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LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

LETTER WRITING You are Branch Manager of a Bank. Write a letter to Head office recommending installation of ATMs in your Office premises and also in the Extension counter in an Engineering college. Elaborate the progress your branch will be making on account of this move.

POPULAR BANK LTD VARANASI BRANCH Phone; 2465876 Date: 16.2.2013

To The General Manager Popular Bank Ltd, H.O. Mumbai

Thro The Regional Manager Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Dear Sir, Sub: Request for installation of ATMs in our office premises and Maharaja Engineering College, Varanasi premises *************** Our Branch has been making a lot of progress since 2012 April. The deposits of the branch as on 31st March 2012 was Rs.24 crore and advances was Rs.12 crore. The deposit position of the branch as on the last week Friday 15th February 2013 is given below: Total Deposits Rs. 26 crore (target for March 2013 Rs. 27 crore) Total advances - Rs. 14.5 crore (target for March 2013 Rs. 14 crore)

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

Many of our customers have expressed the need for having our bank's ATM in our office premises since it would facilitate their withdrawing cash any time they need. Similarly the professors, lecturers and students of Maharaja Engineering College, Varanasi where our branch extension counter is there, have also requested us to instal an ATM in their college premises. We also feel that establishing ATMs in these two places will improve customer service at our counter since people interested in drawing small amounts need not stand in the queue in our office and also extension counter. This will enable us to concentrate on improving our clientele base and further enhance our business position. There are four ATMs of other banks but our customers desire to use our ATMs for convenience and sentimental reasons also. Kindly issue orders for installation of ATMs as requested above. Yours faithfully,

(S.RAMAKANTH AGARWAL) BRANCH MANGER cc. to Regional Manager, Lucknow with a request to recommend the above to Head Office.

***************************** Letter to bank requesting extension of business hours


You are the Chairman of local Business Establishments Committee. Write a letter to the Manger of local Bank branch requesting that banks' working hours should be increased by one hour in the evening to facilitate depositing of cash by your members into their account. Give additional reasons justifying your request.

LEATHER EXPORTS PROMOTION COMMITTEE

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

25 BARRACKS ROAD CHENNAI 600003 Ref. Popularbank/5/2011 Date: 14th February 2013

The Manager Popular Bank Ltd Park Town, Chennai 600003 Dear Sir, Sub: Request for extension of business hours by one hour more per day ************** As you are aware many members of our Export Promotion committee maintain their current accounts with you for a long time. Our committee has also opened its current account with you in the first week of April 2012. The service rendered by your staff members is very good. However we find that your branch functions from 10.00 am to 2.00 pm and 2.30 to 3.30 pm only. Many of our members collect cash from their buyers and return to their shops only by 3.30 pm and hence are not able to remit that day's collection into their bank account immediately. They are forced to retain the collections overnight in their office posing risk of robbery and allied problems. Many customers have requested to take up with you so that you bank branch functions for one more hour every day i.e. 10.00 am to 2.00 pm and 2.30 pm to 4.30 pm. Correspondingly one hour more service can be extended on saturdays aslo. In case this request is accepted it will not only help your existing customers. Many of our members who do not have their accounts with you will also be opening their accounts and your business position will improve considerably. We are sure that your bank management will consider our request favourably. Thanking you, Yours faithfully,

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

(Altaf Hussain) Secretary

Format for letter writing - Customer to Bank


Write a letter to the Bank Manager seeking time for payment of EMI. From Ramesh Ramamurthy No.10 Bazullah Road Shenoy Nagar Chennai 600084` Date: 16.2.2013

To The Manager State Bank of India Shenoy Nagar Chennai Dear Sir, Sub: My Education Loan A/c No. SHN/23456/2007-- EMI repayment **** I availed Education Loan of Rs.6 lakhs in the year 2007 from your branch for study in SMR University. I completed my B.Tech degree in March 2012. I attended campus recruitment tests conducted at the University. But I could not get placed since I had lesser percentage of marks than they insisted upon. After completing the degree I am applying to various software companies for recruitment and am hopeful of getting employed shortly. In the meantime I have received your letter dated 1st February 2013 asking me to pay EMI. My father has retired from government service two years ago and we are living on his monthly pension. My mother is home maker. Under the circumstances, I am unable to repay the EMI as per schedule. Kindly grant me holiday for further six months period.

I am hopeful of getting employed in a software company or in a nationalised bank by that time and I will commence paying my EMI of Rs 9000/ p.m. from May 2013. I am sure you will consider my request favourably.

Thanking you,

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Yours faithfully,

(RAMESH RAMAMURTHY)

Formats for letters -- Customers to Bank


Write a letter to the Bank explaining delay in payment of EMI. First let me write a letter as if written by a company to the Bank.

R.S. Enterprises (Dealers in Televisions, washing machines, music systems, home theatres...) 15 North Usman Road T.Nagar Chennai 600017 Ref. IB/Term loan/1/2011 To The Manager Fifth Third Bank North Usman Road branch Chennai 600017 Dear Sir, Sub: Our Term Loan account -- Request for EMI postponement ***** We would like to thank your Bank management for having sanctioned us term loan of Rs. 200 lakhs, using which we were able to decorate our show room and provide AC and other facilities. We availed the term loan on 16th August 2012 and started the work in right earnest. However on account of delay in execution of work at different levels the full decoration of the shop could not be completed. In spite of that we commenced our sales show room on 15th January 2013 and are receiving good number of enquiries. As you are aware there is a lot of competition faced by us from other leading companies like Vivek & Co, Vasanth & Co, Shah & co etc. and we are employing MBA graduates as Sales Marketing personnel to push up our sales. Our team is visiting different business establishments, offices and is canvassing for more sales of television, home theatres, music systems etc. We are hopeful of improved sales in the next few months -- say by July 2013. Date: 16 th February 2013

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

We were given a holiday of 6 months for payment of EMI (Equated Monthly Instalments) of Rs.5 lakhs. Our first EMI will have to be paid by 16th Febryary 2013. Since the complete decoration work could not be completed on time and sales having not picked up well as per our estimates, we are unable to pay our EMI from February 2013 . We request you to give us a further holiday of six months and we shall commence remitting our EMI starting from August 2013. We have been paying the interest on loan debited in our account regularly by debit to our cash credit account. In view of the reasons explained above, we are sure you will consider our request for postponement for payment of EMI to August 2013. Thanking you, Yours faithfully

(General Manager(Finance)

cc.to H.O.Fifth Third Bank, Anna Salai, Chennai 600002

Letter Writing

You are director of a small limited company engaged in construction business. Please write a letter to your Bank requesting for credit facilities for expanding business. (SBI Associates PO August 7, 2011 exam.)

LETTER PAD -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Telephone:0427 2552322 6

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

cell:09840098400

KUMARESH CONSTRUCTIONS 25, KOTTAI MARI AMMAN KOVIL STREET SALEM, 6360001

Ref. Philbank/234/2011 2013 The Manager Phil .. Bank Arunachalam Street Salem Dear Sir,

Date:

February 16,

Sub: Request for Secured Overdraft limit of Rs. One crore ************** We have our current account in your bank for the last five years. We are engaged in construction business and are having a turn over of over Rs.ten crore in our account during the last financial year. Ours is a private limited company incorporated in 2007. We are constructing small houses costing around Rs. 30 lakhs each and are selling to government employees, public sector employees. We have taken up a project near Attayampatti. We have entered into agreement with the owners of the land for offering the site to us for construction of houses to be sold to others and to pay them amounts as and when the proposed houses are sold. We are enclosing the following documents: 1. Company's Balance sheet for the year ending March 2010, March 2011 and March 2012. 2. Income Tax assessment orders for the year ending March 2009, March 2010 and March 2011. Assessment for the year ending March 2012 is awaited. 3. Project report giving details of projects completed by us so far and details of 7

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS this project. 4. Consent letter from Mr. Venkatarma Gounder to offer pesonal guarantee 5. Details of house property at 7, Vaidyanathan Street, Saradha Nagar, Salem valued at Rs.3 crore for offering as security. 6. As stated above we are offering property worth Rs.3 crore as security for the above overdraft and we request you to sanction the limit to us early. We hope this project to be completed in 2/3 years from date. We are sure you will consider our application favourably and accord sanction early. Thanking you, Yours faithfully (Gangadharan K.) Director

PRECIS WRITING

Passage--ONE
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LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

These are two considerations which deserve at least a word in any discussion of the future of the Indian theatre. The first is the rapid development of the cinema as a competitive for prophesied favor. At first, in the early flush of cinematic triumph peoplesome of whom might have been expected to , know betterprophesies the extinction of the theatre. It is now clear that though here and there, temporarily, the theatre may be affected, the cinema can not hope to replace the stage and elbow it out of existence. Experience in the West has shown that the stage will always be required as a federal studio. For the technique is different and great stage actors have, always, to their disgust, discovered that film acting is at least only second best to them; it cannot mean to them what the stage means. Something is lacking in the human touch. In the theatre heart responds to heart and mind acts on mind in a way unknown to the cinema. Thus there is no danger of extinction to the theatre. On the other hand, the rivalry of the screen ought to and will put theatre to a new test and give it a new stimulus that may well lead to still higher planes of artistic achievement. Finally, a word about a national language spoken, written and thought might do for the theatre in India. With the new awakening in social life the need of a common tongue is being increasingly felt. Much work is being done to bring out a common linguistic medium. The day when, it is accepted will be a great day for the Indian theatre, as it will be for all art in the country. But the theatre, because its life blood is spoken word, will gain most. With a common tongue, with a live national consciousness, the theatre will become to its own as definite instrument of national unity reflecting the national mind, interpreting the national heart and dreaming national dreams for the future. Precis SummaryPASSAGE ONE Future of Cinema Two things are to be considered when we think of the future of the Indian theatre. The first is the rivalry of cinema. At one time it was thought that the cinema might oust theatre. But now it is admired that the stage must always be there as a feeder for the studio. Besides the great stage actors do not like the inhuman techniques adopted by the cinema. On the other hand, its challenge might make the theatre rise even to greater heights. Secondly, the adoption of a language may do much for the Indian theatre. Such a language is being formed. When adopted, it will enable the stage to keep the cause of national unity by dramatizing the national consciousness.

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PASSAGE TWO
Relationship with neighbours

LETTER WRITING AND PRECIS

When I think about my childhood years, my first friends come to my mind, those who were the first people besides my family I got to know, who become my friends and grew up with me. Most of them were classmates, relatives and of course, neighbors. Neighbors are those people who share the street, block and fences with us. Their existence has always been taken for granted, and they havent been given the importance or attention that they deserve For some people, neighbors can mean troublesome or annoyance. For others, neighbours are considered as relatives, and they enjoy having a good and close relationship with their neighbors. Of course, the options depend on personality of individuals, culture, and type of housing (housing or apartments), place (a bid city, a small town, or the country) among others. But both points of view may come to an agreement when determining what makes a good neighbor? In the first place, a good neighbor should be considerate. Knowing that you should treat others the way you expect to be treated is a quality that makes people respect boundaries (physical, social and emotional). For instance, a neighbor who can tell when the noise of his stereo makes may bother the people next door, and is able to turn is down taking into consideration of his neighbors needs. In the second place, being sympathetic is another characteristics than a neighbor should have. Putting yourself in someone elses shoes makes you understand better the feelings of somebody who is in trouble, and consequently, offer appropriate help. An example could be a situation where you known that you neighbor divorced recently and is going through a hard time. Maybe you will be more understanding when you see her in a bad mood, and avoid unnecessary conflicts, because you can see the way she feels. Finally, good manners and a polite way to address your neighbors can polish even the toughest relationship. When a neighbor is rude, even if we excuse him or her by saying thats the way he/she is, we feel a little rejected. A nice smile of a hello helps a lot to start a friendly conversation, and to avoid misunderstanding such as He never speaks to me, so he must be mad at me or something. Manners do help to start friendships. There are so many more characteristics that we could list, and there are many ways we could make a more accurate picture of the perfect neighbor we all want to have. But I guess the best way to edify our neighbors is by being good neighbors ourselves. We cannot demand others to do something for us that we cannot offer to do for them. We should stop complaining about what our neighbor always does that bothers us; wed better start analyzing what we are doing to make the relationships with the people next door flourish. Let us start setting an example to others. Precis summary PASSAGE TWO Neigbours occupy an important role in our day to day life. When I think of my childhood I remember about the good neighbours I had. For some neighbours may be troublesome and annoying. We should conduct ourselves in such a way as we expect from our neighbours. We must be more understanding and sympathetic towards all people especially neighbours.

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A good manner and a polite way of addressing our neighbours may strengthen the relationship with them. A nice smile and a hello will do wonders. We should stop complaining about our neigbours. We must behave in such a way we set an example to our neighbours as to the way they have to conduct. *********************

PASSAGE THREE

Response of the Urdu press to Parliament attack convict Afzal Guru's hanging outside Jammu and Kashmir seems less uniform with some newspapers advocating a tough line on terrorism even as many saw a political motive, an official report said. Comment in Urdu newspapers in J&K monitored by government agencies showed near unanimity in reading the hanging as evidence of the central government's insensitivity towards Kashmir while newspapers in major cities outside the state offered a more nuanced take. A sampling from newspapers in Mumbai indicated that while some felt Guru was not given a fair trial, others pointed out that the death sentence was upheld by three courts. Another newspaper noted that the unity of the country was paramount but added that leaders like Narendra Modi were a divisive force. In Delhi, some newspapers said criticism of the government did not address the nature of the crime and instead concentrated on procedural matters like whether the family was informed. It was to be seen if other pending cases were dealt with as strictly, they added. On the other hand, one Delhi newspaper saw the sudden hanging of Guru as a move to shield Congress from BJP's attack on home minister Sushilkumar Shinde for his remarks on saffron terror and the role of the main opposition's training camps. Unless Congress showed the same resolve with regard to cases of the killers of the late Rajiv Gandhi and Beant Singh, the party will stand accused of opportunism. The comment can reflect the editorial orientation of the publication, but some of the argument was fairly unexceptional with one newspaper noting that merely hanging convicts will not result in electoral gains for which Congress needs to convince public opinion that its response to terrorism is consistent. Some Lucknow papers felt Guru's role as a key conspirator was a serious crime deserving severe punishment while Urdu publications from Hyderabad felt the political motives behind the hanging would confuse public opinion. The decision, some felt, would lead to a deterioration in the situation in J&K.

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Some other Hyderabad papers commented that the hanging was intended to appease Hindu opinion in the wake of Shinde's "factual statement". A Kolkata newspaper offered a sharp critique of Modi's "better late than never" statement, saying maybe one day, the same would be said for him if the leader is sent to jail. PRECIS SUMMARY PASSAGE THREE
Response of Press to hanging of Afzal Guru The reaction of newspapers from different parts of India reveals a lot of difference in the manner in which the hanging of Mr. Afzal Guru, the convict in Indian Parliament attack case. The newspapers form Jammu and Kashmir have opined tthat this hanging is an insensitivity of Centre towards Kashmir and welfare of people of Kashmir. A newspaper from Mumbai revealed that unity of the country was of paramount importance. In Delhi some newspapers concentrated on procedural matters relating to hanging and informing the family of Afzal Guru before hanging. One newspaper from Delhi saw this as a move to protect congress from the attack of BJP over the remarks made by Union Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde. One newspaper has commented that merely hanging convicts will not result in electoral gains for Congress. A newspaper from Lucknow felt that this hanging would result in deterioration of law and order in Jammu and Kashmir. Another newspaper from Hyderabad commented that this move is to appease the Hindu opinion in the wake of Shindes factual statement. ******************************* PASSAGE FOUR
Working overseas is always a challenge for any professional and if you are an Indian, always strive to give your best as Indians have always been considered intelligent, hardworking, talented and spiritual. Indians have always excelled in a competitive working environment and working overseas was something many Indians desired but few achieved till the information technology boom opened several white-collar job opportunities for them in global markets. However, securing employment abroad may be an achievement but retaining it, is quite a challenge as a professional required constant demonstration of professionalism and exacting standards of competence. Then, there is this challenge of working in an alien environment coupled with numerous other variables like culture, people, work ethics, local regulations that one is expected to cope up with to be successful on the job. Change, thus, becomes inevitable as one moves into a new work environment and the best way to tackle change is to be prepared for it, and adapt to it rapidly. Let us dwell on some key factors that could be useful when adapting to a foreign environment. Each country is a mix of cultural and social influences that make it unique. Religious belief, way of speaking and behaviour, customs and traditions would all come across as very different. Also, home sickness and loneliness, all aspects of life and livelihood appear confusing, alien and difficult to comprehend. Privacy is highly valued in most countries which tends to translate into loneliness for most

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expatriates. One should experience the new culture and try different forms of entertainment and make friends among people coming from different cultural back-grounds. When you start work it is a good idea to be observant. Absorb as much as you can about systems in the organisation and adjust accordingly. Must you speak the language of the country you are in? Yes, you should be at least conversational. Coworkers want to speak their own language and will not be entirely comfortable if they cannot understand you. Even within the same language English, pronunciation can be a problem. Westerners are particular about time so always make sure that you stick to time for meetings, attending offices and even social gatherings. Superiors at work and seniors are addressed by their first name. 'Sir' and 'Madam' are not much in vogue. Mix with a wide variety of people. Respect others' cultural background and keep clear of racist or sexist remarks and beliefs. Adapt to the local culture and traditions and be aware of the local favourites-they are good social conversation breakers.

PRECIS -- PASSAGE FOUR HOW INDIANS CAN BE SUCCESSFUL IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY Indians have excelled in their field of work always. With the advent of Information Technology many Indians secure employment overseas. Change is inevitable. Work culture differs. Each country is a mix of cultural and social influences. On migration one has to learn to adjust with the religious beliefs, speaking and behavior pattern of the respective country and manage suitably. Those who go abroad may be affected by home-sickness and loneliness. In many western countries people expect more privacy and that is the reason why immigrants may find it difficult to spend time. One has to observe and absorb as much as he can about systems in the organization and adjust accordingly. Also one must be speak the language of the country, one is in. Pronunciation can be a problem. Westerners are particular about punctuality and the immigrant must make sure to stick to time for the meeting and attending offices and even social gatherings. One must adapt to local culture and traditions. ********************** PASSAGE FIVE
Ever since the State and Central elections were separated/delinked (most probably in 1971), either by design or default, good governance has become a secondary priority to winning elections by all means. Even when the situation, especially the worsening economic scene, demands some stern measures to ebb the rot, the powers that be have invariably adopted the path of least risk and thus allowed the slide to become a norm, rather than a nagging nudge. If some right thinking people strongly feel that in future both State and Central elections should be held together, they have nothing but the good of the country at heart. Over the years, it has been seen that almost every year has become an election year. For fear of earning the wrath of the people, policy-makers have resorted to populism with abandon and, thus, given a good-bye to good governance. Instead, what we have got in the name of elections or democracy are some goodie-goodie gestures or freebies resulting in mounting budgetary-deficit and subsidies. For fear

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of facing the electorate in some State/States every year, ruling parties go in for soft options, with the result that the politico-economic health of the country has suffered an irreparable damage. Those who are opposed to the proposition argue that periodic/yearly elections to some State Assemblies keep the Central government on its toes, which is very desirable for democracy. Those who are opposed to the present situation opine and with justification too that today every Central government faces a referendum every year on its survival. As a result, the Central authority has nearly collapsed in India. The reason why the very political fabric of the country now stands endangered is, therefore, the same as the reason why the economy is paralysed and heading for a crisis. The only way open to Parliament to restore the authority of the Centre is to pass a constitutional amendment that links Central and State elections. Besides, the anti-defection law needs more teeth and plugging to enable it to render defections for personal gains a near impossibility. It is also due to frequent defections that instability sets in and a government fall before completing full term. If the threat of elections, whether mid-term or regular, continues, no long-term policies can be drawn by the Central government for fear of displeasing the voters of a State/States going to the polls. The crying need of the hour is that all political parties should rise above their partisan interests and seriously ponder over the usefulness of the proposition, in the national interest. Once the linkage is done, a lot of money and material resources would also be saved. PRECISPASSAGE FIVE Indian Elections Elections to State Assemblies and Central government are conducted separately making elections an yearly affair. This results in governments not being able to adopt firm policies. State governments offer freebies. Policy makers have resorted to populism. For the fear of facing elections in different States , Central government also adopts lenient policies. As a result, the Central authority has nearly collapsed in India. On account of this the economy is paralysed and heading for a crisis. The only way open to Parliament to restore the authority of the Centre is to pass a constitutional amendment that links Central and State elections. Anti-defections law needs revision. The crying need of the house is that all political parties should ponder over the usefulness of the proposition in the national interest. Once elections to state and Central governments are held simultaneously a lot of money and material resources would also be saved. *************************************** PASSAGE SIX

Pope Benedict XVI, assessed within and without the Catholic Church as an arch conservative, has taken the most radical step, unprecedented since the year 1415, by resigning the papacy. In that year, almost 600 years ago, Pope Gregory XII renounced the papacy amidst a hurricane of European political intrigue. No such political intrigue besets the resignation of Benedict XVI. On the Catholic feast day of Our Lady of Lourdes, he announced that he was standing down because he felt that at the age of 85 with failing physical strength, energy and stamina, he could not fulfil the role required of a head of the Catholic Church and would fail its 1.3 billion adherents as the Vicar of Christ. Nothing becomes Benedict's office as his leaving of it. From within the Catholic Church the voices of criticism are raised. He was too conservative in his doctrines. His approach to homosexuality, to gay

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marriage, which was being legitimised by several western states, and to the ordination of women which the Protestant churches had partially adopted was orthodox and out of step with the modern world. He failed to put forward any strategy to combat the severely falling numbers in the worldwide communion. Most telling of all, he was attacked from within and without the Church for not addressing vigorously the issue of paedophile priests who had sexually abused children by taking advantage of their ecumenical position. The debate about this last accusation still rages, even within the Catholic communion. Some accuse Pope Benedict of turning a blind eye to widespread allegations of child abuse by the clergy when he was a cardinal and the Vatican's appointed official guardian from 1981 of the ethical behaviour of the clergy. His accusers say he excused provenly deviant priests on the grounds of age, infirmity and the long lapse of time since the offence. His supporters point to the fact that he has taken strong action on the issue since becoming Pope. At the end of February, Benedict XVI will revert to being Cardinal Ratzinger of Germany. A Catholic friend sees his resignation as a setback for the faith and the Church and anticipates devils emerging from the deep to fabricate fanciful and damaging allegations for his resignation. I tell her I disagree. As a deeply sceptical cultural, non-ritualistic Zoroastrian, I see Benedict's resignation of the papacy, considered with his proffered rationale, as strengthening the Catholic Church. After Zoroastrianism, the first monotheistic religion, Christianity, was and remains the only other to have a nominated and anointed hierarchical priesthood. Judaism has the learned guides, the Rabbis, Sunni Islam has mullahs with no anointed status, Shia Islam retains the remnant of the Zoroastrian Dastur class as Ayatollahs and the atheistic religions such as Buddhism and the various forms of polytheistic Hinduism have monks, ascetics, teachers, preachers and impostors, but no single hierarchical structure of clergy. Catholicism and its offshoots, the Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox and Protestant churches, all have hierarchical priestly structures. PRECIS PASSAGE SIX Pope leaving office early Pope Benedict XVI has announced his leaving his office as at the end of February 2013. He cites his old age and ill health as the reasons. He has stated that he is not able to fulfill the role required as head of Catholic Church. This is considered as a radical step unprecedented since the year 1415, by resigning the papacy. He was too conservative in his doctrines. His approach to homosexuality, to gay marriage is legitimized by many western countries. He failed to put forward the strategy to combat the severely falling numbers in world- wide communion. There is criticism of this move from within and without the Catholic Church. Some accuse of his turning a blind eye to the widespread allegations of child abuse by the clergy, when he was a cardinal and the Vaticans appointed official guardian from 1981 of the ethical behaviour of the clergy. His accusers say he excused provenly deviant priests on the grounds of age, infirmity and the long lapse of time since the offence. A Catholic friend sees his resignation as a setback for the faith and the Church. I disagree with her.

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I see Benedict's resignation of the papacy, considered with his proffered rationale, as strengthening the Catholic Church. Catholicism and its offshoots, the Russian orthodox, Greek Orthodox have hierarchical priestly structures. Many other religions do not have such hierarchical structure.

PASSAGE SEVEN Nearly Seventy per cent of Indians live in villages. The backwardness of Indian villages means, therefore, the backwardness of India itself. Village uplift is a Himalayan task. The problem has been made more difficult and complicated by the uncontrolled increase of population. There is too much pressure on land. Backwardness of Indian villages means absence of education and economic well-being. Every village should be connected with the other villages and larger towns and cities by metalled roads. Most villages are so far away from markets that village trade has become almost impossible. Given roads and quick and cheap communication, our villages can grow money crops and also sell other products many miles away. Electricity, cheap and abundant, will enable our villagers to run power-driven cottage industries. We are very poor in power economy cattle dung is used up as fuel. If in every village cooking was done in every cottage by gas and electricity, cowdung could be in every cottage by gas and electricity, cowdung could be used as manure and per acre production of crop could go up. There should be a network of canals all over India. Flood control and river valley projects, and also the supply of cheap artificial manure, would be instrumental in removing the backwardness of Indian villages. Poultry-keeping, cattle-breeding on sound scientific lines, bee-keeping, fish culture, fruit orchards, and the destruction of pests could do a lot in removing the backwardness of Indian villages. Every village should have a school and a playground, a library and a reading room. Also, there should be one hospital for every three or four villages. Family planning and population control are necessary conditions for removing the backwardness of Indian villages. Co-operative farming has not made much headway. Then, there is over-fragmentation of land. There is an alarming amount of wasteful and expensive litigation. Crime is also on the increase. May our people and our Government succeed in the years to come in tackling the Himalayan task of the removal of the backwardness of Indian villages.

PRECIS PASSAGE SEVEN BACKWARDNESS OF INDIAN VILLAGES Nearly seventy percent of Indians live in villages in India. There is pressure on land and backwardness of village is mainly due to absence of education and economic well-being. If villages are connected by good road that will offer cheap communication and our villages can grow money crops and also sell their products many miles away. Cowdung could be used as manure and per acre production of crop could go up. Irrigation facilities should be improved by providing a network of canals. Also flood control should be given important. Poultry keeping, cattle-breeding , bee keeping, fish culture, fruit orchards should be done on sound scientific lines. Every village should have a school with a playground and library with a reading room. Hospital facilities should be provided at easy reach to all villages. Over fragmentation of land should be avoided. Police should monitor such that crime activities do not rise.

PASSAGE EIGHT Mountains, rivers and oceans form a combined trinity and unity. Rivers take their rise in mountains as a result of the melting of ice. And every rivers final home is the sea. Rivers are natures blessed gift to the

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earth. They are a symbol of the river of life. They represent the flux and flow of the living world. When I think of the rivers of our country it seems as if mother India has unfastened the huge knot of her hair and her locks fell about her in flowing, rippling tresses. Civilization had its birth and grew on the banks of the rivers. Even today most of the great cities are situated on or near river banks. Most of the smaller cities and towns have a river running nearby. What so? Because wells and tube-wells or canals came later and water for irrigation and a thousand other purposes could only be supplied by rivers to millions of people. Secondly, movement of men and merchandise on small and big boats was easier, swifter and cheaper by rivers than by land. The rivers and river banks became cradles of civilization. Try to imagine the earth without rivers. Your consciousness will feel a sense of check as if the flow of life had suddenly come to a stop. Human imagination has pictured rivers flowing in heaven. The galaxy of stars known as the milky way is beautifully called in our language as Akash Ganga. The music born of the murmuring sound of water carriers with it, as it were, in a secret language, the message of life. It is natures jal-tarang. Life on this planet originated in water when, as the scriptures say, the spirit of God moved on the waters. The legend of the tortoise-god and the fish-god, Kachh and Machhavatars point to the rise of life from water. Fishes of many varieties, snipes, wild ducks and geese, other water fowls, turtles, crabs, lobsters and oysters supply considerable amount of food and nourishment to millions of people. In France and some other countries frogs and considered a table delicacy. The crocodile has its home in rivers. Extremely beautiful and durable articles are made of crocodile leather. Even the sand on river banks has it uses. And a panda (priest) makes money out of religious-minded bathers. There is also vegetation in the rivers which supplement the fodder needed for our cattle. River bathing, swimming and boat-races have their own charms and excitements. In Budhwa Mangal is celebrated on boats. Rivers have become parts of our life and habits. India has the distinction of paying its tributes to rivers in the form of its world famous bathing festivals at which we feel that rivers and float earthen lamps life so many flaming boats on the rippling currents of rivers. The music born of the murmuring sound of flowing rivers is supplemented with the pictures of houses, temples of houses, trees the sky, the flying birds, the sun, the moon and the stars mirrored in the crystalline stream of rivers. Rivers are wonderful photographs. But God help us when rivers are angry. Storms and floods strike terror in every heart and take a big toll of life and property. Rivers create in everyone of us a sense of mystery. They attract us, the children of the earth, as a mothers lap. The very sight of a river has a soothing and a tranquilizing effect. Some of the greatest secrets and truths of life were discovered by our sage and seers meditating on river banks. Rivers have a purifying and sanctifying effect on all of us. What beautiful names have men in all climes given to rivers. Ganga, Yamuna, Sutlaj, Jhelum, Ghagra or Saryu, Brahmaputra, Godawari in India and Neel (The Nile), the Mississippi, the Danube, the Thames, Dajla and Faraat in other lands. We pronounce these names affectionately. The very names are music to the ear. They seem to be echoes of eternity. Every river can claim with Tennysons Brook. For men may come and men may go, But I go on for ever. In water and from water was all life born. And the Hindus complete the last lap of their journey on the earth on funeral pyres on the burning ghat of rivers. From the mothers lap to the mothers lap. PRECIS -- PASSAGE EIGHT RIVERS

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Rivers take their rise from the mountains and end in seas. Rivers are natures blessed gift of God. Human civilization started on the banks of rivers. Even today many great cities are situated on the banks of rivers. Movement of men and good was done through boats on rivers. Rivers also formed residing place for fish, crocodiles, turtles, crabs etc. Rivers not only helped irrigation for cultivation of crops but also fish and other animals which served as food for human beings. Rivers have become parts of our life and habits. India has the distinction of paying its tributes to rivers in the form of its world famous bathing festivals at which we feel that rivers and float earthen lamps life so many flaming boats on the rippling currents of rivers. Rivers have purifying and sanctifying effect. Hindus complete the last lap of their journey on the earth on funeral pyres on the burning ghat of rivers.

PASSAGE NINE Wars break out not as a result of a single cause but as a result of a combination of causes. World peace also depends on a combination of factors. Scientific advancement could not prevent the first world war. More scientific advancement could not prevent the second world war. The development of nuclear weapons has created an altogether new situation. A nuclear war will mean the destruction or the near destruction of all countries and all continents. America and Russia possess enough nuclear weapons to destroy the whole world many times over. England and France also have atomic bombs. China and some other powers are not far behind to produce their own atomic bombs. The world situation has become extremely explosive. If the third great world war breaks out there will be no victory for any power. It will not be a war between governments or between armies only. It will be total war. It will be a universal blood bath. The human race, nay, civilization itself, will be wiped out. Atomic weapons being the deadliest imaginable weapons are, therefore, the greatest deterrent to war and a guarantee of world peace. Nothing short of madness can lead the nations of today to a nuclear war. What about wars with conventional weapons? Even after the invention of atom bombs and hydrogen bomb, wars with conventional weapons have been taking place, though not on a world-wide scale. The Vietnam War, limited wars in the Middle East and in other pacific regions and elsewhere are examples. We are lucky that the fire of these wars did not become a world conflagration. The world must preserve peace or perish. Today humanity is on the crossroads. The choice is not between victory and defeat but between death and survival. If governments and people all over the world become conscious of war danger it is likely that war mentality will give place to a peace mentality. A modern world war will solve no problem and will do nobody and gouman od. Science has created this dramatic situation which unique to history. It is not scientists that wage wars. The common people also do not wage wars. It is the rulers of countries that wage wars. It is up to them to maintain world peace. Science is knowledge. But the world can be saved not by knowledge only but by knowledge and wisdom together. PRECIS PASSAGE NINE SCIENCE AND WORLD PEACE The development of science has created a situation where if there is a war it will result near destruction of all the countries in the world. Russia , USA, China, England and France possess atomic weapons which when used would result in destruction of cities, towns and nearly humanity. If a third world war takes place it will be a blood bath. The human race will be wiped out. Atomic weapons being the deadliest imaginable weapons are, therefore, the greatest deterrent to war and a guarantee of world peace. Nothing short of madness can lead the nations of today to a nuclear war. The world must preserve peace or perish. Today humanity is on the crossroads. The choice is not between victory and defeat but

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between death and survival. The common people also do not wage wars. It is the rulers of countries that wage wars. It is up to them to maintain world peace. Science is knowledge. But the world can be saved not by knowledge only but by knowledge and wisdom together.

PASSAGE TEN Success in life requires not only fine qualities but also suitable conditions. Every child should have sensible parents and a good home life. These will help a boy or a girl to grow in a healthy manner. Education and training are also necessary conditions for success in life. The social environment also plays an important part in the making of life. Home and society help everyone in making life successful. But this help should enable everyone to learn the secret and the art of self-help. Every man should make himself useful and serviceable to society in as many ways as possible. And every woman should do likewise. Work is the secret of success and happiness. We are all storehouses of energy. Every man or every woman is a power house. When energy finds play in good work, joy and success come to life. Another quality for success in life is tact. Man is a social animal. We should learn to understand the character and temperament of those with whom we have dealings. Common sense is, alas, not so common as we fondly believe or desire it to be. But without common sense and tact life cannot be successful. Life is not a bed of roses. Difficulties and disappointments are a common feature in the life of even the most successful people. We should have a sense of compromise. We should learn to bear sorrow and failure. We should not be panicky. One writer says that we should learn to suffer as fools. Toleration is also needed for success in life. Moderation, toleration, tack and liveliness contribute to success in life. We should also cultivate the art of cheerfulness. Sometimes it our duty to be cheerful even in depressing circumstances. From the material point of view several things are considered important for success in life. But man shall not live by bread alone. Unless our emotions are enriched and our imagination finds full play, our life cannot be successful. Pursuit of one or more of the fine arts, literates, music, painting, etc. is also a necessary condition for attainment of successful life. PRECIS PASSAGE TEN HOW TO SUCCEED IN LIFE Every child should have sensible parents. The social environment also plays an important role in the upbringing of a child. Every man and woman should make himself/herself useful to the society. Work is the secret of success and happiness. We should understand the temperament of people with whom we are dealing. Without common sense and tact life cannot be successful. Life is not a bed of roses. It calls for a lot of compromises. We should learn to bear sorrow and failure. We should not be panicky. A writer says we should learn to suffer as fools emphasizing that no one can escape from the sufferings of life. Pursuit of one or more of the fine arts, literates, music, painting, etc. is also a necessary condition for attainment of successful life. Man should not live on bread alone and material point of view alone is not important for ensuring success in life. ******************************

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