITTYGRITTY
1 2 3

This rusty piece of steel from a truck leaf spring shows exactly how a few dierent types of common blasting media produce very dierent results. Plastic beads and walnut shells yield almost identical

results. Walnut shells are dirt cheap and eco-friendly (perfect if youre doing work outdoors) but only last for one use. Plastic beads can be used multiple times. Both are gentle enough to strip paint and remove minor

SAFETY FIRST! Microscopic dust that results from blasting is bad for your health, so when working on large projects, be sure to cover up. We recommend: a face shield and/or safety glasses (1) , ear protection (2) , and a breathing mask (3) . A handheld blasting gun (4) requires gloves (5) , and an apron (6) is a good idea. The blasting cabinet (7) is downright tidy in comparison, but it limits your work space.

blemishes on metal, although they arent abrasive enough to remove all the rust shown here. To do that you need to use glass beads, which stripped away enough of the metal on our bar to make it look fresh again. The last section shows why aluminum oxide is the 800-pound gorilla of blasting media. If you want something clean, itll be clean right now, and aluminum oxide can even smooth out scratches and gouges. The extreme hardness of aluminum oxide means that its eects last a long time, and its generally pretty inexpensive. It also leaves a coarse nish, as shown by the dullness on the right end of the steel bar, compared with the middle section.

WEEKEND

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inches. Larger self-standing cabinets with about 6 cubic feet of covered space are more expensiveas much as $1500 and higher. The media generally cost less than $50 for a 5- gallon bucket, and most media can be reused repeatedly. The other requirement is an air compressor that can handle a minimum of 80 psi at 5 cubic feet per minute (at least $200 if you dont already have one). For larger objects, such as wheels or body panels, you can build a simple enclosure with 2 x 4s and plastic sheeting, although that also requires a handheld gun and personal protective equipment (see page 114). For bigger projects, such as a car frame, its best to hand the job o to a professional shop. Even though media blasting can strip the chrome o a bumper, its not very good at removing grease. Before you blast, make sure anything sticky or oily has been cleaned; otherwise, youll end up immediately fouling the media you just bought. The rule of thumb for media blasting is to use the lightest abrasive and lowest pressure necessary to get the job done. Dont forget that the softer the target material, the gentler you need to be. Always test your material and pressure setting rst on a section of the part that isnt seen. Heavy media often leave a rough nish, so keep in mind that further polishing steps after blasting may be required. You also need to watch out for ash corrosion, which can occur when moisture in the air rapidly oxidizes a newly exposed piece of metal. If this is a risk (dont do anything when the humidity is above 75 percent), be ready to treat raw metal with primer paint or another protectant as soon as possible. You dont want your shiny new surface to vanish under a fresh coat of corrosion.

POPULARMECHANICS.COM / OCTOBER 2013

115

Car Clinic

B Y B E N W O J DY L A

PHOTOGRAPH BY JEFFREY WESTBROOK

Plugged Up p
Ive heard platinum spark plugs can get stuck in engines. Is this true? If so, is it possible to prevent?

When you buy a platinum spark plug, it is the core that is made from precious metal, not the entire plug.

There has been a long-standing rumor, longer than the promised 100,000-mile lifetime of platinum spark plugs, that these plugs tend to get stuck in place. The concept behind the rumor is that because the plug is made of platinum, contact with the steel or aluminum of the engines head results in galvanic corrosionsurface degradation that happens when dissimilar metals are in contact with each other in an electrolyte, in this case, water. The theory is that this process fouls the threads of the plug and fuses it in place. The problem with this logic is that the threaded end of the plug that contacts the engines head isnt made of platinum, its made of plated steel just like any other plug (and that plating should resist galvanic corrosion

with an aluminum head). The platinum component is the center electrode nestled at the core of the ceramic insulator. It never comes into contact with the rest of the engine. That being said, spark plugs of all types can be tough to remove after a few years in place. Whenever checking or replacing a plug, we like to dab a bit of antiseize on the threads, to aid later removal, before putting it in the plug hole. As always, never crank a plug tight with a socket wrench. Plugs on most cars and trucks should be torqued to about 20 foot-pounds.

Concrete Topcoat
Apparently I drove my 2005 Dodge Ram 1500 Quad Cab pickup through some wet concrete,

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Im not a lost cause. Im just a kid.

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DIY AUTO / CAR CLINIC
which left a thin coat of dried concrete on the fenders behind the passenger-side front and rear wheels. Is there a way to remove it without damaging the paint? You could just leave it on for that contractors truck look, but there are several ways to address removal. If any of the concrete is thick, its best to start by gently tapping the surface with a rubber mallet. This will mechanically break up the concrete and it will fall o. You may leave a few nicks in the clear coat, but those can be polished away. If its a thin layer that wont break o, youll need to use weak acids to work on the chemistry of the concrete. Begin with regular white vinegar and brush it on, letting it sit for a few minutes, then rinse away the slurry that comes up. Repeat as necessary. If you need to scrub any of the concrete, do so gently to make sure you dont scratch the paint. If that doesnt work, try using a concrete and mortar dissolver. Its more expensive, but it also chemically breaks down concrete and does not contain a harsh acid that will create collateral damage. Once all the concrete is removed, youll probably need to restore the surface with a light polishing compound followed by a good waxing. Dont worry, itll look like new.

Wobbly Whoa
I have a 2009 Lexus ES 350 with 55,000 miles on it. Lately when I hit the brakes, the car trembles. I looked at the front brake pads and theyre still good. What could be the cause and how should I x the problem? It sounds like you have a classic case of warped rotors. Braking removes material not just from the pads, but from the discs as well. As rotors get thinner, they are more susceptible to warping because of the heat generated during braking. Although sometimes you cant see any irregularity, thats what is causing shudder when a caliper clamps down. You can solve the problem in one or two ways. Remove the brake rotors and have them turned at a brake shop. This is a machining process where the surfaces are smoothed using a special lathe. First, though, the shop will measure the thickness of the rotor. If its too thin, legally they arent allowed to turn the rotors. The other (and probably more time-effective) option is to buy new rotors and replace your old ones. Its a good idea to swap out the pads at the same time. At 55,000 miles, if you havent done a front brake job on your car, youre not far o from having to do one anyway.

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POPULAR MECHANICS (ISSN 0032-4558) is published monthly except for combined July/ August and December/January, 10 times a year, by Hearst Communications, Inc., 300 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019 U.S.A. Steven R. Swartz, President & Chief Executive Oicer; William R. Hearst III, Chairman; Frank A. Bennack, Jr., Executive Vice Chairman; Catherine A. Bostron, Secretary; Ronald J. Doerer, Senior Vice President, Finance and Administration. Hearst Magazines Division: David Carey, President; John P. Loughlin, Executive Vice President and General Manager; John A. Rohan, Jr., Senior Vice President, Finance. 2013 by Hearst Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. Popular Mechanics is a registered trademark of Hearst Communications, Inc. Periodicals postage paid at N.Y., N.Y., and additional entry post oices. Canada Post International Publications mail product (Canadian distribution) sales agreement no. 40012499. CANADA BN NBR 10231 0943 RT. POSTMASTER: Send all UAA to CFS. (See DMM 707.4.12.5); NON-POSTAL AND MILITARY FACILITIES: send address corrections to Popular Mechanics, P.O. Box 6000, Harlan, IA 51593. Printed in U.S.A.

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current mailing label or exact copy to Popular Mechanics, Mail Preference Service, P.O. Box 6000, Harlan, IA 51593. AS A SERVICE TO READERS, Popular Mechanics publishes newsworthy products, techniques, and scientic and technological developments. Because of possible variance in the quality and condition of materials and workmanship, Popular Mechanics cannot assume responsibility for proper application of techniques or proper and safe functioning of manufactured products or reader-built projects resulting from information published in this magazine.

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Grinding Teeth
I drive a 2004 Ford Taurus and every once in a while turning the key to start the car results in a very loud and sharp grinding noise. Whenever this happens I take the keys out, put them back in and try to turn it over again. Sometimes it will happen a second time, and other times the ignition turns over like normal and the car starts. This seems bad; what could it be? Your problem could be that the solenoid on the starter is giving out. To crank the engine, a small gear on the starter turns the large ring gear attached to the engines flywheel. To avoid spinning the starter when the engine is running, the starter gear by default doesnt engage the electric motorthe solenoid makes that happen when you turn the ignition. Or maybe one of the gears associated with the starting process has worn down. The starter gear is usually made of softer metal than the ring gear and wears down rst, so its unlikely anything is wrong with the ywheel. In either case, a new starter is in your future, and its better to do the job now before you get stranded. If you have the time and the starter is easy to get to, its a straightforward job. You just unhook the car battery, disconnect the wires leading to the starter, remove the bolts that hold it in place, and replace it. Or take it to a shopyou should be in and out in a couple of hours. PopMech

WANTED INVENTORS
We are gathering the nest minds in invention to solve some of the biggest problems in the world water purication / desalination, efcient power / energy generation & distributed power, biofuels and any invention which helps the poor of the world. We have the infrastructure (25 acres with 10 buildings), equipment and capital. The group will be comprised of several teams working independently and together (no politics). Currently, we have working prototypes in several areas. Limitations: work will only be done in areas which have signicant effect on the worlds poor. There will be no long term research. Preferably using current technology to make new invention. If you enjoy work, this is a great place. Decent compensation with interesting bonuses. Degree not required. Tell us what you have actually done (invented). The Board is comprised of Manoj Bhargava, Founder and CEO of 5-hour ENERGY and Tom LaSorda, former CEO of Chrysler.

GOT A CAR PROBLEM? ASK BEN ABOUT IT.


Send your questions to pmautoclinic@hearst.com or over Twitter at @PopMechAuto or to Car Clinic, Popular Mechanics, 300 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019-5899. While we cant answer questions individually, problems of general interest will be discussed in the column.

Manoj Bhargava
Founder and CEO of 5-hour ENERGY

visit: www.hansinvention.com WorldMags.net


Located in Farmington Hills, Michigan

Tom LaSorda
Former CEO of Chrysler

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LIMIT 8 - Good at our stores or HarborFreight.com or by calling 800-423-2567. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. Original coupon must be presented. Valid through 1/14/14. Limit one coupon per customer per day.

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Item 93897 shown

59

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A B R I E F H I STO RY O F T H E . . .

Airship
From gloried balloons to high-tech military vehicles, we look up the ighty past of dirigibles. BY A M A N DA G R E E N

VON V ZEP ZEPPELIN, AWAY! A

P H O T O G R A P H S B Y G E T T Y I M A G E S ( V O N Z E P P E L I N , G I F FA R D , H I N D E N B U R G , PA G E ) , U N I V E R S I T Y O F A K R O N

1785: Inventors ors Jean-Pierre JeanBlanchard and John Jeries are the rst to cross the English Channel in a hydrogen balloon. After nearly crashing, they lighten the load by bidding adieu to supplies, decorative oars, and even their pants. 1852: Henri Giard ies full steam ahead17 miles at
6 mphin the rst steam-powered, steerable airship.

1895: Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin patents a rigid airship


that combines balloon gas cells with a structural framework.

1925: After years of providing rubber envelopes for other airships, Goodyear launches the Pilgrim, the rst in a eet of iconic helium-lled blimps. The company soon goes on dirigible duty for the U.S. government.

1937: The Hindenburg, the worlds largest passenger enger g zeppelin, bursts into ames while landing in New ew J Jersey y after a trans-Atlantic ight. The disaster kills 36 6 people as well as the luxury-airship travel industry.
1960: Televised sports gets a blimps-eye view when the
Goodyear blimp lms its rst game at Miamis Orange Bowl.
WHO NEEDS EEDS A STAIRWAY? W WAY? IVE GOT OT AN AIRSHIP! HIP! NO TICKET.

1968: Keith Moon, drummer of The Who, predicts that guitarist Jimmy Pages new band will go over like a lead balloon. Inspired, Page calls the group Led Zeppelin.

1989: In Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Indiana and his father ee Germany on a commercial zeppelin. A Nazi tries to stop them, but his plans are deated when Indy throws him out the window.
(GOODYEAR), EVERETT COLLECTION (JONES)

2009: In the DisneyPixar animated lm Up, a cranky


widower ties thousands of balloons to his home and takes ight. Three years later, cluster-balloonist Jonathan Trappe tries the stunt himself and soars 20,000 feet in the air.

2012: Big Blimp is watching you. The U.S. Army launches


a hybrid airship that can provide surveillance of an area for 21 days nonstop. The program is killed within six months.

2013: More than 75 years after ending their partnership


during World War II, ZLT Zeppelin Luftschitechnik and Goodyear reteam to replace Goodyears blimps with a eet of quieter, faster zeppelins that are still called Goodyear blimps.

AND BEYOND: Igor Pasternak, president and CEO of


Worldwide Aeros, plans on building a 500-foot-long airship that can carry 66 tons of cargo.

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