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PRACTICAL 4 : DETERMINATION OF WATER OF HYDRATION

DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING Qualitative Data : 1. The color of the hydrated copper sulfate is blue. The blue color turns to white when heating. After 4 minutes, the color of hydrated copper sulfate turns to white fully. 2. The color of the flame used while heating the hydrated copper sulfate is blue.

Quantitative Data : Table 1 : Table of mass of crucible, mass of crucible and hydrated copper sulfate before heating & mass of crucible and copper sulfate after heating.

The mass of crucible, m (g) 0.0001 The mass of crucible and hydrated copper sulfate before heating, m (g) 0.0001 The mass of crucible and copper sulfate after heating, m (g) 0.0001

Trial 1 10.1588 15.6850

Trial 2 10.1587 15.6851

Trial 3 10.1590 15.6848

Average 10.1588 15.6850

13.6736 13.6664 13.5834 Calculation : Mass of hydrated copper sulfate :

13.6740 13.6666 13.5837

13.6745 13.6662 13.5840

13.6740 13.6664 13.5837

= mass of hydrated CuSO and crucible mass of crucible = 15.6850 0.0001 g 10.1588 0.0001 g = 5.5262 0.0002 g Mass of CuSO = mass of CuSO and crucible mass of crucible = 13.5837 0.0001 g 10.1588 0.0001 g = 3.4249 0.0002 g Mass of water :

= mass of hydrated CuSO - mass of CuSO = 5.5262 0.0001 g 3.4249 0.0001 g = 2.1013 0.0002 g Percentage of water hydrate , % = =

100%

= 13.40 %
Table 2 : Table of empirical formula to determine the number of moles of water. Element Mass, m (g) Molar mass , (g/Mol) Number of moles
= 0.021458 mil

CuSO 3.4249 63.55 + 32.06 + (16.00 x 4) = 159.6 2.1013

HO

(1.01 x 2) + 16.00 = 18.02

= 0.1166 mil

Simplest whole number ratio of mole Ratio

=1 1

= 5.434 5

Hence , x = 5

CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION

The number of water molecule or x is 5. While the percentage of water hydrate is 13.40 %. The general reaction of heating a hydrate is CuSO. HO CuSO+ HO , and the real equation for this experiment is CuSO. 5HO CuSO+ 5HO, (Cambridge, 2011, page 41). The number of water molecules from my experiment is exactly same like the actual or theoretical value in the reference book. Limitations and Weakness : 1. The flame does not fully blue and directly touch the crucible, so it cannot heat the hydrated copper sulfate strongly and constantly. Make sure the flame is fully blue and use porcelain as a stand for Bunsen burner, so the flame will heat strongly and constantly. 2. The air and wind affected the reading of mass. Close the door or window of the electronic balance when taking the mass. Therefore, I can get an accurate reading. 3. The temperature of the room influenced the heating of hydrated copper sulfate .Close the fans and use a wind shield when heating hydrated copper sulfate, so the hydrated copper sulfate will heat strongly and uniformly. 4. The copper sulfate was falling down when I do the experiment. So I didnt get accurate mass. I should be careful when doing the experiment , so the mess that I get will accurate. 5. Lack of time when doing the experiment because Im talking with my friend while doing the experiment so I cant focus on my experiment. Then, I didnt get the constant mass for copper sulfate. I must do the experiment in time which had given and do not talk when do the experiment so I can focus then get the constant mass. BIBLIOGRAPHY : A .Caroline, M. Chris, O. Steve, 2011, Cambridge, Chemistry For The IB Diploma , Cambridge University Press, UK.