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1.

(a)
Award [2] for all correct and [1] for two correct. 2

(b)
Award [2] for all correct and [1] for two correct. 2
[4]

2. (a)

(i) circle labelled R as shown above; 1
Accept answers that include the star B within the circle.
IB Questionbank Physics 1
(ii) circle labelled W as shown above; 1

(iii) any line (not necessarily straight) going from top left to
bottom right, through or near all or most of stars; 1

(b) star B has lower temperature;
star B has (slightly) larger luminosity / stars have approximately
same luminosity;
surface area calculated from L = AT
4
, so star B has larger
surface area/diameter / to give the same/similar luminosity
at lower temperature, star B must have bigger diameter/
surface area; 3

(c) (from HR diagram) L
A
= 10
5
L
S
;
b =
2
4 d
L
used;
to give
9
3
5
A
S
S
A
S
A
10 9 . 4
10 4 . 1
10


b
b
L
L
d
d
;
hence d
A
= 1.7 10
8
AU;
= 800 pc 4
Do not award a mark for the conversion from AU to pc.

(d) the parallax angle is too small to be measured accurately / the
distance is greater than the limit for stellar parallax , which is 100 pc; 4
Accept any value from 100-800 pc for limit.
Do not accept its too far away.
[11]

3. (a) the universe is expanding / many galaxies are moving away from us; 1

(b) the CMBR fills all of space / is uniform / is distributed equally,
consistent with an explosion (at start of universe);
the temperature of the radiation (2.7 K) is consistent with cooling
due to expansion/redshift; 2

(c)
max
=
7
3 3
10 0 . 7
10 9 . 2 10 9 . 2

T
T
T = 4100 K; 2
[5]

IB Questionbank Physics 2
4. (a)
5 . 3
S
K
S
K
1
]
1

m
m
L
L
;
m
K
=
S s
5 . 3
1
4
5 . 3
1
5 . 3
S
S
K
9 . 16 ] 10 0 . 2 [ m m m
L
L

1
]
1

;
hence m
K
17 m
S
2

(b) Khad will become a red supergiant/superred/superred giant;
a supernova will take place;
the core/remnant will form a neutron star or black hole; 3
[5]

5. (a) (i) recessional speed of a galaxy is directly proportional to
distance from Earth / v = H
0
d with symbols defined; 1

(ii) local velocity of Andromeda relative to Earth greater than
(recessional) speed due to expansion of universe / OWTTE; 1

(b) (i) relative speed between two points in universe separated
by distance d is v =
T
d
where T is the age of the universe;
v =
T
d
= H
0
d therefore T =
0
1
H
; 2

(ii) T =
1000
10 46 . 9 26 . 3 10
80
1
15 6

= 4 10
17
(s); 1
Do not deduct unit mark if seconds not given, as question asks
for answer in seconds.
[5]

6. (a) (i) a collection of stars that form a recognizable group (as
viewed from Earth);
that need not be/are not close to each other/gravitationally bound; 2

(ii) stars that are gravitationally bound/forming an open
arrangement/close to each other (in space); 1
IB Questionbank Physics 3
(b) (i) 5.1 + [0.6] = 5lg
1
]
1

10
d
;
(d = 138 pc)
1 pc = 3.1 10
16
m;
138 3.1 10
16
= 4.3 10
18
;
4 10
18
m 3

(ii) L =
26
2 18 7
10 8 . 3
] 10 3 . 4 [ 4 10 6 . 1

;
9.8 10
4
L
Sun
or 8.4 10
4
L
Sun
(if 4.0 used); 2

(iii) T =
4
2
4
Sun
790
1
10 8 . 9
,
_

T
3600 K or 3500 K; 2

(c)

(i) position labelled B within shaded area; 1
Award [1] if label B is missing but point is clear.

(ii) generally the correct shape; (allow broad line) 1
IB Questionbank Physics 4
(d) over time spectral lines regularly split into two lines and then
recombine;
as one star approaches observer the other recedes;
leading to Doppler shifts in opposite directions; 3
[15]

7. (a) (i) a collection of stars that form a recognizable group (as
viewed from Earth);
that need not be/are not close to each other/gravitationally bound; 2

(ii) stars that are gravitationally bound/forming an open
arrangement/close to each other (in space); 1

(b) (i) 5.1 + [0.6] = 5lg
1
]
1

10
d
;
(d = 138 pc)
1 pc = 3.1 10
16
m;
138 3.1 10
16
= 4.3 10
18
;
4 10
18
m 3

(ii) L =
26
2 18 7
10 8 . 3
] 10 3 . 4 [ 4 10 6 . 1

;
9.8 10
4
L
Sun
or 8.4 10
4
L
Sun
(if 4.0 used); 2

(iii) T =
4
2
4
Sun
790
1
10 8 . 9
,
_

T
3600 K or 3500 K; 2
IB Questionbank Physics 5
(c)

(i) position labelled B within shaded area; 1
Award [1] if label B is missing but point is clear.

(ii) generally the correct shape; (allow broad line) 1

(d) over time spectral lines regularly split into two lines and then
recombine;
as one star approaches observer the other recedes;
leading to Doppler shifts in opposite directions; 3
[15]

8. (a) if less than critical density, universe expands without limit;
if equal to critical density universe stops expanding after an
infinite amount of time;
if greater than critical density, universe expands first then contracts; 3
Award [1 max] if terms open, flat and closed are used and not defined.
IB Questionbank Physics 6
(b) there is matter that cannot be detected;
which is likely to consist of dark matter/neutrinos;
or
difficulty of measuring volume accurately;
because of difficulty of measuring distances accurately;
or
matter is not evenly distributed;
so density may vary from place to place; 2
[5]

9. (a) (i) sets upper limit on mass of white dwarf; 1

(ii) sets upper limit on mass of neutron star; 1

(b) (if in the supernova phase) the mass blown leaves behind a mass
of 1.4M
Sun
/ less than the Chandrasekhar limit;
the star will evolve to a white dwarf;
mass greater than about 1.4M
Sun
, but less than the OV limit, will evolve
(because of the OV limit) into a neutron star; 3
[5]

10. (a) red shift used to measure recessional speed of galaxies;
named measurement to yield distance to galaxies (e.g. Cepheid
variable, Supernova);
repeat for many galaxies/clusters of galaxies;
Hubble constant is gradient of speeddistance graph; (any symbols
used must be defined) 3 max
To award [3] reference must be made to galaxies in at least
one of the marking points.

(b) v = 60
6
8
10 26 . 3
10 0 . 6

;
= 1.1 10
4
km s
1
; 2
[5]
IB Questionbank Physics 7
11. (a) (i)
angular position of star measured;
relative to the background of fixed stars;
in two positions six months apart;
p is
2
1
of the angle of separation / p indicated on diagram; 4

(ii) d =

,
_

pc 3866 . 2
419 . 0
1 1
p
2.39 pc;
= 2.3866 3.26 ly = 7.78 ly; 2

(iii) beyond this distance the parallax angle is too small to be
measured (accurately) / OWTTE; 1

(b) L = 4d
2
b;
s s
w w
s
w
b d
b d
L
L
2
2

;
d
s
= 1 AU, d
w
= 7.78 6.3 10
4
= 4.9 10
5
AU;
s
w
L
L
= [4.9 10
5
]
2
3.7 10
15
= 8.9 10
4
; 4
Allow ECF from (a)(ii).

(c) A =

,
_

4 8
23
4
2800 10 7 . 5
10 5 . 3
T
L

= 1.0 10
17
m
2
;
r =

,
_

4
10 0 . 1
4
17
A
= 8.9 10
7
m; 2
IB Questionbank Physics 8
(d) temperature too low to be white dwarf;
luminosity too low to be red giant;
radius too small to be a red giant; 2 max
Answer must be consistent with answer in (c) for third marking point.
[15]

12. (a) density at which universe will expand forever but rate of expansion
will approach zero / the density at which the universe will begin
to contract after infinite amount of time / the density for which
the curvature of the universe is zero / OWTTE; 1
Reference to flat model without definition does not gain mark.

(b) value of density determines whether or not universe will expand
forever, or at some point, begin to contract;
at density less than critical density, universe will expand forever;
at density greater than critical density, universe will stop expanding
and contract; 3
If second and third marks gained, first mark is also gained by implication.

(c) dark matter does not radiate/cannot be directly measured/seen; 1
[5]

13. (a) gas cloud collapses under its own gravity;
gravitational potential energy changes to kinetic energy of particles;
eventually temperature/pressure at centre is so great that fusion occurs; 3

(b) (initial) mass; 1

(c) (i) carbon / oxygen / neon; 1

(ii) iron; 1
[6]

14. (a)
c
v

,
_

1 5
s km 61475 10 00 . 3
122
122 147
v
61500 km s
1
;
d =

,
_

Mpc 67 . 819
75
61475
0
H
v
820Mpc; 3
IB Questionbank Physics 9
(b) difficulty in determining galactic distances; 1
[4]

15. (a) (i) luminosity is a function of surface and temperature (of star);
(same class) same temperature (therefore greater surface area); 2

(ii) L
C
= 80 L
S
; (accept answer in the range of 60 to 100) 1

(iii)
2
S
C
S
C
1
]
1

r
r
L
L
= 80;
r
C
2
= 80r
S
2

r
C
= 8.9r
S
; 2

(b) (i) 0.6; (accept answer in the range of 0.4 to 0.8) 1

(ii)

,
_


10
log 5 of use
d
M m
0.0 0.6 = 5log
10
d
;
10
d
= 10
0.12
;
d = 7.6 pc; 3

(iii) Vega appears dimmer;
hence distance over-estimated; 2
accept:
Vega will look redder (because blue light scatters more in dust);
so Vega looks cooler/lower apparent temperature (thus
wrong position on HR diagram);

(c) the inward gravitational pressure is balanced by the outward
radiative pressure; 1
[12]

16. (a) (Big Bang theory predicts that CMB will) correspond to the black-body
at 3K;
the graph is of a black-body curve;
T =
3
3
10
10 9 . 2

3 K; 3

IB Questionbank Physics 10
(b) measurement of mass in a given volume is (very) uncertain/difficult;
there exists dark matter that is difficult to observe;
measurement of distances is uncertain/difficult;
matter not uniformly distributed; 2 max
[5]

17. (a) stars:
3
) 17 ( 19 . 4
75
= 3.6 10
3
(ly
3
):
galaxies:
3 6
) 10 0 . 4 ( 19 . 4
26

= 9.7 10
20
(ly
3
); 2
Award [1 max] if the response does not use the volume of the
sphere but uses the cube instead.

(b)
19
3
10
10

= (3.8 )10
16
or star population density greater than
galaxies population density by an order of magnitude 16; 1
[3]

18. (a) (i) luminosity is a function of surface and temperature (of star);
(same class) same temperature (therefore greater surface area); 2

(ii) L
C
= 80 L
S
; (accept answer in the range of 60 to 100) 1

(iii)
2
S
C
S
C
1
]
1

r
r
L
L
= 80;
r
C
2
= 80r
S
2

r
C
= 8.9r
S
; 2

(b) (i) 0.6; (accept answer in the range of 0.4 to 0.8) 1

(ii)

,
_


10
log 5 of use
d
M m
0.0 0.6 = 5log
10
d
;
10
d
= 10
0.12
;
d = 7.6 pc; 3
IB Questionbank Physics 11
(iii) Vega appears dimmer;
hence distance over-estimated; 2
accept:
Vega will look redder (because blue light scatters more in dust);
so Vega looks cooler/lower apparent temperature (thus
wrong position on HR diagram);
[11]

19. (a) (Big Bang theory predicts that CMB will) correspond to the black-body
at 3K;
the graph is of a black-body curve;
T =
3
3
10
10 9 . 2

3 K; 3

(b) measurement of mass in a given volume is (very) uncertain/difficult;
there exists dark matter that is difficult to observe;
measurement of distances is uncertain/difficult;
matter not uniformly distributed; 2 max

(c) in the early universe the (average) kinetic energy was very high
breaking apart any nuclei/atoms/too high for atoms to form / as
universe expands it cools down allowing nuclei in atoms to form; 1
[6]

20. (a) (using massluminosity relation for main sequence)
5 . 3
1
25
1
1
]
1

L
= 7.8 10
4
8 10
4
:
therefore, star obeys mass-luminosity relation and therefore
main sequence; 2
or
8 10
4
= 25
n
;
log[8.4 10
4
] = n log25
n = 3.5
therefore star obeys mass-luminosity relation and therefore
main sequence;
IB Questionbank Physics 12
(b) MS supergiant;
supernova explosion leaving behind core;
core becomes black hole or neutron star depending on
Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit / black hole because the
Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit is exceeded / neutron
star because below the Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit; 3
[5]

21. (a) v =


c =
8 . 396
04 . 5
3 10
8
;
v = 3.81 10
6
m s
1
/ 1.27 10
2
c; 2

(b) (i) Cepheids / Supernovae; 1

(ii) recognition of age = inverse of slope;
=
1 6
24
s m 10 9 . 15
m 10 0 . 6

(= 3.8 10
17
s) 10
17
s 2
[5]

22. (a) constellation:
a collection/group of stars that form a recognizable pattern (as
viewed from Earth) / a group/pattern of stars not close
together (in space);
stellar cluster:
a group of stars (including gas and dust) held together by gravity/
forming a globular/open arrangement / a group of stars close to
each other (in space); 2

(b) (i) the apparent magnitude of P
A
is (much) smaller than that of P
B
;
in the apparent magnitude scale the smaller the magnitude
the brighter the star; 2
Accept argument in terms of P
B
being fainter than P
A
.
or
apparent brightness of P
A
is greater than P
B
;
apparent brightness is intensity at surface of Earth;
IB Questionbank Physics 13
(ii) the absolute magnitude of P
A
is smaller than that of P
B
;
the absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude at a
distance of 10 pc (from Earth);
so at the same distances from Earth P
A
is much brighter
than P
B
so must be more luminous; 3
Accept argument in terms of P
B
being fainter than P
A
.
or
absolute magnitude of P
A
is less than absolute magnitude of P
B
;
absolute magnitude is a measure of luminosity;
lower values of absolute magnitude refer to brighter/more
luminous star;
or
Accept answer based on answer to (c).
distances are the same from (c);
since L = 4d
2
b P
A
is brighter than P
B
;

(c) m M for P
A
= 2.28 and m M for P
B
= 2.30;
since m M = 5lg
10
d
then d for each is very nearly same; 2
Accept answer based on calculation of individual ds (~ 3.5 pc).

(d) same distance from Earth and in the same region of space; 1

(e) recognize that the ratio of the luminosities is the same as the ratio
of apparent brightness;

,
_

12
8
B
A
10 46 . 1
10 06 . 2
L
L
1.41 10
4
; 2

(f)

IB Questionbank Physics 14
(i) P
A
10 000 K at 10; (labelled A) 1

(ii) P
B
10 000 K at 10
3
; (labelled B) 1

(g) white dwarf; 1
Allow ECF from diagram.
[15]

23. (a) space and time originated from a single point in a large explosion /
an expanding universe that originated from a single point / OWTTE; 1

(b) (i) temperature of the universe immediately after the Big Bang
was very high;
as it expanded it cooled down;
the wavelength of the CMB corresponds to a temperature
consistent with this cooling down / OWTTE;
red shift is due to expansion of universe; 3 max

(ii) indicates that the universe is expanding; 1
[5]

24. (a) constellation:
a collection/group of stars that form a recognizable pattern (as viewed
from Earth) / a group/pattern of stars not close together (in space);
stellar cluster:
a group of stars (including gas and dust) held together by gravity/
forming a globular/open arrangement / a group of stars close to
each other (in space); 2

(b) (i) the apparent magnitude of P
A
is (much) smaller than that of P
B
;
in the apparent magnitude scale the smaller the magnitude the
brighter the star; 2
Accept argument in terms of P
B
being fainter than P
A
.
or
apparent brightness of P
A
is greater than P
B
;
apparent brightness is intensity at surface of Earth;
IB Questionbank Physics 15
(ii) the absolute magnitude of P
A
is smaller than that of P
B
;
the absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude at a
distance of 10 pc (from Earth);
so at the same distances from Earth P
A
is much brighter
than P
B
so must be more luminous; 3
Accept argument in terms of P
B
being fainter than P
A
.
or
absolute magnitude of P
A
is less than absolute magnitude of P
B
;
absolute magnitude is a measure of luminosity;
lower values of absolute magnitude refer to brighter/more
luminous star;
or
Accept answer based on answer to (c).
distances are the same from (c);
since L = 4d
2
b P
A
is brighter than P
B
;

(c) m M for P
A
= 2.28 and m M for P
B
= 2.30;
since m M = 5lg
10
d
then d for each is very nearly same; 2
Accept answer based on calculation of individual ds (~ 3.5 pc).

(d) same distance from Earth and in the same region of space; 1

(e) recognize that the ratio of the luminosities is the same as the ratio
of apparent brightness;

,
_

12
8
B
A
10 46 . 1
10 06 . 2
L
L
1.41 10
4
; 2

(f)

IB Questionbank Physics 16
(i) P
A
10 000 K at 10; (labelled A) 1

(ii) P
B
10 000 K at 10
3
; (labelled B) 1

(g) white dwarf; 1
Allow ECF from diagram.

(h) to the red giant region (approximately either side of L = 10
2
and T = 2500 K);
(judge by eye)
to the white dwarf region (approximately either side of L = 10
2
and T = 10 000 K);
(judge by eye) 2

(i)
5 . 3
R
1 1
150

,
_

M
or 150 =M
R
3.5
;
evidence of algebraic manipulation e.g. M
R
=
5 . 3
1
] 150 [
;
= 4.2M
S
To award [2] there must be evidence of algebraic manipulation shown.

(j) (i) neutron star; 1

(ii) (because of) neutron degeneracy pressure / Pauli exclusion
principle excludes further collapse; 2
[21]

25. (a) space and time originated from a single point in a large explosion /
an expanding universe that originated from a single point / OWTTE; 1

(b) (i) temperature of the universe immediately after the Big Bang
was very high;
as it expanded it cooled down;
the wavelength of the CMB corresponds to a temperature
consistent with this cooling down / OWTTE;
red shift is due to expansion of universe; 3 max

(ii) indicates that the universe is expanding; 1
IB Questionbank Physics 17
(c) the amount of red-shift enables the recession speed of a galaxy to be
determined;
Hubbles law states that the recession speed is proportional to
its distance from Earth/v = H
0
d with terms defined;
if the constant of proportionality/H
0
is known then d can be determined; 3

(d) it is difficult to determine an accurate value of the Hubble
constant / difficult to measure the red-shift / Hubble constant
had different values in the past; 1
[9]

26. (a) apparent magnitude is a measure of how bright a star appears from Earth;
absolute magnitude is a measure of how bright a star would appear from a
distance of 10 pc; 2

(b) (i) Achernar; 1

(ii) stars differ by M = 16;
for M = 1 we have a ratio of luminosities by a factor of
5
100
2.51
or 2.5;
so
16 5
E
A
) 100 (
L
L
2.5 10
6
or 2.3 10
6
; 3
Award [2 max] for use of apparent magnitude difference and
an answer for the ratio of 6.3 10
5
.

(iii) d =

,
_

5
10 10
M m
;
10
5
5 . 3
10
;
50 pc 2

(c)
A
M
L
L
= 1;
1 =
4 2
A
4 2
M
) 5 ( 4
4
T R
T R

;
A
M
R
R
= 25; 3
IB Questionbank Physics 18
(d) it has to be hot star/a B star;
with low luminosity/high absolute magnitude;
hence EG129; 3
[14]

27. (a) T =
3
3
10 07 . 1
10 9 . 2

;
T = 2.7K; 2
Accept wavelengths in the range 1.05 to 1.10 for a temperature
range 2.64 to 2.76 K.
Award [0] for bald answer.

(b) according to the Big Bang model the temperature of the universe
(and the radiation it contained) in the distant past was very high;
the temperature falls as the universe expands and so does the
temperature of the radiation in the universe; 2

(c) (Hubbles law shows that) the universe is expanding;
therefore in the distant past the universe must have been a very
small/hot/dense point-like object;
or
Doppler shift of spectral lines;
indicates galaxies moving away so in the past they were close to each other; 2
[6]

28. (a) the largest mass a neutron star can have (2-3 solar masses) / core
mass which if exceeded leads to a black hole; 1

(b) (i) the star will evolve to become a red super giant;
nuclear reactions involving elements heavier than hydrogen
take place / nuclear reactions produce heavier elements up to iron;
will then explode in a supernova;
the final mass of the core/remnant of the star will be less than
the Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit/less than a few solar masses/less
than 3 solar masses; 2 max
To award [2] the last marking point is essential.

(ii) neutron (degeneracy) pressure; 1

(c) (i) l = kM
2.5
;
so

,
_

5 . 2
5 . 2
sun
Eta
sun
EtaC
M
M
l
l
= (100
2.5
) = 10
5
; 2

IB Questionbank Physics 19
(ii) Eta Carinae is producing energy disproportionately more
(relative to the available mass) and hence will spend less
time (10
5
less) on the main sequence / OWTTE; 1
Award [0] for bald answer.
[7]

29. (a) distant galaxies move away from Earth;
with a speed proportional to their distance (from Earth); 2

(b) because the motion of nearby galaxies is much more affected by
their mutual gravitational interactions rather than the expansion
of the universe; 1
[3]

30. (a) the sign of the output voltage is the same as that of the input voltage; 1

(b) (i) G =

,
_

+
10
90
1
10; 1

(ii) V
out
(=GV
in
=10 2.0) = 20 mV 1

(c) op-amp has a high input resistance and so takes little current;
(open loop) gain is very large so potential difference between
non-inv input and inv input is (effectively) zero;
i.e. V
out
= V
in
;
So G = 1 3

(d) (i) 3.0V; 1

(ii) the resistance between A and B is smaller than 2 M / the
voltmeter draws current; 1

(iii) the voltmeter reads the output voltage of the amplifier and
the input voltage is the potential difference to be measured;
the two are equal since the gain is 1; 2
[10]
IB Questionbank Physics 20
31. (a) red supergiant: [3 max]
appears red in colour;
(has a very) large luminosity;
(relatively) low (surface) temperature;
(very) large mass;
(very) large surface area;
constellation: [1 max]
a group of stars that form a recognizable pattern (as viewed
from Earth) / OWTTE; 4 max

(b) (i) apparent magnitude is a measure of how bright a star
appears from Earth/observer;
absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude of a star at
a distance of 10 pc from Earth / how bright a star would
appear if it were at a distance of 10 pc from Earth; 2

(ii) 5lg
1
]
1

10
d
= (1.1 + 5.3 =) 6.4;
d = 190 pc;
=
11
15
10 5 . 1
10 46 . 9 26 . 3 190


(= 3.9 10
7
AU) 3

(iii) stellar/spectroscopic parallax; 1

(c) (i) the power per square meter received at the surface of
Earth/observer; 1

(ii) use of L = 4bd
2
;
Sun
2
Sun
Antares
2
Antares
Sun
Antares
d b
d b
L
L

L
Antares
( L
Sun
) = 4.3 10
11
3.9
2
10
14
;
(= 6.5 10
4
) 3
[14]
IB Questionbank Physics 21
32. (a) red supergiant: [3 max]
appears red in colour;
(has a very) large luminosity;
(relatively) low (surface) temperature;
(very) large mass;
(very) large surface area;
constellation: [1 max]
a group of stars that form a recognizable pattern (as viewed
from Earth) / OWTTE; 4 max

(b) (i) apparent magnitude is a measure of how bright a star
appears from Earth/observer;
absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude of a star at
a distance of 10 pc from Earth / how bright a star would
appear if it were at a distance of 10 pc from Earth; 2

(ii) 5lg
1
]
1

10
d
= (1.1 + 5.3 =) 6.4;
d = 190 pc;
=
11
15
10 5 . 1
10 46 . 9 26 . 3 190


(= 3.9 10
7
AU) 3

(iii) stellar/spectroscopic parallax; 1

(c) (i) the power per square meter received at the surface of
Earth/observer; 1

(ii) use of L = 4bd
2
;
Sun
2
Sun
Antares
2
Antares
Sun
Antares
d b
d b
L
L

L
Antares
( L
Sun
) = 4.3 10
11
3.9
2
10
14
;
(= 6.5 10
4
) 3

(d) (lower limit) lg[6.5 10
4
] = 4 lg M; (M = 16)
(upper limit) lg[6.5 10
4
] = 3 lg M; (M=40) 2

(e) the mass limit for a star to become a white dwarf = 1.4M
S
;
in its evolution Alnitak will become a supernova;
(even in this phase) its initial mass is so large that it could not
blow away/lose enough mass to reach 1.4M
S
/ to become a
white dwarf / OWTTE; 3

(f) neutron star / black hole; 1
IB Questionbank Physics 22
[20]

33. (a) Newtons model states that the universe is infinite (static) and
uniform; this means that stars are uniformly spaced;
and that if it is infinite there must be a star at every point in
space / a star along every line of sight;
since there are regions without stars, Newtons model must
be inadequate; 3 max

(b) both space and time originated with the Big Bang;
the universe is expanding (and not infinite);
due to the expansion, light from the Big Bang is red-shifted
to the microwave region so regions between stars will not
appear bright;
light from very distant stars will not have reached us yet;
the universe has not existed for all time; 3 max
[6]

34. (a) very difficult to measure d precisely / experimental uncertainties in
v
d
;
when the recession speed is large / when the galaxies are at great distances; 2

(b) use H
0
= 60 km s
1
Mpc
1
;
use T =
0
1
H
to give T = 5 10
17
s ; (ECF if incorrect value of H
0
is chosen) 2
[4]

35. (a) (i) gives the relative (visual) brightness of stars as seen from Earth;
e.g. a magnitude 1 star is 100 times brighter than a magnitude 6 star; 2
To award [2] the idea of a relative scale must be clear.

(ii) the apparent magnitude a star would have if it were 10 pc from Earth; 1

(b) (i)
5 10
log
M m d

;
= 1.03;
d = 10 10
1.03
;
= 108 pc 3
Accept answer based on substitution for d = 108.
IB Questionbank Physics 23
(ii) L = 4d
2
b;
Sun
2
Sun
B
2
B
Sun
B
b d
b d
L
L

;
L
B
= [108 2.05]
2
10
10
7.00 10
12
L
Sun
;
= 3.43 10
3
L
Sun
3
Accept answer based on substitution L
B
= 3.43 L
Sun
.

(c) in the region [30 50, 2.5 5.0]; 1

(d)
Cepheid as shown; 1
Judge by eye for reasonable range of magnitude and temperature.

(e) the outer layers undergo a periodic expansion and contraction/
periodic fluctuations in temperature; 1

(f) period/frequency with which luminosity varies;
apparent brightness / apparent magnitude; 2
[14]

36. (a) Newtons model assumed a uniform infinite (and static) universe;
therefore number of stars in shell is proportional to R
2
;
intensity of radiation/light from shell reaching Earth is proportional to
2
1
R
;
since according to Newtons model such shells stretch to infinity /
the sky can never be dark/will always be light / OWTTE; 4
IB Questionbank Physics 24
(b) the universe is expanding;
the universe has a beginning;
the stars (and galaxies) are not uniformly distributed; 2 max
[6]

37. (a) (i) gives the relative (visual) brightness of stars as seen from Earth;
e.g. a magnitude 1 star is 100 times brighter than a magnitude 6 star; 2
To award [2] the idea of a relative scale must be clear.

(ii) the apparent magnitude a star would have if it were 10 pc from Earth; 1

(b) (i)
5 10
log
M m d

;
= 1.03;
d = 10 10
1.03
;
= 108 pc 3
Accept answer based on substitution for d = 108.

(ii) L = 4d
2
b;
Sun
2
Sun
B
2
B
Sun
B
b d
b d
L
L

;
L
B
= [108 2.05]
2
10
10
7.00 10
12
L
Sun
;
= 3.43 10
3
L
Sun
3
Accept answer based on substitution L
B
= 3.43 L
Sun
.

(c) 3.4 10
3
=
5 . 3
Sun
B
1
]
1

M
M
;
M
B
=
5 . 3
1
3
] 10 4 . 3 [
M
Sum
; (allow other evidence of algebraic manipulation)
M
B
10 M
Sun
2

(d) Sun: white dwarf;
Becrux: neutron star black hole; 2

(e) (i) in the region [30 50, 2.5 5.0]; 1

(ii) line from B to region 5 2, 5 10:
Do not penalize for any line after read giant position.
IB Questionbank Physics 25
(f)
Cepheid as shown; 1
Judge by eye for reasonable range of magnitude and temperature.

(g) the outer layers undergo a periodic expansion and contraction/
periodic fluctuations in temperature; 1

(h) period/frequency with which luminosity varies;
apparent brightness / apparent magnitude; 2
[19]

38. (a) Newtons model assumed a uniform infinite (and static) universe;
therefore number of stars in shell is proportional to R
2
;
intensity of radiation/light from shell reaching Earth is proportional to
2
1
R
;
since according to Newtons model such shells stretch to infinity /
the sky can never be dark/will always be light / OWTTE; 4

(b) (i) the early universe/the universe immediately after the Big
Bang was very hot/at very high temperature;
radiation in the universe corresponded to the very high temperature;
as the universe expanded it cooled down and the
wavelength of the radiation increased / OWTTE; 3
IB Questionbank Physics 26
(ii) v =


c
;
= 0.083c or 2.5 10
7
m s
1
;
d =
0
H
v
;
= 340 Mpc; 4
[11]

39. (a) constellation: pattern of stars;
Candidates must indicate that stars are not close together.
stellar cluster: group of stars bound by gravitation / in same region of space; 2

(b)
;
0077 . 0
1
d
= 130 pc 1

(c) no atmospheric turbulence / irregular refraction; 1

(d) (i) red / red-orange; (not orange)
blue / blue-white / white; 2
(ii) Betelgeuse looks brighter; 1
(iii) L = 4bd
2
;
Rearrangement of formula on data sheet required.
d = 4.0 10
18
m;
L = 4 2.0 10
7
(4.0 10
18
)
2
;
L = 4.0 10
31
W; 4
(iv) L = 4 bd
2
luminosity of Rigel is about half that of Betelgeuse; (or ECF from (iii))
brightness of Rigel is about 0.1 times that of Betelgeuse;

'

ss) d brightne inosity an about lum statements


on from t conclusi consisten (must be a
distant; more is Rigel so
3
Do not allow mark for fallacious or no argument.
Award [1 max] for a mere statement that luminosity and brightness
are less so Rigel is more distant.
[14]
IB Questionbank Physics 27
40. (a) universe is infinite; 1

(b) number of stars in shell increases as R
2
;
intensity decreases as
;
1
2
R
brightness of shell is constant;
adding all shells to infinity;
sky would be as bright as Sun / uniformly bright; 5
Award [2 max] for argument based on any line of sight lands on a star.
[6]

41. (a) low mass stars will finish burning helium (into carbon and oxygen);
and collapse to a white dwarf; 2

(b) high mass stars will finish burning (silicon) to iron;
and collapse into a neutron star / black hole; 2
[4]

42. (a) wavelengths are shifted;
universe is expanding / galaxies receding / Doppler Shift; 2

(b) statement of Hubbles law (eg v = Hd) with symbols explained;
v obtained from spectral lines / Doppler Shift; 2

(c) the expansion of the universe is very small on local scales;
it would be impossible to distinguish between random velocities and expansion; 2
[6]
IB Questionbank Physics 28

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