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Debate is contention in argument; dispute, controversy; discussion; especially the discussion of questions [1] of public interest in Parliament or in any

assembly. Debate is a method of interactive and representational argument. Debate is a broader form of argument than deductive reasoning, which only examines whether a conclusion is a consequence of premises, and factual argument, which only examines what is or isn't the case, or rhetoric, which is a technique of persuasion. Though logical consistency, factual accuracy and some degree of emotional appeal to the audience are important elements of the art of persuasion, in debating, one side often prevails over the other side by presenting a superior "context" and/or framework of the issue, which is far more subtle and strategic. The outcome of a debate depends upon consensus or some formal way of reaching a resolution, rather than the objective facts as such. In a formal debating contest, there are rules for participants to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact. Debating is commonly carried out in many assemblies of various types to discuss matters and to make resolutions about action to be taken, often by a vote. Deliberative bodies such as parliaments, legislative assemblies, and meetings of all sorts engage in debates. In particular, in parliamentary democracies a legislature debates and decides on new laws. Formal debates between candidates for elected office, such as the leaders debates and the U.S. presidential election debates, are sometimes held in democracies. Debating is also carried out for educational and recreational purposes, usually associated with educational establishments. The major goal of the study of debate as a method or art is to develop the ability to debate rationally from either position with equal ease. Although informal debate is common the quality and depth of a debate improves with knowledge and skill of its participants as debaters. The outcome of a contest may be decided by audience vote, by judges, or by some combination of the two.

Debate is extremely important to our survival as a civilized world. Talking about issues and trying to figure out how to solve them, not only makes the World go round, make people smarter(reading, writing and researching are its core parts), and makes it easier for us to handle issues when they arise, but it has also been used for millennia as a way of passing on and changing cultural norms, laws and even mindsets. So even if YOU aren't a debater,(though most of the highly influential people in our universe, are or have been), it is very important that debates happen in many different settings. My personal experience has been how having policy debate in urban cities across the Nation have finally given bright students the tools they need to be more successful, I was a debater in high school with a full ride debate scholarship to a prestigious four year university and am now a middle school teacher, debate coach and entrepreneur. I am not saying that all of this wouldn't have happened without debate, but it definitely made it easier...like the motto from the debate camp, I attended every summer in high school.." Life is hard, it's harder when your stupid"..don't be stupid, debate....and if my answer isn't enough, I decided to ask the students at the 2010 B'MORE Summer DB8 camp, why they thought debate was important, here's what they had to say: "It teaches you critical thinking skills. It opens you up to different aspects of the world." ~Corey Lacey "Debate teaches you how to think outside of the box, and how to stand up for yourself without

resorting to violence. It also improves your speaking skills, helps you get along with your friends better and you meet smart like-minded people like yourself. It builds leaders that will make these decisions."Takia Wicks "With debate, I can express my opinion, meet new people, but the most important reason, I think its important because I can prove people wrong with the power to back it up using only my words. That's power..." ~Phil Allen, Rising 9th grade debater "I use debate as a tool to fight the stereotypical views of African American males..." ~ Khalil, Rising 9th grade debater "Debate builds a strong mind." ~Matheno Frazier-Bey, Camp Staff, Towson University debater "Inherently it's not and historically has caused more harm than good. But this community {Balitmore urban community} is looking for change. It wants to be able to use debate as a tool for liberating the people of this community not dominating them. Debate has really become a tool of change, and it that case, is extremely important. ~Spilly, Camp Staff, Hoop Revolution creator " Debate is the best hope for saving ourselves." ~ Chris Baron, Camp Director Whether or not , you agree with these statements, think their staged or just think they are wrong, my only advice would be to try it. Debate someone in your neighbor about an issue that the community can solve and develop solution, then act them out...the conversation is only the beginning...debate is an important tool for activism and that's why it's important to me

Student Debate Rules and Procedures

Team Members Any student wishing to participate in the debates is eligible to do so as long as he/she is in an entomology degree program (B.S., M.S., or Ph.D.). He/she will need to form a team (including a faculty adviser) and contact the Student Affairs Chair as soon as the invitation for debates is out. Debates While the actual debates take place during the ESA Annual meeting, teams are involved in the preparation for these debates for more than eight months leading up to the Annual Meeting. The debate topics and positions are randomly assigned by the Student Affairs Committee. Debate Procedures Total time for each debate will be approximately 45 minutes. 1. For each topic, there will be a five-minute unbiased introduction. This neutral introduction will be assigned to someone other than the two teams in a particular debate. 2. Following the unbiased introduction, there will be a seven-minute statement by the first team outlining their plan to implement the given topic. Only during this seven minute presentations are

teams allowed to use Powerpoint slides. The PPT slides can contain text and only two colors (including background and text). 3. This will be followed by a three-minute cross-examination by the second team. This is an opportunity for the second team to clarify points made by the first team. This time is only for clarification, not for the actual debate. 4. The Second team then gives their seven-minute statement. Ideally, they will anticipate some of what the first team has to say and will have enough data researched to be able to show the flaws and problems with the first team's plan. The second team usually does not present an alternative plan, as the status quo is often the alternative. 5. The first team will then have an opportunity for a three-minute cross examination of the second team's argument. This time is also only for clarification. 6. Two-minute second team rebuttal 7. Two-minute first team rebuttal 8. Two-minute second team rebuttal 9. Two-minute first team rebuttal 10. Questions from the judges and the audience (10 minutes) A panel of judges will evaluate each teams argument independently and choose a winner. A draft summary of each team's position (600 words maximum), restrained to only 15 of their references, must be submitted to the Student Affairs Committee Chair prior to the meeting. Following the meeting, the team will have the chance to revise their manuscripts, which will then be compiled for submission to American Entomologist. Manuscripts should carefully follow the format of previous debate publications and American Entomologist, and must be well written and approved by the team faculty advisor. Note also that the advisor is not allowed to be a co-author of the manuscript.

Time is of the essence, and the ultimate goal of a chamber is to share time equally among legislators for speaking. The more time spent on motions, amending, etc.; the less time is available for speeches. The National Forensic League defines a session of floor debate as three hours for a chamber of 18 students (10 minutes to allow for two speeches per student). Setting the agenda at the beginning of the session is important. Invest thoughtful discussion in caucusing to set the agenda to avoid laying items on the table during sessions, which often annoys judges/scorers and the parliamentarian. Also, when calling the previous question fails to achieve a 2/3 vote, do not move to Lay on the Table by a simple majority. Remember, moving the previous question protects the voice of the minority prior to when the vote will rest on the majority. Legislators stand if they wish to be recognized to move, to speak, or to vote on the main motion (legislation). The presiding officer will recognize speakers first who have not spoken, next, based on precedence, and finally, based on recency. Before precedence has been established, the presiding officer should recognize speakers randomly and fairly. During a session, precedence and recency should not reset to ensure all students have an equal opportunity to speak and receive evaluation from scorers. When a new session begins with a new presiding officer and scorer(s), both precedence and recency should reset.

Only the presiding officer recognizes legislators who wish to question the speaker. Neither questioners nor speakers must ask or grant permission to yield; this is implied by the set questioning period. Legislators may only ask one question at a time; two-part questions are not allowed. Some tournaments may use a direct questioning format; this is only allowed if stated explicitly in a tournaments rules. Scorers should take the quality of a speakers answers into account when evaluating. Do not yield remaining speaking time to another legislator. The elected presiding officer may not give a speech while presiding, unless a tournaments rules specifically allows for it. National Forensic League tournaments do not. Be respectful of others in the room. If the presiding officer makes a minor mistake, give him/her the benefit of the doubt unless someone has been wronged. The PO is elected by the chamber to run the meeting and should be allowed to fulfill this duty efficiently and effectively. Move the previous question only if debate gets one-sided; do not use it to prevent someone from speaking.

From daily discussions to formulating life-changing policies, the positive impact of debate has been widespread since ancient times. Today, many public leaders and business professionals enjoy success based on skills acquired as active youth debaters. Lets take a look at how debate will benefit you. Express Yourself. Persuade Others. Debate enables students to voice their opinions freely, and dynamically. To win judges, debaters are groomed to deliver viewpoints through effective speech techniques such as rhetoric, inflection and hand gestures. As they spend more time speaking before peers, young debaters will naturally gain much confidence. Get Smart The groundwork prior to any debate involves hours of research and analysis. The formulation of unique arguments involves major mental muscle. During a debate, the ability to form cogent rebuttals while listening to your opponent requires nothing less than an agile mind. Throughout these, a young debater can only grow sharper. Call Me Mr. Personality Students blossom via debate in more ways than one. Watch as a young debater confidently researches assignments, delivers reports and interacts with friends. Young debaters are confident, outgoing and mature. New information is assessed logically and calmly. Best of all, every debater takes decisive steps with conviction. Community Awareness Through debate, students will gain exposure on case studies from around the world. Listening to different perspectives in a neutral manner not only helps students advance their side of the motion, it inevitably increases their tolerance and understanding of other worldviews, cultural beliefs and social systems. Cultural Exchange Debate offers students the rare opportunity to work in groups of diverse cultures, meet friends of different

nationalities and visit other countries to compete. Students enjoy the friendship of teammates and learn far more than what any classroom can teach. The Future is Bright The skills and experiences a student gains through debate is essential for success in the business environment. The ability to think strategically, take on varying perspectives and persuade; prepares students for leadership positions in the real world

1) The topic of the debate. 2) The participants of the debate, and what positions they will argue. 3) The scope of the debate. 4) The length of the debate, in number of rounds. 5) Whether statements will be made concurrently or in turns, and if the latter, who goes first. 6) The maximum length of each statement. 7) The time limit between statements. 8) The extent to which quotes and references from outside sources will be allowed. 9) The starting date of the debate. 10) Any additional rules or a debate format that debate participants must observe

A traditional DA follows the structure above. Traditional DA's can include or exclude the internal link.

A linear disadvantage does not have uniqueness. The negative concedes that the status quo has a problem but insists the plan increases that problem's severity. A commonly accepted theory holds that a sufficiently philosophical linear disadvantage with an alternative becomes a kritik. There is also much controversy over kritiks being linear disadvantages, due to the fact that most kritik argue the affirmative plan over a discursive level, while a disadvantage argues the affirmative's actions. Non-kritikal linear disadvantages frequently face attacks from the Affirmative on debate theory; the theory that linear disadvantages are abusive (i.e. unfair) to the affirmative team has such wide popularity.

A brink disadvantage is a special type of linear disadvantage which claims that the affirmative will aggravate the problem in the status quo to the extent that it passes a brink, at which time the impact happens all at once. The negative team claims that in the status quo, we are near the brink, but the affirmative team's plan will push us "over the edge."

The Politics Disadvantage[edit]

A politics disadvantage is a special type of disadvantage, in the way that it links to affirmative plan. Rather than linking to the specific plan action, it links to the fact that a plan passes at all. Politics disadvantages typically will say that a plan will pass through Congress, thus causing a shift in the "political capital" of either the President, or a political party, which will affect the ability of the affected group to pass other bills. An example of a politics disadvantage would be: Uniqueness: Immigration Reform will pass in the status quo. Link: Plan decreases the President's political capital, perhaps with a specific link that increasing civil liberties would be a flip-flop for President Obama. Thus, Obama has no political capital to pass his Immigration Reform. Impac elections cycles. For example, in a presidential election, it might argue that a certain Presidential candidate or his or her opponent is currently weak (or strong), but the affirmative plan will cause him or her to gain (or lose) popularity, and that either his or her election is undesirable or the election of his or her opponent is undesirable. A midterms version could focus on particular races or the general balance of the Congress; an example of a single-race midterms disadvantage would be that the reelection of Senator Daniel Akaka is critical to free speech, and plan prevents Akaka from winning; a "balance of Congress" disadvantage might hold that the plan is a credit to the Republicans, who would increase their grip on Congress and allow extensive drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

The Controversy[edit]
In some sections of the country, politics disadvantages are frowned upon because they link to virtually every affirmative plan, destroying the on case debate and focusing solely on the disadvantage. Supporters, however, say the politics disadvantages are "real world" and provide education on how bills are passed and politics in general. Other debate theorists have recently created a model of fiat that appears to preclude the politics disadvantage; however, its use in any given debate round is entirely dependent on how well the affirmative argues that the judge should accept the model, a somewhat time-consuming process. Examples of these fiat arguments include Vote No and Intrinsicness. Vote No says that the debate should be a simulation of the debate before congress therefore the president has already exerted political capital meaning there is no disadvantage. Intrinsicness, popularized by New Trier Coach Michael Greenstein, says that there is no reason that congress can't pass both the plan and the bill meaning they aren't competitive