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CHAPTER 5 LABORATORIES

Working with radioactive materials requires the use of specially designed laboratories and equipment, and may not be conducted in offices or other unapproved locations. In fact, rooms to be used for such work are examined and approved for the use of the types and quantities of radioactive materials. This is part of the approval process. The Radiation Safety Committee specifically authorizes laboratories to handle radioactive materials. URI generally follows the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) recommendations for classification of its laboratories.1 The recommendations are based on the toxicity classification assigned to each radioisotope by the IAEA. The following table lists the radioisotopes and their relative toxicity following the IAEA classification scheme. Radioisotopes used at URI are shown in bold type. Pb-210 Pu-238 Po-210 Pu-239 Ra-223 Pu-240 Na-22 Ba-140 Co-60 Hf-181 Ag-110m At-211 Te-129m U-236 Cs-137 Be-7 Te-125m Pa-233 Ru-105 Hg-197 Y-92 Re-188 Y-93 Os-185 Zr-97
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Group I: Very High radiotoxicity Th-227 Pa-231 Ra-226 Am-243 Cm-244 Pu-241 Ra-228 Th-228 U-230 Pu-242 Cm-242 Cm-245 Ac-227 Th-230 U-232 Cm-243 Cm-246 Am-241 Group II: High radiotoxicity Co-56 Zr-95 Sb-124 Tm-170 Bi-207 Ac-228 Ru-106 Sb-125 I-131 Bi-210 Pa-230 Ca-45 Te127m I-133 Eu-152 Th-234 Sc-46 Sr-90 Cs-134 Eu-154 Ir-192 Mn-54 Y-91 In-114m Tb-160 Tl-204 Ra-224 Group III: Moderate radiotoxicity Sc-48 Sr-91 Zn-65 La-140 Gd-153 Re-183 V-48 Zn-69m C-14 Te-127 Gd-159 Ce-141 Np-239 F-18 Cr-51 Rh-106 Te-129 Ce-143 Hg-197m Mn-52 Na-24 Pd-103 Te-131m Pr-142 Hg-203 Cl-38 Mn-56 Pd-109 Te-132 Pr-143

U-233 Cf-249 U-234 Cf-250 Np-237 Cf-252 I-126 Cl-36 Ce-144 Sr-89 Ta-182 Cd-115m Pb-212 I-124 Bk-249 Ru-103 Au-199 Y-90 Re-186 Ga-72 Dy-165 As-73 Dy-166 As-74 Ho-166

Safe Handling of Radionuclides, IAEA Safety Standards, 1973.

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Os-191 Nb-93m Os-193 Nb-95 Ir-190 Mo-99 Ir-194 Tc-96 Pt-191 Tc-97m Pt-193 Tc-97 Pt-197 Tc-99 Au-196 Ru-97 Au-198 H-3 Rh-103m U-235 Tc-96m Th-232 Zr-93 Pt-193m

Tl-200 Ag-105 Tl-201 Ag-111 Tl-202 Cd-109 Pb-203 Cd-115 Bi-206 In-115m Bi-212 Sn-113 Rn-220 Sn-125 Rn-222 Sb-122 Th-231

Si-31 I-130 P-32 I-132 S-35 I-134 Ar-41 I-135 K-42 Xe-135 K-43 Cs-131 Ca-47 Cs-136 Sc-47 Ba-131

Fe-52 Nd-147 Fe-55 Nd-149 Fe-59 Pm-147 Co-57 Pm-149 Co-58 Sm-151 Ni-63 Sm-153 Ni-65 Eu-152 Cu-64 Eu-155

As-76 Er-169 As-77 Er-171 Se-75 Tm-171 Br-82 Yb-175 Kr-85m Lu-177 Kr-87 W-181 Rb-86 W-185 Sr-85 W-187 Nb-97 Pt-197m Y-91m Os-191m Sr-85m Sm-147

Group IV: Low radiotoxicity Co-58m Ge-71 Rb-87 I-129 Cs-134m Re-187 O-15 Ni-59 Kr-85 In-113m Xe-131m Cs-135 U-238 Ar-37 Zn-69 Tc-99m Xe-135 I-125 Thnat Unat

There are three laboratory types in the basic IAEA scheme: A Type A laboratory is a specially designed laboratory for handling large activities of radioactive materials. At the present time, URI has no laboratories meeting Type A requirements. A Type B laboratory is a specially designed radioisotope laboratory. Type B laboratories are equipped with independently vented, filtered fume hoods with high-velocity exhausts and polished, easily cleaned non-absorbing surfaces. Hoods are provided to control possible airborne contamination. Airflow is maintained between 100 and 125 linear feet per minute when the hood sash is at its normal open position. The hood is separately exhausted and filtered. Since the activity limitations are based upon the assumption of work with unsealed radioactivity, Type B laboratories may be used for storage of activities higher than those permitted for hood or bench top work. A Type C laboratory is a conventional chemical laboratory. To meet Type C requirements, a laboratory must have adequate ventilation, working fume hoods, and polished, easily cleaned, non-absorbing surfaces. Hoods are provided to control possible airborne contamination. Airflow is maintained

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between 100 and 125 linear feet per minute when the hood sash is at its normal open position. Since the activity limitations are based upon the assumption of work with unsealed radioactivity, Type C laboratories may be used for vial storage of activities higher than those permitted for hood or bench top work. The limits for each laboratory class are listed in the following table. Toxicity Very high High Moderate Low Type A 10 mCi 100 mCi 1 Ci 10 Ci Type B 1 mCi 10 mCi 100 mCi 1 Ci Type C 10 Ci 100 Ci 1 mCi 10 mCi

If more than one radioisotope is used in a laboratory, we apply the limits using a sum-of-the-fractions rule. The sum of the activities of the Group I radioisotopes divided by the Group I limit, plus the sum of the activities of the Group II radioisotopes divided by the Group II limit, plus the sum of the activities of the Group III radioisotopes divided by the Group III limit, plus the sum of the activities of the Group IV radioisotopes divided by the Group IV limit cannot exceed one. Most laboratories at the University meet the basic requirements for use of tracer levels of radioisotopes. Smooth, contiguous, non-absorbent surfaces such as stainless steel or linoleum are preferred in a radioactive materials work area. A properly working chemical fume hood with flow rates of at least 100 feet per minute is required if fume hoods will be used for containing radioactive materials. Special filters and/or design are not generally necessary, but may be prudent in special cases. The rooms used must be able to be locked to maintain the security requirements for radioactive materials.

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