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# Bekenstein bound

(Redirected from Bekenstein Bound) Jump to: navigation, search In physics, the Bekenstein bound is an upper limit on the entropy S, or information I, that can be contained within a given finite region of space which has a finite amount of energyor conversely, the maximum amount of information required to perfectly describe a given physical system down to the quantum level. It implies that the information of a physical system, or the information necessary to perfectly describe that system, must be finite if the region of space and the energy is finite. In computer science, this implies that there is a maximum information-processing rate for a physical system that has a finite size and energy, and that a Turing machine with unbounded memory is not physically possible.

 Equations
The universal form of the bound was originally found by Jacob Bekenstein as the inequality

where S is the entropy, k is Boltzmann's constant, R is the radius of a sphere that can enclose the given system, E is the total mass-energy including any rest masses, is the reduced Planck constant, and c is the speed of light. Note that while gravity plays a significant role in its enforcement, the expression for the bound does not contain Newton's Constant G. In informational terms, the bound is given by

where I is the information expressed in number of bits contained in the quantum states in the sphere. The ln 2 factor comes from defining the information as the logarithm to the base 2 of the number of quantum states. The right-hand side of the foregoing relation is approximately equal to 2.57690871043(mass in kilograms)(radius in meters).

 Origins
Bekenstein derived the bound from heuristic arguments involving black holes. If a system exists that violates the bound, i.e. by having too much entropy, Bekenstein argued that it would be possible to violate the second law of thermodynamics by lowering it into a black

hole. In 1995, Ted Jacobson demonstrated that the Einstein field equations (i.e., general relativity) can be derived by assuming that the Bekenstein bound and the laws of thermodynamics are true. However, while a number of arguments have been devised which show that some form of the bound must exist in order for the laws of thermodynamics and general relativity to be mutually consistent, the precise formulation of the bound has been a matter of debate.

 Examples
 Black holes
It happens that the Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy of three-dimensional black holes exactly saturates the bound

where A is the two-dimensional area of the black hole's event horizon in units of the Planck area, .

The bound is closely associated with black hole thermodynamics, the holographic principle and the covariant entropy bound of quantum gravity, and can be derived from a conjectured strong form of the latter.

##  Human brain

An average human brain has a mass of 1.5 kg and a volume of 1260 cm3. The energy (E = mc2) will be 1.348131017 J and if the brain is approximate to a sphere then the radius (V = 4r3/3) will be 6.70030102 m. The Bekenstein bound (I 2rEc ln 2 ) will be 2.589911042 bit and represent the maximum information needed to perfectly recreate the average human brain down to the quantum level (or anything of the same mass and volume). This implies that the number of different states (=2I) of the human brain is at most 107.796401041.