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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

STUDIES ON THE TEXTS OF THE DESERT OF JUDAH


EDITED B Y

F. GARCIA MARTINEZ A. S. VAN DER WOUDE

VOLUME XXVI

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


Proceedings of a Symposium held at Leiden University 11-14 December 1 9 9 5
EDITED BY

T. MURAOKA AND J.F. ELWOLDE

BRILL LEIDEN NEW YORK KLN 1997

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufhahme The Hebrew o f the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira : prodeedings of a symposium held at Leiden University, 1 1 - 1 4 December 1995 / ed. by T. Muraoka and J.F. Elwolde. - Leiden ; New York ; Kln : Brill, 1997 (Studies on the texts of the desert of Judah ; Vol. 26) ISBN 90-04-10820-3 NE: Muraoka, Takamitsu [Hrsg.]; GT

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data is also available

ISSN 0169-9962 ISBN 90 04 10820 3

Copyright 1997 by Koninklijke Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change.
PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface Bibliographical Abbreviations M.FJ. Baasten, Nominal Clauses Containing a Personal Pronoun in Qumran Hebrew J.F. Elwolde, Developments in Hebrew Vocabulary between Bible and Mishnah S.E. Fassberg, On the Syntax of Dependent Clauses in Ben Sira A. Hurvitz, The Linguistic Status of Ben Sira as a Link between Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew: Lexicographical Aspects M.Z. Kaddari, The Syntax of r> in the Language of Ben Sira T. Muraoka, Verb Complementation in Qumran Hebrew G.W. Nebe, Die hebrische Sprache der Nahal Hever Dokumente 5/6Hev 44-46 W.T. van Peursen, Periphrastic Tenses in Ben Sira E. Qimron, A New Approach to the Use of Forms of the Imperfect Without Personal Endings M.S. Smith, How To Write a Poem: The Case of Psalm 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)
a 9

vii ix

17 56

72 87 92

150 158

174

182 209

Index of Texts Cited

PREFACE

The present volume includes papers presented at the first interna tional symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira held at Leiden University in December, 1995. Not only those who presented papers but also others who attended part or all of the whole programme, which lasted three days, were unanimous about the importance of the subject and the interest it represents for future research. The symposium could not have taken place without very gener ous financial support extended by the Dutch Academy of Sciences (KNAW) and by Leiden University (the Leids Universitair Fonds, the Research School CNWS, and the former Department of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Ugaritic Languages and Cultures). The editors are grateful to the series editors, Professors A.S. van der Woude and F. Garcia Martinez, for agreeing to publish this volume, and to our con tributors for their patient and ready cooperation. November, 1996 T. Muraoka (Leiden) J. F. Elwolde (Sheffield)

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS AB = Anchor Bible AbrN = Abr-Nahrain AbrNSup = Abr-Nahrain Supplement Series ABR = Australian Biblical Review AJBI = Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute AOAT = Alter Orient and Altes Testament ATAT = Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament AUSS = Andrews University Seminary Studies BASOR = Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Bib = Biblica BDB = F. Brown, S.R. Driver, and CA. Briggs, Hebrew and English Lex icon of the Old Testament BN = Biblische Notizen BZ = Biblische Zeitschrift BZAW = Beihefte zur ZAW CahRB = Cahiers de la Revue biblique CBQ = Catholic Biblical Quarterly CBQMS = Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph series CRAIBL = Comptes rendus de l'Acadmie des inscriptions et belles-lettres DJD = Discoveries in the Judaean Desert DSD = Dead Sea Discoveries EI = Eretz-Israel EstBib = Estudios biblicos ET = Expository Times GK = Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, ed. E. Kautsch, tr. A.E. Cowley H AR = Hebrew Annual Review HSM = Harvard Semitic Monographs HSS = Harvard Semitic Studies HTR - Harvard Theological Review HUCA = Hebrew Union College Annual ICC = International Critical Commentary IE] = Israel Exploration Journal JANES = Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society J AOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society JBL = Journal of Biblical Literature JBLMon = Journal of Biblical Literature Monograph Series JJS = Journal of Jewish Studies JQR = Jewish Quarterly Review

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS

JSJ = Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period JSOT = Journal for the Study of the Old Testament JSOTSup = Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series JSS = Journal of Semitic Studies JTS - Journal of Theological Studies KB = L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros L S. - IfSonnu MEAH = Miscelnea de Estudios Arabes y Hebraicos MGWJ = Monatsschrift fr Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums RHR = Revue de l'histoire des religions RQ = Rmische Quartalschrift fr christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte RSO = Rivista degli studi orientali ScrHier = Scripta hierosolymitana SJOT = Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament STDJ = Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah SVT = Supplements to Vetus Testamentum VT = Vetus Testamentum ZAH = Zeitschrift fr Althebraistik ZAW = Zeitschrift fr die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
e

NOMINAL CLAUSES CONTAINING A PERSONAL PRONOUN IN QUMRAN HEBREW


1

Martin F.J. Baasten (Leiden)

I; Preliminary remarks. Three levels of linguistic description In order to describe the form and function of the nominal clause in a meaningful way, a distinction should be made between three levels of linguistic description: the grammatical, the logical and the psycholog ical level. 'Subject'and 'predicate' may be identified distinctly on all three levels; a constituent that is identified as the 'subject' on one level may very well be the 'predicate' on another and vice versa. We shall employ, therefore, different terms for 'subject' and 'predicate' on each level, as follows: (1) grammatical S and P (2) logical S and P agreement in gender, number, and person; S is the more particular/definite con stituent: subject; P is the more universal/indefinite constituent: predicate; S is the contextually 'old' information or the point of departure of the utter ance: theme; P is the contextually 'new informa tion or the aim of the utterance: rheme.
2 7

(3) psychological S and P

The present article is an expanded version of the paper presented at the Lei den Symposium. It forms part of my PhD research, on the nominal clause in the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Rijksuniversiteit, Leiden. I am grateful to my supervisor. Professor T. Muraoka, for granting me the oppor tunity to present a paper at this conference. Note the following abbreviations: DPr = demonstrative pronoun; Ex = extra position; Inf = infinitive; NC = nominal clause; NP = noun phrase; P = predi cate; PP = prepositional phrase; PPr = personal pronoun; Ptc = participle; Rh = rheme; S = subject; Th = theme. Since agreement between grammatical S and P is not a necessary feature of the nominal clause, we shall not use special terms for them in this study.
2

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

In verbal clauses, grammatical S and P can be distinguished on the basis of agreement in gender, number, and person. On the logical level, the distinction is made on the basis of the logical categories of particulars and universalsthe more concrete, the more definite, of the two constituents is the logical subject, whereas the other is the logical predicate. On the psychological level, the subject is the contextually retrievable or 'old' information or the point of departure of the utterance, whereas the predicate is the 'new' information or the aim of the utterance; it contains what is being said about the psychological subject. We shall use the terms 'subject' (S) and 'predicate' (P) exclusively for the logical subject and predicate, whereas for the psychological level we employ the terms 'theme' and 'rheme' (Th and Rh respectively). It is rather unfortunate that in studies on the nominal clause in various kinds of Hebrew the terms 'subject' and 'predicate' are used indiscriminately for all three levels. Using the same terms for different levels of description, however, leads to endless terminological and conceptual confusion. Of this sort of unnecessary confusion I shall give two examples. 1. We often read that in clauses with one definite and one indefi nite constituent it is easy to identify S and P, whereas in a clause with two definite constituents this is very difficult and, as a consequence, we have to look at the context in order to determine which is S and which is P. This assertion is erroneous. If S and P are defined in terms of definiteness (i.e. on the logical level), then determining S and P in a clause with two constituents of equal definiteness is not diffi3 4 5 6

Although we would not claim the same precision in distinguishing various degrees of definiteness as intended by Andersen, Verbless Clause, table 3, p. 110, it seems clear that, for example, a PPr represents a higher degree of defi niteness than a construct noun made definite by a possessive suffix. The gen eral idea of degrees of definiteness was further developed by Keizer, Definite

ness.
4

In case both core constituents provide contextually new information, it is generally still possible to determine Th as the point of departure and Rh as the aim of the utterance. For several other notions in this respect, cf. Chafe, 'Givenness', 25-55. For a general discussion of the notions 'subject' and 'predicate' at various levels of description, see Lyons, Introduction, 334-50; Lyons, Semantics, II, 46975, 500-11; Jespersen, Philosophy of Grammar, 145-56; Cohen, Phrase nominale, 22-46; Contini, Tipobgia, 11-20; Hoftijzer, 'Nominal clause', 487-88; Niccacci, 'Marked syntactical structures', 13-18,24-26; Michel, 'Probleme des Nominalsatzes', 216-220. To give only one example: Geller, 'Cleft sentences', 16, n. 8: 'the establish ment of "subject" and "predicate" in nominal clauses, especially when both are definite, is notoriously difficult and often arbitrary'.
5 6

BAASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES

cult, but simply impossible or irrelevant. However, as soon as the context is invoked in order to solve the problem, we should realise that one is talking about psychological S and P. On the psychological level, however, all clauses are equally difficult, regardless of the definiteness or indefiniteness of their constituents; one would always need the context in order to determine which constituent is the theme and which is the rheme. When the context of a certain clause is un clear or ambiguous, one would have to concede that it is not merely difficult, but actually impossible to identify Th and Rh. 2. Francis Andersen, who in his Verbless Clause strictly and consis tently applies logical categories in identifying S and P, mentions a clause like Gen 24.65 hu *ddni and identifies the pronoun as the sub ject (p. 40 and #19). It is misleading to claim that he was wrong in doing so because the context tells us to read hu *ddni (with prosodic 'stress' on the pronoun), so that the pronoun must be the 'predicate'. If more accurate terms were employed here, we would have to say that the context tells us that hu is the rheme. But that fact obviously does not contradict in any way Andersen's assertion that hu is the (logical) subject. The type of nominal clause at issue here is the one that contains an independent personal pronoun. The corpus investigated for this purpose consists of the Rule of the Community (1QS, 4QS "J), lQSa, lQSb, the Damascus Document (CD), lQpHab, the Temple Scroll, and 1QM.
y y 7 y y 8 a 9

II: The simple nominal clause A: Clauses containing a pronoun and a definite noun phrase If the pronoun stands in combination with a definite noun phrase, the pronoun precedes, both in main clauses and in subordinate clauses.
10

An interpretation that in itself is quite likely, cf. Muraoka, Emphatic, 19, n. 48. Thus, e.g., Zewi, who defines her terms 'subject' and 'predicate' exclusively in a psychological sense, claims CNominal sentence', 148, n. 12): 'Andersen ... fails to recognize that independent pronouns might sometimes be predicates [read: rhemes, MB].... Andersen classifies these examples under the order of subject-predicate, while it should be predicate-subject [read: rheme-theme, MB]'. The text editions used for this purpose are the following: Rule of the Com munity, lQSa, and lQSb (Charlesworth et al. [eds.]. Dead Sea Scrolls), CD (Qimron, Text of CDC, 9-49), lQpHab (Nitzan, Scroll), 11QT (Qimron, Tem ple Scroll), 1QM (Yadin, Scroll). * In the only two exceptions, a preceding NP that is formally definite may be
8 9

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

On the psychological level, the pronoun is mostly the theme. This type is especially frequent in exegetical contexts, where something that precedes in the text is clarified, as in 1QS 8.15 minn BTTTD nKVT ...mBJftrKDTB-ramsn[B]K, where the pronoun refers to the immedi ately preceding quotation of Isa 40.3 iJ'nbK*? n*?QD, with which it agrees in gender and number. This kind of exegetical remark is at tested in theBible as well, although not frequently, as a so-called par enthetical gloss, e.g. Gen 36.1 onK Kin wu rrrftfi n*?Ki 'and these are the generations of Esauthat is Edom'; 1 Kgs 6.38 H T O nnKn n x m ... rran r f o Town Ennn Kin n ? 3 'and in the eleventh year, in the month Buithat is the eighth monththe house was finished...'. Similar instances of such an exegetical clause in our corpus are lQSa 1.3 fpKn nra IJED ? -[inn innn moo -IBK msy TBUK non; 1QS 3.18-19 *7ij;ni noKn rnrrn nan; 1QS 8.7; ]nnn nam nKvi. It is not surpris ing that this type of exegetical remark is widely used in pesharim or in pesher-like contexts: lQpHab 2.6 ... TORn'pnn'pntfnon (the refer ence is to lQpHab 2 .5-6 cravi nnm6 cmjpnn]; CD 20.3 -jnn ma Kin " T O "[inn (referring to a disobedient member of the community in CD 20.2); CD 1 .13... rvbv mnn rvn TB?K nun K'n (explaining CD 1.5 ] n n pp); CD 20.12 nennn n n n Kim (referring to CD 20.12 p a n izrp ne?K... n n n pOQl). Once we find a formally indefinite NP as predicate, but otherwise the exegetical clause is identical with the preceding ones: CD 1.13 " [ 1 1 n o Dn (referring back to the immediately preceding D H J U n~ltf). In some cases, the PPr may also be the Rh, as in 11QT 53.8 nnvrfra nrn rjK; 11QT 61.4 m m KI ? TBK nmn Kin (cf. Deut 18.22). Due to the limited context, it is not certain what the pronouns refer to in the following cases: 1QS 9.19nnnQ ?"]nnnni3Dn^nK n (cf. Licht, Megillat, ad loc); CD 8 .2 -3 (= 19.15) *7K npa' 12?K DVn Kin (cf. Davies, Damascus Covenant, 155ff.); CD 8.20 p "[inn ? r r o T *1QK *12?K n m n Kin m w r n ^ ^ ^ K i n ' n ] (cf. Davies, Damascus Covenant, 171-72).
11 12
1

13

14

considered to be semantically indefinite and hence belong under Section IIB:


CD 5.9
1 1

-]QK I K B (cf. Lev 18.13 Kin - JOK

'D) and 11QT 26.9ron^npn ntttDn

(cf. 11QT 16.18 KTT^np DKOn); pace Andersen, Verbless, 33,46-47. It is not useful to speak of a lack of congruence between the grammatical S and the grammatical P here; the pronoun does not agree with its P, butas expectedwith its referent rfroo. The type is similar to the one mentioned in Muraoka, 'Pasuq', 1.2.1. On glosses in the Biblical text in general, see Tov, 'Glosses', 40-66, esp. 52-53, on dosses beginning with (w)hu\ " For Brownlee's reconstruction rvpnnD'pini?, cf. Nitzan, Scroll, ad loc. Thus Davies, Damascus Covenant, 176-77. Qimron, Text of CDC', ad loc, reads torn. The form rwim n n n is to be construed as definite; cf. CD 6.19 n n n n
1 2 1 4

BAASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES

The clause in lQpHab 10.3 BOODn rvn RTF TWE is ambiguous as to the syntactic status of the first NP. One might take it either as an extraposed element, but more likely it serves as an introductory heading that does not form part of the clause itself: Its interpretation: it is the house of judgment* . In subordinate clauses, the word order remains unchanged: the pronoun always precedes. But the context tells us that the pronoun is clearly the Rh. In our corpus only the conjunction O is attested with this type: lQpHab 3.2,13-14; 5.6; CD 10.16; 16.15 ... TDK Kin RO; lQpHab 9.7 O'Qtfn nrv non RO referring back to lQpHab 8.15 nrr D'Otf (= Hab 2.8); CD 12.15 onRnn BEXDO Rin 'D. This type is attested twice with a PP as P, but the pronoun is still the Rh: 1QM 12.7 *?R HDRI prD^jnnftmiranD^^ 10.1 wo KTin *7n:i *?R ranpn nnR.
15 16 17 19

B: Clauses containing a pronoun and an indefinite noun phrase In this type of clause, both word orders are attested. We find the pro noun both preceding the noun phrase (PPr-NP; S-P) as well as follow ing it (NP-PPr; P-S). On the psychological level, the two possibilities are attested as well (Th-Rh and Rh-Th). In instances of the order S-P, the pronouns are the theme (i.e. no specific prominence is attached to them): 1QM 1.11-12 m ^ritf nRTn m i a uv b[iD (possibly also 1QM 1.5 "PK oifr nine?* ntfnKpm]; CD 5.17 mxv "OR QH (compare the underlying Deut 32.28 "ink ^ O rran rrfcH?, where the NP is clearly the Rh.). Subordinate clauses show the same word order S-P and Th-Rh: lQpHab 2.12-13 - Q * 6 non^n omaxi rrbp npn -IIBJR Dnwon by VKDB t r p n ; HQT 50.10-11 no r o i m Rin -WR D W I "TO; 1QM 1.10 o r nRin wo -pnn ^rb r f o rarhcb TRQ t> TIIT ; 1QM 13.5 -jenn hun nan R O ; 1QM 15.9

The phrase piSrd also occurs before clauses that have an extraposed NP of themselves, e.g. lQpHab 12.7, see below, Section IIIA. This would indicate that the latter interpretation is more probable. On the stylistic features of pesharim in general, cf. Nitzan, Scroll, 81-89; Horgan, Pesharim, 239-44. This typical clause serves to introduce a verse that has just been explained, see Basser, 'Pesher hadava/, 389-405. See also Brownlee, Midrash, ad loc, 65; Horgan, Pesharim, 243, n. 55; Nitzan, Scroll, Introd., 7; Bernstein, 'Introduc tory formulas'. Qimron, Text of CDC, ad loc: a phonetic spelling for Dnn? 'their eating'. Garcia Martinez's translation ('you are a God, awesome in the splendour of your majesty ...'), taking the first two NPs as a clause, is less likely in view of the next clause mentioned here. A combination of Deut 23.15 *|jno mpn "f^nno -ptfa*" o and Deut 7.21 ' " D
1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9

1 5

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


20

mrcnnnynQnKO. As expected, circumstantial clauses show the same order: CD 5.11 nKB KTT); CD 9.17 nnK Kim. In clauses of the order P-S, the pronoun is always the Th. This type is often found in imitations of biblical style, notably in the Tem ple Scroll. As in Biblical Hebrew, this type of clause often serves as a concluding remark at the end of a series of precepts or of a section: 11QT 15.12-13 mn "3sfrmm3nnne ?KKvin ?i:>; 11QT 28.5-6 nnn&K mm*? Kin m m ; 11QT 16.18 Kin bnp nKon; l l Q T 48.7-3 mrrb nana e r a nODVrfrK; 11QT 50.7 Kin KDB; 11QT 66.14 K'n namn; CD 15.4 nay OK KinoraK. Subordinate clauses all show the same order P-S and Rh-Th, with various conjunctions: CD 11.6-7 wn m m o OK; CD 13.5 Kin TlQ OKI; CD 9.17 Kin m o nan OK; CD 9.20 Dn D'je? OKI; CD 9.21-22 On D'3QK3 DK; lQSa 2.10-11 Kirn] wisa K O ; 1QM 2.8-9 buna*? n*n rrao raw K O ; 1QM 9.8 nan trnnp tra; CD 5.16 Kin rnra nv K ^ O ; CD 1.8-9 Dnwn 'a w m OnO'D'EK WQD* 2.1.12-13 omits D'BDK); 11QT 43.16 K i n B m p o (once elliptical: 11QT 43.12 2?np 'a TU> taw K1*?), 11QT 52.18-19 biaa n r a *a Kin; 11QT 50.18 non C K Q C D 'a; 11QT 52.4-5 b nan n a n n *a; 11QT 48.7 na^m^Kmn^nriKKrinpD^o; l l Q T 56.15 Kinna^nKKi^nwKnaiDWK. Our corpus contains some instances of PP as predicate: l l Q T 62.12-13 nonn^Knonvunnj;oKi^nc0K...Dn^ (= Deut 20.15); CD 3.18 n o m K'n xh*o.
i 21 2 3 24

22

C: Clauses containing a verbal participle As for NCs with a verbal participle, it turns out that the normal, semantically unmarked, word order is PPr-Ptc, unless the Ptc itself is focalized.
25

The context is unclear in 1QM 15.1 non^D mppn ^ j i c ^ n i i c r\s J T H T I R ' D WM7] 'TOD, but the pronoun does not seem to be Rh. Similar cases: llQT 16.10 [nvr'B^mmsnnnwKTitfppiJ]; llQT 16.13-14
2 1

2 0

ronqrrDnRjDn.

The Ptc clearly functions as an adjective here. The meaning is not 'if they are being trusted' but 'if they are faithful'. The same goes for the Ptc I O T Q in the next clause (lQSa 2.10). On the function of passive Ptc Qal, Pu'al and Hof'al as adjectives, cf. Segal, Grammar, 332-33. 4 Q D reads mrarf?in] or mrato[n] after Isa 2711 w n m r m ^ t f p ' D . After Exod 29.34 Kin tDip a vb. Pace Segal, Grammar, 341; Muraoka, 'Pasucf, 221-23, who already noted (p. 224) a great number of exceptions to the rule formulated by Bendavid, Leshon, 494-95, 663, 666, 679. It seems that the law Bendavid thought to have discovered works only the other way round: the unmarked word order is PPr-Ptc, but particles that can have some sort of focalizing forcelike 'D and DKmay require a reverse word order, on the condition that it is the Ptc that is being focalized. See also Muraoka, 'Pasucf, 224, n. 13-14, and his remark in
23 a / 2 4 2 5

2 2

BAASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES

Passive participles actually should not be regarded as genuine participles, behaving instead like normal adjectives. The only class of NCs where the Ptc precedes without being focalized are of a very specific type: 1QS 2.5 n D n Q K ^ n ^ Q ^ D n n n K i n ^ l Q S 2.7
nanw -[TO D ' o m yv nna - m ; 1QS 2.7- wbw m rfrsKa nna 1QM 13.4 inoK r n o a nam o w n nooo nanoa ^ y ^ a 13.5 onKD nm rrnajj ' r o a non o i a w i ; 1QS 11.15-16 nmon nna nana*; a*? n r t . Andersen (Verbless Clause, 100-02) suggested own; 1QM -pna

that these clauses might be precative. However, Muraoka has shown with convincing arguments that there is no reason to make such an assumption. If there is any element of wish in these utterances, it is due to the semantic value of the verbs involved, not to the syntactic structure of the clause. We reiterate that these participles function as normal adjectives and hence belong to the category described in Section IIB above. If an active Ptc precedes, it is clearly focalized: CD 5.6 D'KOtDO D31 ... nKEnpon na a n ; CD 9 . l 2 T r ^ w n i ? i v D ; l l Q T 5 4 . 1 1 - 1 2 ' a ... run*? noana *om nraa (cf. Deut 13.4 mm no30 'a). As stated above, semantically unmarked clauses have the order S26

P: CD 12.15 [ D ^ r n on IV; l l Q T 48.11-12 nomno P R o n a i p nan a i p a *?aa; 11QT 51.19-21 nan*? o ' D ' p D i rmm nan*? a*mm o^nair nan mpo "roa ... non ? uya\ nnwby mnrorfr n r a r a naonrrai m a s o ; l l Q T 61.15 vnw
4

... tranp nana bww (= Deut 20.3 nnnbb nvn O'anp D P R ) . This neutral word order can also be seen whenever some element other than the Ptc is focalized or put into contrast and hence occupies the first slot: CD 8.14-15 (= 19.27-28 = Deut 9.5; 7.8) l a n n R ^ z n ^ n t t r a i 7 ^ 1 2 0 1 6
njnaejn m n o r a i -[mat* m inanaa ' a nbwn onan m nen ?; CD 5.12-13 na o n a n o an najnm; CD 3.1 Donnai on na; CD 5.9-10 r n n r n O D O I wmn onai aina ron o n a 6 (the first NP is in extraposition, the PP is
1

contrastive); l l Q T 48.12 o n a i p nan nomna ^ m a o n ; l l Q T 60.20


nana'po D u m a om n ^ n majrmn (cf. Deut 18.12).
27

The same applies to subordinate clauses: the pronouns precede in semantically unmarked clauses: CD 5.6-7 m i r a { D ' i V i a o on ]'K TOK
v n r o na nro r r n a na m er c n p f a nat m m n n n nu c a a w i ; CD l 3 3 n ^ R t a a ] i n a R i n ] n * O R i ; l i Q T 31.9 n a ^ K nana O I D K new'Tiaa; f? j n ^ H ) ;

l l Q T 62.11 n a ^ j n u ' a i n i D K n a ' a n K ^ n K (cf. Deut 20.14 " j n p B R llQT 51.6-7 nrn nna na ? T 3 0 n im nana I K O ' R V T I ; i l Q T 52.19-20 nama na Dia? ? B ?npo 'ai3 n n'i>; l l Q T 54.5-6 o n a n n ^ a
28
1

4.6.
* Compare note 22 above.
2 7
2 8 6

Compare Joon-Muraoka, Grammar, 154fe.


Similar cases: llQT 45.13,46.4,12,47.18,55.2,12,15-16,60.16,62.11-13.

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


29

ovn roixo 0 1 n e ? K ; 1 1 Q T 60.12-13 Kin ne?K b*rw> biDQ nan w> - O T K O no&nj (= Deut 18.6); lQpHab 6.3-4 ommHfrDTOT non - R D H T T D B ; lQpHab 6.6-7 nw3 me? D'orn * T D bu... nb)v m wpbnn non ne?K ine?Q Circumstantial clauses that serve to provide background informa tion also display the same unmarked word order: CD 14.20; 1QS 6.25 jnvKim; 1QS 7.13-14 m e n a m ; CD 9.20-21 D ' T J J D a m on one? O K I nnK nan bv, l l Q T 52.5 rni6D nom; llQT 66.9 pinn p t> nnn Kvn. Obviously, the preceding pronoun can be the rheme as well. This is what happens with the conjunction O: l l Q T 51.7-8 pie?mn"]KO bwlOP^ym (= Num 35.34; similar l l Q T 45.14); l l Q T 61.14 013KO o n s o pKO na^jjon naoy (compare Deut 20.1). For clauses containing a Ptc and a PPr, we may conclude that in Qumran Hebrew a pronoun that precedes need not necessarily be the rheme; the normal, semantically unmarked word order is PPr-Ptc. Thus there is a marked difference from Biblical Hebrew, in which 'a personal pronoun tends to occupy the second slot when no promi nence is intended to be given to it' (Joon-Muraoka, Grammar, 154fa, fd).
30 3 1 32

3: Tripartite nominal clauses Introduction The tripartite nominal clause is a NC that contains a third pronominal element, which is a form of the independent PPr Kin. In scholarly lit erature, several theories have been proposed analysing these tripartite nominal clauses in Biblical as well as in Mishnaic, Medieval and Modern Hebrew. As to the syntactic structure and the function of this type of clauses there is substantial disagreement among scholars. Some consider the pronominal element to be a genuine copula, whereas others attribute an emphatic force to it or consider the pro noun to be either the subject or the predicate of a simple, bipartite, nominal clause. To some extent, the decision whether to take the
33 34

Similarly llQT 55.13-14. In llQT 59.5-6, iaD^TP'MDp^TQiDn3WionQr?ATNT!TfcanQn% the subject pronoun itself is clearly put in contrast to 59.5 noma**. ^ 'While he is clad in rags'. On mo see Qimron, Hebrew, 112; Qimron, Diqduq, 302; Licht, Megillat, ad loc. The form nnn stands for nnto. The clause in 1QS 7.1, -pno TK nsonnmp nam, is unclear; cf. Licht, Megillat, ad loc. Tripartite NCs with the DPr as a third element are not attested in our cor pus. Cf. also Muraoka, 'Pasuq', 2.1.4. For a recent overview of tripartite NCs in Biblical Hebrew and the various
3 0 3 2 3 3 3 4

2 9

BASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES

pronoun as a copula and the two NPs as Th and Rh, or to see the structure as one involving extraposition, is arbitrary, especially when both NPs are definite. In the case of a well-known example, 11QT 53.6 Kin Din O (= Deut 12.23), both interpretations will work, regard less of which of the two NPs is considered to be the most 'prominent' in the context. A specific understanding of the context can never pre clude or necessarily imply a given syntactic structure, and vice-versa. Thus, should one feel that in this clause the NP 'the blood' is the Rh, we have the following options (bold typeface indicates the Rh): a) ki haddam hu> hannefeS (with hu> the copula); b) ki haddam hu> I I hannefeS (with tail); c) ki haddam II hu> hannefeS (with extraposition). Should one interpret hannefeS as the Rh, still two possibilities remain: d) ki haddam hu'hannefeS (with hu> as copula); e) ki haddam \\hu> hannefeS (with extrapos.). Here we shall adopt the final approach and treat the tripartite NC as consisting of a bipartite NC with a third constituent in extraposi tion, which may either precede the clause or follow it as a 'tail' (rear extraposition).
35

A:Ex llTh(ppr>Rh This pattern, in which both NPs are definite, is especially common in the pesharim and similar contexts where parts of a biblical verse are explained. In fact, this is exactly the same type of clause that we saw before (the 'parenthetical gloss,' see Section IIA above), but here it is preceded by an extraposed constituent. In Biblical Hebrew, too, such exegetical remarks may occur without an extraposed constituent if the noun phrase that is to be explained immediately precedes (as in Gen 36.1, below), whereas we usually do find such a constituent in extra positionas a so-called 'second citation'if the noun phrase that is to be explained does not immediately precede (as in Gen 36.8). Com pare: DllK RVT rrrfTin n^Kl 'and these are the generations of Esau that is Edom' (Gen 36.1) and o r m Kin WV TOT nna IBM) s e n 'and Esau

interpretations of them, see Geller, 'Cleft sentences', 15-33. See also the con venient list of tripartite NCs in Biblical Hebrew by Sappan, Yihud, 92-111. For the tripartite NC in Mishnaic Hebrew, see Kaddari, 'Tafqid', 248-63; Azar, Tahbir, 79-31, 82-84. On the syntax of the pronoun in NCs in Mishnaic He brew in general, see Kaddari, 'Kinnuy', 263-68. A typical example of such a tail can be found in Jespersen, Philosophy, 24: lie's a great scoundrel, that husband of hers.' In fact, this is exactly the inter pretation that Driver intended with his 'anticipatory pronoun' in cases like Ps 44.5, '^Q nnKalthough he interpreted the pronoun as anticipating the 'predicate' (Tenses, 200, pp. 271-72)or Cant 6.9, w wnnriK, in which case, according to Driver, the pronoun is found before the 'subject'.
3 5

10

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

dwelt in SeirEsau, that is Edom' (Gen 36.8). Thus, in the Damascus document, a citation of Num 21.18 in CD
6.3-5, p p i n o a D i n ' n n : n n a one? rrnsn naa, is followed by CD 6.4-7, nmnn a r m ron p p i n o m . . . " a m r *att? on r m s i m nmnn ten m a n . The

noun that is to be explained is put in extraposition in order to bring it into the mind of the reader or listenerthe so-called 'second citation/ Note that these items are not merely a repetition of the biblical lemma, since their form is different ClRan ,rmBin, ppinon as against
I K a , n n s n , p p i n o ) ; they are clearly the extraposed element of the

following explanatory clause. Identical cases are lQpHab 12.4-5


nmnnnBwnmmniBnQnrriQnam (explaining Hab 2.17 ...p]a ?OQn m o r a -ran); lQpHab 12.7... TORD^rr ton n n p n V H D B (on Hab 2.17
i

36

n n p p R O Q m , with introductory heading 'Its interpretation: . . / ) ; CD 7.16-17 bnpn Kin -pan (explaining Amos 5.26 o p a ^ D m a p ) . In two instances, the extraposed NP does not resume part of a biblical text,
37

but another NP that precedes: CD 4.17 main w n miraton (explains 8 preceding CD AASbvbnmiwnnm'yD)? CD 4.19-20 *]* DD Kin i s n ... (referring back to is n r m la^n p m ^a).
3 9

As is clear from cases like CD 8.10-11 (= 19.22) o m a T l Kin 031 (explaining Deut 32.33 n p D ^ns Km o r ' o r s n n o q ) , the pronoun mostly agrees in gender and number with the preceding extraposed element, with which it is coreferentialand not with its predicate (as in 1QS 8.14 nmnn e m o n ^ n , see Section IIA above). Due to attraction, however, the pronoun may occasionally agree with its predicate, as in lQpHab 12.9 nmm nv non p K 00m (explaining Hab 2.17 p K ~ o o r n ) . In two instances only do we find an indefinite constituent as the
40

In later Bible commentaries, mere repetition of a biblical lemma is fairly common, as in Rashi on Gen 6.2 'The sons of God: the sons of the princes and the judges'. Here the lemma is neither a part of the clause nor in extraposition, but serves as an introductory heading. Identical instances, in which the noun in extraposition resumes part of a preceding biblical quotation, are: CD 4.2-3, 4.3?, 4.3^4, 7.17-18, 7.18-19, 7.20, 8.10 (= 19.22-23), 8.10-11 (= 19.23), 8.11-12 (= 19.23-24). These words in turn are the interpretation of the cited Isa 24.17 nnQTina f in nsi. The clause is followed by two simple NCs: jmnriron
3 7 3 8

3 6

Although *]*D is formally indefinite, it may be construed as semantically definite, since the reference is clearly to nranrpQ (e.g. lQpHab 10.9; without article in CD 8:13 ). An exact parallel in BH is mentioned in Khan, Studies, 72: Lev 25.33, DnmKKinD'-frrp-unnn'D, where Dmna is Rh. The clause in lQpHab 12.4-5, rrnnn rrcna rrnrp wis non moram (explanation of Hab 2.17 mora -ran... ]v> oon), remains doubtful as to agreement, since non is also used for feminine referents, cf. Qimron, Hebrew, 321.16.
4 0

3 9

BAASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES


41

11

second NP, in both cases a verbal participle: CD 4 .19-21 p n n ^13 orontrraorvaon... is nm*iD*?n nra**; CD 16.2 -4 j m j f r onnsp ernsn DmrninaDaiDrr^aT ? crran mp^nc nao*?j> pnpno Kin nan n*?K *?DQ buna* (the extraposed element is separated from the clause by nan).
42 1

B: Ex llRh(pp )Th
r

There are three cases that might belong in this category, i.e. a NP in extraposition, followed by a NC that consists of a pronoun which is the Rh and a definite NP. In all three cases, however, the context does not allow us to make a decision as to the syntactic structure of the clause and the identification of Th and Rh. At first sight, both in CD 7.15-16, -finn roio on nmnn n a o , and in CD 19.9, "ai> on m a onoKDm ] K 2 * n , the last NP seems to contain the old informationthus explain ing the contrastive emphasis that makes the pronoun the rheme and the last NP the themebut the context is unclear. Also the context of 1QS 11 .4 -5, 'QtfD vbo nwn nDK WO, is not unequivocal. In view of the preceding 1QS 11.4 , 'QtfD " p n rii? vbon, one might take 'BUD xho as the old information, but the argument is by no means conclusive.
43

Pace Geller, 'Cleft sentences', 15, n. 5. This is in line with our conclusion re garding the order PPr-Ptc, see Section IIC above. Lohse, Texte aus Qumran, 75, takes ... -KDnprn'TD as a complete NC: 'Die Erbauer der Mauer, das sind die, die hinter "Zaw" hergehen .... Sie sind durch zweierlei gefangen', but most other translations (Garcia Martinez, Gar cia Martinez and Van der Woude, Rabin, Knibb, Vermes) interpret the words between DCDQn3on ... i s n n R as an interpolation. The clause in CD 7.15 seems to explain Amos 5.26, UDSbo mso, which would indicate that minn n a o is the Rh, but the clause is followed by "10R "KDto rfrESinnnrDTonn'mD'pm (= MT Amos 9.11 rf?DrrTnrDonKD p which might indicate that "pan roio is the Rh). Moreover, two lines below we have CD 7.17-18, ...TWDW3ttnB0DnDHafaCT]VDi, where D w a s v B O is the Rh. The clause in 19.9 is preceded by Zee 13.7, ]R:$n nr^iom, which would indicate that TITH nnoin is the Rh, but ]R *n "as? refers to Zee 11.11, 'nfc onoon ]R2ffi wp, which does not occur in the text. Remarkably, both clauses are found in the parallel parts of the Damascus document, but the former appears only in MS A, whilst the latter can only be found in MS B. On the difficult question of the textual history of these pas sages, cf. Davies, Damascus Covenant, 143-72; Strickert, 'Damascus Docu ment', 327-49; Brooke, 'Amos-Numbers Midrash', 397-404; Brooke, Exegesis at Qumran, 302-309; von der Osten-Sacken, 'Bcher der Tora', 423-33; Murphy OConnor, 'Literary analysis', 210-232; Murphy O'Connor, 'Original text of CIX, 379-36; White, 'Comparison of the "A" and "B" manuscripts', 537-53. Interestingly, Goshen-Gottstein ('Hebrew syntax', 100-106) found a similar clause in Isaiah, Isa 9.13-14, with the same structure and which he also
&
1 ,

4 1

4 3

identified as a gloss: titan Kin D'xrtwri p r nm a? ]1D&) HQD zun t a ^ - r ' Q "rrp!3

a^R ^TJ ^TrytaR'?^ Here, indeed, the NPs w n n and formation.

contain the old in

12

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

C: Rh-Th(ppr) II Ex The third type of tripartite NC consists of a simple clause of which the first constituent is an indefinite NP as P and a pronoun as S, followed by an extraposed element. In our corpus, there is only one clear in
stance of this type, viz. 11QT 60.19-20 n*7K notf bio ^b nan namn *a (compare 11QT 52.4-5 ^b non natfin o ) .
4 4

To this same type belong clauses with an initial interrogative ele ment. The simple NC has the order rheme-theme, and again the last NP is in apposition. This type is only attested in poetry. In its pure form it does not occur in our corpus, but it is found, for example, in
1QH 15(7)32-33 p ^ n n ] -[ K^Q iwaaa p a r i n g bin bmn inn B P * Kin noi.

An interjection is inserted after the interrogative pronoun, as in 1QS


11.20 naK*?B ' B r a n D I K p nam *]K n a i .
1 45

D:ExllRhTh(pp )
r

The last type of tripartite NCs only differs from the previous one in the position of the extraposed element. As in the previous examples, the bipartite NC has an indefinite NP as predicate followed by a subject pronoun. Our corpus contains only one clear instance of this
type, viz. CD 9.2-4,1DT31 Kin Dpi].. .nOK m a n {'Kao} EPK bo\ where the

extraposed element has a very long relative clause. Other similarlooking cases, where an Inf is involved, are not certain, for example CD 9.1, Kin iron*? D'ian 'pina O ~ I K Q D I K D ' * T P * I B ? K {uir\) bo (cf. Lev 27.29), and 1QS 7.16 ,onKDnHinn ? ?'Dn -] ? D anattrHi, where the pronoun should probably be regarded as the grammatical object of the infinitive in view of parallel constructions like 1QS 5.17-18, 7ia K O nnb nEK *?ia P K I Q P I K bnnnb m n a a lacon: K I * ? I B K , and 1QS 7.17, inn'TBP. Finally, one parallel example may be included here, all l , , , ,
4 7

46

The fact that in our clause the Qumran scribe intentionally avoided using the divine name that is present in the underlying Deut 18.12, nto"*?3 naifiTPD, obviously does not imply that the result in Qumran He brew should be grammatically awkward. Of exactly the same type is 1QH 20(12).31 TED 30 inoK noi. Although most commentators assume the interjection to be a closer parallel would be BH KiQK. In Biblical Hebrew, *)K is never used in this way (2 Kgs 2.14, Rin~*|R, is probably corrupt [LXX a<p<p<o = RiDK?]), but compare Gen 27.33, "J^n RiQR 'Q. The interjection RiDK is frequently used in connection with questions, e.g. Isa 19.12 -peon RISK D. Compare also Exod 33.16, Isa 22.1, Judg 9.38, Job 17.15. But the clause type as such is by no means unusual; cf. Jouon-Muraoka, Grammar, 154i; Muraoka, Emphatic, 75-76. Pace Qimron, Hebrew, 400.8, p. 76: 'the pronominal object is expressed by the independent pronoun: n t o n n ^ y . Contrast Leahy, 'Studies', 142, and
,1 4 5 4 6 4 7

4 4

BAASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES

13

though the extraposed element is a PP: 11QT 25.10-11 Brnrnrrnwm


KinDmsDDV nrr.

Bibliography Andersen, F.I., The Hebrew Verbless Clause in the Pentateuch.. JBLMon, 14; Nashville/New York: Abingdon Press, 1970. Azar, M. [ i m HED], miaon ]wb T2nn (The Syntax of Mishnaic Hebrew). Jerusalem/Haifa: The Academy of the Hebrew Language/University of Haifa, 1995. Basser, H., 'Pesher Hadavar: The Truth of the Mattel, RQ 13 (1988), 389^*05. Bendavid, A. [TH3nfcOK],D'oan pefri t o p o yiwfr (Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic Hebrew). 2 vols. Second ed. Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1967-71. Bernstein, M.J., 'Introductory Formulas for Citation and Re-Citation of Biblical Verses in The Pesharim: Observations on a Pesher Technique', DSD 1 (1994), 30-70. Brooke, G.J., The Amos-Numbers Midrash (CD 7,13b-8,la) and Messianic Expectation', ZAW 92 (1980), 397-404. , Exegesis at Qumran. 4QFlorilegium in its Jewish Context (JSOTSup, 29; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1985), 302-309. Brownlee, W.H., The Midrash Pesher of Habakkuk. Missoula: Scholars Press, 1979. Chafe, Wallace L., 'Givenness, Contrastiveness, Definiteness, Subjects, Topics, and Point of View', in Subject and topic (ed. C.N. Li; New York/London: University Press, 1976), 25-55. Charlesworth, J.H., et al. (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls. Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek Texts with English Translations., I: Rule of the Community and related documents. Tubingen/Louisville: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck)/Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. Cohen, D., La phrase nominale et l'volution du systme verbal en smitique. Etudes de syntaxe historique. Leuven/Paris: Peeters, 1984. Contini, R., Tipologia dlia frase nominale nel semitico nordoccidentale del I millennio a.C. Pisa: Giardini, 1982. Davies, P.R., The Damascus Covenant. An interpretation of the 'Damascus Document'. JSOTS up, 25; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1983. Driver, S.R., A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other
Kesterson, Tense Usage, 237, n. 34, who consider the pronoun in HRin rbvb as the grammatical subject of the Inf. A similar case, not mentioned in Qimron's grammar, is CD 16.11 Rvm'pn ? pa =]Dn.
1

14

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Syntactical Questions. Third ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892. Garcia Martinez, F., Textos de Qumrn. Madrid: Trotta, 1992. , The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: the Qumran Texts in English. Translated by W.G.E. Watson. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994. and A.S. van der Woude, De Rollen van de Dode Zee. Ingeleid en in het Nederlands Vertaald., III. Kampen/Tielt: Kok/Lannoo, 1994-1995. Geller, S., 'Cleft Sentences with Pleonastic Pronoun. A Syntactic Construction of Biblical Hebrew and some of its Literary Uses', JANES 20 (1991), 15-33. Goshen-Gottstein, M.H., 'Hebrew Syntax and the History of the Bible Text: a Pesher in the MT of Isaiah', Textus 8 (1973), 100-106. Hoftijzer, J., The Nominal Clause Reconsidered', VT 23 (1973), 446510. Jespersen, O., The Philosophy of Grammar. London/New York; Allen and Unwin, 1929. Joon, P., and T. Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Rev. ed. 2 vols. Subsidia Biblica, 14. Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico,1991. Kaddari, M.Z. [ m p ox DD3Q], I D ] bwB non SOS - m a n *ePKn lion bv
qoBiRp T " n r a ^~bv] rroan ]wbn, in n n a r a np'tMooi Tarm

topon nntf?0 (Post-Biblical Hebrew Syntax and Semantics. Studies in Diachronie Hebrew; Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan Univer sity Press, 1991), 263-268. , O'QDn ]wbn "TTOn nm'n Tpan bv (Pronominal 'Copula' in Mishnaic Hebrew), in np'tMRDOl Tnnn (see above), 248-63. Keizer, M, Evelien, Definiteness and Indefiniteness: a Scalar Representation. Working papers in functional grammar, 26; Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, Institute of General Linguistics, 1988. Kesterson, J.C., 'Tense Usage and Verbal Syntax in Selected Qumran Documents'. PhD diss., Catholic University of America, Washington D.C., 1984. Khan, G., Studies in Semitic Syntax. London Oriental Series, 38. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Knibb, M.A., The Qumran Community. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press, 1987. Leahy, T.W., 'Studies in the Syntax of 1QS', Bib 41 (1960), 135-57. Licht, J. [CD' ? apjr], rrnrr i m o r r i ^ o o r o n o n rtvm (The Rule Scroll. A Scroll from the Wilderness of Judaea. lQS-lQSa-lQSb). Jerusalem: Bialik, 1965. Lohse, E., Die Texte aus Qumran. Hebrisch und Deutsch. Fourth ed. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1986. Lyons, J., Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge
1

BAASTEN: NOMINAL CLAUSES

15

University Press, 1968. , Semantics. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Michel, D., 'Probleme des Nominalsatzes im biblischen Hebrisch', ZAH7(1994), 215-24. Muraoka, T., Emphatic Words and Structures in Biblical Hebrew. Jerusalem/Leiden: J. Magnes/E.J. Brill, 1985. , V'm peftai mmaan topon p^a ->:avn pioan (On the Nominal Clause in Late Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic Hebrew), in ]wb^ Dnpno (Hebrew Language Studies, 4; ed. M. Bar-Asher; Jerusalem, 1990), 219-52, xviii-xix. Murphy O'Connor, J., 'A Literary Analysis of Damascus Document VI,2-VIU', RB 78 (1971), 210-32. , 'The original text of CD 7:9-:2 = 19:5-14', HTR 64 (1972), 379-86. Niccacci, A., 'Simple Nominal Clause (SNC) or Verbless Clause in Biblical Hebrew Prose', ZAH 6 (1993), 216-27. , 'Marked Syntactical Structures in Biblical Greek in Comparison with Biblical Hebrew', Liber Annuus 43 (1993), 9-69. Nitzan, B. .3], (lQpHab)rnirvnano nV^aoo pipannosrfrxzlA Scroll of the Wilderness of Juda). Jerusalem: Bialik, 1986. von der Osten-Sacken, P., 'Die Bcher der Tora als Htte der Ge meinde: Arnos 5,26ff in der Damascusschrift', ZAW 91 (1979), 423-33. Qimron, E. pnQ'p ^ ^ L n n i n ' n a T Q n T ^ ^ ^ n n a O T j i ^ p i i p n . PhD diss., Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1976. , The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls.. HSS, 29. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986. , 'The text of CDC in Magen Broshi (ed.), The Damascus Document Reconsidered (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Shrine of the Book, 1992), 9-49. , The Temple Scroll. A critical edition with extensive reconstructions. With bibliography by F. Garcia Martinez. Beer Sheva/Jerusalem: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev/Israel Exploration Society, 1996. Rabin, C , The Zadokite Documents. Second ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958. Sappan, R. []DO ^KEn], rrmpon m'n ywh n'armn Tirrvr (The Typi cal Features of the Syntax of Biblical Poetry in its Classical Pe riod). Jerusalem: Kiryat-Sefer, 1981. Strickert, F.M., 'Damascus Document VII, 10-20 and Qumranic Mes sianic Expectation', RQ 12 (1986), 327-49. Tov, E., 'Glosses, Interpolations, and Other Types of Scribal Additions in the Text of the Hebrew Bible', in Language, Theology and the Bible: Essays in Honour of James Barr (ed. S.E. Balentine and J. Barton; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994), 40-66.

16

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Vermes, G., The Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Fourth ed. London: Pen guin Books, 1995. White, S.A., 'A comparison of the "A" and " B " Manuscripts of the Damascus Document', RQ 12 (1987), 537-53. Yadin, Y., The Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness. Translated by B. and C. Rabin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962. Zewi, Tamar, The Nominal Sentence in Biblical Hebrew', in Semitic and Cushitic studies (ed. G. Goldenberg and S. Raz; Wiesbaden: Otto Harassowitz, 1994), 145-67.

DEVELOPMENTS IN HEBREW VOCABULARY BETWEEN BIBLE AND MISHNAH John Elwolde (Sheffield)

Contents
Introduction, p. 18 Section I: Lists and tables List 1: Words found only in inscriptions of the bibli cal period, p. 19 List 2: Words found only in later inscriptions, p. 22 List 3: Words found only in Ben Sira, p. 22 List 4A: Words found only in the Genizah Psalms, p. 23 List 4B: Words found only in 4QMMT,p.23 List 4C: Words found only in General Qumran litera ture, p. 24 List 4D: Words found only in the Copper Scroll, p. 25 List 4E: Words found only in texts from Murabba'at and Nahal Hever, p. 25 Lists 5A-I: Words not attested in MT but found in both Ben Sira and the Genizah Psalms, etc., p. 26 Lists 6A-C: Words attested in MT that occur with equal or greater frequency in the non-biblical corpora, p. 27 Table 1: Size of the four cor pora in relation to the pre-mishnaic corpus as a whole, as measured by the frequency of words (tokens) beginning with

Alef to Zayin (excluding Waw),p.28 Table 2: Vocabulary found in each corpus as a propor tion of pre-mishnaic vo cabulary as a whole, p. 29 Table 3: Proportion of vo cabulary unique to each non-biblical corpus, p. 29 Table 4: For Dead Sea Scrolls only, proportion of unique to shared vocabu lary, excluding hapax legomena and proper nouns, p. 30 Key to tables 1-4, p. 30 Section II: Observations List 3: Words found only in Ben Sira, p. 30 List 4C: Words found only in General Qumran litera ture, p. 34 List 6A: Words attested in MT that occur with equal or greater frequency in the non-biblical corpora 1: The influence of ideology, p. 35 2: Semantic develop ments, p. 36 3: Developments in derivational mor phology (Lists 3, 4C, 6A),p. 42 Section III: Conclusions, p. 48

18

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Introduction The purpose of the lists and tables in Section I is to start to give an objective picture of innovation and development, synchronic and diachronic, in the vocabulary of all Hebrew texts prior to the compila tion of the Mishnah. Perhaps despite initial appearances, the data available are really very limited, and enable only the most tentative conclusions to be drawn. Most, but not all, of the data listed below also find a place in Section II, where I draw attention to various lin guistic features and processes they seem to embody. Much of the discussion in Section II is based on the data in List 6A of Section I, which functions in effect as a cross-section of vocabulary attested in both the biblical and non-biblical corpora (mainly the Scrolls). Given the relative size of corpora, as shown by Table 1 (especially the last two lines), any word that has a frequency at Qum ran greater than fourteen percent of its frequency in the pre-mishnaic corpora as a whole (or greater than seventeen percent of its frequency in the Bible), is striking. The items presented in List 6A are simply the most remarkable of this group, statistically speaking. In Section III, I make some remarks about the significance of the data for the division of the Hebrew language into periods and dialects. I have not com mented on the import of Lists 5A-I, as the data are so limited, and my discussion of the inscriptional material (Lists 1-2) is relegated to the end notes (5-10). With some modifications, the data are extracted principally from Vols. III (alef to waw) of the Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (edited by D.J.A. Clines; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993, 1995) and from work in progress on zayin to be included in the next volume (1996), covering, therefore, roughly a quarter of the Hebrew attested prior to the Mishnah. Within this alphabetic range, the data included should be near-exhaustive. The four pre-mishnaic corpora recognized by the Dictionary are the Bible (minus Aramaic portions), the Hebrew manuscripts of Ben Sira, the Dead Sea Scrolls (more specifically, the non-biblical manuscripts in Hebrew from Qumran, Murabba at, and so on), and Hebrew inscriptions, mainly from the biblical period, but also later. Of course, in many cases the linguistic status of many of the forms listed is uncertain and their vocalization tentative.
1 c 2 3

Equally remarkable, although without a place in the present paper, are highfrequency biblical words that are unattested or rare in post-biblical corpora, especially if genre does not appear to be responsible for their absence. In this respect, pesharim and other works that frequently quote or para phrase the Bible are regarded as 'non-biblical'. Moreover, words that receive no statistic in the Dictionary, usually because

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

19

To assist in tracing linguistic developments, in some of the lists in Section I, I have separated late inscriptions from early, and, on the ba sis of assumed dating, the Genizah Psalms, 4QMMT, the Copper Scroll, and the Murabba at and Nahal Hever material from 'General Qumran' literature, that is, from the rest of the Dead Sea Scrolls. A bracketed figure after a form indicates its frequency. A statistic of the kind A [B:C] means that in any two sub-corpora a form occurs A times overall, of which B occurrences are in the first named subcorpus and C occurrences are in the second. In Lists 6A-C, the statisti cal format A:B:C(:D) indicates that a word occurs A times in the Bible, B times in Ben Sira, C times in the Dead Sea Scrolls (and, if greater than zero, D times in the inscriptions). The V symbol indicates that the assumed root of a given form is also clearly attested in the Bible. Marcus Jastrow's Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (Two vols, in one; New York: Judaica Press, 1992 [originally pub lished Philadelphia, 1903]) has been cited as a readily-available lexi cographical tool for the study of tannaitic and amoraic literature, al beit one that leaves much to be desired after a century of research in the field.
4 c

Section I: Lists and tables List 1: Words found only in inscriptions of the biblical period Names of persons and places: 3 (3), ^ a a R (1), TraK (1), p o a R (2), nun* (2), innaR (l), ^ r a n (l), nm (2), &rm (8), nmm (2), hwrm (l), j i r (l), r q p f r (5), i t w k (1), t o r ^ r (1), Ra*?R (l), nafrR (3), na^R (l),
- I R ^ R (3), -]DOP]*?R (3), W P ^ R (8), m ^ R (1), Dip ft* (3), "[DD^R (1),

*Otxh* (1), OifrR (1), '3K (1), MVm (3), 'DOR (1), ^DR (1),TODR(2), mDR (8), r b r (8), mrrem (9), r j b r (2), n n e m (l), o n R a (l), - u a (l), m n n a / v n a (3), *?anna (3), p a (l), nann rva (l), o a (2), - m o o n (l), raaa (1), bmvn (l), m n r a (2), Rbra (5), n o t ^ r a (l), wnbvn (l), pibvn (2), nan6jn (l), * a (l),rapa(l), Rna (l), o n a (l), in^rci (5), na: (l), *h (1), KTl (1), mni/Vll (20), ^ (person) (1), vvtyto (3), bnn (1), ^Itt (3), na (l), inna (l), 'qcd; (1), nns m (1), m m (l), nan (l), vrrfn (l), r ^ q i

they require reconstruction or have been read in different ways, are not in cluded in our lists. An example from Qumran is onj'n'jntK] 'juniper cedar(s)' at 4QJub [4Q219] 1.2.7, noted by Dr S.E. Fassberg in his recent generous re view of Volume I of the Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (DSD 2 [1995], 355-57). Four hymns from the Cairo Genizah, dated by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, Jerusalem, to just after Ben Sira, although their judgment is debat able.
d 4

20

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

(4), rr+xn (4), w a r n (l), T T O T I (2), p a n (l), nasi (1), oian (l), (l), rpbxn ( I 2 ) , m n n (1), e m (l), *OT (l),* ?! (l), TPTDT (1), jpr (l);
5 1 6

women's names: KTHK (1), "[^QnnR (1), aafrR (1); other: DOK 'to store' (2) V, rnr 'fissure' (l).
8

Possibly just part of an alphabetic sequence (Kadesh Barnea ost. 1). Nimrud ivory inscription 3; it is unclear whether the first letter is a zayin or a sade. A further possible example, from outside our alphabetic range, of a new proper name is found on the earliest Hebrew 'document' we havean ostracon from Khirbet Tannin that has been dated (by A. Lemaire) to the eleventh century BCEwhich may contain the name 2703 (presumably related to bibli cal nDQ3), although it is possible that the letters should be read in reverse order to yield, more prosaically, the noun ]0 'oil'. But see note 87. Another word from the present alphabetic range occurring only in the inscriptions might be T D T (IDT), apparently 'pruning', in line 6 of the Gezer calendar; however, it is possible that the same word also occurs in the Bible, at Cant 2.12.
6 7 8

Further to the inscriptional material provided, the following statistics and comments are provided to help in evaluating inscriptions as a supplementary corpus to the Bible. An analysis of G.I. Davies's comprehensive catalogue of the inscriptions (Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance [Cam bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991]) indicates 1,372 inscriptions dating from around 1000 to 200 BCE. This figure excludes inscriptions that contain, say, only numbers, but includes those that contain, say, just one isolated let ter. All told, the inscriptions make up 2,763 lines (usually very short) of text, and originate from 63 different sites, mainly in the south of Israel between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, but sometimes also from places very far re moved from the borders of Israel. The inscriptions contain some 5564 running words (tokens) distributed over 1184 distinct items of vocabulary (types), usually words as regularly understood, but also letters of the alphabet or al phabetic sequences, for example. 677 words occur just once and just five words occur over a hundred times ('and', 'in', 'from', 'to', and 'son'). Because of the large number of seals bearing the name of the owner and used for 'signing' documents, the vocabulary of the inscriptions is dominated by names of people, many well-known from the Bible, others not, and it should be noted that various significant biblical names, including Dmittt, DTK, pmr, npi?\ and ipyn are not attested in early Hebrew inscriptions. ( T n r v n in the Aramaic inscription from Tel Dan is not strictly relevant here.) Also inter esting from a religious and cultural perspective is the way in which the in scriptional names show how the 'Canaanite' deities Baal and Anath main tained their appeal to parents faced with the perennial problem of naming a new child. Linguistically, the inscriptional names are significant because of their occasional use of an otherwise unknown Hebrew word, as in mefrR, and, more often, for their application of existing Hebrew words to proper names, for example "ansa, in, Dpn, nssK, nm, "moo, and pr, signifying perhaps, re-

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

21

spectively, 'on account of God', lie has dealt treacherously', lie has sought', 1 shall break out', Isald', 'a lamp has glimmered', and lie grows old', or for providing a variation on an existing biblical name, for example ]T3 (inscrip tions), ^aa/'TQ (Bible), 'DDO * (inscriptions), "BTDDOp] (Bible), naw (inscriptions), TO?: and Dm (Bible). Sometimes a word known from the Bible can have a rather different meaning in the inscriptionsfor example, the well-known words HQK 'maid servant' and a*?D 'dog' may be better translated in some of the inscriptions along the lines of lady-in-waiting' and '(your) servant'. Notably, the inscriptions sometimes provide an additional usage or an extended meaning for a biblical word, which is particularly valuable in re spect of hapax legomena. Thus, for example, the verb bm3 means l>e aston ished' at Jer 14.9 but 'remain silent' in the Yavneh Yam letter (although the reading is contested) and mi apparently means l?e faint' in Lachish ost. 3.7 but 'menstruate' at Lev 12.2. (Strikingly, the root is instantiated in two later forms, ]n 'grief [4QpsEzek (4Q385) 3.1] and, in the same sense, 7PM [Genizah Psalm 4.2]; it has also been conjectured for yi 'judgment' three times in Ben Sira. Perhaps, then, ]'n in some manuscripts of m. Abot 2.7 (for rQHn) is more likely to be a by-form of rabbinic ]VT 'grief than of ] O j n 'weariness', al though the interchange of zvazv and bet is, of course, attested, notably in the place name Jabneh.) Similarly, rran 'weeping', at Gen 50.4, is now perhaps at tested in a seventh-century inscription (I. Beit Arieh, 'A Literary Ostracon from Horvat 'Uza', Tel Aviv 20 [1993], 55-63). vpn lialf-shekel' is found on two weights (like the mysterious D'Q, or two-thirds of a shekel, at 1 Sam 13.21), and the relatively common biblical weight nil, or twentieth of a shekel, is even better attested in the inscriptions, and is found at least once in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The form innDT 'Zemariah' in a seventh century seal from Egypt tends to support emendation of the name ni'QT at 1 Chr 7.8 to the theophoric form reflected in the Septuagint. A striking example of a meaning that is attested from a very old inscrip tion (Gezer calendar) and is also found at Qumran (1QS 10.7) is m r 'seed' in the sense of 'sowing' or 'seed-time', attested just twice in the Bible (Gen 8.22; Lev 26.5). The high frequency of m a 'wall' in the inscriptions is of little semantic help, as the form occurs exclusively on jar handles from Gibeon and its pre cise significance is unclear: it almost always appears after the name and is, then, perhaps part of a compound place name, "nrpioa. The lack of vocabulary, other than names, unique to ancient inscriptions, tends to give the lie to the oft-stated 'truism' that Biblical Hebrew is only 'a fragment of a language'. Were this so, we should expect not only rather more new words to crop up in the inscriptions than actually do but also that a sig nificant proportion of these should recur in the post-biblical period. But in fact, the nearest we come in our lists to such liibernating' words is "fti and rhl from Lists 6B-C, and, if the Moabite evidence is counted, m / T 0 K , in List 5C. The evidence indicates instead that although the frequency of many words (tokens) in the Bible is very low and can, therefore, usefully be raised
1 a

22

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

List 2: Words found only in later inscriptions


Women's names: rTDK (1), m (1), pan (1); men's names: HOD^II (1); other words, attested in Jastrow: W P (rrxn) 'Beshanite' (4) V, TTCi 'proselyte' (1) V.
9

10

Ltsf 3:

Words /bund on/y in Ben Sira


7
11

Unattested in Jastrow: [ n p a 'decorous' (2) V, 'to slander (2), J E a 'blemish' (1), ]rm 'proud' (1) V,Tiaa 'might' (1) V, *a 'body' (1) V,
jna 'death' (1) V, w w 'nonsense' ( l ) , run 'to dazzle' (1), n-pnr

by including the inscriptional evidence, the Bible is a reasonably complete source for the vocabulary (types) of Hebrew during the biblical period. Finally, we note two examples of phonetic or orthographic uncertainty (or perhaps dialect variation) in the inscriptions: in Arad ost. 24 we find UStnn for D?ti?p *by your life' and DTpnm for DTP?*! ' command them', indicating that the phenomenon well-known from rabbinic texts, in forms like iTppi ? (m. Ta'anit 2.9) for JPp^n ? 'to break up' and nap (m. Bek 7.6) for naa 'bald', has a much older history, as evidenced as well by the variation [TPinrao/n^nnQQ 'Miv/ftahiah' in the Elephantine papyri.
a n d 1 1

For the lexical merger here, compare TOD 'house of David', perhaps in the 'idiomatic' sense of 7udah' (but see N.P. Lemche and T.L. Thompson ,'Did Biran Kill David?: The Bible in the Light of Archaeology', JSOT 64 [1994], 3-22: i n n ' 3 is the temple at Jerusalem [p. 15]; E.A. Knauf, A. de Pury, and T. Rdmer, '*BaytDawid ou BaytDdd?', BN 72 [1994], 60-69: 11TO refers to a cult object venerated at Dan [pp. 66-67]; 'On the Reading "BYTDWD" in the Ara maic Stele from Tel Dan', JSOT 64 [1994], 25-32: m refers either to an Israelite deity, probably Y., or to a high-ranking Israelite officer [p. 27]; see also H.-P. Miiller, 'Die aramaische Inschrift von Tel Dan, ZAH 8 [1995], 121-39, espe cially 125-26; F.H. Cryer, 'On the Recently-Discovered "House of David" In scription', SJOT 8 [1994], 3-19, especially 19) at line 9 of the Aramaic inscrip tion from Tel Dan. Both forms (i.e. '30[>p and inrpn) reflect a universal ten dency towards the lexicalization of idioms, which extends to stress patterning and thence to orthography. The lack of vocabulary emerging from inscriptions between 200 BCE and 200 CE reflects the paucity probably not just of preserved sources but also of the use of Hebrew in occasional writing during the Greek and Roman peri ods. This contrasts strikingly with the literary use of Hebrew, both 'Biblical' and 'Rabbinic' at the time. Although both of the words attested reflect mor phological and phonetic developments characteristic of a living language, there are clearly insufficient data to make meaningful distinctions among 'written' and 'spoken' forms of language or dialects/sociolects. One semantic innovation attested in the early Beth-Shearim tomb inscriptions, 17 and 22 (and also in rabbinic literature), is the use of p i * 'ark' in the sense of 'coffin'. Si 13.22; as suggested by Professor Kaddari at the Symposium, perhaps this is not an interjection but simply a repetition of the imperative of ra, meaning
9 1 0 1 1

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

23

'brightness', TtfT little' (1), m r 'stranger' (1); attested in Jastrow: onK 'compulsion' (1) V, HQDR 'pressure' (1) V, n m a 'death' (1) V, rn^Q: 'recompense' (1) V, HE)} 'riverbank' (1) V , p ; n a 'glutton' (1) V, mbl 'poverty (2) V, - p i 'to sleep' (1), p'fti 'experienced' (1), Tnr 'cautious' (4) V, mi 'to m o v e V b e high' (1), PIT 1 * strong' ( l ) .
12 13

List 4A: Words found only in the Genizah Psalms


Unattested in Jastrow: OIK 'people' (3) V , Dipn 'power (?) (1); attested in Jastrow: -"TO* l y y a r ' (3), m i 'grief (1) V, n*mn '(song of) thanksgiving' (2) V, ITT 'trembling' (1), moa 'as' (1) V, bun 'to remit' (1), rrtOTD 'pearl' (1) Greek, ]Dm 'compassionate' (1) V.
1 5 16 1 4 7

Lis* 4B; Words found only in 4QMMT Unattested in Jastrow: Ken 'fat ashes' ( l ) , nrapiOT 'setting (of sun)' (1) V, rDDB 'penis' (1) V, "]in 'cleave' (2); attested in Jastrow: HQIO 'blind person' (1), matf 'pregnant beasf (1) V .
1 7 18

something like 'go away*, similar to the form so (imperative of soi), 'cease', which immediately follows. Perhaps the form should be vocalised not naa but nsa, as suggested at the Symposium by Professor Muraoka. In the margin of Si 33.7 (B), where the main text reads smx 'arm' Only the plural form D'DK, appar. D'QK, occurs, three times. Although this masculine plural is found once in the Bible, at Ps 117.1 (where some recom mend emendation to us or DK ?), it is not attested at Qumran or in the tannaitic corpus, although HDIR and its regular feminine plural moiR are very common there (and once at Qumran: 4QD [4Q266] 18.5.10). Apart from tending to confirm the integrity of the text at Ps 117.1, the form found in the Genizah Psalms would seem to support their early dating (see note 4; A. EvenShoshan, in his Ha-Millon He-Hadash [7 vols.; Jerusalem: Kiryat Sefer, 1980], shows DR, in the singular, as attested much later, in a piyyut, but perhaps only as an artificial back-formation from the biblical plural). I thank my colleague, Dr David Stec, who is preparing a study of the Genizah Psalms, for drawing my attention to this matter. Not TVTi but rmi, according to the Academy of the Hebrew Language's mi crofiche corpus and concordance (The Academy of the Hebrew Language: The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew language, Materials for the Dictionary [Series 1:200 B.C.E.-300 CE.; Jerusalem, 1988]). The Academy of the Hebrew Language prefers s?\, not JW. 4QMMT B 31, apparently a pseudo-correct form of ]en arising from nasal ization of final vowels (see Professor Qimron's explanation at p. 72 of DJD, X [Elisha Qimron and John Strugnell, Qumran Cave 4, vol. V: Micjsat Ma ase HaTorah [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994]). In fact, the verb is registered in rabbinic literature but apparently with a different meaning. The two nouns are also attested, but in different mishqalim.
1 2 1 3 1 4 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 c 1 8

24

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SlRA

List 4C: Words found only in General Qumran literature Names of persons and places: OT^OK (2) (Latin), OID'PJK (1) (Greek), nesrra (1), n^a (1), ^loa (name of jubilee year) (113), ermn (2), TO *?:rn (1), oiD^rr (1), oiDpnn (l), *pfrmt (1), ^ T D T (l); other words, unattested in Jastrow: "[CHK 'rafter, doorway, posf (1) (Persian); 'storehouse' ( 8 ) , p K 'sighing (1) V,TOBK'nothing (4), rrriK 'curse' (1) V, ]-n[K] 'form' (15), KO 'mockery' (1) V , p 'understanding' (1) V, tf 'mixing' (1) V, V?l 1 * foul' (8) V, n n D ) 'glowingness' ( l ) , Ml 0>e angry ( l ) , Oil 'cleanness' (1), ]T1 'grief (1) V, npil 'new moon' (16), r&l Tiave doors' (1) V,opi 'beat' (l), pjian/'an 'meditation' (7)
19 20 7 7 21 22 23 24 25

The last four words occur in 4Q341, apparently a writing exercise, l ^ m t is perhaps a 'nonsense' or 'potential' word, which, like its counterparts in such writers as Lewis Carroll, conforms to the standard phonological constraints of the author's language. All in 4Q416 and 4Q418. Florentino Garcia Martinez (The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English [Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994], pp. 383-93) renders this form variously as, for exam ple, 'graciously , Tdndness', 'extension'. However, it is not clear whether the Polel and Hitpolel forms that occur at Qumran (and even in Ben Sira, at 12.14) should be viewed as exemplifying a new denominative verb from 'dung' or 'idol' (see Chaim Rabin's re mark on CD 3.17 in The Zadokite Documents [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958], pp. 12-13) or rather simply as an extended usage of the verb found in the Bible, where the Hitpolel of (I) means 'wallow , hence, 'wallow in filth' or suchlike. The Academy of the Hebrew Language do not include the first two letters of what Allegro in D/D V edition of 4QCryptic [4Q186] (2.1.1) Conn M. Alle gro, Qumran Cave 4, vol. I: 4Q158-4Q186 (DJD, V; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968], pp. 88-91) read asrnnoa.Geza Vermes (The Dead Sea Scrolls in English [Revised and extended fourth edition; London: Penguin, 1995], p. 368) seems to treat the form as the plural feminine of an adjective nipia 'glowing', as sug gested by Allegro, agreeing with VT*S 'his eyes'. Both the form and its syntac tic context are difficult, although the lexeme may occur again (see note 32). 4QH [4Q432] 4.1.4, where D W T O is perhaps a mistake forDBnnm of 1QH 3.16. All in 4QMishmarotB " [4Q321-21a], where it is also frequently recon structed. 'New moon' follows the understanding of Garcia Martinez (Dead Sea Scrolls Translated, pp. 469-70), who regards the recurrent 13 of the text as part of the verb 'come'. Perhaps more felicitously, Robert Eisenman and Michael Wise (The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered [Shaftesbury: Element, 1992], pp. 109116) render npn as 'lunar observation' and tra as a Qumran form of n 'on it', i.e. on a given date. DiDpTT in the Damascus Covenant (8.4) appears to be a Ptel, 'crush' (thus, DiopTl 'and he will crush them'), unless the form is a mistake by the scribe for DvapaTT 'and the defect will cling'.
2 0 7 7 2 2 2 3 f 2 4 a b 2 5

1 9

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH


l 2 6 27

25

V, m n l>e guilty' (1), w i 'troop' (4) V , p n 'wealth' ( 2 ) , f Q n 'pleasure' (1), HTt 'presumption' (2) V,TOTT'to reject' (1), *3T 'disgrace' (1), HQ^T 'curse' (1) V, p i t 'javelin' (4) V; other words, attested in Jastrow: i 'to bind, to unbind' (1) V, m m f * 'divinit/ (3) V, 'alef (2) V n n 'foundation' (10) V, u 'midsf ( l ) , n o : 'completion' (2) V , TTO bridge' ( l ) , - | T D l 'crushed' (1) V, p ^ l 'burning' (1) V, 'dalet' (1), n o i 'be silent' ( D / Q i 'value' ( l ) , ^ " ! 'battalion' ( l ) , r m n 'teaching^ (1) V, n m n 'teaching' (2) V, ro^n 'walking' (1) V, nsnn 'waving' (1) V, *]3H 'waving' (11) V, mnne?n 'prostration' (1) V, ip]T 'splendour' (2J, IDT 'song (3) V, lad' (5).
28
30 31 32

3 4

35

36

Lis* 4D: Words found only in the Copper Scroll Names of persons and places: nsnK ( l ) , ] ' r n e m r r a ( l ) , p p n r r a (1), Dtt?rra (1), nQH r r a (1), (1), p n (1); other words, unattested in Jastrow: ]RBOR 'stoa, portico' (1) Greek; other words, attested in Jas trow: pTODK 'vestibule' (1) Greek, HDK 'conduit' (4), m ^K 'treasure' (1) V, m n o K 'stater' (1) Greek, 3'3 'conduit' (1), n ' o m 'south' (2) V, JIT "be joined' (1), m r 'gutter' (1). Ltsf 4E: Words found only in texts from Murabba'at and Nahai Hever Names of persons and places: O 'tenoiK (1) Greek, KQ*?K (3), ]l02nK (1) Greek, n/vbvhi (4), o n : (2), o n o n (5) Greek, (1) Greek, O H T (3) Greek; other words, all attested in Jastrow: 'tnriK 'guarantor' (1) V, p** 'tree' (1) V, n^K 'excepf (2) V, 'if not' (1) V, m a 'daughter' (1) V, 'Galilaean' (1), nan 'denar (2) Latin, ]D'n 'from' (6), ran
7

2 6

3 0 3 1

3 2

3 5

All in the War Scroll. CD 4.17 and 8.7 (A; MS B [19.19] has pn). All in the War Scroll. This, like rbl and ID*?, occurs at CD 15.1, in a circumlocution of the divine name. Six times inlQH. HQPs (but perhaps this is the same word that is found at Job 20.25 and/or 30.5). Perhaps better vocalized as 1D3. At 4QapPs [4Q381] 24.2, Eileen Schuller (Non-Canonical Psalms from Qumran: A Pseudepigraphic Collection [HSS, 28; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986], pp. 115-16) prefers the interpretation 'coal' (fcODtt), which is plausible in the context. 4Q521 5.2.12. lQMyst [1Q27] 1.2.8; however, the interprtational context is extremely limited. If *oi is to be interpreted as HQl 'value', the form would be an Aramaism for *l. Both in the War Scroll. lQNoah [1Q19] 13.1 and 4Q46216; the same form occurs in manuscripts of Ps 50.11 and 80.14, where Leningradensis has n 'moving things'.
2 7 2 8 2 9 a b 3 4 3 6

26

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


7 37 7

Tiere, now' (1), T Q ' T 'penalty (1) Greek,- mnr 'purchase (1). List 5A: Words not attested in MT but found in both Ben Sira and the Genizah Psalms Attested in Jastrow: n30 'praise , (3 [2:1]) V. List 5B: Words not attested in MT but found in both Ben Sira and General Qumran literature or 4QMMT None. List 5C: Words not attested in MT but found in both Ben Sira and the Copper Scroll Not attested in Jastrow: TV>/W* 'reservoir' (1:4). List 5D: Words not attested in MT but found both in Ben Sira and at Murabba at Attested in Jastrow: nn 'to enjoy (1:1). List 5E: Words not attested in MT but found in both the Genizah Psalms and in General Qumran literature Attested in Jastrow: i r r (hitpa el) "be united, be especially addressed' (9 [1:8]) V, HErnp 'sanctity' (4 [3:1]). List 5F: Words not attested in MT but found in both 4QMMT and in General Qumran literature Not attested in Jastrow: mm 'fornication' (3 [1:2]) V; attested in Jastrow: T liandle' (2) V. List 5G: Words not attested in MT but found in both General Qumran literature and the Copper Scroll Attested in Jastrow: JJSDK 'middle' ([2:1]) Greek, 'contribution' (1:15) V, - o n 'terrace' (4 [3:1]) V.
7 c 7 c 38 39 40

3 7

3 8

Mur 45.7, but the interpretation of the form as RJQT is uncertain. Genizah Psalm 4.12 reads "im^o '00 obo lmnn, apparently 'may you, O my king, be the object of special address from the mouth of all your minis ters', unless the sense of the verb is 'may your unity be declared', as sug gested by my colleague, Dr David Stec (see note 14), or 'may your uniqueness be declared'. In any case, the sense is quite different from that found in the Qumran passages of 1QS, lQSa, and 1QH, where lrrnn, in all but one text fol lowed by a preposition, means T^e united (to, in, with)'. The taw is elided on each occasion. This is really an example of an extended meaning, or a lexicalized meta phor. In general, I have avoided registering this kind of item as a 'new word', unlike Professor Qimron in the vocabulary lists of his The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (HSS, 29; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986), and of DJD, X, from which this example is drawn. For SOI, see the discussion and bibliography in Francisco Jimenez, 'Los trminos mti y mo en el Rollo de Cobre (3Q15)', forthcoming in MEAH 45 (19%). For the Copper Scroll reading, at 2.3, is contested, with others preferring 13H (for T i n ) 'inner sanctuary (see Section II, Lists 6A-C, 2). However, Al
3 9 4 0 7

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

27

List 5H: Words not attested in MT but found both in 4QMMT and at Murabba at Attested in Jastrow: * n 'so that' (4 [3:1]) V. List 51: Words not attested in MT but found both in General Qumran literature and at Murabba at and Nahal Hever Attested in Jastrow: D T 'zuz' (3 [1:2]).
c l c

List 6A: Words attested in MT that occur with equal or greater frequency in the non-biblical corpora Names of persons and places: OIK (9:1:8), (1:0:0:1), MllK (1:0:0:1), j 'TDnrm (17:0:0:18), in' ?** (2:0:0:2), np]TOK (2:0:0:2), 3P]Pfa< (17:0:0:21), pib* (7:0:0:9), ? n t f (1:0:0:1), DOK (1:0:0:1), IOK (1:0:0:1), m a (1:0:0:1), ' j t a (1:0:0:5), m r a (1:0:0:1), ' 3 3 (2:0:0:2), (1:0:0:1), n m a (1:0:0:1), TO (1:0:0:1), ^ n m (2:0:4), n a (1:0:0:1), Dm (1:0:0:1), PRTO (5:0:0:8), P F ^ / v b l / n b l (7:0:1:6), PFmn (3:0:0:16), 1PPT (10:0:0:11); other words (ordered by frequency at Qumran): b\*
1

'God' (240:64:501:2), DDK 'truth' (127:7:204), run 'knowledge' (90:6:130), TIK 'light' (115:7:116), m m 'might' (61:13:101), nnK 'after' (96:9:87:1), niK 'sign' (79:6:84:1), nQE?K 'guilt' (19:0:78), 'lot' (77:3:78), 'worthlessness' (27:1:77), n m 'understanding' (37:1:76), ]in 'wealth' (26:5:67), ^in 'be separate' (42:2:50), TO 1>e mighty' (24:5:45), 1 3 'create' (48:11:38), ]DK 'amen' (30:0:35:1), T r a 'elect' (13:1:35), TO 'honour' (31:3:34), run 'knowledge' (5:1:32), 'battalion' (14:0:26), BTUP]R 'person' (42:19:25), TO 'inner sanctuary (16:2:23), mn 'destruction' (13:0:21), Tin 'splendour' (24:10:20), m p p 'interval' (2:0:19), ^moa 'recompense' (19:1:18), UK 'we' (1:0:17), n [ ] n a 'creation' (1:0:16), m i n 'thanksgiving' (1:1:15), rmpp 'entrance' (1:0:13), rru t>ody' (13:7:13), mar 'prostitution' (9:2:12), DtfT 0>e indignant' (12:3:11), npn 'to seek' (7:1:9), 'to abhor' (10:1:9), HDQl 'whisper' (3:0:9), ]V7T/]TIT 'presumptuousness' (11:11:9), []P"nK 'abaddon' (6:0:8), nmtt 'sighing (11:4:8), ]en 'be fat' (9:4:8), ^[1]3T 'dwelling place' (5:0:8), miK 'light' (3:0:7), jnr 'to tremble' (3:3:7), J ^ K / p i K / p O K 'might' (1:1:6), 1 1 3 'to separate' (3:0:8), 'adult' (1:0:5), ] m I 'testing' (2:0:5), m 'stump' (3:0:5), HT7 'wax' (4:0:5), mn 'to honour' (6:5:5), b n : 'tassel' (2:0:4), mi 'olive' (1:1:4), mot 'song' (4:0:4), pt 'fetter' (4:0:4), smm 'arm' (2:0:3), j m II 'fortress' (2:0:3), 'rejoicing' (2:0:3), en a 'to churn' (3:0:3), ]P]n 'judge' (2:0:3),
7

41

Wolters (The Copper Scroll and the Vocabulary of Mishnaic Hebrew , RQ 14 [1989-90], 483-95), finds l j i i not only at 2.3, but also, reconstructed, at 11.16, where Milik read pripi 'dwelling place', which would, if correct, be another common RH word attested for the first time in the Copper Scroll. The biblical statistic is 6 if the forms with unvocalized initial alef at Jer 40.1 and 4 (otherwise assumed to represent a by-form, pm) are included.
4 1

28

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


42

pPlT/npt 'flaming arrow' (3:1:3), *pt 'to raise' (2:0:3), ]P]DK 'faithful'

(3:1:2), rHDK 'agreement' (2:0:2), mnm 'pride' (2:0:2), nm 'to glide' (1:0:2), TH 'to dwell' (1:4:2), m m 'thistles' (2:0:2), mp]T 'brightness' (2:0:2), HQ^T 'raging' (3:1:2), TTK 1>e majestic (4:3:1), m 'owl' (1:0:1), 03 'to compel' (1:1:1), *]P]0B0K 'rabble' (1:0:1), p 'mud' (1:0:1), bvc/bn 'defilement' (1:0:1), ma 'wall' (14:1:1:19), bl 'abhorrence' (1:0:1), TU T>e bare' (1:0:1), m : 'gerah' (5:0:1:10), jan languishing' (1:0:1), 0H/0VT 'threshing' (1:0:1), jpron 'likeness' (1:1:1), - p n 'steps' (1:0:1), SWT 'to bark' (1:0:1), TOT'sweat' (1:0:1), 'cow' (1:1:0),
7 43

]DP]K '(appropriate) occasion' (1:1:0), nBfc Tiappiness' (1:1:0), rPD3

'weeping' (1:0:0:1), upn 'half-shekel' (2:0:0:2), nm 'be healed' (1:1:0), Dm 'to astonish' (1:0:0:1), rrn 1>e ill' (1:0:0:1), "JV7 'to crush' (1:1:0), XTl 'to weep' (2:2:0), 'BPH 'blemish' (1:1:0), *?nn 'to mock' (2:2:0), nonn 'ruin' (1:1:0), -DT 'endowment' (1:2:0), m i 'be bright' (1:2:0), ")p]QT
'pruning' (liftOrl) , n/*OT 'abhorrence' (1:2:0).
44

Lis* 6B: Words attested in MT that occur with equal or greater frequency only at Murabba'at and Nahal Hever
bbn Tiillel' (2:0:4), m 'son' (4:0:39:4), nbl 'to hang down' (1:0:1), ]PJ3T '(set) time' (4:2:5).
45

List 6C: Words attested in MT that occur with equal or greater frequency only in 4QMMT -1*71 'child' (1:0:2). Table 1: Size of the four corpora in relation to the pre-mishnaic corpus as a whole, as measured by the frequency of words (tokens) beginning with alef to zayin (excluding waw)
Letter Alef %Total Bet %Total Gimel %Total Total 71585 100 21441 100 7107 100 Bible 61883 86 17977 84 5638 79 Si 1422 2 396 2 202 3 Q 7768 11 (13) 2522 12 (14) 1104 16(20) In 512 1 546 3 163 2

4 2

4 4

CD 1.15 and 4QH [4Q427] 7.2.8; the more general term nm, lieight, pride' occurs six times at Qumran (17:1:6:1). The Qumran instance is merely the lQpHab quotation of Hab 2.7. See note 8. One of the five is from a 'General Qumran' text. At Si 43.7, JOT is not found in the Masada version. In the Bible, the noun, like its corresponding verb, is restricted to late books (Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ecclesiastes).
4 3 4 5

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

29

Dalet %Total He %Total Zayin %Total Total %Total %Ave

8201 100 13083 100 5704 100 127121 100 100

6736 82 10820 83 4656 82 107710 85 83

200 2 222 2 176 3 2618 2 2

1225 15 (18) 1978 15 (18) 817 14(18) 15414 12 (14) 14 (17)

40 1 63 1 55 1 1379 1 2

Notes to Table 1 The figures for Bet and He exclude the preposition -3 and the article and interrogative -n. The bracketed number in the Q column (see the Key below) represents the Qumran figure as a percentage of the figure for the Bible. Table 2: Vocabulary found in each corpus as a proportion of pre-mishnaic vocabulary as a whole
Alef 851 159 19 251 29 121 14 Bet 513 70 14 118 23 51 10 Gimel 371 57 15 100 27 37 10 Dalet 289 47 16 110 38 18 6 He 205 35 17 64 31 18 9 Zayin 215 52 24 91 42 21 10 Total 2444 420 17 734 30 266 11

Entries Si
%

Q
%

In
%

Table 3: Proportion of vocabulary unique to each non-biblical corpus


Alef SiU/Si %Si
%A11

Bet 3/70 4 1 11/118 9 2 21/51 41 4

Gimel 9/57 16 2 10/100 10 3 15/37 40 4

Dalet 2/47 4 1 19/110 17 7 11/18 61 3

He 1/35 5 1 19/64 30 9 6/18 30 3

Zayin 7/52 13 3 16/91 18 7 5/21 24 2

Total 24/420 6 1 91/734 12 4 99/266 37 4

2/159 1 1 16/251 6 2 41/121 34 5

QU/Q %Q
%A11

InU/In %In
%A11

30

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Table 4: For Dead Sea Scrolls only, proportion of unique to shared vocabulary, excluding hapax legomena and proper nouns
Alef QU/QS % 7/215 3 Bet 1/101 1 Gimel 2/85 2 Dalet 3/88 3 He 6/48 13 Zayin 1/78 1 Total 20/61 3

Key to Tables 1-4 All: all the entries in the dictionary for any given letter of the alpha bet; Entries: as All; HapPN: Number of hapax legomena and/or proper nouns within unique vocabulary (see U); In: inscriptions; Q: Dead Sea Scrolls (Qumran, Murabba at, Nahal Hever); S: vocabulary shared by a given corpus with the Bible and/or another non-biblical corpus (e.g. QS: vocabulary attested in the Scrolls and elsewhere); Si: Ben Sira; U: vocabulary unique to a given corpus (e.g. QU: vocabulary only at tested in the Scrolls); % All: unique vocabulary (see U) as a percentage of the entire pre-mishnaic lexicon; %Ave.: Average of the percentages for each letter under %Total; %Q (%Si, %I): unique vocabulary (see U) as a percentage of all the vocabulary found in the Scrolls (Ben Sira, in scriptions); %Total: running words (tokens) in each corpus as a per centage of the total number of running words in the pre-mishnaic corpus as a whole.
c

Section II: Observations List 3: Words found only in Ben Sira Additional rabbinic vocabulary in Ben Sira includes nra 'different' (42.24 [B], but perhaps emend era*? to D ? J ( D 'pair'), nan 'wonder (three times, or four if 11.13 is not regarded as a verb), and !3"n 'guilty' (8.5). Si 51.23 exhibits the earliest known use of the expression EniQ DO 'house of study' and Ben Sira also evidences two new adverbial phrases: nr O 'therefore' at 34.13 (followed by p bv 'therefore' in the next verse) and nv*2 'by which?' at 30.40. The latter expression is quite common in the Mishnah but unattested in the Scrolls. Ben Sira also seems to be developing an asyndetic form of object clause. Thus, for example, in addition to BH O TDT 'remember that', which itself occurs remarkably often in Ben Sira, Ben Sira also has, at 8.7, O'SOKJ llbD "DT 'remember (that) all of us are to be gathered' (with non-asyndetic parallel at 8.5), and, in the Masada manuscript of 41.3, jnrmi ]1Qip IDT 'remember (that) first and last are with you'
7 46

nrn, without prefix, is found twice in the Scrolls, at 4QD [4Q268] 1.2.

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH


47

31

(Genizah MS B has a non-asyndetic variant). "1133 (44.3) and 'la (10.9) appear to be variants of the well-known nouns miaa 'might' and mi} 'body', both of which are also attested in Ben Sira; alternatively, perhaps we should read 0"pi3 'in their being strong' (i.e. an infinitive construct of the verb "na) and i'l? liis body (i.e. a suffixed form of I ? ) . At 38.16, there seems to be a new noun, meaning 'death', derived from the biblical verb JTfl 'expire', attested in the margin as in^ (DJnn) and in the main text as njna (DnmiQ). Possibly the strange form V1T at 11.34 is a by-form of "IT 'stranger . Si 30.18 provides us with our only example of the singular form of D'^a 'idols'. Ben Sira (34.21) provides a link in a chain that connects the use of 0] 'to compel' in the late book of Esther, through CD, to the rabbinic literature, and evidences the first usage of the noun 'compulsion' (20.4). However, in respect of the frequent use in Ben Sira, and at Qumran, of mn 'body', it is striking that it is this word, found at 1 Sam 31.12, that is continued, and not the presumably later form, HQU, attested at the parallel text, 1 Chr 10.12 (even though an unmarked form, rpl, is common in RH and Aramaic). The noun m/TOR 'reservoir' occurs in Ben Sira and in the Copper Scroll, but not in the Bible. It does, however, appear (with 1, not') in the Mesha inscription of around 835 BC (written, strictly speaking, in Moabite rather than Hebrew), as well as, possibly, in the seventhcentury Tel Siran bottle inscription (Ammonite), and might, therefore, be regarded as a 'hibernating' word, which lay dormantor at least unattested in written sourcesfor over half a millennium and then gained a new lease of life. The typically rabbinic form of the feminine singular demonstra tive, IT, is now found not only on a Beth-Shearim tomb (in an appar ently pseudo-etymological spelling, with alef), but also, apparently, in Ben Sira, where, at 35.23, the evidence suggests that the text should be read as HT TWW, not rn nww (as in the Academy of the Hebrew Lan guage's edition and that of Segal). An interesting grammatical fea48

49

50

Of course, as Professor Muraoka has suggested to me, it is also possible to analyse each of these sequences as a combination of two independent sen tences. The alternative interpretations were brought to my attention at the Sympo sium by Professor Kaddari. Est 1.8, a Qal active participle, CD 16.13, a Qal passive participle, used ver bally; at 1QS 7.12, because of the spelling with sin/shin (not samekh) it is uncer tain whether the form should be understood as Qal passive of the same verb or of T>e weak' (well-attested in the Scrolls). Mosheh Zevi Segal, Sefer Ben Sira Ha-Shalem (Second ed.; Jerusalem: Bialik
4 8 4 9 5 0

4 7

32

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

ture of Ben Sira is that PHT (4 times) and nr (21 times) are never em ployed attributively. The case of n t and PIKT would appear to be an example of Ben Sira's use of allomorphs of a particular vocable, to which we may add the further example of -CD and ~)CDK. -CD occurs at least 16 times in Ben Sira as relative or conjunction and ""ICDK 57 times, a proportion (28%) broadly in line with, say, Jonah (3:12). Of particular significance in Ben Sira are those passages demon strating manuscript variation between the two forms: 16.17,34.15, and 44.9, where the Masada manuscript has -CD. The same allomorphy (as we prefer to regard it, rather than dialect interference) is attested in variant manuscripts of the Damascus Covenant. The frequency of -CD in Ben Sira is striking in view of the tendency of mediaeval copyists to make the text conform to biblical norms. Neutralization of voiced and voiceless bilabials (note the exam ples from Arad ost. 24 cited at the end of note 8 as well as ^JO/^tfS 'do' in the Bible) may lie behind the apparent development of a noun (Si 7.6) not in the biblical meaning of 'unjust gain' but as a byform of VXE bruise', hence 'blemish'; the associated verb would then seem to mean 'impute blemish', hence, in the Qal participle (Si 11.2930), 'slanderer', rather than biblical 'extortionist'.
51 52 53

Institute, 1958). The relative particle IT also had a lease of life beyond BH, de spite the evidence of lQIsa at 42.24 and 43.21 and lQpHab 4.9,13 (where HT is read for MT IT), as is now evidenced by the use of IT in an original, non-quotational, context at 4QapPs [4Q380] 44.2 (as well as twice in biblical quota tions). The alternation of the two forms in Jonah is most strikingly evidenced at 4.7-8. For the frequency of - 0 in Ben Sira, I rely on the data provided by Dr Fassberg at the Symposium; the data are not registered in the concordance of the Academy of the Hebrew Language. The ratio of - 0 to is usually either much more even or much more extreme. For example, in Psalms 135,144, and 146, - 0 occurs seven times and six and in Ecclesiastes the ratio is HZ? 70 to "KDK 89; on the other hand, 4QMMT and Song are very similar in that each employs - 0 frequently (32 times in Song, 46 in 4QMMT) but uses on just one occasion; Psalms 122-24, 129, 133, and 136-37, in which - 0 is found 14 times do not use im* at all. For a non-grammatical example, see 42.15, where M, supported by Syriac, has n a w v n r n n n 'and that which I have beheld I shall repeat', but B matches the text to that of Job 15.17, which has 'declare' instead of 'repeat'. A related change is represented by D'Q , apparently for ya* 'right hand', at 33.7, which is perhaps due to morphological or phonological influence of the language of the host community in which the scribe worked, or, alternatively, to pseudo-correction in the light of the confusion of word-final mem and nun in post-Biblical Hebrew. E.Y. Kutscher (A History of the Hebrew Language [ed.
a a 5 1 5 2 5 3 1

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

33

An interesting contrast with BH phraseology might be found at Si 50.24, where, if PHD* tib is a relative clause, 'which he will not cut for him', with n n n 'covenant as antecedent, then n m i JTD would mean not as in the Bible 'make a covenant' (this is expressed in the same verse by D'pn, literally 'establish a covenant', which is Ben Sira's preferred form of expression at 45.24 as well) but 'abrogate a covenant'. If this analysis is correct (in other words, if "KDK is not here a final conjunction, 'so that'), then it is a striking example of idiolectal loss of figurative meaning, presumably because of a perceptual
7

by R. Kutscher; Jerusalem/Leiden: Magnes Press/EJ. Brill, 1982], pp. 121-22) pointed out that early rabbinic manuscripts frequently employ nun for mem at the end of a word other than one terminating in the plural marker -im, for ex ample ]TR for DTK Tiuman being', a process that Kutscher traced back to Nehemiah for wf^D); from the Scrolls, we may also add the names D'Q'n and DHQ, the former also being well-known from the Samaritan Pentateuch. Orthographic (and phonetic) variants from Ben Sira include "ip]n ("in), used three times for biblical iKh 'form, beauty, and, in the Masada text of 42.4, D'tfO (LT3TQ)forbiblical D'tfKQ 'scales'. The same spelling, without alef but with waw as vowel letter, is also found at lQIsa (40.12,15), and is frequently paralleled elsewhere in the Isaiah Scroll (for example, 'rvsQ] for TW^Q] at 65.1), although the scribe was apparently aware of the usefulness of an etymological spelling that retained alef, as indicated by the form "oonnw at 61.6 (for n r n n [pausal] 'you will boast' in MT); however 4Q448 2.1 has a form without alef, IQ'nK T shall boast'. In such instances, we should be aware that it is not always sim ply the omission of silent alef that is at issue but also the replacement of 'consonantal' alef by yod, especially in those traditions of Hebrew, notably Babylonian, where in syllable-inital position yod hireq itself was reduced to an 'i' vowel. This shift could, of course, have a significant effect on interpreta tion; for example, six and a half-centuries after Menahem ben Saruq discussed the "Jp^VlpS^ variant at Isa 27.3 (under the entry "im) the great Masoretic commentator J.S. Norzi was still at work on the same passage; in our own day, we might compare the apparatus of BHS at Hos 8.13, where an emenda tion from the first form to the second is recommended, and at Isa 10.12, where the emendation is, with the LXX, in the other direction (this text along with others representative of the phenomenon is mentioned in GK's note to 47b). For the realization in the mishnaic period of the glottal stop as zero at word boundaries, the rabbinic literature points out a number of striking examples, often involving the object marker, in which a blasphemous reading could be obtained if care was not taken to enunciate alef and its associated vowel, for example no DD'rfPK for noKDD'n^K and *pn for*)rnn (see Werner Weinberg 'Observations About the Pronunciation of Hebrew in Rabbinic Sources', in Essays on Hebrew [ed. Paul Citrin; South Florida Studies in the History of Ju daism, 46; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993], pp. 75-99, especially pp. 87-92).
3

34

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

mismatch between the idiomatic and analytical meanings of the collo cation. That this breakdown in interpretation was not more wide spread is indicated by the continuation of n n n HID in its idiomatic sense in the DSS, at CD 15.8, 4QDibHam 3.2.13, 11QT 2.4 and 12, and, strikingly, 1QM 13.7, where m a PTD is used in synonymous par
a

allelism with n n n D ' p n .

5 4

List 4C: Words found only in General Qumran literature A further example of an RH word in the Scrolls is IpV at 4QpsEzek [4Q385] 4.8, [HjnpjnnT; here, apparently, npv literally 'root' is to be compared with Arabic asl in the same meaning, and its Hebrew reflex ^ R 'beside'; hence: 'this was beside this'. Although the word "iptf is common in rabbinic literature, this particular construction, like -C0 tjecause' at 4QMMT B 79, was not continued there (the latter de spite the RH preference for conjunctions with -B). We should also note here that the General Qumran literature (and possibly 4QMMT) provides a link between late biblical and rabbinic writings in their use of Kin HT (cf. RH in?) 'this is', found at Qoh 1.17, Est 7.5,1 Chr 22.1,4QMMT C 21, and 4QCryptic [4Q186] 1.2.8. Despite the lack of Greek and Latin loanwords in General Qum ran literature, we occasionally find a loan-translation, that is a He brew word or phrase used in the sense of its foreign counterpart. For example, in the War Scroll, bl^Q 'tower' apparently refers to a kind of battle formation (probably equivalent to the testudo or 'tortoise' of the Romans) and seems to reflect a similar military usage of Greek purgos and Latin turris (both also meaning, literally, 'tower ). Although the impact of Aramaic is as obvious throughout the Scrolls as it is in rabbinic literature, it appears to be less striking in re spect of the lexicon. Notable examples of loanwords from, or through, Aramaic include n 'secret (also in Ben Sira and frequently attested in the Aramaic of Daniel) and ~p0 'rule, rule-book', n originates from Persian, as does, for example, ""[EHR 'post , at 11QT 41.16. Perhaps,
55 56 7 7 7 57 a

5 5

5 6

5 7

Note, though, that at CD 20.12 (which, unlike 15.8, is part of the 'Admonit ion' rather than the 'Laws') the verb used in connection with both m a and its near-synonym H D Q R is D$>, whereas at Neh 11.23 m a is used with the second noun. As proposed by Professor Qimron at the Symposium and elsewhere. Where, however. Professor Qimron pointed out at the Symposium (as in D/D X), rpn HT 'this was' may be a better reading. Professor Nebe argues for a diffrent meaning, 'measure(ment)', with "|BnR as an earlier form of the Arabic (and, thence, mediaeval Hebrew) word, han-

5 4

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

35

though, because of a deliberate effort to avoid gentile, or possibly just non-biblical, influences, the number of loanwords is remarkably small in the Scrolls. Thus, while, as we have indicated, the War Scroll adapts existing Hebrew terms denoting weapons, battle formations, etc. to Greek or Latin usage (and also generates new forms, as with p-)T 'javelin' [1QM 6.2, 2, 3,151), it does not employ any actual Greek or Latin loanwords for this purpose, and in this respect provides a significant contrast to rabbinic literature.
58

List 6A: Words attested in MT that occur with equal or greater frequency in the non-biblical corpora 1: The influence of ideology The Qumran statistics for (501) are boosted by over fifty occur rences in the Scrolls (as against five in the Bible) of the plural D T ]K as constituting an assembly of angels as well as numerous new or almost new collocations such as btOKT 'God of Israel' (over 40 times, just once in the Bible), n n n 'covenant', *]K 'anger , and m i m 'strength' of God (each around ten times). The figure for Tifc Tight' (116) is accounted for in part by the frequent use of Tighf as a symbol of righteousness at Qumran, notably in the expression TlR '312 (14 times), but also in such phrases as "nan rP3 'the house of lighf (twice in 4QCryptic [4Q186]), ~m bin (and variants) lot of light' (six times, if reconstructions accepted), IIK ntfiz? 'gates of light' (three times in 4QPrQuot [4Q503]), etc. The frequent use of the noun T r a 'elect' (35) and the verb bl2 "be separate' (50) derives from the exclusivist nature of the Qumran ideologues, as does that of bvb^, apparently as
,4 59 7 60

dasa 'geometry'. The origin is still Persian, of course: Mass, Abmes sung in 11 Q Tempelrolle XLI, 16', RQ11 (1982-84), 391-99. Johann Maier makes a similar point with regard to the technical vocabulary of the Temple Scroll (The Temple Scroll: An Introduction, Translation, and Com mentary [JSOTSup, 34; Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press, 1985], p. 2). A meaning frequently expressed in the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice by DTrpj^R, even though D'Hpi?** is much less frequent than ^R at Qumran, not only in absolute terms (213:501) but also, and more strikingly, in relation to the frequency of the two words in the Bible C*K 240:501; DVipfai 2603:213). Note the Samaritan-style form rvra for w r o at 4QpIsa [4Q164] 1.3; the use of 1- for v- is well-attested in lQIsa and in the Qumran material generally (see Qimron, Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 59, and is even found in the Copper Scroll (see Yohanan Thorion, 'Beitrge zur Erforschung der Sprache der Kupfer-Rolle', RQ 12 (1985-87), pp. 163-76 (165).
5 8 5 9 4 6 0 d a

36

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

the name of a person or place (like [ ] ] 1 1 3 R ) that governs anyone outside the group. Given this group's concern about the ownership of members' wealth, it is not surprising that prr occurs so frequently: note that 14 of the 67 occurrences are in CD and 22 in 1QS. Just as all the biblical occurrences of the military term 'battalion' (if we discount Cant 2.4) are found in Numbers 1-2,10, so at Qumran the same word is found mainly in the War Scroll. 2: Semantic developments The high figure for rnfc 'sign' is mainly due to the calendrical work 4QOtot [4Q319], where it occurs around 100 times if reconstructions are included. Moreover, if Eisenman and Wise's interpretation is ac cepted, 4QOtot evidences a new usage of mfc, in the sense of 'con cordant year', that is a year at the beginning of which the sun and moon are perfectly aligned. fflR also occurs 24 times, mostly in 1QM, in the sense of 'standard, ensign', a meaning attested just three times in the Bible. Similarly, most of the Qumran instances of n n a are found in another calendrical sequence, 4QMishmarotC [4Q322-24] and represent a more obviously nomen actionis sense of 'arrival (of priestly course)', as against 'doorway, entrance' in Ezekiel and the Copper Scroll. The common RH sense of 'sexual intercourse' is absent. The extra Qumran use of not* (204 times), like that of niK light', probably reflects the emblematic status of 'truth' at Qumran, and
61 62 63 64

A point also made by Dr Fassberg in his review (see note 3). On a smaller scale, all the uses of 'stump' are found in 1QH 8. The high frequency of rmn 'thanksgiving (song)', always in the plural, is understandable given the large amount of hymnic literature at Qumran. The dominance of the liturgical genre at Qumran is responsible for the high frequency of other words such as Tin 'splendour' and 'inner sanctuary', both of which are particularly common in the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, ]QK, which is surprisingly ab sent from ShirShabb, and *?PPT '(divine) dwelling place'. At CD 13.20, 3 C D 10 appears to have the nomen actionis sense of 'session' (rather than 'dwelling place'): rmnon 22no '<order> of the meeting of the camps' (Rabin, Zadofcite Documents, p. 66). One wonders whether the predominance of this idiomatic sense has helped trigger the development of a further, neutral, abstract noun, mfcon, attested three times in the tannaitic midrashim (e.g. Sifre Numbers 104.1: nrtB mTrrm a 7D0 ff 33YDfT 'the passage distinguishes this entering from every other entering [found] in the Bible'). Similar remarks apply to 7\?2 'understanding' (although 19 of its 76 occur rences are in contexts too fragmentary to analyse) and to run and run Tcnowledge', although in the last case the impact on the statistics is not only
6 2 6 3 , l , i 6 4

6 1

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

37

there is a noticeable quantity of new collocations that apparently em ploy nDK in the sense of 'truth', rather than 'reliability', which seems to be the more common meaning in the pre-mishnaic corpus as a whole. Thus, for example,TOR'33 'sons of truth' (21 times, if restora tions, especially in 1QH, are included),TORrrn (and variants) spirit of truth' (8 times), now t^DTl 'secrets of wonder and truth' (1QS 9.18), nDtcrrno 'the measure of truth' (1QS 8.4),nDK3pn 'measure according to truth' (4Q181 2.8; 4Q416 6.6) and nDKn 3 3 0 lie down with the truth' (4Q41610.2.8). Sometimes the increased use of a form at Qumran coincides with a new, or extended, usage. For example, J n i T K 'arm' in the Temple Scroll refers specifically to the 'foreleg' of a sacrificial animal, a usage previously associated, albeit rarely, with the more common by-form jrriT; similarly, 'ma Tot' commonly refers in the Scrolls to a 'group' of people attached to light, darkness, etc., a sense not attested in the Bible, and fp 'end' takes on the meaning of 'time'. The name i p p i is used at 4QMMT C 10 in reference to the book
65 66 67

of Psalms, or the Writings as a whole (0'irapn Tiarapi ne?iQ noon

ppvm), while ] print* is applied widely at Qumran to the priestly community, as descendants of Aaron. This appears to be a parallel semantic development to the use, first found in Ezra-Nehemiah, of 'Israel' in reference to the 'laity', that is, anyone who is not a ]HD 'priest' or ' I ? 'Levite', a distinction also found in the Dead Sea Scrolls and beyond. A related new DSS usage is that of '13 in the sense of an individual 'gentile' rather than a gentile 'nation' (the former sense is especially prominent when H is the subject of particular verbs, for ex ample, rat 'sacrifice' at CD 12.9,4QMMT B 8, and 11QT 51.20). A striking example of semantic development at Qumran is seen in
4

due to the Qumran ethos, but also to the widespread use (some ten times) of the hymnic title 'god of knowledge(s)', first found at 1 Sam 2.3. Note that neither ron nor run is clearly attested in the War Scroll and that whereas run does not occur at all in Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, run is attested there some forty times. The ideological status of truth and light found at Qumran is also reflected in the fourth gospel. See Geoffrey Parrinder, 'Only One Way? (John 14:6)', ET 107 (1995-96), 78-79. Num 6.19 and Deut 18.3; however, srm also occurs at Qumran in its more general sense; indeed, at HQPs 15.14, m of Ps 136.12 is found as srm, ex emplifying a wider phenomenon (see Qimron, Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 39). As in the following clauses from the Damascus Covenant (6.10; 7.21): JWin yp bD2 rraa 'pnriTh 'to wander by means of them through all the time of the wicked one'; ywvnn rmpai yp2 icfra i f * 'these escaped at the first time of visitation'.
6 5 6 6 a 7

38

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIR A

the noun D 'jpp, which perhaps literally means interval' and occurs twice in the Bible (1 Sam 17.4,23) in the construction D'janrS?^, lit erally 'the man of the interval', in reference to Goliath as the Philistine champion who dares to go out into the 'interval' or space between his army and that of Saul. At Qumran, the word occurs nineteen times, all but one of them in the War Scroll, where, in the form D 'jppn 'ODK 'men of the interval', it appears to have become a technical term for 'skirmishers', or those soldiers who start a pin-prick attack before the battle force as a whole moves forward. In the War Scroll, they are also organized behind 'banners of the interval', they fight along a 'battleline of the interval', and some of them become 'casualties of the interval'. Evidence of the vitality at Qumran of this rare biblical word is also provided by its use in a non-military context in the Hodayot (6.13): D^nn pbo 'interpreter of the interval', apparently in the sense of 'intermediary'. The Scrolls occasionally evidence three related processes, which we may loosely label, 'sanctification', 'demonization', and 'seculariz ation'. For example, the widespread employment at Qumran of nT)3J 'strength' appears to reflect an increased tendency (in relation to the Bible) to use it as a specifically divine attribute. The same is true of Ben Sira, although in the Masada version of 43.25 Rahab is also en dowed with rTTOJ. The verb is also common in the Scrolls, espe cially in the HifHl, in which binyan it occurs eleven times in 1QH with God as subject. The biblical usage of HDQl 'whisper, hush' in the context of supernatural visitation (1 Kgs 19.12; Job 4.16) presumably underlies the frequent use in the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice of nnoi as a feature of the divine presence. The rare noun rtfQK 'agree ment' (Neh 10.1; 11.23) has a more clearly 'covenantal' significance at CD 20.12 (where it appears in parallel with m n ) and lQpHab 8.2 (un less 'faithfulness' is to be read here). Whereas the foregoing examples represent 'sanctification', an in stance of 'secularization' might be found at 3Q15 2.3 (not, of course, part of 'General Qumran' literature), where, if it is the correct reading, 101 would appear to mean not 'inner sanctuary' but 'chamber (of cave)'. 'Demonization' means that *]ppDOK 'rabble' (a hapax at Num 11.4)
68

69

6 8

fop]K 'might', a hapax at Job 17.9, is also more common at Qumran, but with less apparent specialization. Sara Japhet (The Supposed Common Au thorship of Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah Investigated Anew', VT18 [1968], 330 -71) points out (p. 364) that within the 'LBH' corpus the root fan is only attested in Chronicles, so the Ben Sira and Qumran evidence would tend to support her late dating of Chronicles (relative to Ezra-Nehemiah). Also in the Hitpa<el.
6 9

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

39
a

no longer refers to unruly Israelites but to the masses who support the army of Belial (4QMidrEschat [4Q177 (olim 4QCat )] 7.5; 30.2 [if restored]). In the same way, another hapax, r?R 'owl' (Isa 13.21), is registered as a more obviously demonic being at 4QShir Maskil [4Q510] 1.5 and HQapPs 2.12 (if restored). Other words in the Scrolls and Ben Sira have undergone connotative changes across the range positive-neutral-negative. For example, the frequency of J n *7)Q:i at Qumran suggests that through colloca tional association the determined noun more clearly takes on the neg ative sense of 'retribution' rather than merely 'recompense'. On the other hand, the use of 'to abhor' at Qumran includes one instance (4Q413 1.2) of an apparently 'positive' context, abhorrence of evil, as against abhorrence of judgment, statute, law, or discipline in Leviticus, 11QT, and 1QS. A new abstract noun ']T (4Q418 8.11) appears to mean 'disgrace' rather than, more literally (presumably), 'fornication'. In the Masada manuscript of Si 42.10, we seem to find the same usage of the HifHl of m r known from Lev 12.2, namely 'conceive', but possibly with a negative connotation, 'fall pregnant'. The use of a hapax at Gen 30.20, in the margin of the B manuscript of Ben Sira at 36.24 and 40.29, suggests that the meaning of the word had become (or perhaps always was) much more general than the biblical context might suggest ('gift' rather than 'endowment'), mn, which is especially common in the Hodayot, seems to mean there 'wickedness' and 'distress, misfortune' rather than 'destruction', al though such distinctions are difficult to ascertain. In some instances, the greater frequency of a form at Qumran or in Ben Sira simply increases our 'encyclopaedic', rather than more strictly semantic, knowledge of a word. For example, the Qumran use of b^iy 'tassel, fringe' does little to increase our understanding of what a actually was, although the War Scroll (5.5, 8) does provide us with extra items, namely shield and spear, to add to the biblical list of garments and columns on which a ^ H J could be found. The use of T T D 'olive', a hapax, at Si 50.10 and in 4 Q D " [4Q266^67], suggests, in line with common sense, that the word was more common in biblical times than its sole occurrence at Isa 17.6 would indicate. Similarly, Si 38.25 provides an additional occurrence of the presumably quite common word 'cow', which is otherwise attested only at Ps 144.14. If the Psalms text is late, perhaps ^l^fc is better viewed as a
b a a 70 a b

7 0

Along with Si 34.16, 4QWiles [4Q184] 1.3 provides an additional example of the Nif^d of bvi at 2 Sam 1.21. In the Qumran passage the sense is apparent ly *be defiled', whereas in Ben Sira, and perhaps in David's lament over Saul and Jonathan, the meaning is, rather, T>e rejected'. Perhaps 'seem abhorrent' would be a good general gloss.

40

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

lexicalization of the adjective, 'tame, domesticated', rather than as a by-form or secondary development of *F?K 'cattle'. Sometimes, the post-biblical literature can give us insights into how semantic and lexical fields were developing. Thus, the frequency of biblical *rn 'dwell' (a hapax at Ps 84.11) in Ben Sira and at Qumran, and, of course, even more strikingly in rabbinic texts, is indicative of the increasing extension of this word into territory formerly held by The typically rabbinic form ]PPl 'judge', which occurs, perhaps surprisingly, twice in the Bible and, not surprisingly, twice in the Genizah Psalms, also makes an appearance at HQPs 24.6. Again, here, we may be justified in thinking of an ever-greater incursion into the semantic territory of CDSC0. The fourfold increase in the use of nQBK 'guilt, guilty deed' at Qumran as against the Bible is due partly to ideological preoccupations but also perhaps to the natural expansion of this term, which occurs in the Bible mainly in the late books of Ezra and Chronicles, into the territory of other words for sin. The relatively frequent use of the particle "inK 'afterwards' at Qumran is matched by a marked decrease in the use of n n K , which, however, is much more common in the Bible; strikingly, the figures for Ben Sira show an intermediate stage, with the figures for both forms roughly equal. Occasionally, an additional context of usage in the Scrolls or Ben Sira throws light on the meanings of rare biblical words. For exam ple, the frequency of ttPBM 'adult' at Qumran, mostly in 4QRitMar [4Q502], helps to confirm this sense at Isa 16.7, where the parallel in
7 1 a 72

7 1

The use of mn at 4QpGen [4Q252] 1.1.2 tends to support emendation of jn,

a hapax at Gen 6.3.


7 2

At Si 48.11, the reading -)C0K is difficult, and can only very tentatively be linked to the equally difficult im, a hapax at Gen 30.13.10H at 11QT 52.12 should probably be regarded as an infinitive construct of B?n 'thresh', rather than a form of biblical VPT, a hapax at Lev 26.5, which, in context, appears not to be a simple nomen actionis but rather to mean specifically 'season of thresh ing' (compare Jni 'seed', 'seed-time'). The context provided by the Scrolls (in 4Q412 and 4Q418) for the apparent use of another hapax, m 'glide' (Cant 7.10), is insufficient for semantic analysis. The references, Qumran and biblical, for jna in the sense of 'fortress', i.e. as a by-form of jra 'watchtower', at Isa 32.14, are simply a subset of those for jrra in the traditionally accepted sense of 'testing' (those who argue for the 'fortress' meaning would vocalize the form in Isaiah as jna). Whether the Qumran evidence justifies the new meaning is doubtful: while the addition at Qumran of noin 'wall o f as nomen regens to ]na (in addition to ]3R stone, at Isa 28.16 and 1QH 6.26) tells us little beyond the fact that even ]n5i was not a completely bound collocation (or 'idiom'), the use of '33 'sons o f as nomen regens (at 4QMyst [4Q299] 2.2.14) would seem to support the 'testing' interpretation.
a

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH


73

41

Jeremiah has O'BJR 'men'. The same scroll provides a further context for ]13Kl 'languishing', a hapax at Deut 28.65. 1QS 3.2 appears to provide a further instance of another biblical hapax, 'defile-ment', significantly there, as at Neh 13.29, in the plural, although spelled rather strangely without an alef. "J^n, a rare nomen actionis (as against the more common ro^n), in the extended sense of 'steps' or 'foot', is now attested at 4Q418 as well as at Job 39.6. The Nifal of 1 3 'create', which occurs just ten times in the Bible, is very well represented in Ben Sira, where it occurs five times. The Manual of Discipline provides us with three examples of the Hitpa el of H3T 'be pure', previously attested only at Isa 1.16, and 1QS 9.9 gives us a further instance of the HifHl of "pi 'purify' to add to that of Job 9.30. ]QP]K (Prov 25.11) is also found at Si 50.27, in a similar context and, again, grammatically plural: although the exact meaning of the word in both cases is uncertain, it seems to be semantically related to the rabbinic sense of 'plan, method (of interpretation)'. In some instances, the Qumran and Ben Sira data are of interest not because they display semantic innovation but, on the contrary, because they witness to the persistence of collocational patterning. Thus, y3 'mud' at 1QH 7.2 collocates with bn 'foot' and m o 'sink', just as it does at Jer 38.22. Similarly, the collective noun mil 'thistles' is, as in the Bible, always found in the Scrolls in parallel with JTlp 'thorn', a n 'wax' is always found at Qumran (and in the early hymnic document, 6, from Murabba at), as in the Bible, preceded by -3 'as', and usually with the verb 0 0 Q in the Nif al, 'dissolve'. In both 4QapLam [4Q501] 6 and Ps 119.53, HD^T 'raging is the subject of T T T K 'seize'. TOT'sweat' is found in the phrase "|BK n^T at both Gen 3.19 and 4Q422 26.2. The Qumran use of ] H 3 K with as regens or rectum (btoW ']n3K) is presumably a lexicalization of the word pair at Prov 15.11 and 27.20 and Job 26.6.
74 c c c b 7 75 76

7 5

7 6

This interpretation is strangely absent from The New Gesenius' (Wilhelm Gesenius, Hebrisches und Aramisches Handwrterbuch ber das Alte Testament [18. Auflage; 1. Lieferung: Alef-Gimel; ed. by Rudolf Meyer and Herbert Donner; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987]). But just once in the Scrolls (4QTNaph [4Q215] 4.8). In the Qal, the Scrolls have some interesting additional objects of time: morning, evening, and age. The same collocation has been restored at 1QH 5.30. Note that the by-form of the singular without final nun, which is the Qere at Prov 27.20, is also attested at 1QM 14.18.
7 4

7 3

42

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

3: Developments in derivational morphology (Lists 3,4C, 6A) Frequently, Ben Sira and the Scrolls evidence the use of verbs in parts of speech or in binyanim in which they are not found in the Bible. For example, Ben Sira (4.4) provides us with a Pulpal of biblical "pi 'crush', a hapax at Num 11.8the Pulpal has the more 'figurative' sense of 'crushed (of soul)' (as against 'crushing manna'). The verb TU, previously only known, from Job 2.8, in the Hitpa el, 'scratch oneself, is now also attested in the Temple Scroll (49.12) in the Qal, 'scrape (door, floor, wall)'. Ben Sira and Qumran might also furnish a Hitpa el of the verb ]en 'be fat', with the Hitpa'eF meaning 'satisfy oneself. The additional Qumran usage of the verb 1p2 'seek' is due to its development of a Pi'el participle, apparently in the sense of 'overseer , found six times in the Damascus Covenant. Both Ben Sira and CD seem to provide the first attested Qal us ages of the verb Sin l^e culpable', common in rabbinic literature. Ben Sira also yields a participle of another hollow verb, G7Q *be ashamed', in the form 'decorous', although in later writings this was dropped in favour of ]^37 The verb mK, which is only used in the Nif al, 'groan', in the Bible, in Ben Sira is solely attested in the Hitpa el (three times), with no change of meaning. At Qumran, the verb is found in both binyanim, possibly as free variants (although the form Tim at 4Q416 4.5 could also be a previously unattested Qal). The Qal of a biblical hapax, T n n 'shine' (Dan 12.3), is attested, as a participle, in the Masada manuscript of Si 42.16. 'tremble', which occurs three times in the Bible, always in the Qal, is now attested three times in the HifHl in Ben Sira (in difficult texts, however), and four times in the Hitpa el, *be shaken', in 1QS and 1QH. The verb bn 'rejoice' occurs twice in the War Scroll in the HifHl, but in the same sense as the Qal: a transitive usage 'cause to rejoice' has been proposed at Si 40.26, but the Hebrew text is fragmentary. A Hof al of "pT l>e pure' has been reconstructed at 4QD [4Q266] 17.3.2, where the Genizah version reads a Qal The rare biblical verb *lpT 'raise' is found in the same sense at 4QapLam [4Q501J 4 (if restored) and 4Q521 2.2.8 and also, apparently, in a reflexive usage, 'raise
c c 7 7 8 c c 79 80 c c a b

With and without elision of the taw of the prefix. For mn, see above (p. 30) on 3"n, and below (note 97) on m/inn; for a more detailed analysis of tra, see the remarks by Wido van Peursen (p. 169). A point made by Professor Hurvitz at the Symposium and by Dr Fassberg in his review (see note 3); at 12.12, emendation to non *be amazed' has been suggested. The NifHil also occurs twice in the Deir Alla inscription (2.12). Here, B reads the near-synonym n[rT]T)?; a participial form, which, like THTD at 43.9 (B), is unattested in the Bible.
7 8 7 9 c 8 0

7 7

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH


7 a

43

oneself, arise , at 1QS 7.11 and 4QpsEzek [4Q385] 2.10, where the previously unattested imperfect forms may in fact be Nifal rather than Qal More certain, at Si 30.24, is the first use of the HifHl of ]pr *be old' in a transitive sense, '(cause to) age'. This fact tends to work against emendation at 8.16 of O'DpTQ 'of the elders' to DTpTQ 'growing old', the intransitive, biblical, usage. Genizah MS B has a previously unattested HifHl of the verb O.VT, apparently in the sense of 'make indignant', at 40.29 and 43.16, although M diverges in both instances. For the Qal of the verb TT3 'separate, select', the Scrolls not only provide us with further examples of the two biblical usages, namely, the plural passive participle D'THS used as noun 'selected wariors' (1 Chr 16.41; 11QT 57.8; 4QMidrEschat [4Q177 (olim 4QCat )] 9.3) and employed verbally (1 Chr 9.22; CD 10.4: m a n ]Q o n r a O'BHK m e w 'ten men selected from the congregation'), but also with examples of the Qal perfect and imperfect (11QT 57.5: V? im\ 'and he will select for himself; 11QT 57.8: T O ' 'whom he selects') and of the passive participle used predicatively (3QJub [3Q5] 2.2: D n n n vrr 'they will be selected'). In addition, the verb is attested for the first time in the Nif al, at 4QShirMaskil [4Q511] 35.3, (Dnzu 'chosen ones') and prob ably at 4Q424 3.5 Cinn $b 'which is not separated', apparently in reference to winnowed grain). Si 37.13 seems to give the first recorded usage of pah* (or pDK), used as an adjective in the singular 'faithful' (rather than, as in the Bible and Scrolls, nominalized and plural, 'faithful ones'). At 4QapPs [4Q381] 46.6, the verb nT3T appears to be an emphatic by-form of mr 'reject'. nan "be silent', at 4Q418 55.11, is either a by-form of UD1 in the same sense or simply an extended usage of HQ! 'cease' (Jer 14.17 and Lam 3.49). The apparent occurrence of nnrr 'heal' in the B manuscript of Ben Sira 43.18 ( n n r ; M reads run 'dazzle' (;rr), apparently a rare homonym, rather than a semantic development of run 'remove'), tends to support emendation of Qal to HifHl on the only occasion that the verb is found in the Bible (Hos 5.13). Conversely, the presence of a previously unattested HifHl of the verb VOl 'weep', in the sense 'shed tears' (with a person as subject) tends to work against emendation to Qal of the same verb at Isa 15.9 (from noni* 'land' to nyDnK 'I shall weep'); elsewhere, in the Bible and Ben Sira, the Qal is only used of the organ of weeping, i.e. the eye.
b a c b 81 b

New noun and adjective formations are also attested. Thus, the comFollowing Maurice Baillet in DJD, VII (Qumrdn Grotte 4, vol. Ill: 4Q4S24Q520 [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982]), p. 237; however. Vermes (Dead Sea Scrolls in English, p. 284), and Garcia Martinez (Dead Sea Scrolls Translated, p. 374) both interpret as though from I 'cleanse'.
8 1

44

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

mon rabbinic adjective THT 'cautious' is found for the first time (four occurrences) in Ben Sira, although the verbal root is well-attested in the Bible; the new adjective p T n (Si 36.25) conforms to the same morphological pattern. The syntactic function of D'TJJT at Si 11.6, namely, as adjective used as noun, '(the power of) inferiors', would seem to point to an underlying form as a new by-form of "V&f, rather than as a new usage of the biblical noun with adverbial func tion, ni?T 'a little' (Isa 28.10, 13; Job 36.2). At Si 46.5, it is unclear whether the isolated form HEDfcO represents a new, feminine (because abstract?), form of the noun at Job 33.7 or a further usage of the underlying verb *pR at Prov 16.25. From Qumran, other instances of morphological development of biblical verbs include the nouns B"nQ 'exposition' and nODD 'assembly , which are occasionally found in the Scrolls and are com mon in rabbinic literature but are rare or unattested in the Bible. The noun 'meditation' is perhaps a Qumran form of the passive par ticiple of run, instead of the more normal 'Ul (found at 4Q417 2.1.16), meaning literally 'that which is meditated (upon)', or alternatively represents the infinitive absolute, [H ]i ^n, in a lexicalized sense of 'meditation'. Where the Scrolls clearly have the word ending in a yod or yod-alef, the most likely pronunciation was as a new noun. The development of abstract nouns from concretes is exemplified by rn^l 'poverty (twice at Si 10.31) and, possibly, ninoa (see note 22). rrfr'OIl 'recompense' at Si 3 7 . 1 1 has perhaps developed as a morphologically more transparent abstract than 'TIQJ and n^lQa, both also used by Ben Sira. Qumran and Ben Sira significantly prefer the regular abstract mar 'prostitution', or its by-form rraiT (see note 97), to the more common biblical abstract plural O ^ T , which is found at
82 83 7 84 85 86

At 35.22, manuscripts D and E have Tnj rrrj Tse careful', whereas B prefers the more biblical "lnjn. See Professor Hurvitz's paper 'Continuity and Innovation in Biblical He brewthe Case of "Semantic Change" in Post-exilic Writings', in Takamitsu Muraoka (ed.), Studies in Ancient Hebrew Semantics (AbrNSup, 4; Louvain: Peeters Press, 1995), pp. 1-10, for a presentation of the way in which the root a m , especially in the form of ema, develops a specifically literary application (examination of) written textsin the late books of the Bible and beyond. Compare yvbi at 4QTestimonia [4Q175] 11 for ETJ'J?'^ at Num 24.16 (where, however, 4QNum has n*?i) and m for "n 'appropriate' in the A manuscript of 4QMMT B12 (where MS B has 'NO). The shorter form seems to reflect a phonetic tradition noted in GK 75v, which draws attention to Job 41.25 and 15.22 (Kt), that is also represented by the Samaritan tradition, which reads t>a at Num 24.16.
8 3 8 4 b

8 2

85
8 6

See E. Qimron, Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 20.


B margin and D; B reads the verb bai 'repa/.

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

45

Qumran only in a biblical quotation, 4QpNah [4Q169] 3.2.7, where the pesher, in fact, alters the second DTD? of the biblical verse toiTDT. Four apparent nomina actionis first attested at Qumran are rcbn, in the sense of 'conduct (1QS 1.25 and 3.9), zedah 'presumption (1Q29 13.4; 14.1), m -lK 'curse (5Q16 1.3), and nDtfT 'curse' (4QTohD [4Q280] 4). O H 'cleanness' (1QS 3.9 and probably 4QRitPur [4Q512] 1.12.4) is derived from an Aramaizing by-form of HDT *be clean' (although the common rabbinic form JTOT 'right, merit' does not appear). p K , a hapax at 1QH frg 5.8, appears to be a contracted nomen actionis of ]3R 'sigh', and rrviiT (Si 43.8) is a new nomen actionis, but with extended meaning: 'brightness'; the biblical semantic equivalent "inp]T is not found in Ben Sira but is attested twice at Qumran. yvm 'glutton' in the margin of the B manuscript of Si 34.16 is a nomen agentis of m m a in the sense of 'throat' (Si 36.23, as against 'neck' in the Bible). In this light, perhaps Ben Sira's new form ]roa (4.29) should be regarded not as an adjective equivalent to naj lugh, proud', but as a nomen agentis, 'show-off, a syntactically acceptable interpretation. Whereas the verb njK 'bind, unbind' (5QRegle [5Q13] 2.7) may be, in Hebrew at least, a back formation from rnaK 1x)nd', the verb rfrl meaning l>e fitted with doors' (11QT 33.13) is denominative from xfr\ 'door'. The nominalization of infinitives is commonly encountered. Thus, p 'understanding' (4QShirShabb [4Q403] 1.1.37) is not so much a new word as a new use of the infinitive, 'to understand' (attested only once for certain in the Bible) as noun 'irn 'spirits of understand ing'). The same seems to be true of mnnion rra Tiouse of self-prostra tion' in the Damascus Covenant (11.22). In the War Scroll, ^ttn appears to be morphologically the HifHl infinitive of 'Pitt 'throw', hence ^'tpn, 'throwing', perhaps lexicalized in the sense of 'troop'. Similar remarks may be made concerning nnin 'doctrine' at 4QShirShabb [4Q400] 1.1.17 and rnin 'thanksgiving (song)' (a usage
7 7 87 7 88 89 d 90 a

Possibly it is the same word, in the more concrete sense of 'eruption', that occurs in the Siloam tunnel inscription (m?). Jacob Licht (The Thanksgiving Scroll [Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1957], p. 231) compares nr }K, the common tannaitic nomen actionis; Svend HolmNielsen (Hodayot: Psalms from Qumran [Aarhus: Universitetsforlag, 1960], p. 266) renders DT** as a verb with suffixed object. I am grateful to Professor Muraoka for pointing out to me that in Syriac nomina agentis in -an often function as attributive adjectives. See Annette Steudel, The houses of prostration: CD XI, 21-XII, 1dupli cates of the temple', RQ 16 (1993-94), 49-68. Steudel also discusses briefly the different meanings of anpp r?a at CD 11.23 and 1QS 8.5 and 9.6.
8 8 8 9 9 0

8 7

46

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

presaged in Ben Sira, 47.8, and in the late biblical book of Nehemiah, 12.46). Strikingly, our corpus also provides characteristically rabbinic by-forms with an additional final n- : mmrr (with alef, the typically Babylonian form) at GnzPs 2.13,15, and n m n (with yod, the typically Palestinian form) at 4QM [4Q491] 11.1.16 and 4QM8 [4Q497] 6.1.3.
f a

Morphological developments of a more purely inflectional nature re late to noun number and gender. For example, as already noted, Ben Sira 30.18 provides us with our only example of the singular of U*7bl 'idols'; similarly, at Si 50.10, a biblical hapax, D n r u 'olives' (Isa 17.6), is found in the singular (but used collectively). At 1QM 3.11 and 4QShirShabb [4Q405] 20.2.13, the biblical singular n ^ : 'rejoicing' is found in the plural. Another hapax, I W Q 'creation' (Num 16.30), occurs in the plural at Qumran, in the sense of 'creatures'. At Qum ran, we also see the development of the plural form of TIR light' (found only once in the Bible, at Ps 136.7, in the sense of luminaries'), especially as nomen rectum (D'HK 12? 'prince of lights', DmK n n 'spirit of lights', etc.). Use of the by-form, miK also increases at Qumran, with a new dual formation especially striking (D'nilK TIK 'light of [two] lights' at 1QH 18.29). At Si 3.24 rmvm 'thoughts' provides a feminine plural to ircn 'his likeness' at Ps 17.12 (as well as an ex tended meaning); an alternative plural, nOTDl, is found at 1QM 6.13. Qumran also evidences a (suffixed) feminine plural of the noun 'guilt', as against the biblical masculine form Cra$$). In ShirShabb, we find attested the biblical (near) synonyms T Q T and rHQT 'song, melody', as well as at least three instances of a further by-form IDT or -IDT. Whereas CD 5.13 and Si 43.13 (Masada and Genizah B) concur with Isa 50.11 in employing the form mp'T 'flaming arrows', 1QH 1.12 and 1QM 6.3 follow Prov 26.18 in using D'pPlT, which is also found in the margin of Si 43.13. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that differently-formed plurals generally corresponded to semantic dis tinctions of the sort attested in rabbinic and mediaeval literature (e.g. D'EniQ 'midrashic texts', m e m o 'midrashic interpretations', ] ^ s n
f 91 92 93
94
95 96

9 6

A third text, 1QH 11.23, involves reconstruction. In the singular, both the act and the product of creation are signified. Qum ran also knows the variant with yod for alef, nna, as found in the Samaritan text of Num 16.30. As pointed out by Dr Fassberg in his review (see note 3). MasShirShabb 2.22: nprvot; also in Genizah Psalm 2. 4QShirShabb [4Q405] 67.1: mot; 4QShirShabb [4Q400] 3.2.1 and 4QShir Shabb [4Q403] 1.1.40: RRRIDT. 1 Q T , attested thus in the construct singular and as '"TOT in the plural.
9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 f a d

9 1

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH 'phylacteries', rrfrBP 'prayers').


1

47

See Miguel Perez Fernandez, La lengua de los Sabios (Vol. I: Morfosintaxis; Biblioteca Midrdsica, 13; Estella: Editorial Verbo Divino, 1992), Unit 10.3, for these and other examples of gender-based semantic distinctions. I am cur rently preparing an English edition of this teaching grammar of Rabbinic He brew (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1997). I include below a number of developments in Ben Sira and the Scrolls of a morphophonological nature, which, although quite significant from the per spective of practical lexicography (in terms of cross-reference entries and morphological listings), have little semantic impact. Of course, it is sometimes uncertain whether morphology or lexis is at issue, for example, does the 4QQoh version of Qoh 6.5: nrm represent a different lexical form, corre sponding to RH, inf?] ninti 'it is better (for this one)', or rather a variant Qumran morphology for MT nm, apparently 'there is rest for this one (more than for this one)' (see J. Muilenberg, BASOR 135 [19541, 20-28)? The constructions ~)Q.yn*pn (apparently npfcn'pn/']?! 'waving of the omer', which occurs eleven times, mainly in the Temple Scroll in 4QMishmarotA-B [4Q320-21], and its variant iQ^nnQ^n (apparently noanns^u) at 11QT 18.10, seem to indicate a different development of the infinitives attes ted in the Bible: rpn (which also occurs in Ben Sira, at Qumran, and in tannaitic sources) and nsjrj (which, along with *|3n and ns'Drj also occurs in the Mishnah). Similarly, D^ap ?! 'burning of wood' (1QM 17.1) might indicate that the infinitive was vocalized pbl (or p^l) rather than, as in the Bible, pbl . In each of these cases, however, it is also possible that what we have is a completely new noun rather than a variant pronunciation or morphology of the infinitive. Qumran morphophonological patternings (mishaalim) that differ from those represented by the Tiberian tradition appear to lie behind the use of niHiT, apparently rait, for m\ 'licentiousness' (CD 7.1 and 8.5, where the paral lel text of 19.17 hasTOT,and 4QMMT B 75), piT, apparently ]liT, for ]fr? 'presumptuousness' (1QH frg 45.5; contrast ]HT at frg 3.15), pot, apparently ]iOT (4QApocJos [4Q371] 4), for ]Q\ 'time' (the form apparently also found four times at Murabba at and Nahal Hever), and, in 4QMMT, m n o and nRQB, ap parently rnnp and nw?t? (as in rabbinic texts) for biblical rnno 'purity and
a a 1 : a c 7

9 7

Other, well-known, examples of different patterns of word-formation, or of vocalization, at Qumran include nan for 1QH 'clay , ]0:pK for ]TQ:JK 'reed', and "pnn for nnrj 'pig', all in the Isaiah Scroll, and from other documents, nopn and n m ^ / n m ? (apparently ni ?) for Tiberian HDpl 'embroidery' and Zlrf? 'flame'). Phonetic spelling at Qumran yields orthographic variants of well-known words, such as 'prophet' (4QTestimonia [4Q175]) and ] T C 'flock' (4QMMT), where quiescent alef is no longer represented orthographically. Interchange of the voiceless and voiced laryngeals alef and he is found, for example, in TOR (4QTestimonia 23) for Masoretic TiTi 'behold', TNDna (lQIsa 42.14) for 'rwpon 1
7
1 1

48

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Section III: Conclusions


In respect of the Scrolls material, we are first struck by the small quantity of new vocabulary at Qumran, or, put another way, the high degree of continuity between the vocabulary of the Bible and that of
have kept silent', and mnan (1QS 10.12) for rnrntj 1 will choose'; whereas the pharyngeal ayin drops out completely in the form nrtt (three times in lQIsa but nowhere else in the Scrolls) for nni? 'now', it replaces its voiceless coun terpart het in o W (lQIsa 37.30) for O'TO 'uncultivated crops', etc., a phe nomenon also found later, in rabbinic literature, for example mitf is (m. Ta'anit 3.8), for imn in 'he made a circle', and, the other way around, earlier, in Ben Sira, where at 37.19, we find ttnnn*** apparently for the more biblical riMin ** 'do not enjoy yourself. In the case of the place name D"nK, 'strengthening' of the glottal stop has led to the new form e m i n , not only in the Isaiah Scroll (37.38) but also at 4QpGen [4Q252] 1.1.10, where, mysteriously, Vermes (Dead Sea Scrolls in English, pp. 300-301) renders as Turarat, even though this reading was reject ed in a work cited by Vermes himself (Timothy H. Lim, 'Notes on 4Q252 fr. 1, cols, i-ii', JJS 44 [1993], 121-26). As Howard Jacobson ('4Q252: Addenda', JJS 44 [1993], 118-20) remarks, a form with initial he (cmn) is also found in the Samaritan Targum; Professor Muraoka has pointed out to me that the Genesis Apocryphon (10.12) has eman, apparently OKTin. Perhaps the forms n n , apparently for n n 'they became culpable', at CD 3.10, and pan forj^n 'desire', at 1QS 6.11 (see List 4C), are also to be explained as resulting from guttural weakening. Similarly, in lQIsa (and Chronicles) we find Damascus represented as pTOll rather than ptp^l. The 'classical' form, without resh, is found in the Damascus covenant (including 4Q wit nesses) whereas the Isaiah Scroll version is shared by the Genesis Apoc ryphon; one wonders whether the variation is another symptom of the prob lems the Qumran scribes had with the semi-guttural resh, as evidenced by its occasional omission and supra-linear insertion. See E. Qimron, Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 26, and the paper of Francisco Jimenez (see note 40), in which the apparent weakness of resh at 3Q1511.5 and 11.10 is highlighted. In the Joshua Apocryphon (4Q522), we find the form rf^a (apparently n^a) for biblical rh\ (Josh 15.19; Judg 1.15). This is another example of contrast between Qumran and biblical forms of proper names, perhaps the bestknown instance of which is D"no (four times in the Isaiah Scroll and also in the Genesis Apocryphon) for MT Dip 'Sodom', which supports the authenticity of the traditions represented by the Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch, both of which have a full vowel in the first syllable (Sodom/Sadem). The verb inn 'honour' is more frequent in Ben Sira and DSS than its ap parent by-form with alef for he (here the contrast in the Genizah B and Masada manuscripts of Si 43.11 is instructive), although the only binyan shared by the two verbs is the Nif'al. Similarly, the cognate noun, ITT, is more frequent than 11$, both in the Bible and at Qumran, where it is especially common in the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice.
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ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

49

the Scrolls. Based on the number of word-tokens beginning with alef to zayin (Volumes IIII of the Sheffield Dictionary of Classical Hebrew), the Qumran corpus is just under an eighth (12%) of the entire premishnaic corpus or one seventh (14%) the size of the Bible (see Table 1), but evidences almost a third (30%) of the entire pre-mishnaic vo cabulary, that is, 734 words (Table 2), of which, once hapax legomena and proper nouns are excluded, only twenty (3%) are unique to the Scrolls (Table 4). Similar points could, of course, also be made regard ing Ben Sira and the inscriptions. On the face of it, then, from a lexical perspective, there is a good case to be made for regarding all four of our pre-mishnaic literary corpora as a single linguistic corpus. When the new words that do emerge in the post-biblical corpora are examined, we find that many of them are also found in rabbinic literature (and, of course, the great majority of the more common lex emes in the rabbinic corpus will also be known from the Bible). As perhaps we might have expected, then, the language of Ben Sira and Qumran faces two ways, both backwards, towards the language of the Bible, and forwards, towards the language of the Mishnah and beyond. Thus, we begin to see the outlines of a picture of an essen tially integrated biblical-intertestamental-rabbinic corpus, where each 'stage', defined in purely historical terms, rests heavily upon the im mediately preceding stage but is also, naturally, expanding the lexical resources of the language. Diagrammatically, this situation can be ex pressed in the shape of a V in which the Hebrew of ancient biblical poetry ('Archaic Hebrew') nestles in the base and the Hebrew of the tannaim CRabbinic Hebrew 1') straddles the top. In between these two extremes would be the Hebrew pertaining to the different datable lin guistic corpora that precede the top level: Mur, 3Q15, 'General Qum ran', 4QMMT, GnzPs, Si, 'LBH', and 'EBH'. In a sense, then, from a lexicological perspective, the Hebrew lan guage is periodizable, but, on the basis of our Qumran three percent, it is difficult to see how this can be more than a trivial statement, sim ply reflecting the fact that it is in the nature of human languages to develop their means of expression over time. And those who would try to periodize in a non-trivial way, that is to elevate the three per cent of difference into a 'Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls', as distinct from the 'Hebrew of the Bible', etc., will face Shylock's dilemma: how do you get to the pound of flesh (the three percent) without also spilling pints of blood (the vast bulk of 'the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls'), which is organically united to 'the Hebrew of the Bible' and to 'the Hebrew of the Mishnah', and in so doing disfiguring any de scription both of the 'Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls' and of the He brew language as a whole? We are faced here with an important issue of nomenclature and

50

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

method. There is nothing wrong in using a term like 'RH' if by that we mean nothing more than the Hebrew used in writings from the 'rabbinic period', which, in principle, need not be different from 'BH' (if, correspondingly, by 'BH' we mean nothing more than the Hebrew used in writings from 'the biblical period'). Problems arise, however, when the state of language thus de scribed as 'RH' is taken to imply some significant difference from He brew at any other stage of its natural development (and here I assume that 'RH' is a natural, not a contrived, form of language), because, as we have seen with 'Qumran Hebrew', the difference is nugatory, at least in respect of lexis. In fact, though, it is precisely into this error that many writers do fall. So, for example, if a word previously known only from rabbinic literature is found many centuries prior to the compilation of that lit erature (as indeed happens with many of the non-biblical words of Ben Sira and the Scrolls), instead of accepting that this works against the division of Hebrew into discrete stages, by pushing back the bor ders of 'Rabbinic Hebrew' ever nearer to its biblical origins, it is claimed instead, in effect, that Ben Sira sometimes employed RH vo cabulary. But this is surely to turn the matter on its head. Both Ben Sira and the rabbis were simply using the Hebrew words available to them at their respective times, of which the vast majority would have been in existence long before and very few (the three percent) novel to Ben Sira and the rabbis.
98

An example of standing things on their head, as described, is seen in Dr Fassberg's review of Volume I of the Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (see note 3; pp. 356-57): Users of the dictionary must, however, bear in mind that docu ments from the first two centuries of the Common Era may contain features of Tannaitic (Mishnaic) Hebrew, since the date 200 CE marks the end of the Tannaitic period and the redaction of the Mishna.... It should also be noted that the language of Ben Sira, too, contains some features characteristic of Tannaitic Hebrew . Now, it it seems to me that here (and in his accompanying remarks) the reviewer defines a linguistic stage (Mishnaic Hebrew) by refer ence to a literary phenomenon (the production of the Mishnah). In itself this is methodologically harmless enough. But what is more dubious is the em ployment of this essentially literary definition for the purposes of linguistic chronology: e.g., p. 357: 'the documents from Nahal Hever and Wadi Murabba at evidence lexemes and forms that are clearly Mishnaic, and yet they appear in the dictionary without any indication that they are not "classical".' Here we see that even when the linguistic data have overtaken the essentially literary label of Mishnaic Hebrew, the term is still pressed into service, expanded at least two stages beyond its original significance (the He brew found in the Mishnah > the Hebrew found in the period during which the Mishnah was being redacted > the Hebrew of any documents found up to
7 c

9 8

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH


/ / /

51

The notion of R H as a linguistic rather than a literary concept, seems to me to be a terminological anachronism, nourished only by the lack of continuity that existed before 1947 in our sources of He brew literature between Bible and Mishnah. From the perspective of vocabulary, the overall lack of new words in the extra-biblical corpora and the overlap of what new material there is with words previously regarded as 'rabbinic' innovations, supports the notion of a constantly developing, seamless, Hebrew language. Or, to put it another way, had the Scrolls and the Hebrew manuscripts of Ben Sira been avail able a millennium earlier and European Hebrew scholarship had been more linguistically than theologically based, so as not to look, on the whole, with interest at the Hebrew Bible but with disdain at the Mishnah and midrashim, the dominating linguistic unity among these diverse texts would probably have meant that 'RH', or a similar term, would have been employed only as a literary label (in the same way in which we might speak of the Hebrew of the Psalms), but without any linguistic import. Incidentally, in these criticisms, I find no fault with those who employ the UH' vocabulary of the Scrolls or Ben Sira as evidence that the language ascribed to the zugot and tannaim in the Mishnah actu ally reflects the Hebrew they spoke in the Hasmonaean and Roman periods. But that is a very different sort of argument, and one that does not necessarily imply that the early rabbis spoke 'Rabbinic' He brew (in preference to any other kinds of Hebrew doing the rounds at the time, if such a state of affairs is really imaginable). Having said that, on the whole, we can no more accurately correlate linguistic features of the Mishnah with the generations of scholars recorded there than we can assign the words of Joshua, David, and Manasseh, as recorded in the Bible as we have it, to the different historical peri ods in which these characters were active. To a large extent, neither Bible nor Mishnah can be diachronically unravelled. This leads us into the issue of 'LBH' ('Late Biblical Hebrew'). As before, if 'LBH' is nothing more than a terminological convenience for the Hebrew of the books written in the post-exilic period, it is innocu ous. And if it simply stands for the 'three percent' of new words in those writings, it is both innocuous and trivial (unless of course the proportion of new words to old is much greater than one in thirtythree, which I doubt). But if it stands for a discrete phase of the He99

four centuries before, so long as they contain words which were previously only known from the Mishnah), apparently merely to maintain the traditional divisions that scholarship from another age erected in the study of the He brew language. Professor David J. A. Clines, editor of the Sheffield Dictionary of Classical He9 9

52

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

brew language that is significantly different from preceding and suc ceeding phases, then, from a lexical perspective, it is unsound, given not only the vast discrepancy between what *LBH' inherited and what it Innovated' but also the fact that many of these innovations are later found in KH' (and if they are to be regarded as both 'LBH' and RtV, then why make a linguistic distinction between the two?). Indeed, the overlap of T B H ' and 'RH' as well as the emergence in the scholarly literature of 'transitional LBH' all tends to work against the notion of discrete levels of language (and if 'LBH', T^H', etc. do not refer to dis crete entities, then why should one want to use these terms at all as linguistic labels?) and in favour of the concept of an organically united language in a state of constant, but at any one time impercep tible, development. An additional methodological pitfall is created by the chronologi cal discrepancies between literature purporting to be from a particular period and the language employed for that literature in a work created, compiled, and redacted over two millennia. Thus, for exam ple, the use of pre-exilic vocabulary in a document that presents itself as a history of the early pre-exilic period does not mean that the work itself is pre-exilic (and even in a work of fiction, the use of such
/ 100

brew, makes the following point in a reply to a review of the Dictionary by Professor Francis I. Andersen: To take as an example, as between pre-exilic and postexilic Hebrew there is practically no semantic change whatsoever that Angel Saenz-Badillos can point to in his 50-page account of Hebrew in the period of the Second Temple (in a History of the Hebrew Language [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993]); he says changed from "indeed" to "but" and he mentions three examples of lexical specialization in Qumran Hebrew' (ABR 43 [1995], p. 73). ioo p example, in Numbers, terms for '(national) assembly , 'tribe', 'clan', 'shewbread', and *be genealogically registered' are not those used in clearly post-exilic books, rrpi} means '(physical) labour', as against '(religious) min istry' (post-exilic), and thirteen expressions for such concepts as 'pact', 'tax', 'muster troops', 'ordain as priest', 'specify by oracle', and 'couple (sexually)' have cognates in earlier Mesopotamian (Akkadian) literature (see Jacob Milgrom's JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers [Philadelphia: Jewish Publication So ciety, 1990], pp. xxxii-iii). Somewhat comparable data have even been claimed, not altogether convincingly, in respect of works generally accepted as late such as Song (William F. Albright, 'Archaic Survivals in the Text of Canticles', in D. Winton Thomas and W.D. McHardy [eds.l, Hebrew and Sem itic Studies Presented to Godfrey Rolles Driver in Celebration of His Seventieth Birthday, 20 August 1962 [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963], pp. 1-7), Ecclesiastes (Daniel C. Fredericks, Qoheleth's Language: Re-evaluating its Nature and Date [Ancient Near Eastern Text and Studies, 3; Lewiston, Edwin Mellen] (reviewed by Avi Hurvitz in Hebrew Studies 31 [1990], 144-54), and Chronicles
7 o r

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terms could simply be intended as an attempt to add an archaic qual ity to the composition), but it does show how difficult it can be to de termine the date of major texts and how precarious is a linguistic chronology built on such dating (particularly when the dating of the texts has to some extent been motivated by the requirements of an as sumed linguistic chronology). And of course, even in those very few biblical writings for which a late date of composition is not disputed, in principle 'innovations' are but a subset of newly-appearing words, for the latter group can also include words which, although they were present in the lan guage, simply had not been registered in earlier literature, and we only need to think about how many words for basic things occur just once or twice in the Bible to realize that it is quite possible for a word which 'appears' late to have actually been around much earlier. Unless there is clear evidence that a word is loaned or that it belongs to a new morphological pattern (mishqal), then there is no incon testable proof that it is late. And, of course, even if we agree that a word appearing for the first time in Esther or Jonah might have only come into existence around the time those books were written, it exceeds the bounds of objectivity and evidence to argue that the word belongs to a form of Hebrew distinct from that represented by the mainstream language of the Bible. In both 'LBH' and 'RH', novel fea tures frequently represent no more than an increased usage of pre existing structures, or, where genuine innovation is attested, natural developments in the language.
101 102

(Wilfred G.E. Watson, 'Archaic Element's in the Language of Chronicles', Bib 53 [1972], 191-207). A point well made by Professor Edward Ullendorff in his recent review QJS 46 [1995], 283-92) of the Saenz-Badillos volume (see note 99). Referring to p. 123 of the book. Professor Ullendorff asks: '[C]an it be held that n 0 'ship', ^on liurl', pnc 'to be silent', or ma 'to appoint' are necessarily indicative of Rabbinic Hebrew?just because they occur rarely and in what are assumed to be late books?' (289) The position taken by Professor Ullendorff on the diachronic structure of Hebrew is consistent with his more general view that 'the limitations of size and subject matter of the canon of the Old Testament have inevitably prevented the entire resources of Hebrew being represented in that restricted corpus' (288). More than that, such features are rarely found in any regular fashion across the whole range of post-exilic works (the 'LBH' corpus), as demon strated, for example, by the striking divergences within the 'work of the Chronicler' (Japhet, 'Supposed Common Authorship'). And despite the ap parent persuasiveness of Robert Polzin's arguments (in Late Biblical Hebrew: Towards an Historical Typology of Biblical Hebrew Prose [HSM, 12; Missoula: Scholars Press, 1976], pp. 32-37) for the increased use of 'emphatic', nomina1 0 1 1 0 2

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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

As a lexicographer, I freely admit that vocabulary is the least sig nificant aspect of language as a formal system. But I believe in this case, where lexicology is pushing back the borders of Tlabbinic He brew' ever nearer to its biblical origins, grammar is also trailing in the same direction. For example, for bv, we now have a swathe of texts Murabba'at, 11QT, 4 Q J u b S [4Q422],4QpsEzek [ 4 Q 3 8 5 ] , 4QMMT, and Ben Sirathat help to link the use of bv in the Mishnah with its use in Jonah, Koheleth, and Song and force us to reappraise our perception of the form as 'typically rabbinic or of its use in the Bible as especially remarkable. Similar comments can be made concerning the relative particle - E , which is found at Murabba at, in the Copper Scroll, the Damascus Document, the Mishmarot sequence, 4QMMT, the Genizah Psalms, and Ben Sira, as well as in 'LBH' writings (where -0 is frequent and occurs in official registers such as that represented by 1 Chr 8.19) and 'Archaic Hebrew' (where -E is used sporadically). Thus, the value of the a 1 0 3 104 105 7 c 106 107

tive, PR as a characteristic structure of LBH, my own exhaustive study (The Use of >et in Non-Biblical Hebrew Texts', VT 44 [1994], 170-S2) of anomalous uses of the object-marker in the pre-mishnaic corpus, indicates not one in stance of this kind of irregularity in Esther (with the minor exception of 2.13), although the graphic form n occurs there 118 times, or in Ezra (30 times) or in Jonah (14 times) or in Ruth (44 times) or in Lamentations (6 times) or in Song (27 times). Nor, of course, as Polzin admits, is it a significant feature of the Scrolls. The usage (and abusage) of nR in the post-exilic period would ap pear to have been a matter of authorial competence and taste (and of trans mission-history), without any lasting structural impact on the language. Re lated criticisms of Polzin in respect of 'nominative ntt' and other assumed LBH features are made by Gary A. Rendsburg in his 'Late Biblical Hebrew and the Date of "P", JANES 12 (1980), 65-^80. 103 4Q2221.7 and 4Q385 1.9, where the apparent collocation of construct chain and ^0 phrase is striking: D1R "inKi im 'one of a calf and one of a man'. Three times, in the form -CD ^2 as final conjunction, 'so that'. Indeed, in BHS, the editor (W. Rudolph) was confident enough of the sta tus of to propose that it be read at 1 Chr 29.3 ( ?# 'my [temple]' for ^ID\ T have [a treasury]'). 106 4Q a [4Q266] 18.3.1; 18.4.2. The information about -0in 'General Qumran' literature is drawn from the Stegemann-Strugnell concordance (Hans-Peter Richter, 'A Preliminary Concordance to the Hebrew and Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Caves IIX' [5 vols., unpublished, printed in Gottingen, 1988, and distributed by Hartmut Stegemann on behalf of John Strugnell]), which records -e? as occurring nine times. Other texts include 4Q448 (an apocryphal psalm), and 4QUnid , where the form -era 'after' occurs. 3.1, which goes unregistered in the Academy of the Hebrew Language's microfiche concordance. Similarly, the Academy concordance registers none of the many instances of -0 in Ben Sira.
1 0 4 1 0 5 ,l D d 1 0 7

ELWOLDE: FROM BIBLE TO MISHNAH

55

0 distinction as either an isogloss or a diachronic marker is diminished, with the evidence pointing to a context of preference for one or other allomorph rather than to differences based on period or area. This is indicated by the alternation of -0 and in Ben Sira and the Bible (see above, p. 32), as well as in 4QD [4Q266] 18.3.1 (-0) and the parallel text at CD 14.8 ("10K). The same kind of idiolectal alternation or allomorphy underlies 4QMMT's use of -*? tibv intro ducing a prohibition in contrast to lQS's use of the same construction but with TOR.
108 a
109

In the foregoing, I have refrained from involving myself in the issue of Hebrew dialects, which strikes me as even less amenable to empiri cal analysis than that of periodization. If I have been guilty of misrep resenting any of what proponents of the 'LBH' thesis actually do or believe, it is unintentional: my aim has been simply to question the methodological and empirical bases of periodization and to argue, implicitly, that at the end of the day, perhaps treating all pre-mishnaic texts in Hebrew as though they constituted a synchronic whole at least has the advantage of not distorting the underlying and statisti cally far more significant linguistic unity that is evidenced by these texts.

Although it still leaves unanswered the difficult question of why 4QMMT and the Murabba at material, which are so close in time but remote in subjectmatter, shun "KDK almost completely, but freely employ -0. But those who would want to point to this as an element in defence of the notion of a clean BH/RH divide, will themselves have to resolve the related difficulty of why the 'RH' document 4QMMT employs the 'BH' form i3mK ten times but com pletely eschews the 'RH' form 13 whereas the opposite phenomenon occurs in the 'non-RH' General Qumran literature, where 13 (once in the Bible, sev enteen times at Qumran) is preferred over T3ri3K (104 times in the Bible, eleven at Qumran). As a third, less persuasive, example to add to that of and -0, we also find the elided object-marker both at Murabba at (-n) and in 1QS (-TIK).
c 1 0 9 c

1 0 8

*I should like to thank Anne Lee, Kate Dove Davis, Rosemarie Kossov, and Martin Harding, of the Dept. of Biblical Studies, University of Sheffield, and Dr Charlotte Hempel, of the Dept. of Theology, University of Birmingham, for their help at various stages in the preparation of the published version of this article and of other contributions in the volume.

ON THE SYNTAX OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES IN BEN SIRA* S.E. Fassberg (Jerusalem)

Introduction The authenticity of the Hebrew manuscripts of Ben Sira was the sub ject of much debate from the discovery of the first Ben Sira Genizah manuscripts in 1896 until the publication of the scrolls from Masada and Cave 11 at Qumran in 1965. The debate centred on the originality of the Hebrew text and its relationship to the Greek and Syriac ver sions. The language of the Genizah manuscripts was, of course, dis cussed, but drew less attention than did the question of the Urtext. Since the scrolls from Masada and the Qumran caves have become known, the debate has been settled in favour of the authenticity of the Hebrew manuscripts, though it is acknowledged that there are some corruptions in the mediaeval manuscripts, in which, it is also argued, there are retroversions from the Syriac. To this day, more than 30 years since the publication of the Ben Sira material from Masada and Qumran, the language of the Hebrew manuscripts has still not been treated systematically. In fact, the most recent and comprehensive analysis of the material is still the short sketch presented by M. H. Segal in his 1958 edition of Ben Sira. Segal,
1 2 3 4

*I would like to thank the participants of the Leiden Symposium on the He brew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira for their helpful comments on the oral version of this paper. Y. Yadin, The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada (Jerusalem, 1965); llQPs in J.A. Sanders, DJD, IV: The Psalms Scroll of Qumrn Cave 11 (llQPs?) (Oxford, 1965), 79-85, plates 13-14. Note also the extremely fragmentary 2Q18 (2QSir) in M. Baillet, J.T. Milik, and R. de Vaux, DJD, III: Les 'petites grottes' de Qumrn (Ox ford, 1962), 75-77, plate 15. For bibliography on the discussions concerning the authenticity of the Genizah manuscripts, see P.W. Skehan & A. A. Di Leila, The Wisdom of Ben Sira (AB, 39; New York, 1987), 54. See A.A. Di Leila, The Hebrew Text of Sirach: A Text-Critical and Historical Study (The Hague, 1966), 106-47; Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 57-59; M. Kister, 'A Contribution to the Interpretation of Ben Sira', Tarbiz 59 (1990), 304, n. 2 (Hebrew). M.H. Segal, Dton m*o p TOO (Second ed.; Jerusalem, 1958), 20-22. See also his earlier treatment, RTO p "ao irafr, V. 7 (1937), 114-20.
1 3 2 3 4

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES


5

57

like others before him, thought that the language reflected the He brew of the Second Temple period, in which one finds the classical language along with innovations that are reminiscent of Tannaitic Hebrew. This century has witnessed three significant developments that have dramatically added to our knowledge of the Hebrew of the Sec ond Temple and tannaitic periods: 1) the discovery and publication of the Dead Sea Scrolls; 2) the great strides made in analysing and de scribing Late Biblical Hebrew; 3) the revolution in the study of Tan naitic Hebrew that has resulted from the investigation of reliable manuscripts and oral traditions of Rabbinic Hebrew. In the light of these new developments, it is time to re-examine the Hebrew of the Ben Sira manuscripts and describe its language vis-4-vis other He brew corpora. To that end I have chosen to investigate one aspect of the language of Ben Sira that has received little attention, namely, syntax. This paper investigates the syntax of five types of dependent clauses in the Hebrew text of Ben Sira: conditional, relative, temporal, circumstantial, and purpose. The clauses are analysed synchronically and then compared with the data from Classical Biblical Hebrew, Late Biblical Hebrew, Qumran Hebrew, and Tannaitic Hebrew. All He brew manuscripts of Ben Sira have been used. The readings follow
6 7

See the earlier conclusions of S. Schechter and C. Taylor, The Wisdom of Ben Sira (Cambridge, 1899), 34: '(1) that he was a conscious imitator; (2) that the classical portions in his work are due to his skilful manipulation of Biblical passages and patching them together; (3) that his composition shows already such traces of an artifical way of interpreting and using the contents of the Scriptures as are only to be found in post-Biblical writers; (4) that with all his skill and caution his language is full of later Hebrew expressions, even fur nishing us with criteria pointing to the highest development of the Rabbinic dialect'. Recently Kister has argued that Ben Sira was not a conscious, unsuc cessful imitator. He writes: 'Ben Sira's idiom is not to be considered an unsuc cessful attempt at imitating Biblical Hebrew. The language deliberately cho sen by Ben Sira is not the spoken language of his day, but a literary idiom partly reflecting contemporary speechfor which we scarcely have any sources' (Kister [note 3], ii [English summary]). 'Qumran Hebrew' is a convenient term to describe the language of the doc uments from the Judaean Desert. It is well known, of course, that not all the documents reflect the same variety of Hebrew. For example, the language of 3Q15 ('Copper Scroll') and 4QMMT differs significantly from that of other Qumran documents. See, e.g., S. Morag, 'Qumran Hebrew: Some Typological Observations', VT 38 (1988), 148-164; E. Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (HSS, 29; Atlanta, 1986); 'Observations on the History of Early Hebrew (1000 B.C.E.-200 CE.) in the Light of the Dead Sea Documents', in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (ed. D. Dimant & U. Rappaport; Jerusalem, 1992), 349-61; with J. Strugnell, DJD, X: Miqsat Ma'ase ha-Torah (Oxford, 1994), 65-108. The relevant differences between the Hebrew manuscripts will be noted.
6

58

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

the edition of Ben Sira prepared by the Academy of the Hebrew Lan guage (MSS A-E) and the additional manuscript (MS F) published by Di Leila.
8 9

A: Conditional clauses 1. The protases of real conditional clauses are usually introduced by DR. The apodoses are, on the whole, unmarked, e.g., r> 3 I T J J "uno norr D K D A (3.13[A])
DDnnn *n jnonn D K (6.32[A1)

mnn nnK m in poKn D K (15.15[A]) 7 * i r r *?ron D K (37.12[B]). 2. The protasis is unmarked in


imp 1*0*33 3.TIK rrap (6.7[A])

H3 ]DKT) *?K r w n m u m ^ p> (7.26[A]) D T T I K no* -ft D'33 (7.231C1) D^KE TCH -ft m33 (7.24[A]). Note that in two examples a second protasis in the verse is introduced by Dfc:
rrratfn K V TTORD R I -pry nRn -p rrann (7.22[A1) 7 T D 1 3 Q D R*7 DR nDl^n R S D 1 p ' T t f ? 30 'H (12.2[A]).

3. Infrequently a waw introduces the apodosis: p o ^ K i n r a i w n (7.25[A]) n o i ^ n R S D I p n ^ 30*n (12.2[A]). There may be two additional examples. The first is nom *]3m om OTZ/? R3in D R (6.33[A1) if the intention of the Hebrew text is 'if you are willing to listen, then incline your earyou will be instructed'; however, in the light of the Septuagint and Peshitta, it is may be that the apodosis of ^wb R3in D R has been deleted and om introduces a second protasis whose apo dosis is "lOin. A second possible example is
10 11

The versions of Ben Sira found in the Septuagint and the Peshitta will be noted when the Hebrew text is ambiguous.
8

The Book of Ben Sira: Text, Concordance and an Analysis of the Vocabulary

(Jerusalem, 1973). A.A. Di Leila, The Newly Discovered Sixth Manuscript of Ben Sira from the Cairo Geniza', Bib 69 (1988), 226-38. The manuscript was incorporated in the Academy of the Hebrew Language's 1988 microfiche edition of, and con cordance to, Ben Sira and the Qumran and tannaitic literature. Segal, R T O p "ISO (note 4), p. 0 0 , calls this 'imperative of condition' and compares with ynnranf> m at Prov 22.10. One could also take as a wawconsecutive with the Perfect.
9 1 0

1 1

'Eotv aya.Kr\ar\<; dKouetv eK5eii ica! eav

KXCVTIS

TO OX>$ GOV

aocpo<; e<rp;

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES

59

i n n n e n p ' n D r n n (6.36[A]), if the Hebrew text originally reflected 'if you see one who under stands, seek him', as does the Septuagint There appear to be examples of a iwiw-consecutive introducing an apodosis: p irom -pv t> 03.6[A]) [Tnrrooj) =] vrrmin t o ' D K (4.19[AJ). 4. The protasis usually precedes the apodosis. There are, however, ex ceptions: ] V J T mien*? -p y* D K ' T O T Q nvrfr rapnn b* (7.6[A]) cron D K Mvbntn afTi p m n vb m a n D K (l l .10[B]) r a a n a a xmr dk mvb D"n ]"n *>nb (34.27IB]) pwr dk b'toi D ' D U Q prna nna - p s dk TO (35.7[B]). 5. The protasis is attested with the imperfect, imperative, participle, and perfect; it may also be a nominal clause. The apodosis occurs with the imperfect or imperative, and may be a nominal or interroga tive clause. See, e.g., r m mb** yb b* naim i t p a m ran JHTG (13.1[A]) m^pp'TDEMOTD (14.4[A]) jrrr i n o *?aa a o K D K tr w i n *6 zircon dk (16.21[A]) lp zvsri p> dki -psa rrnp -J ? w dk * n (14.11 [A]) t BEnn J D naer o n n ] n dk D J I (34.18[B]) O D D KTnrrb -|[afr ]n nma - ^ m -J ? J B P ok mi (12.11[A]) 7 ^ "jt oro "^n nay "]n ar ok (5.12[A]; 7 ^ -JT D1B ]H* OKI [C]) n n m * ona ]' ok o a r a n *?k r ok mi (16.2[A]) ITCOTI bnpb mr ok (34.3[B]) n ^ p ^ m o n D K i o ^ n n a r a ^ E D n o i K ] (4l.9[B]). 6. The protasis of a negative real condition is introduced by *b OK or
12 13
14

15

16

17

7 J J J ^ ^ tyirC ^>i^ ^r<a .sArC^ Jimjsi^A I C D - ^ T < . According to Segal (KTO p "ISO I note 4]), loin -pm em is also an example of the 'imperative of con dition'. Is the Hebrew no an error for an original 'D? Cf. 'Eav X8r\q at)vex6v, op0pie ftpo^ amdv and . m n . v i n yn^u CLOIJUJ. Including possibly the previous example at 7.25. Note the chiastic structure of the verse. The imperfect is the most frequent of the verbal forms found in the prota sis. There are only two examples with a participle. Elwolde notes that the apodosis with participle is unattested in Biblical He brew. See J.F. Elwolde, 'Non-Biblical Supplements to Classical Hebrew Hm', VT 40 (1990), 222 and also The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Vol. 1: Alef; ed. D.J.A. Clines [executive ed. J.F. Elwolde]; Sheffield, 1993), 302b, lb (4). The protasis with infinitive is also unattested in Biblical Hebrew. See El wolde, 'Non-Biblical Supplements', 222; Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, 302b, lb(5).
V

1 2

1 3

1 4 1 5

1 6

1 7

60

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA OK, and the apodosis by K ? or ^ K , e.g., Kson K ? pnn K ? O K I jran K ? f i n n K ? O K * n ( l 1 . 1 0 [ A ] ) Wzarr K ? oio3 O K I . . . -[^n ? bv K ? ^ I D P O K I ( 1 2 . 1 5 [ A ] )
4 4 4 4 4
4 4

18

ym vbv nnan ^ K nraer bm C P K jn ? ^ O K * n ( 3 4 . 1 2 [ B J ) 1 7 nro K ? rnr O K ITOnon ? * H J bay ( 3 4 . 4 [ B p .


4 4

7 . There are no attested unreal conditional clauses. 8 . 0 may possibly introduce a conditional clause in pin p i * K D no mprn i r r r r p n s ne?^o ( 1 6 . 2 2 [ A ] ) if one interprets the Hebrew as 'my deed of righteousness, who will tell of it, or what expectation is there if the end is far off?'. 9 . "K0K may possibly introduce a conditional clause in mm Kim 1 3 c p u Kin ne?K TO ^ K T H B nnnmr no ( 1 3 . 2 [ A ] ) 'How can the pot go with the vessel? If they knock together, the pot will be smashed'. This use of 1tt?K is attested in Biblical Hebrew. One may, however, take the clause beginning with ne?K as either temporal or causal. The Septuagint and Peshitta versions are ambiguous.
19 20 21 22 23

Comparative remarks Conditional clauses in Ben Sira are, on the whole, similar to the condi tional clauses of Biblical Hebrew. There are, however, some unique features. In contrast to Biblical Hebrew, there are no examples of a

On the use of in Biblical Hebrew, Qumran Hebrew, and Tannaitic He brew, see E. Qimron, nnanpnOTirnpoaa* n^aon rf?'D, in Hebrew Language Studies Presented to Professor Zeev Ben-Hayyim (ed. M. Bar-Asher et al.; Jerusalem, 1983), 473-82. The Septuagint reads a causal clause, p.aicpav yap ti 8ta9riiai, which is re flected in many modern translations, e.g., that of Di Leila (note 2): 'since the end is far off'. Cf. BDB, 83b, d: Lev 4.22; 25.33; Num 5.29. " T O N = novo, e.g., BDB, 83b, e: Jer 33.22; Isa 54.9. According to C. Gaenssle, The Hebrew Particle m (Chicago, 1915), 100-12 and others, it is questionable whether -RDR introduces temporal clauses when there is no preceding time adverbial. See, e.g., S. E. Loewenstamm & J. Blau, Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible (Jerusalem, 1957), I, 306 (Hebrew), who are of the opinion that there are no certain examples of " T O R introducing temporal clauses. The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (note 16), I, 433b, 4d, allows for a few examples. See also below, note 55. For examples of introducing causal clauses, see Gaenssle, 75-77 and the standard biblical dictionaries and grammars. avtxr\ icpoaicpouaei icai avtxr\ auvxpiPifaeTai; criA T < I J D ^ O criA T O T nn. The particle i in Syriac frequently does no more than mark the existence of some connection between two clauses in Syriac (as do and -V in Hebrew). See T. Noldeke, Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik (Darmstadt, 1966; reprint of second ed., originally published in Leipzig, 1898), 287 (366).
l 1 9 2 0 2 1 m 2 2 2 3

1 8

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES

61

wow introducing both the protasis and apodosis of a conditional sen tence. The use of the participle and infinitive in the apodosis found in Ben Sira is unattested in Biblical Hebrew. There are no clauses that are paralleled only in Tannaitic Hebrew, e.g., n m introducing the apodosis. One should bear in mind that conditional clauses in Bibli cal and Tannaitic Hebrew are quite similar, for example, both share the use of OK introducing protases, and in both corpora one finds conditional clauses with unmarked protases and apodoses.
24 25 26 27

B: Relative clauses 1. Relative clauses with nB?K considerably outnumber those with - B ? , e.g.,
- p o r r nmn* nB?Ki -\> p ' Kim (6.37[A]) oraKo H O B noK tra nircaro oKon *? K (8.9[ A]) new vb K M noK nK o * O T B * ? K O noKn * P K (15.11 [A]) nnaj n?DK B T K D aon (34.16[B]) n^ion v o n nvn ? -ma nK nKirua noo m o o p ]a OTTT (46.1 [B]) 'PKnBP nK K'BPTP K[D]n nOK 033 p D i m * (47.23[B]).
1

2. -B? is attested in the following verses. Note that

28

alternates with

nc?K and -n in some of the manuscripts: p a n n nnrmrro noa (3.22[A]; p a n n rnvenrr ncoKa [C]) n o r c n ^ K '30*7 nwsh n a ' B ? nan *?ai (14.16[ A]) [nois] (botf) nnKi taia nno pan p? ^ n^y nnaa (14.18[A]) i ? p perno *?ai moi o"n O I K *>id? (15.17[B]; noK [A]) D ' a n o ^ a t n v i B P O Q (i6:3 [Al ;m'B? [B]) 1300 nana p i neru> i ? BP *o p (30.l9[Bmg]) nnK ? ]nn * P K (30.28[E]) ia paiDB? nr Kin 'o (34.10[B]; p a n n [Bmg]) p a n n nKacoB? 'paai JDECD -jm n m (34.15[B]; I B ? K *?ai [Bmg]) -ps ? DOB ? nan E P K D * 7 D K I -poa -pnB? in (34.16[B])
4 4 4

29

P. Jouon and T. Muraoka, A Grammar of Bibical Hebrew (Rome, 1991), 628-29 (167b), e.g., noi na nun (Gen 44.22); nw TCTKSD HO'TI TJDI?* en (Judg 6.13). ? See GK, 159n-v and notes 16-17 above. On conditional clauses in Mishnaic Hebrew, see M. H. Segal, A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew (Oxford, 1927), 227-31 (483-92); n n a M T O m ' p T D D r r a rNBarnrroopon, L $. 4 (1936), 191-211; M. Azar, The Syntax of Mishnaic Hebrew (Jerusalem, 1995), 149-66 (4.9-10) (Hebrew). Segal, Grammar, 227 (483): The construction of conditional sentences in MH follows in the main the principles of similar sentences in BH'. This particle is not listed in the concordance published by the Academy of the Hebrew Language (note 8). This occurrence of -0 introduces a content clause.
2 6 e 2 8 2 9

2 4

62

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA nana nnocfr nwTQ vmv ]"n non "n no (34.27[B]; causal?)
Trtro p inno noRB? sn nn =] v n (37.3[B])

idt t> y\m ono en (44.9[M]; jn* idk [B]). 3. -n introduces relative clauses with a participial predicate, e.g.,
30

r r r p n i n n * t r a m nrra rrcrao minn (14.24 [A])

onRi3 ]3tonmDnran3D 2Hrrn (44.3[B]) 71 P S R O bmia) moo jru D'pon (48.5[B])

ormoa onDinon oV? mao ^ toi


4

- B O Hi? p m o i pjnno Toifr :trnn (50.4[B]) R ? (16.8[A]) u> p i n D'oorcn *toi P ^ R nuto era p (16.101A]) TO TOD j t o a n R 3 S m m poR* *o (36.31 [B]) o t o m m ? jyoon anp ton B ' m (49.12[B]).
4

4. *D might introduce a relative clause in TTTOJJ o T P Q T ma mnnnR T D B H Bnp n n p T T T C T I


R'33TODOniQ Rim (49.6-71B1),

though im3U '0 could also be understood as a causal clause. 5. nr introduces an independent relative clause in nucDRi TPtn nn *? R T O T O R3 nnDTR (42.15[M])/ nnsoRi T I ' T nn *? R * B H J O R J I D T R (42.15[B]), which is based on the biblical nnfORl Trm nn (Job 15.17). 6. There are asyndetic relative clauses following existential clauses introduced by B P :
31 32

jrfaD nan a m * B P (6.10[A1)

mm Dm ? Dan B P (37.19[B, C, D]) ORQ] 11313 D3n BP1 (37.20[B]) mmiDI ^DDnBP (37.23[D]) *?j w t o r ono a n T B T P IBH ? ono B P (48.16[B]) DB? im]n ono BP (44.8[B]) (but cf. IDT V? ]'R 1B?R DnQ BP1 [44.9(B)] and
1

nDTt>]'RB?DnDBn [44.9(M)]).

7. A handful of asyndetic relative clauses are found following nB?R


BTOR/BPR: ima 132H? R ? BTUR nB?R (14.1 [A]) I B ? D ] m o n R * ? B P R nE?R (14.2[A]) nn' noDnD B T U R nc&R (14.20[A])
1

D'QP R ^ Q ] BPR nB?R (34.8[B])


3 0

3 2

Note the alternation between P A I N (34.10[B]) and P Z R A Z ? (34.10[Bmg]). Modern translations render it as causal, e.g., 'for they had afflicted him', based on the Septuagint *EKaKoav yap at>x6v. VTflJJ'D is missing from the Peshitta. The demonstrative elements iT /tt/n| function as relative pronouns infrequently in biblical poetry. See BDB, 261b; Jouon and Muraoka (note 24], 537 (145c); B. K. Waltke and M. O'Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake, 1990), 336-37 (19.5).
3 1

F ASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES

63

narr rfran am nta* (50.28[B]).


There appears to be one example of a syndetic relative clause after
nt&K:
3 3

pttta ^atfTOHIDK (25.8[C]). 8. Other examples of an asyndetic relative clause following an indefinite antecedent a r e : a nb vfo? nu isn (4.17IA]) p $b >sr tran " T W (9.8[A]) D I I D ? Dnoo " T O K I mar p a pao (40.ii[B]). In the following two examples, it seems probable that DIpG is in construct to a following clause as in Biblical Hebrew and Tannaitic Hebrew: T C D T O 1 D CPD' OipD (34.14[B]) U T O K 'rr man mpa (42.ii[B]).
34 35
4

36

37

Comparative remarks
" T O N predominates in Ben Sira as it does in all periods of Biblical Hebrew and in Qumran Hebrew. which is not rare in Ben Sira, is attested in archaic biblical poetry (where it occurs only twice), Classical Biblical Hebrew (in passages relating to northern Israel), Late Biblical Hebrew (especially Qohelet), Tannaitic Hebrew (where it occurs almost exclusively), and certain documents of Qumran Hebrew (in particular 4QMMT).
38 39 40

3 3

3 4

40

One finds both syndetic and asyndetic relative clauses following nt&K in the Bible. See BDB, 81a; Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (note 16), 437b, d. The Peshitta, like other Aramaic translations, frequently translates modifying participles and syntagms that bear resemblance to asyndetic relative clauses as syndetic relative clauses with ^. See, e.g., pi nK " Q D inn ^ ]ma (7.20[C]) = i<ij\f<A f<A3r<n rfaiscuu J\S*I i < u ^ A 3i^_i T < A njt3j A ^ : ^ T (7.22); 72a pnt&^nftn^ (8.12[A]) = ^oA .am* T < A V > (8.15). ^See below (C.II) on the use of ni? in the language of Ben Sira. Cf. Biblical Hebrew " X D R Elpp (GK, 130c; BDB, 880a, 4) and -tf DipD in Late Biblical Hebrew (Qoh 1.7; 11.3), and Tannaitic Hebrew (such is the pointing in MS Kaufmann, but - DIpD in printed editions). See the remarks of J. Strugnell on this verse in 'Notes and Queries on "The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada'", EI 9 (1969), 115-16. Judg 5.7 (twice): Tippti. See Segal, Grammar (note 26), 42-43 (77-78). DJD,X(note6),74-75.
3 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9

64

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

C: Temporal clauses Causes of time are expressed by dependent clauses containing the imperfect or perfect, or by constructions based on the infinitive con struct.

J: Constructions with the imperfect/perfect 1. nzttO + imperfect/perfect is found with certainty in only one pas sage: p rfraiT \&b - J Q J J Kin' ncoto (12.15[A]). There may be another example in T O E ? ni&tCTOBnni>T lb ]*K nBK D H Q Z H (44.9[B]), unless the comparative use of nctO is intended. 2. D n C D + imperfect is found once in: vann ono nan a'ran *aa (ll.8[A]; man nn&a nan a'ton [B]). 3. oneo + imperfect occurs in ^ n ' P K n p n n n n e n (ll.7[A]) man nnen nan a ^ n (l l .8[B]) iinnjDivi^DnRnpnnonBa (li.27[A]). 4. ntf + imperfect is attested several times: m la nian ni> n a j r a ? (23.16[A]) man a ? o jran nan (32.21 [B]; mantf?ran o njn [Bmg])
41

rnpsr nj> enan a ? (32.21 [B])

n o 'ano jra* nr (32.22[B])


pnr toac? ernv nj> (32.23[B])

frxanNbow ny (32.24[B]). 5. nCBK IV + imperfect/perfect can be found in: -[a ^nm bw> nrca ny (13.7[A]) Dpn0Kntf(47.23[B])
mo waa op nraa nj> (48.1 [B]) oxnKD inoa nraa nr (48.15[B]).

6. ntf ntf + imperfect is attested once: 'a i> nv ivi (4.17[A]). 7. ne?K + perfect may introduce a temporal clause in:
42

Ttncp 'aa

nsan la ? iana ncaa IOU p s a no*n bo Trbvb ircpa


4

(45.23[B]). The clause beginning with nEK, however, can also be taken as causal.
Both the Septuagint and the Peshitta take "IBRD as comparative: xa\ <s o^x t)Jtap^avt^; q ^ n i rCD* */yf< \ \ ^ n n . *a K^O* is an asyndetic relative clause modifying r\v (see B.8, above); however, see also the discussion below on the use of in Ben Sira.
4 1

djccoXovTO

4 2

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES II: Constructions with the infinitive construct

65

Temporal clauses are frequently replaced by a preposition governing an infinitive construct. The preposition bears the temporal meaning of the construction.
43

1. -3 + infinitive construct (with and without pronominal suffixes) is the most common construction, e.g., Toy-fpKTOnra'D (4.17[A]) w a r DDK Trrcn (39.31 [B]) bm mm* rpnsra (43.3[B]) TJJ bs p o T s r a T moan n n : no (46.2[B]). 2. O + infinitive construct is attested in three passages: mio b* (16.26[A]) '? rrattr no r r a r o (38.23[Bmg]; - tot man no nneno [B]) TOrai n p s n ^ H i p i ; o n ^ i r m a p w mnm D'QBn w ) D'Q&n ]n (16.18[A])> 3. UV + infinitive construct can be found twice: TOD] nrc* nv anam (38.23[B]). D*ED TlWDUV (40.14[Bmg]; TIKE UV UV [B]). 4. 'aQ ? + infinitive construct occurs once in: ]Rn 'as ? rmnoji nvna Tan 0*7? nu (48.25[B]). 5. nj> + infinitive construct is attested in: nnra nne? ? i n t o n s (50.14,19[B]). 6. n# nj> + infinitive construct appears once in: SPEPP \*b nv iv (12.15[A]) (according to Segal, nj; is possibly a dittograph of nv). 7. njn + infinitive construct is found in
44 4 4 4 47 48

See M. Z. Kaddari, 'Construct Infinitive as Time Adverbial in Biblical He brew', Eretz-Israel 14 (1978), 133 (Hebrew). Is there a fourth example in ...^nDQtOjV^K^fcCip(46.5[B])? Segal, RTOpTDO (note 4), p. O'B, takes it as the feminine of the segholate *p, but notes the Septuagint ev x 9A,u|/ai amov e^Opotx; icoicXGev, for which he sug gests the retroversion DEPR? or The Peshitta has a diffrent reading. Could one analyse H D O R as a feminine verbal noun similar to mnfc, HfcT, nfcttD? The consonantal text reflects the qfl noun pattern (^mdm), which is at tested infrequently in Biblical Hebrew, but frequently in Tannaitic Hebrew. On the verbal use of qtl, see. M. Bar-Asher, 'Rare Forms in the Language of the Tannlrri, W . 41 (1977), 95-102 (Hebrew). The vocalized text reflects the active participle m dim. Note the use of -D + infinitive construct alongside -3 + infinitive construct. Segal, KTO p -BO (note 4), p. Q. Cf. also nnavnwDtnocirrai (11.19[A]);naon[?Dp}=]Dpanj>:T) (5.7[C]). Can one also understand the following nouns as infinitive constructs: TSOO run -pty -vxn (30.32[E1); nnann*** ipso run (35.11[B])?
4 4 4 5 c e 4 6 4 7 4 8

4 3

66

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

rana w i p * ma (3.31 [A]) mips ae?n nrai nrao ? n o r a j v vm (4.3l[C]). In the examples with prefixed - 3 , the temporal meaning is borne by the preposition. In two examples, however, one finds a temporal clause introduced by Pin and an infinitive construct, without a prepo sition: irroQi 7i T O T -QDEQ im run (46.19[B]> prun npBtnj n ? ^ n r ISDCBQ ^ irra run (40.51BJ). The frequency and use of ntf in temporal constructions in the language of Ben Sira is noteworthy.
1 49 50
4

]vaattxffTOTD mm

51

52

Comparative remarks The temporal clauses evidenced in Ben Sira are all attested in other Hebrew corpora. Cf. b o p ? in Classical Biblical Hebrew, btop3 in Clas sical Biblical Hebrew, Late Biblical Hebrew, and Qumran Hebrew, bup UV in Late Biblical Hebrew and Qumran Hebrew, "pop' ncotO and ^ O p ' D l o p ] in Classical and Late Biblical Hebrew, and perhaps ^Op' in a temporal sense in Classical Biblical Hebrew. The use of n r in temporal constructions is paralleled in bbp r\V (with the pre positions 0 " 7 D 3 and IV) in Classical Biblical Hebrew, im n r / n K Q
53 54 55 56

Kaddari, 'Construct Infinitive' (note 43), 132-33. Note also npr $b mora>'D "DT (9.12(A)), without the conjunction waw. The noun r\S seems to be a particularly favourite word of Ben Sira. It seems disproportionately frequent in this book compared with other temporal nouns. It occurs 38 times (excluding parallel passages in different manuscripts) as against, for example, 44 occurrences of Di\ In addition tora>+ infinitive construct, see also 'aap'ra?IV (CI.6) and n is bbp (CII.6). As for ns + infinitive construct, the only other temporal noun in construct to an infinitive construct in Ben Sira is nv, and when it occurs, the specific meaning of the noun is apparent: DR *?R Q i t D nv is 1QR Dmo TTIRS D V D 'FT bD (40.1 [B]). Qimron, Dead Sea Scrolls (note 6), 72-73; 'Observations' (note 6), 359; DJD, X (note 6), 81. Late usage (more than 15 times in DSS). See Qimron, Dead Sea Scrolls (note 6), 73-74. The particle 1R occurs in relative clauses following adverbials indicating time, e.g., Dnsoo D T I R * ' im nrn ovn nR T D ? (Exod 13.3); I O R D on iisi yypiwin (Gen 45.6). See Gaenssle (note 21), 54-55. On the possibility that TOR introduces temporal clauses when there is no preceding time adverbial, see note 21, above. BDB, 773b, 2a 'usual time': ran DR2* raft (Gen 24.11); Dmran(Gen 31.10); rrftra? (Job 39.1, 2). See also Tonn non ^\so^ (Dan 12.11); m o M i a i rran(Job 6.17). Kaddari, 'Construct Infinitive' (note 45), 133, also cites examples of *?bp raft: CDDBH R-Q raft (Josh 10.27); RXQ raft (Ps 32.6); mi RID ns is (Ps 105.19).
5 0 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6

4 9

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES


57

67

TDKTObaa /10K in Late Biblical Hebrew and 10K njn/KDK n#n ]Q in Qumran Hebrew, -0TODin Qumran Hebrew, TO in Tannaitic Hebrew, and ^Bp' r\vb as in archaic biblical poetry. Cf. also the Targumic Aramaic parallel -n jm:?.
58 59 60 61 62

D: Circumstantial clauses There are few certain examples of circumstantial clauses. In two of the following three passages, the circumstantial clause occurs with the principal clause in the same hemistich. 1. -1 + nominal clause (with participle) is found in: manas bv 3 *3 mm vm T O D*nra "frapa (50.121B]). 2. -e?a + nominal clause: ]op roneo yano upai Trrnaaa win * p (30.12[B]). 3. -e? + nominal clause: inuro vano p n man m bv jnaa (30.121B]).
64

63

Comparative remarks Circumstantial clauses introduced by waw are known from Biblical and Tannaitic Hebrew,- the construction with -a is attested in Tan naitic Hebrew. The use of -0 at the beginning of a circumstantial clause appears to be unattested elsewhere, though it does seem to oc66 67 65

vraoR i o im ruJDi (2 Chr 25.27); roo -rot* r\v bD2 (Est 5.13); omn tfro ICDK nu (Qoh 8.9). See DJD, X (note 6), 94: rfo -RDR nra (4QTestim [4Q175] 1.21); opn 10 run (4QCatena [4Q177] 1.5); n v r i B K n u n p (CD 10.15); niwriM (11QT 33.2); UO0 "ran run (11QT 58.3) (E. Qimron, Textual Notes on the Temple Scroll', Tarbiz 53 [1983], 141 [Hebrew]). rairf?mDrow?(4QMMT B 66). nosi?tD) TKSO ,ptf? wron I O Bro?(m. Orlah 1.2). cknDTonnW(Deut 32.35). Cf. -l ]Ttf in Lev 22.27 and Deut 32.35 in the Palestinian Targumim (Tg. Neof. and Frg. Tg; Tg. Ps.-Jon. reads f?nn<]tni? at Lev 22.27; -iyvs is attested in the Cairo Genizah fragments at Lev 22.27) and in Tg. Onq. at Gen 30.41 (-l]TVbD2). This passage continues ...unano Tlow glorious he was when (50.5). The Septuagint and Peshitta also read a circumstantial clause: Qfkaov t icXeup axnox) eoxi VTJJCIO; na^i ncn nik couoa \n3. S. R. Driver, A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other Syntactical Questions (Third ed.; Oxford, 1892), 195-211. Segal, Grammar (note 26), 226 (479); Azar, Grammar (note 26), 136. Segal, Grammar (note 26), 225 (478); Azar, Grammar (note 26), 135-36.
5 7

5 8

5 9 6 0

6 1

6 2

6 3

6 4

6 5

67

68

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

cur in place of temporal -CD in manuscripts of Tannaitic Hebrew.'

E: Purpose and intended result

69

Like temporal expressions, expressions of purpose and intended re sult are expressed in two ways, either by subordinate clauses with fi nite verbal forms or by infinitival constructions.

J: Constructions with the imperfect A: Constructions of positive purpose 1. ]VCr> + imperfect is found twice: -jropp D^n

pr> T

ewpn jrraRf? on (7.32[A])

D T O D 3 nQcan pab p n n p m UDT& inn (35.2[F1).

2. There is one example of + imperfect: rona bo -prer m a r - p naa nrauQai n o r a a '33 (3.8[A1). Two other constructions that may in some cases be interpreted as re flecting purpose and intended result include the following. 3. -1 + imperfect: pmrnm n u n i naa nv bv T *pn (33.3[B1) motci nr in *o (34.9[B]) "pj> by -prana - p a y n^on n bto nm 'a p K 'OSK to m (36.22[B]). 4.nCBK + imperfect: 7 no^a p ' ncaa nni?n n^K *?a Din (37.151DJ) rrno pnb niKEm nnras V? rfrar 12? n w Kin Da *a
71
6 8

70

M. Bar-Asher, riMon ^ josiup T nnD bm ppib "ision p D'Kann j w t a mnaa [jUDtn 1 1 T 3 ] , in Hebrew Language Studies Presented to Professor Zeev Ben-Hayyim

(ed. M. Bar-Asher et al., Jerusalem, 1983), pp. 93-99. M.Z. Kaddari, on the other hand, believes that the examples cited by Bar-Asher are not temporal clauses but rather comparative or causal clauses. See his 'On she- as TimeClause Subordinator', in Post-Biblical Hebrew Syntax and Semantics. Studies in Diachronic Hebrew, I (Ramat-Gan, 1991), 351-56 (Hebrew). An earlier version of this section appeared in Hebrew in my Studies in Bibli cal Syntax (Jerusalem, 1994), 122-24 (342-52). The examples with -i + imperfect could, of course, also be interpreted as independent modal clauses; however, in the light of the frequency of this syntagm marking purpose in the Bible, one should keep in mind the possibility of taking these clauses as purpose clauses. " T O R could be taken as introducing causal clauses in these examples.
6 9 7 0 7 1

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (38.14[B]) enpo bobob ntw r m a pn c p n f? m p ?


4

69

D^W

rfri-u roiro unfri 1 ? nvrn not* (45.24[B])

B: Constructions of negative purpose 1. ]Q + imperfect is the most frequent of the negative purpose con structions and is usually found after a negative imperative (70pn b&), e.g.:
tok 3 ' 3 0 3 nran p yen ^ 3 3 n ^ n b\* (8.10[A]) r r r r m m a ^lon p m r no ^ nnpn (9.3[A]) 7TOD3 P [ K ] np' 1Q DORP R ? ri3Tp DR1 (9.13[ A]) R3on p p m n n 7Ri pmnn p 3 -pnn ^ R (13.10[A]) -pjftn' Indian p i7ii; 133m - p no* (30.13[B]).
4

2. HQ? + imperfect occurs in several passages:


r p j o nop a n n l a t ? ] by 3ion no ? "7113 o'R o a a n n ^R i T a ^ i o n n o ? (8.1 [A]) Ron o^ii? D I D no ? T+?V sn '3 m o (ll .33[A]) J ^ R ^ a p * o a no ? ib ]nn ^ R on ? ' ^ 3 (12.5[A1) - p ' O ' ? m3 'om ^R -pnnn T D J H -pnn' no ? inn 'o^n b* -poio o p 3 ' HQ? (12.12[A]) p p Rino3 i'3no i^pai i r n i r a i o r i * p 003 noo 1300 1*701 "|a nnoi ^ ' o p ' no ? (30.12[B]) bw rb* nr no ? aorr io3 Kin 03 *a (37.8 [D]).
4 4 4 4 4
4

3. R^O + imperfect: nra op3' K * - p a a l a m (30.34[E])


TO R ? - p a r (30.36[E]>. 4. R ? po ? + imperfect: O I K '330 rrami mo:;a ni30' R ? p a ? nnpno now n p n p i
4 4
4 4

(38.8[B])
03310 n30' R ? p a ? 3 ? noan 03 ? p i (45.26[B]).
4 4 1 4

5. R^l + imperfect:
~]bbpb oipo i ? ]nn 161 0D3 "]i3ioo o ^ n n ^ R I ^n ni^iRo nt3n R ?
4 4

(4.4-5[A])
pnon ? R20' R ^ I n rfraoa f? n'n (12.11[A]) ana' R^i noa* nai eno* tf?i n' ?*; po3i (15.4[A]) ym 13 03 'a e?io' rf?i oipo qn Ran/? in pi (38.12[B]).
4
4

This is the marginal note. The body of the text reads npe?\

70

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

II: Constructions with the infinitive A: Constructions of positive purpose 1. -b + infinitive construct is frequent, e.g., mznn ? m i (il.io [A,B]) - f ^ r f r Viet xb *7ian dki (12.15[ A]) Dna-7K[D] o m n ? bwoo onoK ? jrn (47.23-24[B]) nnbn: b* nwmb *bn *p* rnrca bed i ^ r a o'aen on nob (46.8[B]). 2. ]VOb + infinitive construct is attested twice: win *u to n [ m j po ? (46.6[B]) apjr jnr bo run joa ? (46.10[B]). 3. -b T a m + infinitive construct occurs in: TO taw i n r t t d m ma ip'non p n *bn (38.5[B]).
1 4 4 4 1

B: Constructions of negative purpose 1. Tlbob + infinitive construct: nra mron Tbib IQV rro3 d ^ m3 (44.18[B]).
4

Comparative remarks Almost all of the clauses of purpose and intended result found in Ben Sira are attested in other Hebrew corpora. As in all Hebrew corpora, the most frequent way of expressing purpose is through the use of the infinitive with lamed. As in Classical Biblical Hebrew (and in docu ments from Qumran), one also finds bvp pa ?, bop* ]xb, bvp-> rbnb, btop ^nb^b, btop*> ]D, bup^ nob, and possibly the syntagms bopn, *b*i bvp\ and bvp-> nrcK; bvp* \*b ]Unb is paralleled in Late Biblical Hebrew and at Qumran. There is one Mishnaic syntagm found in Ben Sira, *b b^p^. Ben Sira also evidences constructions similar to, but slightly different from, the Classical Biblical Hebrew constructions btop'* TQJJ, bwpb TOJn (cf. bvpi bvp majnfr] in the Masoretic text).
73 4 74

E: Conclusion Five different types of dependent clauses were examined: conditional, relative, temporal, circumstantial, and purpose. The investigation
7 3 7 4

Fassberg (note 69), 119-22 (328-341). Segal, Grammar (note 26), 242 (514-15); Azar, Grammar (note 26), 127-28 (4.4.2).

FASSBERG: DEPENDENT CLAUSES

71

shows that the dependent clauses investigated in Ben Sira are, on the whole, similar to dependent clauses in Classical Biblical Hebrew. In frequently one finds clauses that are representative of other periods and corpora. Among temporal clauses, note *?bp UV as in Late Biblical Hebrew and Qumran Hebrew; among clauses of purpose and in tended result, 'POp' $b ]VOb turns up as in Late Biblical Hebrew and Qumran Hebrew, and ^ttp' tihw as in Tannaitic Hebrew; among cir cumstantial clauses, -CD + nominal clause stands out, as in Tannaitic Hebrew. There are three syntagms in dependent clauses that are unattested elsewhere in Hebrew sources. The first two occur in purpose clauses, and are similar to, but slightly different from, the corresponding bibli cal syntagms: T)J? and btopb Tiara. The third syntagm occurs in a circumstantial clause: - 0 + nominal clause; it is reminiscent of the tannaitic use of C D for expected -CD in temporal clauses.

THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF BEN SIRA AS A LINK BETWEEN BIBLICAL AND MISHNAIC HEBREW: LEXICOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS Avi Hurvitz (Jerusalem)

Part A Undoubtedly one of the most exciting discoveries from the Cairo Genizah at the end of the nineteenth century was a bundle of frag ments that were immediately recognized as portions of the apoc ryphal book The Wisdom of Ben Sira. To be sure, there were some scholars who asked themselves whether these fragments actually rep resented the original Hebrew composition of Ben Sira, dated to the second century BCE, preferring to assume that the Cairo leaves were nothing more than secondary translations from the extant non-He brew versions (Greek, Syriac), produced by much later generations. Interestingly enough, among the greatest sceptics in this regard were some of the best known names in the realms of biblical studies and Hebrew linguistics, who expressed their strongly negative verdict on the authenticity of the manuscripts with considerable vigour. One of the most emphatic attacks was launched by C.C. Torrey; he believed that the Genizah texts represent a 'medieval hodge-podge', composed by a person who 'shows poverty of ideas, no firmly held principles of literary composition, and decided lack of taste; in short, miserable in competence'. Somewhat less aggressively, H.L. Ginsberg declared that the Hebrew reflected in the Cairo Genizah manuscripts was the 'product of Paytanic decay ; similarly, E.Y. Kutscher remarked that 'the Genizah versions call for relegation to a linguistic genizah'. To put things in due perspective, we should remember that these opinions were in the minority; most scholars dealing with the mate1 2 7 3 4

C.C. Torrey, The Hebrew of the Geniza Sirach', in Alexander Marx Jubilee Volume, English section (ed. S. Lieberman; New York, 1950), 585-602. Torrey, pp. 597 and 592, respectively. H.L. Ginsberg, The Numerical Sequence Pattern', in Minfrah Ledavid (The David Yellin Jubilee Volume; Jerusalem, 1935), 3D (in Hebrew: 'XD'Q JTTO n-frin, and, in another formulation on the same page, 'a clumsy paytanic diction
2 3

[ra^D^snsxD]').
4

Unpublished communication, 30 Jan. 1967: mTB/pnrnDDnT'nrpwJonrnn'nou

HURVITZ: THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF BEN SIRA

73

rial accepted its authenticity. The subsequent recovery of some frag mentary Hebrew scrolls of Ben Sira, however partial and imperfect, at Qumran and Masada seems indeed to have inflicted a final blow to the negative position. Although the newly discovered texts are far from identical with the Genizah versions, they, nevertheless, clearly testify to an unbroken continuity in the Hebrew textual tradition of Ben Sira, extending from the Masada-Qumran scrolls to the Cairo Genizah manuscripts. Particularly decisive in this connection are the Masada fragments, since they were found in an archaeologically dated context,- hence, Yadin's statement that 'the version of Ben Sira discovered at Masada ... unmistakably confirms the main conclusions reached by a considerable number of scholars, that the manuscripts discovered in the Cairo Genizah basically represent the original Hebrew version'. It was obviously due to this development that Kutscher modified his former approach; in his final work, on the history of Hebrew, he devotes a special section to the language of Ben Sira (as manifested in both Masada and the Genizah) alongside the language of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Being the product of an intermediate era, between the successive periods that gave rise to the biblical and rabbinic literatures respec tively, it comes as no surprise that the book of Ben Sira represents, from various aspects, a transitional phase in the linguistic history of Hebrew. This is indeed shown by the simple fact that, on the one hand, the writer sticks to the old tradition of classical BH; yet, on the other, his composition abounds in non-classical featureslexical, grammatical, and syntacticalwhich are best paralleled in MH (as well as in other contemporary sources).
5 6 7 8 9

The fall of Masada (73 CE) is the terminus ad quern for the scroll; cf. Y. Yadin, The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada (Jerusalem, 1965), English section, 4 (on paleographical grounds the scroll is defined as 'pre-Herodian' [ibid.]). ^Ibid.,1. E.Y. Kutscher, A History of the Hebrew Language (Jerusalem/Leiden, 1982), 87-93. Note that our interest here is confined to the (attested) written language, as manifested in the available texts at our disposal, for a discussion of the (supposed) spoken language(s)an issue that lies beyond the scope of the pre sent studycf. the recent article by E. Qimron, 'Observations on the History of Early Hebrew (1000 B.C.E.-200 CE.) in the Light of the Dead Sea Docu ments', in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (ed. D. Dimant and U. Rappaport; Leiden, 1992), 349-61. The vocabulary of MH contains a great deal of lexical material common also to Aramaic. It is thus not possible, in many cases, to make a clear distinction between the two and determine whether the element examined is a 'Mishnaism' or an 'Aramaism'. However, for chronological purposesour main concern herethis difficulty is marginal. Since both options represent
7 8 9

74

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

As our title indicates, we will focus here on the lexical aspects of the composition. Accordingly, we would like to concentrate on two major categories of nouns and verbs which may be singled out in this connection: 1. Non-classical lexical items, whose distribution pattern in our sourcesboth in the OT and outside itis characteristic of post-exilic writings; 2. Classical lexical items, whose usage in Ben Sira reflects a relatively late phase of development in the history of the lan guage. For purposes of illustration, we will put forward two concrete cases, one in each category: 1. nttOj 'prophecy ; 2. 10V 'arise, appear on the scene' (Qal); 'establish, appoint' (Hif'il).
7

PartB
I: nwnj
T

References to prophecy and prophets are scattered throughout the en tire OT, which makes constant use of the noun K'aj 'prophet' and the verbs K3jnn 'prophesy'. However, the abstract noun n $ l 3 3 'prophecy' is not attested at all in the classical writings, its biblical oc currences (four times) being limited to the Second Temple books of Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles. Ben Sira also makes use of this lex eme (four times), which is widely attested in rabbinic literature (in both tannaitic and amoraic sources, in Hebrew and Aramaic). It is
:

11

12

the same linguistic milieuthat of post-classical Hebrewthe precise label adopted CMishnaism' or 'Aramaism') is basically only a matter of classifica tion and categorization. Cf. H. Hurvitz, The Hebrew Language in the Persian Period', in The World History of the Jewish People, Vol. 6 (ed. B. Mazar; Jeru salem, 1983), 218 (Hebrew). The English translation of MT is given according to the Jewish Publication Society's Tanakh (Philadelphia, 1985). However, in a few places we have in troduced minor modifications, in order to come closer to the Hebrew text. In the case of Ben Sira we usuallybut not alwaysfollow the translation of G.H. Box and W.O.E. Oesterley in R.H. Charles, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, Vol. 1 (Oxford, 1913 [1978]), 268-517. BDB,612; KB, 587: late'. Prof. M.Z. Kaddari has rightly noted thatsemanticallya distinction ought to be made between two basic meanings of the lexeme HR133: (1) 'prophesying' (i.e. the activity); (2) 'prophecy' (i.e. the end result of the activ ity), which, again, may be subdivided into 'oral' and 'written'.
1 0 1 2

HURVITZ: THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF BEN SIRA

75

thus abundantly clear that Ben Sira here represents a connecting link between BH on the one hand and MH on the other.

1: Ben Sira Altogether, n^oa occurs four times in Ben Sira: 44.3 46.1 46.13 46.20 Counsellors in their discernment, and seers of all through prophetic power (Dnmzn bo mm o m a r a D^rvn); A mighty man of valour was Joshua the son of Nun, a minis ter of Moses in the prophetic office (/7Kna JTOD mCQ); A Nazirite of Y. in the prophetical office, Samuel, who acts as judge and priest (pDU\ bend bwao ntvan"* nm); And from the earth, he (Samuel) raised his voice in prophecy ([ri]MDJDtoppKD wzn).
13

Particularly instructive in this connection is 46.1, where Ben Sira echoes a number of biblical verses that describe Joshua as Moses' 'ser vant' (nnipQ). However, interestingly enough, none of the biblical 'models' involved uses the term HKina introduced by Ben Sira; contrast 46.1, A mighty man of valour was Joshua the son of Nun, a minis ter of Moses in the prophetic office with the following verses: Exod24.13 ...rwobsn Exod 33.11 Num 11.28 Josh l.l

innera smm iTODop'i; inncjoi... n r a b& * nam

imb

...inrpo nramjpD p : p w p i ; rwnmqfci p p OTVP * T R ^ nam.

2: Biblical literature As already noted, the biblical occurrences of rrttQ] are restricted to the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles, i.e., to the distinctive late biblical corpus.

In the Masada text: [pntonm; see Yadin, Ben Sira, 45.

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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

A: Hebrew Neh6.12 Then I realized that it was not God who sent him, but that he uttered that prophecy (rrMDin) about meTobiah and Sanballat having hired himbecause he was a hireling. 2Chr9.29(Qr) The other events of Solomon's reign ... are recorded in the chronicle of the prophet Nathan (K'^n ]ru '131) and in the prophecies of Ahijah the Shilonite ( n K r a n HTIK PfflDJ) (contrast: Isa 1.1 The prophecy of Isaiah... [JTDJ7 p TP w ]im]; Jer 1.1 The words of Jeremiah . .. [imparl p TPOT n a i l ) and in the visions of Jedo the seer [nrnn tup Pirn]). 2Chrl5.8 When Asa heard these words, the prophecy (/7K7JJ/7) of Oded the prophet, he took courage .... B: Aramaic Ezra 6.14 So the elders of the Jews progressed in the building, urged on by the prophesying of Haggai Can the prophet and Zechariah son of Iddo ....
14

3. Dead Sea Scrolls For one reason or another, the term HKia] is not commonas far as I can tellin the Dead Sea Scrolls; nevertheless, it does occur in the Psalms Scroll (HQPs 27.11 [DJD, IV, p. 92]): All these he spoke through prophecy (ntilDJ) which was given him from before the Most High.
a 15

Professor T. Muraoka has mentioned, in this connection, that BA employs also Rnrj (cf. BH jirn). Note, however, that the two words are far from syn onymous. Rnrj, which still carries the basic sense of Vnm 'see', means 'vision, appearance' in general, and thus could be applied even to a pagan individual like King Nebuchadnezzar (Dan 2.28). In contrast, ntraj, denoting 'prophesy ing, prophetic guidance/power', is used within BA specifically in Jewish contexts. I wish to express my sincere thanks to Professor M. Smith, for having re minded me of this text. Dr J.F. Elwolde notes that the form nwna (with a circle over the yod, so perhaps waw should be read) occurs in 4Q458 15.2, an unpub lished fragment, according to p. 1375 of the (unpublished) Stegemann/Strugnell concordance.
1 5

1 4

HURVITZ: THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF BEN SIRA 4. Rabbinic literature

77

The word rmiaa is well-attested in the vocabulary of rabbinic litera ture. Compare the following examples (note that in the Aramaic Targums it occurs both in literal translations of the classical ]ifn [and also HTTlQ] as well as in explanatory expressions, where it has no direct counterpart in the Hebrew Vorlage). A: Hebrew m. Sanh 11.5 The false prophet/ [Deut 18.20: . . . n a - f r T r TOKiraJT]he that prophesies (Ranon) what he has not heard ... but he that suppresses his prophecy (7HK73J) or disregards the words of another prophet (irarr n a n ) . . . . mek. Jethro to Exod 18.21 Tou shall also seek out (nmn) from among all the people ../you will be a seer to them through prophecy (DH7 .nrnn /7K7a:a). tos. E d l . l For it is said in the Scriptures (Amos 8.11) I will send a famine upon the land: not a hunger for bread ... but for hear ing the word of the Lord''word of God' means 'prophecy' ( / w o n t " nai).
c

B: Aramaic Isal.l The prophecy of Isaiah Cim w pin) the son of Amoz ... tg. Neb. (wwr mn?) . Gen 15.1 ... the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision (nrnoa) tg. Onq. (/7Nnn). Num24.2 ... the spirit of God (DvfrK i m ) came upon him tg. Onq. ... a spirit of prophecy from the presence of the Lord C Dip ]Q ,7Knjrrn) came upon him.

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In classical BH there is a clear functional distinction between DjP meaning 'rise' (an act) and IQtf meaning 'stand' (a state). However, in post-classical Hebrew writings there is a marked tendency on the part of VlQtf to expand its territory and penetrate into the classical domain of Voip. Similarly, TQtfn, meaning 'establish, appoint'replacing, as it does, its classical equivalent D'pn (as well as other classical verbs like ]n3, TpQn,Dto) is a distinctive hallmark of the post-classical sources. This linguistic development has a clear-cut diachronic di mension, and its existence in Hebrewin biblical as well as extra-bib lical sourcesis widely recorded in lexicons, commentaries, and vari ous linguistic studies. Its imprints are well-attested in the language of Ben Sira as well, which, thus, again reflects a diachronically tran sitional stage between BH and MH.
17 18

This is an expanded version of the discussion in A. Hurvitz, A Linguistic Study of the Relationship between the Priestly Source and the Book ofEzekiel: A New Approach to an Old Problem (CahRB, 20; Paris, 1982), 94-97. Cf., for instance, the following references (the list is by nomeans exhaus tive): W. Gesenius, Geschichte der hebrischen Sprache und Schrift (Leipzig, 1815 [Hildesheim, 1973]), 29; L. Zunz, Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Juden, his torisch entwickelt (Frankfurt a.M., 1892), 26; BDB, 764 (see also S.R. Driver, An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament [Ninth ed.; Edinburgh, 1913], 507 [numbers 16, 21]); E.L. Curtis and A.A. Madsen, The Books of Chronicles (ICC; Edinburgh, 1910 [1965]), 249; C. Rabin, The Zadokite Documents (Second ed.; Oxford, 1958), 4, n. 2; E.Y. Kutscher, 'Aramaic Caique in Hebrew', Tarbiz 33 (1963-64), 124-25 (Hebrew); A. Bendavid, Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic He brew, Vol. 1 (Tel Aviv, 1967), 62, 65, 66, 84,132, 332, 334, 360-61 (Hebrew); S. Japhet, Interchanges of Roots, in Verbs, in Parallel Texts in Chronicles', L . 31 (1966-67), 265-66 (Hebrew); A. Hurvitz, The Transition Period in Biblical He brew (Jerusalem, 1972), 173, n. 298 (Hebrew; see also A Linguistic Study, 9497); R. Polzin, Late Biblical Hebrew: Toward an Historical Typology of Biblical He brew Prose (HSM, 12; Missoula, 1976), 148; H.G.M. Williamson, Israel in the Books of Chronicles (Cambridge, 1977), 44 (number 21); E. Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (HSS, 29; Atlanta, 1986), 94; M.F. Rooker, Biblical Hebrew in Transition: the Language of the Book of Ezekiel (JSOTSup, 90; Sheffield, 1990), 149-52. Cf. S.R. Driver, 'Glossary of Words', in The Original Hebrew of a Portion of Ecclesiasticus (XXXIX.15 to XLIX.ll) (ed. A.E. Cowley and A. Neubauer; Ox ford, 1897), xxxiv; D. Strauss, Sprachliche Studien zu den hebrischen Sirachfrag menten (Zrich, 1900), 24; R.H. Charles, The Apocrypha, Vol 1, 494; M.H. Segal, The Complete Book of Ben Sira Jerusalem, 1953), (Hebrew); E.Y. Kutscher, History, 88; R. Polzin, Late Biblical Hebrew, 148; A. Hurvitz, A Linguistic Study, 96; M.F. Rooker, Biblical Hebrew in Transition, 150. Cf. also LB. Gottlieb, 'IDS = "to exist'", Beth Mikra 32 (1987), 383-86 (Hebrew).
1 7 e 1 8

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79

1: Ben Sira The post-classical noy 'rise, appear on the scene, take office' is attested several times in Ben Sira (alongside its classical equivalent Op, which is also retained); the phrase ... nnn no*? occurs in Ben Sira once, to the exclusion of its classical counterpart ... nnn Dp, and, similarly, the collocation "H?l?n + Dtp is documented once in Ben Sira, instead of the classical D'pn + dtp. A: Qal 47.1 And, furthermore, after him stood up (7DV) Nathan, to serve ... David (contrast: Deut 34.10 Never again did there arise [Dp] ... a prophet like Moses; Si 48.1 Until there arose [Dp] a prophet like fire; Si 47.23 Until there arose [Dp] ... Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who sinned ...). 12.12 Let him not stand beside thee, lest he thrust thee aside and stand (7ni>') in thy place ("['nnn) (contrast: Num 32.14 ... you have risen [onop] in place of [nnn] your fa thers; lKgs8.20: ... I have risen [DpW] in place of [nnn] my father ...). B: Hittl 40.19 Child and city establish (1TDSP) a name (DC?) (contrast: Deut 25.7 he refuses to establish [D'pn ?] a name [DC?] ... for his brother; Ruth 4.5 ... so as to perpetuate [D'pn ?] the name [DC?] of the deceased upon his estate).
1 1

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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Note also 37.26 ... his name (TOE?) abideth 2: Biblical literature

(7071;)

in life eternal.

VlQtf, carrying the above-mentioned semantic connotations, is a dis tinctive characteristic of LBH. Its late nature is particularly striking in the following cases, where classical BH provides us with precise lin guistic contrasts for the specific collocations involved (i.e., in combi nations with -pO and 131 [Qal]; BSTO and boB [HifHl]). A: Qal Dan 8.23 ... then a king will arise ( 7 0 1 ? ' ) , impudent and versed in in trigue (contrast: Exod 1.8 A new king arose [Dpn] over Egypt...). Est 3.4 ... in order to see whether Mordecai's words 0 "m) would prevail ( 7 7 0 1 > ' ) (contrast: Deut 19.15 A single witness may not validate a case [131] can be valid [Dip'] only on the testimony of two). B: Hittl 2Chrl9.5 He appointed (7D1?1) judges in the land ... (contrast: Judg2.16 ... the Lord raised up [Dpjl] judges who delivered them...). 2Chr33.19 ... he built shrines and installed ( 7 ' 0 1 V 7 ) sacred posts and im ages (contrast: Lev 26.1 ... you shall not make ... or set up [lQ'pn] ... carved images Judg 18.30 The Danites set up p}Q p }] the sculptured image ...).
, r

HURVITZ: THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF BEN SIRA

81

3: Dead Sea Scrolls Here, again, the lateness of VlQtf in the texts under consideration may readily be established through the 'linguistic contrast' provided by classical BH. A: Qal 4QFlor [4Q174] 13 (DJD, V, p. 53)
... he who will arise (770J;') to save (^enn*?) Israel

(contrast: Judg 10.1 After Abimelech, Tola ... arose [Opn] to deliver [swmnfr] Israel; Exod 2.17 ... Moses arose [Dpn] and came to their defence CD 7.19-20 ... as it is written [Num 24.17]: 'a sceptre shall rise (Dpi) forth from Israel'the scepter is the Prince of all the congregation, and when it arises (77D107).... B: Hif'il 4QJub [4Q223-24] 2.2.9-10 (DJD, XIII, p. 106) Even if he swears ( C T ' ) , he will not fulfill (T[D]V'\*t>)' (his oath) (contrast: Gen 26.3 ... I will give all... fulfilling [Tiapm] the oath that I swore to... Abraham; Num 30.15 ... her husband ... has upheld [D'pm] all the vows or obligations she has assumed ...; Jerll.5 In order to fulfill [D'pn] the oath which I swore to
19 h

This is E. Qimron's reading (I am grateful to him for his oral communica tion): TQPp], instead of T)OJ?p] adopted in DJD (the translation suggested there (p. 110) is: '[it] will not stand'). An examination of the photograph has con vinced me that the letter under discussion here is indeed yod rather than ivaw. Anyway, in either case there is no question about the root being ms and if Qimron's suggestion is not accepted, we simply have to transfer our example from the rubric of Hif'il ( = TOJP) to that of Qal (= nor).

1 9

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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

your fathers...). 4QPsJos [4Q378] 11.2 ... he established his words ( m m TOVpi]) which he spoke (contrast: Deut 27.26 ... he who will not uphold the terms of [ n m riK D'p'] this teaching and observe them).
a 20 21

4: Rabbinic literature Here, again, particularly instructive are those cases where a direct linguistic contrast' may be established; i.e., when the rabbinic sources resort to V~IDU, although their biblical modelsoften quoted in these passages verbatimemploy the classical Vop A: Qal m. Sotah 9.15 ... the elders shall rise up (77DIP) before the children (contrast: Lev 19.32 You shall rise [Dlpn] before the aged), 'for son spurns father, daughter rises up (nop) against moth er' [Mic 7.6]. m. Sanh 10.3 Neither of them shall stand (JHDW) in the judgement, for it is written [Ps 1.5], 'Therefore the wicked will not stand OQp?) in the judgement'. B: Hittl tos. Sanh 4.10 They do not appoint (J TDVQ) a king outside of the land (contrast:
J

See C. Newsom, The "Psalms of Joshua" from Qumran Cave 4', JJS 39 (1988), 57-73.1 owe this reference to Dr J.F. Elwolde. Newsom correctly notes that the Qumran text exhibits 'the Late Biblical Hebrew substitution of TQtfn for D'pn' (p. 64); the biblical verse that she selects for illustrating this linguistic opposition is Deut 9.5. Prof. E. Tov has kindly informed me that the Qumran text is to appear in DJD, XXII; with his permission, the line discussed is quoted from the proofs. In J.H. Charlesworth's Graphic Concordance to the Dead Sea Scrolls (Tubingen, 1991): m m ToSpf?].
2 1

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83

1 Kgs 14.14 ... the Lord will raise up [O'pm] a king over Israel), mek. Jethro to Exod 20,19 [16] ... the Israelites merited that prophets shall be raised (TDVrfy among them, as it is said [Deut 18.18], 'I will raise up D'pK) a prophet for them ...'I was going to raise up (l DPnb) a prophet from among them in the future.
J

PartC The post-classical linguistic profile of Ben Siravividly manifested by the isoglosses with LBH, QH, MH, and Aramaichas been firmly es tablished and widely acknowledged in recent years. However, one should by no means assume that this conclusion is brand-new and that it has been conceived only lately by modern research. On the contrary, the late linguistic character of Ben Sira was repeatedly noted in the extensive scholarly literature published on theGenizah texts im mediately after their discoveryin the closing years of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth. The unfortunate de velopment here was that in subsequent years scholars showed much less interest in this specific facet of Hebrew; consequently, the whole issue of 'post-classical Hebrew'whether in the Hebrew Bible or
22 23

Cf. Kutscher, History as well as the following studies: C. Rabin, The Histor ical Background of Qumran Hebrew', in Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (ScrHier 4; Jerusalem, 1958), 152; A. Bendavid, Biblical Hebrew, Vol. 1, 69, 7374, 91-92, 95-96; R. Sappan, 'A Lexicon of the Linguistic Innovations in the Hebrew Version of Ben Sira' (MA diss., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1968); A. Hurvitz, The Transition Period, 52-56; R. Polzin, Late Biblical Hebrew, 4-6; M. Kister, 'A Contribution to the Interpretation of Ben Sira', Tarbiz 59 (1989-90), 303-78; A. S^enz-Badillos, A History of the Hebrew Language (Cam bridge, 1993), 116,127. See also note 18, above. Cf., for instance, S.R. Driver, 'Note', The Expositor, Fourth series, Vol. 1 (1890), 387-90, esp. 389; 'Glossary', xxxi-vi; S. Schechter and C. Taylor, The Wisdom of Ben Sira (Cambridge, 1899), 33-34 (Schechter's views on Ben Sira's stylistic borrowings fromand literary allusions tocanonical biblical writ ings [see especially pp. 13-25] require thorough revision; this matter, how ever, has no direct bearing on the question of Ben Sira's linguistic profile, which is our only concern here); D.Strauss, Sprachliche Studien; A.A. Bevan, The Wisdom of Ben-Sira', JTS 1 (1900), 137-38 (a review of Schechter and Taylor); I. Levi, The Hebrew Text of the Book of Ecclesiasticus (Semitic Study Se ries, 3; Leiden, 1904), xi-xii; R. Smend, Die Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, Vol. 2 (Berlin, 1906), xxxviii-xlvi, especially xlii-xlvi; M.H. Segal, The Language of Ben Sira', L S. 7 (1936), 100-20 (Segal's approach to textual matters is decid edly in need of certain modifications; much of his linguistic analysis, how ever, has stood the test of time).
2 3 e

2 2

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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


24

outside itwas largely neglected. It seems that this regrettable episode in the Forschungsgeschichte may be accounted for by two principal factors: first of all, the grave doubts aboutand the deep disappointment withthe lack of methodological procedures and appropriate criteria in studying the diachronic aspects of BH (particularly notorious in this regard was, as is well known, the noncritical treatment of the so-called 'Aramaisms'); secondly, the en thusiasm accompanying the discovery of Ugaritic literature, which naturallyattracted the main attention of wide scholarly circles to the early, rather than the late, strata of the Hebrew language. At any rate, it was only after the publication of the Dead Sea Scrolls that the issue of post-classical Hebrew in generaland LBH in particularwas 'resurrected' and won renewed interest, to a large extent, no doubt, thanks to the monumental work of E.Y. Kutscher, The Language and Linguistic Background of the Isaiah Scroll (lQIs?). The remarkable number of isoglosses common to the Scrolls and the late biblical books has more firmly established LBH astypologicallyan identifiable linguistic entity, reflectingchronologically the post-classical period. It was a natural further step to extend our
25 26 27 28 29

The tendency is made evident, inter alia, by the fact that the more recent commentaries on Ben Sira, in contrast to the old ones, generally do not include a section devoted specifically to the linguistic description of the com position. ^ Cf. A. Hurvitz, The Language of the Priestly Source and its Historical Set ting the Case for an Early Date', in Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Panel Sessions: Bible Studies and Hebrew Language (Jerusalem, 1983), 83. Cf., for instance, C. Rabin, 'Hebrew', in Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 6 (ed. T.A. Sebeok; The Hague/Paris, 1970), 323 (a critique of M. Wagner, Die lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im alttestamentlichen Hebr&isch [BZAW 96; Berlin, 1966]). M.F. Rooker, Biblical Hebrew in Transition, 30. The book was originally published in Hebrew (Jerusalem, 1959) and ap peared some years later in English (STDJ, 6a; Leiden, 1974). ^ Cf., for instance, the surveys in the following studies: A.Bendavid, Biblical Hebrew, Vol. 1, 60-94; E.Y. Kutscher, History, 81-85; J. Naveh and J.C. Greenheld, 'Hebrew and Aramaic in the Persian Period', in The Cambridge History of Judaism, Vol. 1 (ed. W.D. Davies and L. Finkelstein; Cambridge, 1984), 119-22; P. Jouon and T.Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Vol. 1 (rev. ed.; Rome, 1993), 9-12; A. Saenz-Badillos, History, 112-29; A. Hurvitz, 'Continuity and Innovation in Biblical Hebrewthe Case of "Semantic Change" in Post-Exilic Writings', in Studies in Ancient Hebrew Semantics (ed. T.Muraoka; AbrNSup, 4; Louvain 1995), 1-10. P. Davies's categorical denial of a diachronic factor oper ative in the formation of BH (In Search of 'Ancient Israel' [JSOTSup, 148; Sheffield, 1992] 102-105) is surrounded by too many question marks to be considered in this study. Above all, the critiques note that Davies's treatment of linguistic matters suffers severely from two deficiencies: (1) insufficient
2 6 2 7 2 8

2 4

HURVITZ: THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF BEN SIRA

85

perspective by introducing into this late linguistic milieu the Hebrew of Ben Sira as well.
30

PartD The non-classical elements encountered in Ben Sira are, linguistically, not all of a piece. Some of them may be accounted for as simply free variations of standard phrases and expressions widely attested in classical biblical literature. Others may belong to the sapiential vo cabulary of wisdom literaturemuch of which is lostor reflect the personal style ('idiolecf) of Ben Sira himself; and there are, of course, other linguistic peculiarities, whose exact interpretation escapes us and whose origin and background cannot be safely determined. All this inevitably defies any clear-cut chronological conclusions and, consequently, must be left out of the present discussion. In contrast, as we have already suggested, there is a considerable amount of linguistic material in the book of Ben Sira that does fall neatly under the heading of diachronic development and that is in dicative of the late biblical and post-biblical period. The non-classical elements included in this category represent, when viewed from the perspective of the classical language, deviations (or departures) from accepted standards of long-established modes of writing. They may be interpreted, therefore, either as signs of 'decay' and lack of suffi cient mastery in idiomatic usage of the time-honoured linguistic tra dition, or, vice-versa, as indicative of the innovatoryand creative talent of later generations. Now, as a matter of fact, this question
31 32

firsthand familiarity with the languages involved; (2) inadequate acquain tance with the rich repertoire of scholarly research published by Hebraists and Semitists over more than one hundred years. Cf. A.F. Rainey, 'Uncritical Criticism', JAOS 15 (1995), 101-102; I.W. Provan, 'Ideologies, Literary and Critical: Reflections on Recent Writing on the History of Israel', JBL 114 (1995), 585-606. Note that Kutscher indeed refers in his book on the language of lQIsa to comparable material in Ben Sira (cf., for instance, p. 219 hQK/TQO] in the En glish edition). May I note at this point that two of our graduate students at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Ms V. Goldmacher and Mr H. Dihi, are cur rently writing a PhD dissertation and an MA thesis, respectively, on the lan guage of the Hebrew version of Ben Sira. I was extremely happy to learn that a student of Prof. T. Muraoka (Mr. W. Th. van Peursen), our host in this sym posium, has also chosen Ben Sira's Hebrew as a topic for his PhD thesis. ^ See, for instance, Ginsberg (above, n. 3); cf. also Torre/s view (above, n. 2). This position is strongly advocated in M. Kister's recent article 'A Contribu tion', esp. 304-307).
3 0 a 3 2

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THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

which was raised in the framework of a linguistic investigation^has nothing to do with strictly linguistic arguments, since it involves such factors as personal taste and subjective preferences. In any event, we would like to emphasize here that for our purposes the decisive point is that both these positionsbeing, as they are, interpretative in naturefully acknowledge thaton the factual levelthe language of Ben Sira is replete with neologisms, which echo (or herald) the emergence of M H as a significant force on the literary scene. Therefore, whether one prefers to describe Ben Sira in terms of an '(artificial) imitator', or to praise him as a '(creative) virtuoso', the ba sic linguistic fact remains unchanged. In either case, the lexicon of Ben Sira must be regarded as an organic part of the post-classical phase of the language, at least in its literary form, a phase whichin our writ ten sourcesmarks the transition from BH to MH.
34 35

3 3

See the preceding note. The degree to which these or other peculiarities should be considered as signs of 'decay' and 'artificiality' or, rather, as marks of 'creativeness' and 'inventiveness' cannot be objectively measured and, therefore, defies a priori a definitive, conclusive, answer. Features that look 'original' to one person are not always evaluated as such by another; cf., for instance, the reservations ex pressed by Kister ('A Contribution', p. 307, n. 10) concerning the 'originality of the LBH items collected by D. Talshir, The Autonomic Status of Late Bibli cal Hebrew' (in Language Studies, Vols. 2-3 [A. Bendavid Jubilee Volume; ed. M. Bar-Asher; Jerusalem 1987], 161-72); by the same token, it must be said, Kister's own characterization of Ben Sira as 'innovative', 'creative' and 'original' (307) and as 'a linguistic virtuoso' (English summary, ii) may equally be challenged! Furthermore, tendencies to 'archaisms' (or 'imitations' of the classical tradition) on the one hand and 'neologisms' (or 'deviations' from it) on the other are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Bendavid, for in stance, has rightly noted that the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls manifest, by and large, a marked 'loyalty (91) to the norms of classical BH; yet,on the same page he also credits them with the virtues of 'independence and cre ative power (further on [92], he says: The authors of the sect, in their biblical writing, were both conservative and independent'; this is also Kister's view [307] of the linguistic nature of Ben Sira). In contrast to terms like 'deca/ and 'imitation', which involve a consider able amount of judgement and evaluation, I see no reason to oppose the widely used term 'transitional/intermediate period', which is simply a neu tral descriptive designation (Talshir [TheAutonomic Status', 161] and Qimron ['Observations', 357, 360] object to it; Kister ['A Contribution', 310; En glish summary, ii] adopts it). Note that being 'original' does not necessarily exclude the possibility that the languageas manifested in the texts (cf. n. 8) under considerationreflects, in various aspects, a transition from an earlier phase to a late one; in fact, any phase in the history of a language represents, in the final analysis, a transition from one linguistic stage to another!
3 4 7 7 7 3 5

THE SYNTAX OF *D IN THE LANGUAGE OF BEN SIRA Menahem Zevi Kaddari (Ramat-Gan)

I: o as a causal subordinator In the great majority of its occurrences in Ben Sira (82/109 or 75%),* O functions as a causal subordinator. It always introduces a clause (or sentence), and there is no example of subject-raising of the Biblical Hebrew (BH) kind represented by p R 3 m m O ajn (1 Kgs 8.37) or t m mo o man m&rfo* (Gen 1.4). Of the different types of causal subordination, the greatest num ber (in chapters consisting of wisdom maxims) consists of justifica tions of negative recommendations (mitigated prohibitions), and func tion, therefore, as links in the arguments expressed by admonitory spech acts, for example 1D0 -fr no jnn vb *D n ewn b\k IT *>iEb 'do no thing private [literally, 'secret'] in the presence of a stranger, because you do not know what use he will make of it [literally, 'what his end will produce']' (8.18 [A]). In chapters 50-51, we also find O clauses expressing the reason for a positive recommendation, as, for example, in Wto '"IBR Dn ran* o a s m *nb bv jrrm r u m rbxo Trappy the man who occupies himself [literally, 'ponders'] these lessons [literally, 'in these'], who lays them to heart and grows wise! For fearing God means [literally, 'is'] life' (50.29 [B]). Sometimes, the main clause is a combination of negative and posi tive advice or is worded positively but conveys a negative connota tion, for example nan eruR rnpn *o rrm ^oon IKQ IKQ 'humble yourself to the uttermost [i.e. do not be conceited or arrogant], for the doom of the impious [literally, 'the hope of man'] is worms [literally, 'worm']' (7.17 [A]). These figures exclude manuscript duplicates (i.e. where manuscripts A and B, for example, present exactly the same text) and include fifteen instances of citations of Psalms passages: M P D ^ y m (once, at 51.12 [B]) and n o n t f w ^ D (fourteen times, also at 51.12). The data are based on the concordance to the Hebrew text of Ben Sira in The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Lan guage's The Book of Ben Sira: Text, Concordance, and an Analysis of the Vocabulary (Jerusalem: The Academy of the Hebrew Language and the Shrine of the Book, 1973).
1

88

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

On other occasions, there is no one explicit main clause, but in stead the whole discourse is to be regarded as the main clause, for ex ample pm anr man trai * D rram -pTra bpw p ]in V? B P * frw ennn *?n cranp D ] ? nx?p 'do not think [Segal adds 'evil'] of a rich man [lit erally, 'man who has wealth']. You may be sure he will outbid you [literally, lest your price will be weighed and you will be lost']. For money [literally, 'gold'] has been the ruin of many [literally, lias made many reckless'] and wealth has misled the minds of kings [lit erally, 'the heart of generous ones']' (8.2 [A]). *D may introduce a causal clause as part of a factual description, as we find in the chapters of Ben Sira that survey Israel's history, for example T i i p a n p o o m o D ' T I D * D Tin 'asfr iipmb jra nou inrm D H *?mttPO 'after him, Nathan came forward to be prophet in the reign of David [literally, 'to stand up before David']. For as the fat is separated from the sacrifice, so David was chosen out of all Israel' (47.1-2 [B]). In other instances, *D introduces a content clause (syntactically, it subordinates an object clause), especially following a verb of mental activity such as nDT 'remember', J J T 'know', n t n 'see', and nQR 'say : 'P'EXDOl D'nD BP ' D "IDT 'remember, there is one who both exalts and humbles' (7.11 [A]), q^jnrOTnBn ^nnjOTO 'nDp 'Djn 'tell yourself [literally, Tcnow, be aware'] that you are making your way among pit falls, and you are walking on the battlements of the city' (Snaith; 9.13 [A]); H T I K S D T r a 'main *nn p p o O D T J O un 'see for yourself how young [literally, 'small'] I was and I endured it and (finally) found it [i.e. wisdom]' (51.27 [B]); ^aw'nrwnDi risen'npjw's... IDKP 'do not say, What good can the future hold for me?' (11.23 [A]).
1 2 7 3 4 5

Mosheh evi Segal, Sefer Ben Sira Ha-Shalem (Second ed.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1958). The sentence represents a continuation of a negative recommandation: r m 1DD n n 'never laugh at [literally, 'despise'] a man in his bitter hu miliation [literally, 'in bitterness of spirit']'. John Snaith (see the next note) adds a causal connector ('for') after "TDT, and this is also true of other sentences with IDT, at 8.5 (A) and 9.12 (A). The only IDT sentence without a negative main clause is at 14.11-12 (B): ^ifcWD$b "IIDT jtDin " | T D'OTT "|*? VP DRi naTDnmarf?iaTn 'if you can afford it [literally, 'if you have'], do well for yourself [or, 'spoil yourself] and as you are able [literally, 'according to the power of your hand'], satisfy yourself. Remember there is no pleasure in Sheol and death is not to be postponed'. John G. Snaith, Ecclesiasticus; or, The Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach, Commen tary (The Cambridge Bible Commentary; London: Cambridge University Press, 1974). However, in view of the lacuna, there might originally have been a verb
3 4 5

KADDARI: THE SYNTAX OF'D II: Occasional usages

89

O can introduce a temporal clause, as in mnmK iQtzn cnp m p in 2n VttJj; 'D TPOT T 2 'and they set fire to the holy city and left its streets deserted [literally, 'desolated its streets'], as Jeremiah prophesied [literally, 'through Jeremiah'] when they mistreated him' (49.6-7 [B]). In the following example, the protasis of a conditional clause is introduced by 'D: pinp ^^nQnTpm ^Tr ^QPip -T ^inorQitnQ) 'who knows what are my righteous deeds, and what are the chances (of be ing rewarded) if I do [literally, 'create'] the law?' (Snaith: 'who is to declare his acts of justice or wait for his remote decree'; 16.22 [A]). After Kb 'not', O can, like R^K in Mishnaic Hebrew, introduce an adversative statement, as in ...nopno TO^jPia ?tf?*Duri 'see that I did not toil ['n^Dtf] for myself, but for all who sought../ (30.26 [E]). In the formula O BKP], O can introduce the first stage of an a for tiori argument of the type known as qal wahomer in Mishnaic Hebrew:
1

nr non rpv ne?po i n a o

p i n Disown

*p\* rnwa m

npr OR 'those six hundred thousand warriors marshalled in stubborn defiance. Even if only one [inK] man were obstinate, it would be a miracle [literally, 'it is amazing'] for him (let alone the many) to es cape punishmenf (16.10-11 [A]). Ben Sira's use of to introduce a comparative clause is uncertain, but is perhaps evidenced in just the one, following, text: *]"UQD TON mncr OJnn V3R 'to leave your father in the lurch [literally, 'whoever leaves a father'] is like blasphemy [literally, 'one who re viles'], and to provoke your mother's anger is to call down the Lord's curse' (Snaith; 3.16 [C]; A: bbpo n r m O'JDDlrat*nra TTQ O). Segal proposesthat here the -D of *p:iQD could be equivalent to in which case either is comparative or both 'D and O are used emphatically, a function they are known to have in BH. Finally, there are a few instances where O might be expected but is replaced by other connectors like ]D, as at 8.2 (A), or nob, as at 8.1 (A), or by zero, as at 7.16 (A).
6

Ill: Comparison with Biblical Hebrew Various functions of O that we have exemplified from Ben Sira are also attested in the Bible. We start with the uses outlined in section I. As a causal subordinator, Ben Sira's use of O introducing the justificaother than ~)DK in the main clause. See the relevant entries in my forthcoming dictionary of BH.
6

90

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

tion of negative advice is relatively less common in BH, where it is most typical in Proverbs, for example Prov 23.6-7: inon*?riRDn 7n'?R KVr p nttB T D D O ... yv 'do not eat of a stingy man's food ..., for he is like one keeping accounts' (see also Prov 23.10-11,20-21; 24.1-2, 15-16,19-20, Prov 24.1-22). The use of *D to introduce the reason for a positive recommenda tion is also documented in BH, for example Prov 23.26-27: *pb 13 run n^TrrpTQ^nmCD ...'give your mind to me, my son for a harlot is a deep pit'. is also found in BH introducing a causal clause the 'main clause' of which is a whole section of the discourse that has preceded, as at Gen 20.18:" *D 'for the Lord has closed fast (every womb of the household of Abimelech)'. In BH, 'D's primary r61e is to introduce a causal clause within a factual description, for example Gen 26.7: * D ... n a t t e r H . . . IQK'l KYr rttOQ rm& 'he said for he was afraid to say for she was beautiful'. The use of *D to introduce a content clause (as object complement to verbs of speech or thought) is also regular in BH, as at Gen 21.30: npn ... o now') 'he replied,... You are to accept'. But there is no ex ample of an appositional clause in Ben Sira. Moving on to the uses listed in section II, we find that in BH as well is used in temporal clauses (e.g. Gen 4.12: "nun o 'when you work'), conditional clauses (e.g. Deut 7.17: IQKn O 'should you sayO, adversative clauses (e.g. Gen 24.3-4: ...*X1* M'0 ...nmnpnxb 'you will not take a wife ... but will go to my land'), and comparative clauses (e.g. Prov 30.33: Di * ] R yTO naan R*2TP rftn y*n * D 'as milk under pressure produces butter, so patience under pressure produces strife'). The use of O * ) K in an a fortiori argument is widespread in BH (where *]R has other functions too, including its primary role of in troducing the apodosis of a conditional or concessive clause), for ex ample 1 Kgs 8 . 2 7 : n r n r r a v D . . . D ' o c n n a n 'even the heavens how much less this house'. Syntactic functions associated with 'D that are found in BH but are not attested in Ben Sira include subject-raising, as noted in the opening to section I, or the use of as an emphatic adverb (a varia tion of emphatic O), 'indeed, certainly , with the possible exception of the usage at 3.16-17, noted in the penultimate paragraph of section II. The only substantivized *D clauses in Ben Sira are the content clauses (object clauses) illustrated in section I. With the exception of *D adl L 7 7

The zvaw of fTO is waw apodosis; see Paul Jouon and Takamitsu Muraoka, A grammar of Biblical Hebrew (2 vols. Subsidia Biblica 14. 1-2; Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute; 1993), 176.

KADDARI: THE SYNTAX OF'D

91

verbial combinations of are also missing from Ben Sira. These in clude 'DH,D IV,OK D,a*0, and pb... O. In conclusion, then, we find that there is no usage of 'D found in Ben Sira that is not also attested in the Bible, although the reverse is not true. However, the distribution of the various functions of in Ben Sira is very different from that found in BH, and seems to reflect the genre (wisdom literature and historical survey) and subject-matter of Ben Sira. In the syntax of O , the Hebrew of Ben Sira represents the living continuation of a literary language of a particular genre.

VERB COMPLEMENTATION IN QUMRAN HEBREW Takamitsu Muraoka (Leiden) J: Introduction 1. General Our general interest in the question of verb complementation has been indicated in our study of Qumran Aramaic with reference to the same morphosyntactic phenomenon. We are interested in the modes of linkage between a verb and its 'arguments'. A given verb may have up to four out of the following five distinct arguments: (1) subject, (2) direct object, (3) indirect object, (4) adverbial modifier, and (5) object complement. We are not aware of any verb which can take all these five arguments simultaneously: a verb which has an object comple ment can have only one type of object, with which latter the former constitutes a complex capable of being transformed into a nominal clause, e.g. 1QH 10.23:
1

r u '5 nnae? \th> n r a

You have not made a creation of flesh my refuge. The subject as an argument of a verb does not interest us here. The distinction of direct versus indirect object may be said to be meaningful only in regard to verbs which are capable of taking both at the same time, such as ]ro, but for the purpose of the present study we would define them as follows: a direct object is an argument which may be linked to the verb by means of the so-called nota objecti, flR, whereas an indirect object is an argument which is explicitly and obligatorily marked by a member of a closed set of 'prepositions'. Formally speaking, one can distinguish between zero-comple mentation and prepositional complementation: uvb 7DR ? as against riQRn "mnb. In this respect, the nota objecti PR does not count as a pre position, for it is, as is well known, optional, whereas any other pre position, except when it links a participle with its complement, is obli gatory. Another distinction that needs to be made is that between the personal pronoun as verb complement and some other category of
2 i i

Muraoka 1979a. See also Muraoka 1992. We shall investigate, inter alia, whether the preposition lamed can, in our corpus (see note 4), mark, in the Aramaic fashion, a direct object.
2

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

93

complement. In the former case, the complement, even when it ex hibits prepositional complementation, may be optionally attached di rectly to the verb as suffix (synthetic linkage: ^"lDB?) or stand detached from it but linked by means of a preposition (analytical linkage: TTO* "IDE? or *>bv notD). The primary distinction, namely that between zero-complementation and prepositional complementation, can be confidently made only when a complement is other than a personal pronoun and the verb in question is other than participial.

2. Direct object and indirect object It is a well-known fact that certain verbs allow direct, synthetic link age, not only in a case such as 'TrtO, but also where a personal pro noun as an indirect object is involved: e.g. lQSb 3.26 rOQTpQ [ i r o n * 'he will give you [ ] your place'. Whether such a synthetically at tached pronoun is a direct or indirect object needs to be studied in the light of all the attested cases of the verb in question. To illustrate, let us look at a segment of our database with respect to # T H(ifil):
4 3

H: d rei suf < 1QH 1.29; 13.13 r o T Q D spivb (inf) + suf pers and 3 rei < 1QH 4.27
+ 0
5

rot^'na'nirnn; 1QH 11.9 ronDR -non onjmn; > 1QH 7.27 'arurnn r o u t e * r o ; 1QH 10.4 i3i?mn [ronQ]K -non

+ b pers and 0 d rei < 1QH 4.28


roTD-ran D"nn bicb n r t

+ suf pers and 0 id rei < 1QH 11.16


not* -no ^nimn.

Although the examples are by no means plentiful, it is to be noted that among those attested there is not a single case of nR <pers> indi cating a person to whom something is communicated. On the other hand, BH, in addition to many cases of <+ suf pers>, proffers plenty

3 4

Jouon-Muraoka 1993: 125ba. The corpus of the present study is a result of a systematic investigation of 1QS (The Manual of Discipline) and related documents as published in Charlesworth 1994, and 1QH (The Thanksgiving Hymns) as covered in Lohse 1986. The symbol < signifies that the complement follows the verb, standing to the left of it (in the Hebrew writing).

94

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

of examples of <+ b pers> and <+ PR pers>:

Exod 18.20 - r n n m nnb anvin;


Ps 103.7 rmhTO-n-smv as against '
Gen 41.39 prt bo m - p a rrn ** SPTEI
1

nn;

Prov 1.23 ddpk n m w t i k . We may thus conclude that the verb j r r H in our corpus requires with any indirect object of person, and also that a synthetically at tached personal pronoun is datival in force, hence **b HPimn =

3. Essential complement and optional complement A general question which arises not only in respect of our corpus, but also in respect of many languages, a question which has been exten sively debated in general linguistics but not resolved so far, is that of how to distinguish between an argument which may be considered more essential, an object, whether direct or indirect, and an argument which may be regarded as optional, peripheral and dispensable, an adverbial modifier. Locatives can be particularly difficult here. Whereas one may safely regard mm ^DTQ in mm borm &nb\sn b\* mn nbb^nn as a non-essential adverbial adjunct, one can hardly dispense with a locative with verbs of motion, such as those found in:
7

1QS 10.10 b* n n a n mraK; 1QS 5.7 i m n psift Ran *td,

1QS l . l l b\* i r r a onm ditch o n m *td

4. Historical development A question specific to our corpus is that of diachrony: are there indi cations, notwithstanding the obvious links, whether conscious or un/sub-conscious, with BH, that our idiom testifies to some changes tak ing place in respect of verb complementation? Such a development may be attested by I?T H discussed above. Some other verbs of in8

The concordance in Habermann 1959 gives three more examples: CD 9.19 9.22 -parf? JPTP; 1.11 OTnnKnnrf? jrnn. For a useful introduction to this debate, see Matthews 1981:121-45. In addition to the likelihood discussed above that the verb i?T H in our cor pus requires b to indicate a person to whom communication is to be made, the use of 3 with verbs of knowledge, instruction and the like to mark a subnpacfriPTTT;
7 8

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

95

struction governed by the preposition bet preceding a noun denoting what is taught deserve some attention. First p : H: + 3rei<lQH11.28
lDTTIKten p r f r (inf); 1QS4.22 ]vbv ninzi D'lD' yznb (inf), or + 0 id pers and 3 rei, 'to make upright ones have insight into the knowledge of cf. 5Q13 frg 1.9
lEtfQDprfyinf);

1QH 13.13 tftt'TOapn ? (inf) + b rei > 1QS 11.22 p * HQ nsjft + suf pers and 3 rei < 1QS 6.15 nrrn 'CDEXBD "ron inra* ; lQSa 1.5 noin 'pcBQ ^DnDran ? + 0 d pron dem < 1QH 1.37 n*7K ira' tf? o-clause < 1QH 17.21... o Tnran
4

tD: + n rei <1QS 11.19 7a^biibiDn]yanrb (inf); 1QH 7.32 -pate nraaajjarn ? (inf).
1

In BH zero-complementation is the norm with this verb. Significantly, < + 3> occurs five times, all in LBH: Neh 8.8, 12; Dan 1.17; 9.23; 10.11. <+ b pers> is also confined to LBH: Dan 8.16; 11.33; 2 Chr 35.3; Job 6.24. Where a feature characteristic of our corpus is found to be typical of LBH, the certainty of diachronic development is enhanced. The verb teto H is comparable in this regard:
9

H: + 0 id rei and 0 pers > 1QS 4.22 " p i nran b^yart? D'DE no^m 'to instruct the perfect of way in heavenly wisdom' (inf) + suf pers 1QH 10.7; 12.33 ']rfon + suf pers and D rei < 1QS 9.18 fcte ' P Q Ubwnb (inf); lQSa 1.7 nnnn p p r a i n ^ o t t r ; 1QH 7.26 ranoteP3nte0n;

ject-matter or topic appears to be a hallmark of the language of our corpus. This is observed with verbs such as p H, tD, m G, IJT G, H, ich> D, ISO D, mp G, ]n D, mfo D, byo H. Cf.alsoJenni 1992:252.
9

96

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 1QH 11.4 TOHf'B?3a tfraom; > 1QH 11.10 D r t e c n r o i ^ B t o

+ 0 pers and 3 rei < 1QS 11.1


npba m a n ^acorfr (inf) + 3rei<lQS11.18 naemp pacano biaa ^aran*? (inf); 1QH 12.20 n a ' n biaa ^ a e n f a

+ suf pers and 0 d rei st < 1QS 9.20


^iDnbiDD^acn ? II + a 4Q285 frg iii col ii 4 KSQjn baa nbwnb; 1QH 10.4 nb*o niKbsDa-oboEn.
1

One of the cases of < + 0 rei> listed above, namely 1QS 4.22, belongs to a different category of <+ 0 rei> in that the following noun denotes a whole body of knowledge, not a particular subject matter about which instruction is to be provided. Compare Dan 9.22 n3'a-[^ae?nb. The second example, 1QS 9.20, becomes all the more striking. In view of 4Q285 frg iii col ii 4, which differs only in respect of the preposition bet, a scribal error at 1QS 9.19 is not entirely to be precluded. Though belonging to a different semantic field, the verb btil also displays a historical development in its complementation. It occurs in our corpus only twice, and on both occasions governed by bv pers:
10

1QS 2.1 wbv bai iion n a m ;


1QH 9.30 ^ n r f m

What is significant is that this syntagm is apparently later in BH than <+ b> or <+ dir obj>. The syntagm <+ bv> occurs in Jon 4.4; Ps 13.6, 103.10; 116.7; 119.17; 142.8; 2 Chr 20.11." <+ b> is attested in Isa 3.9 run U7lb -fel: see also Deut 32.6; Ps 137.8, and <+ dir obj> at Gen 50.15:

Imxhaiimnsnnbo.
See also 1QS 10.20: " p i ' " m o blD bv D m K W)b; Hurvitz (1972:107-09) has also labelled this complementation late, confined in BH to Ps 103. 13. The extremely frequent verb G 'to answer' in BH never enters the syntagm < b + pers > , which, however, occurs once in our corpus: 1QH 4.18 UTlb rnjfll 'you will respond to them'. It is instructive that the only place in the Mishnah where PK niv occurs, m. Ta anit 2.4,5, un mistakably echoes the biblical parlance. The change concerns not only morphosyntax, for the verb in RH is often combined with nnR in the
c

Cf. 1QH 2.17 nrn nxiabn. The verb mb D occurs twice more: once with <rm pers and 3 rei> at 1QS 3.13 and once with <+ suf pers and 3 rei>. " The Hebrew of Psalms 103 and 119 has been said by Hurvitz (1972:107-52) to be late on other linguistic grounds.

1 0

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

97

sense of 'to respond in liturgy, following the leader'. Cf. 1QH 2.18:
]DK ]DR omrm now w .

RH uses 3'on for 'to answer (a question)': see Bendavid 1967:326. Our b rw then might be considered as standing halfway on the course of development.

5. <+ suf> and < + nKsw/> A slightly different kind of diachrony is the opposition between < + suf> and <+ nfc suf> . The question had already been raised by Kropat (1909: 35f.) in relation to the language of the Chronicler, and has been recently revisited by Polzin (1976: 28-31) and Qimron (1978: 97; 1986: 75-77). The language of our corpus appears to conform to the general pattern of Late Biblical Hebrew in that the syntagm <+ P R suf> is reso lutely resisted. As against tens of cases of <+ suf> we have found only three cases of the analytic structure. And it is significant that none of the three is a free variant, but each is morphosyntactically condi tioned: 1QS 5.18 urb im biD nro am bnnnb, where ub^ionb is precluded because it is followed by a co-object also marked by the nota objecti; 4Q159 frg ii-iv 8, nmR innp, where the infinitive, which has its own subject pronoun attached to it, cannot take another pronominal suffix; 1QH 14.21 Trm-|prrD (ditto). In this respect, the use of an independent personal pronoun is most striking at 1QS7.16:
12 13

TU?

RVTI D P R Q

nwn vbvb bvi -p* D'nnn ewi

Whoever goes about slandering among the community shall be sent away from among them and shall not return again. Equally noteworthy is that in the immediately following sentence, which also prescribes life excommunication, one finds a synthetic structure:
map wb) imbw nrrn -no' by yb* 'm.

The only significant difference between the two is that in the first the

BH observes the same rule of syntax: see Jouon-Muraoka 1993: 125e (6). This case ought to have been mentioned by Qimron (1986:75, n. 30). According to Haneman (1980: 33), the inf. est. in MH no longer takes a pronominal suffix when the latter functions as the subject of the infinitive. Our example indicates then that the language of our corpus diverges from MH in this respect. Note also rDiso in the Temple Scroll to be mentioned be low (91), which is all the more striking in that it deviates from its biblical Vorlage EDnK rrao; on the other hand, Cohen (1983: 210-15) has established that one set of examples in MH of <TIK + suf> is morphologically conditioned, be ing largely confined to lamed-yod verbs.
1 3

1 2

98

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIR A


t r a i n mntDQ nm* nrc? irr^nam m j r a
14

subject is indefinite. Cf. also 1QS 7.15:


-p* e?ncn.

However, to what extent this is significant is not entirely clear in view of a contrast such as 1QS 8.21,
nnbw... im nano era T D ,
i

and CD 9.1,
OTT rran*?. .. D T K *?3.
15

6. Semantic opposition between multiple modes of complementation Although due allowance must always be made for synonymity, at least an attempt should be made to see whether some opposition or other is intended between different syntagms or different-preposi tions governing a given verb. The highly frequent combination -3 3 or its causative transform, -3 R '3n, is used in an almost technical sense of 'to join (a community, group)' as in:
1QS 1.16 nnvr-p03D'K3n, 1QS 8.20 tzmpn n s r a K3n T D , 1QS 6.5 [n3E?-np] reun '3irarn.
I

The notion of entering is manifest. By contrast, the preposition lamed in 1QS5.7,


nrrnrcttfrtGn 'ro,

is about the direction or destination of movement. The last quoted phrase constitutes the subject of the following, which reads:
trananon *7D wxh n n 3 3 t r a \
1 6

The verb 1 3 1 D may take one of three prepositions followed by a noun referring to a person, each with a distinct nuance: with *?K 'to address (a person or persons)', as in lQSa 2.9:
In view of these considerations, Lohse's (1986:28) restoration prom rbynb at 1QS 7.25 appears more plausible than that of Charlesworth (1994: 34) mfmb: there is a large gap at the end of the line. Note V7 in Egyptian Aramaic (6th/5th c. BCE), v>o vr ]TD ^ 'nnn n n x o 'the garment which you brought for me (to) Seyene, I am wearing it', where however, the extraposed noun is determinate and the pronoun precedes the verb. The example from CD is mentioned by Qimron (1986: 76), also earlier by Licht (1965:165). Alternatively we may interpret these two clauses, viz. 1QS 7.16 and CD 9.1, as compound nominal clauses, thus making the pronoun their enclitic subject. Therefore the rendering by Vermes (1995: 76), 'Whoever approaches the Council of the Community shall enter the Covenant of God ...', is preferable to that of Charlesworth (1994: 21), 'everyone who enters into the Council of the community, shall enter into the covenant of God'.
1 5 1 6 1 4

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

99

with 3 'to speak (to somebody) in a hostile manner', as in 1QS 7.2: nora ... o'jrron p i n t o ; with P R I I 'to conduct oneself in a certain manner in the way of speech in relation to somebody , as in 1QS 7.5: orioavunriR I S T To speak to his fellow man deceitfully. pm G may be mediated by either 3 or b: the former signifies that one entity becomes very closely attached to another as in 1QS 2.15 mm nnnn n t > K bo in p a T All the curses of this covenant shall cleave to him, 1QS 1.5 3101MD boi p m ? (inf), 1QH 16.7 -[nnn no3 pirn ?, whereas the latter signifies that something reaches something else, making contact with it, as in 1QH 5.31: pain i n g r a f t My tongue shall touch the palate. The bet is similar to that used in conjunction with verbs such as ptn H and JH3 G. There are of course cases where it escapes us what distinction is intended by the use of different constructions. As can be seen from the data in Section 1.4, above, the verb p n takes the preposition bet, but once we find a lamed:
7 4 4

1QS11.22 p * nanxxh.
How would this differ from p ' H Q n s r a ? Similarly, how does 1QH 11.9, roriQK -nononimn, differ from 1QH 11.16, noK 110 'TUmn, 1QH 7.6, 'anrna^n raemp rrn, from 1QH 17.26, bv [HDJomp r m nmQ']n, 4Q285 frg iii col ii 4, \sxninbDinbovnb, from 1QS 9.20, R S C O T blD ubownb, 1QS 7.24, imn nxvb*nyzrwb, from 1QS 7.2,TTTVr nxv by -ni> aittT, and 1QS 5.13, empn mnen from 4Q258 frg i col i 7, BPprr] * S M K mnB ? I O T tf?? A verb which normally shows prepositional complementation may have the appearance of a verb of zero-complementation when found in a relative clause, because of ellipsis of the customary prepo sition: 1QS 1.4 O K Q im bo m \x\xab; 1QS 1.3 nrn T B R bo mntf?; 1QS 11.7 ... b* nra ia*b 'to those whom God chose'.
1

100 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA In lQSb 3.21, *?K 03 nn3 ne?K O^rran p n s >J3, we find a full form.

7. Aramaic influence The interaction between Hebrew and Aramaic, especially in LBH and QH, is a much discussed subject. One possible Aramaism is the use of the preposition lamed as a marker of a direct object replacing nK. Such was claimed by Licht (1965:96) regarding 1QS 4.6:
run TinoRlpKam.

Cf. Charlesworth (1994:17) 'concealing the truth of the mysteries of knowledge'. Even Wernberg-Meller (1957:79), having accepted Milik's adverbial interpretation, 'faithfully , translates otherwise: 'con cealing the truth of the ...'.See also Clines (1993:329b): 'dependably . Our interpretation, 'to hide faithfully mysteries of knowledge', is largely due to the non-attestation elsewhere of the complex colloca tion nin *n DDK or D'n DDK, although a long construct chain is not for eign to the style of QH: e.g. 1QS 4.12,
7 7

nop] ^ m a y ^ R ,

something like 'the anger of the wrath of God of vengeance'. Nor is it right to quote 1QS 11.16:
ixh ro'xh nwnnb OIK n r a ? nrrcn neno nanoa pb opn.
1

The translation is not 'Raise up the son of your handmaid' (Garcia Martinez; sim. Lohse with 'richte den Sohn deiner Wahrheit auf), but 'Grant the son ... (and) the elect of mankind to stand before thee for ever'. Cf. Vermes (1995:88) and Licht (1965:235). In other words the ar gument is not accusatival, but datival, dat. commodi. A more likely example of lamed marking a direct object is 1QH 18. 14: nD'onn nrb nunb To proclaim to the poor the abundance of your mercies (Garcia Martinez 1994:359). Unlikely is Lohse (1986:175): 'den Demtigen zu verkndigen nach der Flle deiner Barmherzigkeit', for which the biblical language would say nD'Qnn n r o (e.g. Ps 51.3; 69.17). Furthermore, if the text of the following line be correctly restored as o*7U? nnob o^aro n n 'Kp-rf?, 'according to eternal joy' would not convince, and this must also con tain a similar lamed.
17

8. Innovations
Similarly Vermes (1995: 235): 'that to the humble he might bring the glad tidings of Thy great mercy .
7 1 7

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

101

Notwithstanding the obvious continuity of the linguistic tradition vis4-vis BH, our writers also display a measure of creativity. This has been demonstrated above in connection with the syntagm -bnm. -3 *70ton, discussed above in a different context, also seems to belong here. In BH this verb in the sense of 'to teach, instrucf is not mediated by 3 , but by nK.

9. Participle Because of its partly nominal character, the participle warrants sepa rate discussion. Our survey suggests that the following categories and parameters are relevant to a meaningful description and classification of the data: 1. direct, i.e. J")K (including its zero-representation), or indirect complementation, i.e. by means of a preposition when a given verb is used in non-participial form; 2. the number of the participle, i.e. singular or plural; 3. the syntactic function within a clause, i.e. whether a given participle is functioning as a predicate in semi-verbal capacity (a 'third' tense beside the prefix and suffix conjugations) or as a noun. With reference to these parameters, the following observations may be made. A. Where a plural participle is nominalized or functioning as a modi fier of a preceding noun head, the relationship between such a par ticiple and the following complement may be formally (but not semantically) indistinguishable from that of a construct noun phrase: e.g., 1QS 2.6 wbini *>nbwn bo - r a . . . up: napia bo T H At the hand of all who execute vengeance ... at the hand of all who pay rewards'; 1QH 5 . 7 . . . omm p n *men a n n a nxu nmra mnK
18 1 8

This decision is not always easy. For instance, there is no scholarly consen sus as regards 1QH 5.36,
TO DP3BD J H D Q V13

is WTDD verbal with 'they' as the subject or does it introduce a noun phrase adjectivally modifying JflDQ 'n?and ib. 8.10, m arm jrra urai atom Kita imo nn* rvvob n p p no I T - B O where the first word, as Holm-Nielsen (1960:151) justly observes, can be an intransitively used Hif il, though we are not certain that "imo and nmn are Qal participles with i n as their shared object, for both can be Pual's.
c

102 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA D'QTOby mo3Q *ftmB tran t r n Lions which break the bones of mighty men and drink the blood of warriors ... many fishermen who spread a net over the water; 1QS ll.l ]in 'jpoi ]in nrnoi #32** *>nbw noo von* People of the stick who point the finger and speak evil and are zealous for gaining wealth; 1QS 5.2, 9 nnnn now OTTOA p r o *n The children of Zadok, the priests who observe the covenant; 1QH6.34 -fiiriD 'K? Those who lie in dust (= B. This syntactic transformation of a verb phrase into a noun phrase is most evident when, as in the last example, a given verb in a non-par ticipial form would require indirect complementation, e.g., 1QS2.18 n n n n n a * T D All those who join the covenant (= n n 3 3 D'R3), 1QS 10.20,1QH 14.24 HDD'30*?
19

Towards those who turn away from transgression (= D'3e? 1QS 11.10 JDTI rfrm non -no The assembly of worms and those who walk in darkness (= Tenraro'Tn),
1QH 6.34 "IDtf'33110

Those who lie in dust' (= I B M ) . C. It is not clear why this rule is not consistently observed: 1QS 5.10 n w v r - p i 3 ooVinn bwn 'TOK ^130 From all those men of wickedness who walk in the way of in iquity; 1QS 8.21 -pn crara wobm empn rain van bo All those who join the holy council who walk along the path of perfection. D. The transformation in question is also apparent where the com plement is pronominalized and is synthetically attached to a par ticiple as in 1QH 6.27, nn*3*7D 'all those who enter it', 1QH 7.12, *7D 'all those who contend against me'. Though it is true that some of these verbs, K3 for instance, can, in BH, enter direct complementation, as in Ps 100.4, miHO 1K3, that does not seem to be an explanation for this development, but it is rather due to the half-nominal character of the participle. This accounts better for a hybrid structure as displayed in
20 21 1 9
2 0

See Jouon-Muraoka 1993: 121n.


Cf. 1QH 2.23 TBEtobD mn 'they assailed my soul'. Cf. also 1QH 8.28 ' J I W T O .

2 1

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

103

1QS 4.6,12 na 0*7in blD 'all those who walk in if; 1QH 4.21 naa ? -p-n O ^ n 'those who walk in accordance with your mind'; 1QH 9.22 *3 *3T0 'those who murmur against me'. That the syntagm is basically nominal is confirmed by the form of the pronominal suffix in cases like 1QH 4.20,
4

ra'TO

'SR^y

Against those who despise me... against all those who deride me, namely not TORB nor ra. E. When a verb enters into two or more synonymous, multiple com plementations, it is not possible to determine with certainty what the underlying complementation would be. In our corpus the verb 13V G 'to go against, transgress' may be joined to its complement either di rectly, e.g. 1QS8.22,
iTOTorninD TOP

or by means of bv, e.g. 1QH 12.24, nanan bv innsbwb. Hence the following cases are syntactically ambiguous:
1QS 5.7 pin n a w ' T D ;

1QS 5.14 ran n a w ' r o ; 1QH 4.26 na^s n a w * T D .

See also 1QS 9.17, - p n nma ? 'to those who choose (the) way . F. Determined singular nominalized participles display indirect com plementation: 1QS 2.12 nnaa Ran 'one who joins the covenant' (II 1QS 2.18
man

na Via);

1QS 9.2213 bvmb 'to the one who rules him'; 1QS 9.2313 11M1 'the one who lords it over him'; 1QH 6.25 TCSD "HO R33 HV7R 'I shall be like one who enters a city under siege'. G. In our corpus the participle is used only very rarely as a true verb. Its verbal character is made unmistakable on account of PR in:
1QS 1.19 inQR VDVO " T O D R T rruner bR nR cronaQ u^nbn;

1QS 2.1 *?R blViTORbo PR 0*3130;


1QS 1.21 ^ R m p n s n R o n s o o ;

1QS1.22 bvmp ^a mjrw nR onBoo. H. In the case of a masculine, plural participle, the absolute state end ing, 0'-, is employed where the participle is used, like a finite verb, as the predicate, as in 1QS 1.22:
conn
Hon
*TD O'JPDBDI.

This interpretation is further supported by the parallelism with the preceding clause, 1QS 1.21: *7R mpns nR o n a o o o^mam.

104 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA Where a participle is used, however, as a modifier of, or part of a phrase modifying, a preceding noun head, either absolute or con struct state may be used; compare 1QS 5.9, a n n a >CMK a n ? ! wvm n n a n now crarron pwx *iah
4

with 1QS 5.2,


nnvr vm* a n *B *?jn m a n 'noie? tranan prrx ^ a *B nnaaa'p'Tnon,

where n n a n 'p'tnD* might have been another possibility. In the remaining categories, namely m. sg., f. sg. and pi., no for mal distinction between abs. and est. st. is immediately apparent. The fluctuation and alternation mentioned above prevents us from deciding with confidence whether such a participle as we find in 1QH 2.26, WXV ntelfc CDKa, is regarded as construct or not. I. We do not find in our corpus a participle used as verb with a pro nominal direct object, which is perhaps purely accidental, for in 11QT, as Qimron (1986: 76) notes, we do come across forms such as 54.6 naraD (II Deut 13.1 D a n m m ) and 60.20 DB?mo (II Deut 18.12 vniD DniK). It so happens that all cases of a participle with a personal pro noun in our corpus are substantivized with the latter synthetically suffixed to the former: e.g. 1QH 4.20:
22

-'nnbobv

...'^abv

Against those who despise me ... against all those who deride me. /. Every nominalized singular participle in our corpus is invariably determined by means of the definite article: 1QS2.12 n n a a a a n ;
1QS 8.21 empn roan Kan bo-, 1QS 6.25 TO T i n a a a , 1QS 5.7 nmn mvb Kan bo;
2 3

1QS 9.19 unb n t e n bon 'in all that is revealed to them'; 1QS 9.24 ia ntBOT bo 'everything that is done to him'. In view of this, it is possible that telQ at 1QH 10.8 is used verbally:

Without vocalisation there is no telling whether QH knew the distinction in the Tiberian tradition between and nn. Nor do I know whether our corpus attests to a form such as rQ'tip as in Ps 19.8 tiQjjnzptia. Whether one should vocalize at 1QS 6.25, " TOD TaaiOD 'like one who comes into a besieged city, is difficult to say, because in BH the preposition kaf tends to be vocalized with a shewa when the noun is further expanded. On the other hand, the lamed in ib. 9.22, ^^TDxb, ought to be pointed with a patati, which is confirmed by the parallel n m n n ^ ? there. At 1QS 7.9 one ought perhaps to vocalize npvb pi. Both Lohse and Habermann, however, vocalize the preposition with a shewa, though the parallel clause begins with
2 3 1

2 2

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

105

rroifa b r o bmy\ n n biob JTTKI joraDi -pa*) ne? nna mn You are the prince of gods... and rule every creature, not ' . . . a ruler of every creature . The only probable exception is a Qal or Niftd participle of m n , a key-term of Qumranic theology and cosmology. This inevitably leads to some interpretative ambiguities. Though in 1QS 9.26 m m pp cannot mean anything other than 'time to come', with m m thus an adjectival participle, authorities are divided regarding, for instance, 1QS 11.3,
7 24

mm

[T]-Q

->m> mm

ncran imwtesm,

which could also be interpreted as an attributive participle: 'my eye beheld his wonders, and the light of my mind a mystery in the making'. However, no doubt can be entertained at 1QH 11.13,
25

To be renewed together with all that is going to come into existence, and 1QS 11.11,
i r a * V O W I M nnn ' r o i "TO m m irwna

Through his decision everything comes into existence, and all that is extant he establishes with his calculation, where nnn is clearly a substantivized participle. This theological use also includes plural forms of mn Nif al:
c

1QH 18.27 >2 nrnpn thw nvm

You engraved the events of eternity on the heart of...;


CD 13.8 rhw rrrm Dmaafr nso'i

Ai\d he shall recount the events of eternity.


See, however, 1QS 11.18 n*n rarann rrnri *ro 'all that came into existence was at your pleasure'. Here one may suspect that the participle with the definite article is used, as in BH (see Jouon-Muraoka 1993: 121i), with the force of the suffix conjugation. Although QH possibly knows the use of stative verbs in the suffix conjugation with the translation value of the present tense, there are insufficient grounds for translating the mn here in this waye.g. Vermes (1995: 88) 'all things come to pass by Thy will', Dupont-Sommer (1987:45) 'existe', as against Lohse (1986:43) 'geschah'. So Dupont-Sommer (1987: 43) le Mystre venir' and Vermes (1995: 86) 'the mystery to come', as against Lohse (1986: 41) 'das Geheimfnis] des Gewordenen'. Garda Martinez (1994:17) 'the mystery of the future' (but Garcia Martinez [1994:399] translates the same phrase with 'the future mystery at 1Q27.3, 4, so Milik [1955: 103]), Licht (1965: 228) 'mpvi'rom', Charlesworth (1994: 47) 'the mystery of what shall occur'. Charlesworth translates the following poo tfro Kim with 'and is occurring. A support is at my right hand', which is implausible; this addition must as a whole constitute a nominal clause, parallel to 'ro' n^a m i s a , which he does translate as a nominal clause: 'his strength is the staff (in) my right hand'. Charlesworth (1994:47, n. 289) refers to 1QS 3.15 in support of his interpretation of mm at ib. 11.4, but there, n"n3nnn ron unn ?Ra, it can be rendered '... exists and shall come into being' as against his 'all that is occurring and shall occur'.
2 5 7 1 , l 2 4

106 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA That the definite article in this syntagm (with the exception of n n G and N) does not necessarily carry the usual defining function, but, rather, signals the use of the participle as verb may be seen in the jux taposition of a series of clauses prescribing various forms of punish ment for misconducts committed by community members: 1QS 7.15, &n> mew TOOT... fo^mo T m wxim One who puts out his left hand ... shall be punished for ten days, is preceded by, among others, 1QS 7.13, ... prv im E P K 'one who spits and followed by 1QS 7.17,
... yfr im BTKn 'one who grumbles See also 1QS 2.25,... tra ?OWDn *7D, and 1QS 8.19,
1

info *]OT3n blob 'to everyone who joins the community .


7

With plural participles no such neat picture is to be obtained: 1QS 5.6, nnfov anfoim... emp ? trananon bvb for all who volunteer for sanctity ... and join them, and lQSal.4,
1

onan'ronK

fo*np*>

They shall assemble all who come, as against lQSa 2.18 D'rao bDb 'to all those who understand'. K. In the following cases we have participles used as modifiers of a noun head:
1QS 6.6 m i m e n n e?n* 'a man who studies the Law';

1QS 9.23 pnb K3pottPKnvnb 'to be a man zealous for the law'; with a definite noun head: 1QS 6.12 i n n n s y m bman e?nci; 1QS 11.5 iDinv 2b nvib nrnsn fox; 1QH 14.8 piDiuv nbn ]rron '3V7K.

10. Use and non-use of n^

26

The question of use and non-use of the nota objecti where the com plement is a personal pronoun has been briefly discussed above. Where the complement is a noun or a proper noun, we are still far from a definitive description. Confronted by the following contrasting pairs, we can hardly do better than invoke one of the philologist's valued panaceas, viz. variation in style: 1QS 1.4 O K Q im bo m wxh vs. 1QS 1.3 nnn im * T D mnt6;
2 6

See Libni 1932 and Jouon-Muraoka 1993: 125e-ia; Muraoka 1985:150. The phenomenon described is not examined in Elwolde 1994 or Garr 1991.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION 1QS 9.14 prrcn *n bipvb II 4Q259 frg i col iii 10 pixn '33 nK 'TipBfa; 1QS 9.17 m n n ray nn mob
II 4Q285 frg iii col ii 2 instf TIO ?;
1

107

1QS 5.22 vpin * T D na -npafr vs. 1QS 3.24 vpin *7D nps. One negative observation we can make is that, out of a total of 44 notae objecti (excluding the three cited in the last paragraph) found in our corpus, none precedes the verb. Furthermore, as many as 25 (57 %) mark the object of an infinitive. Compare 1QS 6.26,
vwn 'BnKrmDta,

with 1QH 14.14 "pa n a ' $b. Such an infinitive does not appear to be motivated by the desire to mark the object unambiguously as such, for we have a mere three cases in which an infinitive is followed by both a nominal subject and a nominal object
(1QS 5.24 irun m B P K mvb;
1 27

1QS 6 . 9 m ^VTlb; and possibly 1QH 15.20 "[FTD rwi "[1133 m fro] run ?), and moreover there is only one case where anything else intervenes between the infinitive and its object marked by f)K
(1QS 8.13 mxm - p i m DB rroafr).

The nota objecti precedes a direct object which is determined to varying degrees and which can be either animate or inanimate.
28

11. Semantic and collocational factors Where a verb has distinct senses or enters distinct collocations, the question of its complementation needs to be looked at separately for each of those senses or collocations. For instance, it would be too me chanical to assign the preposition lamed the same complementational value of indirect object marker both when it follows the verb ]i"D in the common sense of 'to give to' and when it follows the same verb in a sequence such as that found at Gen 17.6, ynro T will make na tions of you'. Likewise one would distinguish between different senses of the G verb K E 7 3 as illustrated by its collocation with D'3S, ]W, etc.

2 7

2 8

In the first two cases the presence of the intervening BPK is a function of its idiomatic use. For an attempt to establish a graduated scale of definiteness, see Andersen 1970:33,110.

108

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


29

II: Database 13K D:

+ suf rei 1QS 7.6 nntf? 'to cause damage to it' (inf)
3HK

G: + 0 d rei < 1QS 1.3 TTT3 TBK bo mntf? (inO; 1QH 17.24 nrnn im b*0 (rei cl); + id rei > 1QS 3.26... b\* 3HK nnK (ptc?) + 0 d pers est < 1QS1.9 TT '33 *?3 3in*P (inf) + suf 1QH 14.19 *)33HK; 14.26,15.10 H33H

ma D: tD:

30

+ b rei > 1QS 10.19 'D3 man Kib oan Jin ? + 3 rei < 1QS 9.25 TO cb im
TIN

^133 n w rob

H: d rei suf < 1QS 2.3 D"n ^303 H33^ TN'; 1QH 3.3 ' 3 2 nrmncP3D nnn^n; 1QH 4.5 ronnsb '33 nnnnvi + 0 id rei < lQSb 4.27 0'31 '33T'Knb (inf); 1QH 4.27 D'3"l '3D rmwRn '3;
+ 0 > 1QH 9.26 nrn-ron -pnnD t i r o
31

+ 3 rei < 1QS 4.2 BPK 33*73 T'Knb (inf)

The following terns, abbreviations, and symbols are used: acc = accusative; cogn = cognate; comm = dative of advantage; est = construct; d = determined; dat = dative; dem pron = demonstrative pronoun; dir = direct; id = indetermined; ind = indirect; inf = infinitive; obj = object; obj compl = object complement; pass = passive; pers = person; ptc = participle; rei = of thing; rei cl = relative clause; sim = similarly; st = a noun determined by virtue of a determined noun in the status constructus; suf = suffix; vel = or; 0 = a zero complement; < = a complement to the left, i.e. following the verb; > = a complement to the right, i.e. preceding the verb; G = Qal, D = Ptel, H = Hif% N= M f al, L = Polel, tD = Hitva'el. ^BH,D: + 0 rei (e.g. Mic 7.1 'BQ3 nmK rraa); tD + rw (e.g. Amos 5.18 " > nv m D'won) and + b rei (e.g. Prov 23.3,6 vrmxxb w m ^ ) ; RH,D + b (e.g. b. Sanh 63a nirrfptf? TPR [so Codex Firenze] and b. AZ 53b
c

2 9

tD
3 1

+ b (e.g. GenR 511> mm vrroa DK vnurb mura erf? DK). On the striking a at 1QS 4.2, cf. Ps 119.135 -pain mn"]'. IsTODunderstood? Or better perhaps is the verb intransitive as in Ez 43.2, and the prepositional phrase simply adverbial, locative.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION


]1K

109

H: + b rei < 1QH 4.17

nyiarh T3'mn

rrm G: + suf pers 1QH 4.33 '3mm tD: + ]Dd rei suf 1QS 1.14 DHH^ID bUDO intone K V ? (inf) *?3K G: + ]Q and 0 id rei < 1QS 5.16 bo amn bov wb 'shall not eat anything from their property + suf 4Q159 frg i col ii 4 rrstew + rm d rei suf < 4Q514 frg i col i 6,9 UOlb rm t>3W + 3 rei > 1QH 3.30 towi non tzntQ; < 1QH 5.33 nmKorto rfom-) + 0 id rei < 1QH 2.26 D^I? PtalK em (ptc) H: + suf pers and p < 4Q153 frg ii col ii 3 jon nonp boo (inf) ]DK H: + b < 1QH 8.14 D"n -ypob yano *bn fDK D:
+ id rei > 1QH 5.9 H P S O K P Q K mo

nboxnb

TDK G: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 10.10 rpin *pK G: + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.39 'B?Q3
-pK

H: + id rei (idiom) < 1QH 1.36 O'BK TDnicr

i n G: + 3 < 1QS 7.18 PQK3 T i n ? (inf); 1QS 7.23 irT3 imb brn H: + suf pers 1QS 2.16 run ? b& rfrim; 1QS 6.25 Q ' 3 n P T T D -ppo irfr-n'; 1QS 7.1,16,4Q258 frg iii col i 1 (+ ]Q) in^ism + P K suf pers et rei < 1QS 5.18
4 1

(inf)

Dnb nem bo pro d p t k ^ 1 3 1 * 7 (inf)

+ id rei < 1QS 9.5 0Tip P '3 irrn 'TOK V ? H 3 + ... p < 1QH 7.12 wnb p'T* p 'a ^-an ? (inf)
,a2 4

3 2

Some (Wernberg-Moller, Garcia Martinez and Charlesworth) interpret the verb as Nif al and the following two noun phrases as subject, whereas Dupont-Sommer takes the verb as Hif'il and its plural as impersonal.
c

110

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Hpass.: + p < 1QS 7.3 D'ann nnno p WEU bv bmiD; 1QS 8.24 nnnon p bum N: + p < 1QS 5.1 b*ivn VDM nivo bionb (inf); 1QS 5.10 *?WlTOK"TOD 'nan'? (inf), sim. 1QS 9.20; 1QS 9.9 bwa bionb (inf) + -pro < 1QS 8.13 bwn vom aeno -pro Vrcr
HQ

G: + a d rei loc < 1QS 1.16 i n n - p o a D'Kan (ptc); 1QS 2.12 n n a a Kan (ptc); 1QS 3.2 i m n ^ a ^ a i b ) ] i n n m a n n i ? n (or: w a * with the preceding NP's as objects II 1QS 1.11); 1QS 5.8,20 n n a a aia'; 1QS 5.13 m a a aia' b&; 1QS 8.21 cmpn n s a a aan r o (ptc); 1QS 10.10 n n a a naiaK; lQSa 1.9 'rraaRia ? (inf), sim. lQSa 1.20; lQSa 2.4 nb* *?npa aia'; 1QH 3.22 nma aia ? (inf); 1QH 6.25 Tim T i n a a a (ptc); 1QH6.35 [ . . . n s a o a K i a ' b a ; 1QH 11.21 n a ^ a i a i a n + b < 1QS 5.7 nnn nxvh Kan *ro (ptc) + iv > 1QH 10.33 wan mnn nr 'nan] + 0 d rei st < 1QS 2.18 n n a n 'Ka ' T D (ptc est.)
, , , l 1 4 33

H: + m d rei st < 1QS 1.7 o n n n bo m 'an*? (inf); lQSa 1.23 mvn bia m t w r t n K 'an ? (inf) + 0 d rei suf and a < 1QS 1.11 b& i n n D]im omai anvi bia w + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 11.13 'BBCoa K ' a ' i n o n a + 0 d pers suf and 'JEfr > 1QH 7.29 na']Efr. .. K 'an nanoa '3a *7D + *?u pers and 0 id rei < 1QS 6.1 nan r u n bv CB'K K ' a ' ' P K + suf pers and a < 1QS 6.15 n n a a intra'; 1QH 5.16 *p2*oa inanni;
4 34
3 5

This is apparently distinct from the following D'znnon *?ia wb n n a a Kia\ The translation by Vermes (1995: 76), 'Whoever approaches the Council of the Community shall enter the Covenant of God', is preferable to that of, e.g. Charlesworth (1994:21): 'everyone who enters into the Council of the com munity, shall enter into the covenant of God ...'. In other words, -*?Ria is more local than -a*oa followed by a word such as n n a . Cf. 1QS 6.16 TTTVT n2tfft lampa 'as he approaches the Council of the Community . The preposition is instrumental or causal as shown by the following npnsa
7 3 4

3 3

ttOBinoft.
3 5

The prepositional phrase here is most likely adverbial, 'concerning', rather than the Aramaizing 7tf of (personal) destination.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION 1QH 6.5 rnaempj rain 'airarn + a < 1QH 18.28 n n a a loan ? (inf)
4

111

nraG: 0 id pers < 1QH 5.20 en n r r a K ?


4

]na G: + id pers < 1QH 2.13 nDK pe?]K] p a ? (inf) nna G : + 0 (nem) 1QS 1.3 nna nem bo aina ?; l QS11.7. .. o n : b\* nna nem ? + a pers > 1QS 4.22 &obw m a ? nna oa o (focused obj.); 1QH 15.23 boo nrnna oa; < lQSbl.2aannan; lQSb 3.21 oa nna nem mman prrc *aa; + a rei < 1QS 10.12 t t p ne?Ka(nnnaa=)nnnan; 1QH 9 .10 'CDQBQa nnnaro; 1QH 15.19 (rel cl) rmtw? nema n n a n + inf < 1QH 16.10 ' 2 D nan ? Tinna
3 6 4 4 1 4 4

+ a rei < 1QH 11.28 TTDTfi^bsn p n ? (inf); 1QS 4.22 p ^ n j n a D n e r p r f ? (inf), or + 0 id pers and a rei/to make upright ones have insight into the knowledge of../, cf. 5Q13 frg 1.9 j w a p n ? (inf); 1QH 13.13 n ^ b i a a p n ? (inf) + b rei > 1QS 11.22 p ' no nxvb + suf pers and a rei < 1QS 6.15 nmn ^BDO boi mra*; lQSa 1.5 napro ]Bra 'roa oran ? (inf) + 0 d pron dem < 1QH 1.37 n ?** i r a ' K ? o -clause < 1QH 17.21... 'a Tnran
4 4 4 4 4

tD: + a rei < 1QS 11.19 na^m^D] *roa jnann ? (inf); 1QH 7.32 -[K^EPewoapiann ? (inf) Xfa D(?): + suf pers 1QH 7.5 *]ifran nin G : + a pers 1QS 2.15 ia n i a *
4 4 3 8

3 6

3 7 3 8

BH uses both syntagms frequently: + 0 and + a. In QH the latter predomi nates, but cf. CD 2.15: rrcn -ron r* "nra ?. On a diachronic development, see above, under 1.4. The verb is most likely G, and its collocation with 3 is common in BH: e.g. Isa 42.25.
4

112 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA vpn N (pass?): 1QH 3.32 bwbn '*?m yratb wpan npaD: + bx pers < 1QS 6.12 D'ann bv npaon (ptc) + bv rei < 1QS 6.20 D O T roxbn by npaon ernn (ptc) + suf pers and id rei 4Q159 frg ii-iv 8 ni3QK3 n r p a (impv) pa D: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 2.21 '003 TOpa

+ 0 rei < 1QH 16.6 fm Vplb (inf)


m a G:
+ 0id pers < 1QS 3.17 eroa t n a nam; 1QH 4.38 uem p'ns n n t c n + 0 id pers > 1QH 15.17 nnma CPOTIl + 0 id rei < 1QH 3.25 -jenm ma mmn m a nrom; 1QH 1.13 p nnma nna; 1QH 1.27 pefta rrn nnana nnK; 1QH 13.11 mennana ? (inf) + suf: 1QH 1.7,13.8 Dnma; 1QH 15.14
4

D: + m d pers et rei suf < 1QS 1.19 inoK *>vvn bu mi miner *?K n D'anaa (ptc);
1QS 2.1 b\* 'rm TOK na o'anao (ptc)

+ m d rei st < lQSa 2.19 nn^n n'en m "pan + suf pers 1QS 2.2, lQSb 3.25 naana'; 1QS 9.26 uana'; 1QS 10.6 u a n a n (= -nana**), sim. 1QS 10.14,16; 1QH1.31;11.2 naiana' + 0 d pers suf < 1QS 9.26 WW "pa'
39

+ 0 d rei suf < 1QS 10.13 KIQe? "paK; 1QH 2.30 naoe? nana**; 1QH 11.6 naoe? nanaa Ton

H(!):
+ a rei < 1QS 6.5 nn^n r r a n a "pan ? (inf) nna
4 40

D: + 0 d rei suf < onjn nna ? (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QS 4.20 na3 'ewo bo... b\* nna' H: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 15.10 'ED nan ? (inf)
n t a D:
4 4

+ 0 id pers (ind obj) and b (dir obj?)

41

3 9 4 0

So correctly in MSS B and D. The preposition seems basically to be instrumental. Should the HifHl be genuine, could it mean 'to officiate at the blessing ceremony'? See our discussion above under 1.7.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION < 1QH 18.14 nzrann nrhu*w i r a ? (inf)


4

113

nna H(?): + suf pers lQSb 5.28 nDlX + 0 d rei suf (rei cl) 1QH 1.34 nnnmn n&vmbEi bio + 0 id rei > 1QH 8.35 * E D n r n u n ]wb bn D: + 0 id rei < 1QH 6.15,7.19 nsa brrh (inf) H: + 0 id rei < 1QH 4.29 m t f ^nan ? (inf) TOG: + bv < 1QH 2.23 '003 ^ n a 'they assailed my soul' + 0 1QH 7.12 na * 7 D 'all those who contend against me' (ptc) ^ a G: + bo < 1QH 9.35 nrrfoo ^an n*?a
1 42 43

d rei suf < 1QH 1.21 ' r f r ' 3 D nn^a, sim. 1QH 6.4; 18.19 'a'tfnn^a id rei < 1QH 18.4 iBv jm ^arn; 1QH 18.24 n s r

3 *p n^am

N (pass):

+ b pers (ind obj)


D:

< 1QS 5.9 prix mb naao n'paan b\2 (ptc); 1QH 5.12 fo TOW nt>an j p (inf)

+ d rei suf < 1QH 12.34 *?a G:

*>b nrrtfl; 1QH 13.3 nr>T n n ^ a

+ 0 d rei suf > and < bv pers 1QS 2.1

vfov boi n o n 'ann >y ^ a is late for 'b bi, e.g. Ps 103.
10,119.19, Jon 4.4);

1QH 9.30 fovnnba: bmG:


+ n id rei < 1QS 2.26 pns 'OSCOQ r u n m o n irasa n ^ a aha G :
45

The author of our text would surely have read at Ps 94.21 p n s v & b s M A instead of the MT TTia;. occurs in BH with this verb in the sense of 'to rejoice' only at Zep 3.17; the usual preposition is 3. In the idiomatic collocation ]m RFRA the verb is in G , not D (so pointed by Habermann [1959:115 etc] and Lohse [1986:114, etc.]). 1QH 2.12 is by universal agreement manifestly based on Isa 57.20, where the MT, however, has a G form: W N Y . There is no reason why we should not follow Habermann (1959:116) in reading here also a G , W R A * instead of an H, Torna (so Lohse).
4 3 4 4 4 5 1

4 2

114

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA + 0 id rei > 1QH 2.12 TttnTP D'Dl OB"! + by pers and 0 d rei suf < 1QH 8.15 OB&l 'btf w u Cf. 1QH 3.32 BDn clearly a G ptc.
46

pan G: + 3 d rei < 1QS 1.5 3 1 C D WW* biaa pianb (inf); 1QH 16.7 - p - Q DDK3 p i m b (inf) + a pers 1QS 2.15 in p a n + b > 1QH 5.31 pain 71b *jfifr 131 D: + bfc pers < 1QS 5.25 *]K3 Trmbtt 1 3 T bfc; lQSa 2.9 e m p n nsy ba nanb (inf) + a pers ('against'?) > 1QS 7.2 nana n a n . . . D'jman p nnaa + n II pers < 1QS 7.5 run na n a T + 0 id rei < 1QS 6.11 nan * T D era n a T *?K; 1QS 7.9 baj n a n . . . n a T and b pers 1QS 6.12 D'anb nanb nan ina er (inf), sim. 1QS 6.13; > 1QH 12.32 mi b r nana HQ, sim. 1QH 12.32b + 0 id (?) rei > 1QH 1.23 jrro aba nana n o nnn N (pass):
4 7

1QH 4.9 ^QQinn] p G: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 5.13 'JIT ran an D: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 5.17 IDS) HOT - p n G: + 0 d rei suf (idiom) < 1QH 6.30 inc?p m a : "[inn' enn G: + 0 d pers < 1QS 1.1 b\* vrrb (inf) + 0 d rei st < 1QS 8.24 Qn lnn + n d rei suf < 1QS 5.20 Dimn nn lenm

This passage is not registered in Clines 1995:378. In the light of a contrast between ib. 10.7, nnnns 1**73 " Q "TR noi, and ib. 12.33,'QnnnnQDK^anaiKnoi, this ought to be translated 'what can I speak unless it has been made known?' In other words, Jni3, pace Lohse (1986:114), must be pointed as pf., inti. 1QH contains many unmistakable examples of *t>n with a perfect: e.g. 1.23 TDTO Kt>3, 10.7 'rfon mfa, 12.34 'a rrnbircra.Cf. our discussion in Muraoka 1996 (forthcoming) on 1QS 2.14. The preposition bet is no bet communicationis. We fail to comprehend what Mansoor (1961:101) meant by 'causal conjunctive'. Lohse's rendering, Wie soll ich reden, ohne da es schon erkannt wre?', is thus preferable to, e.g. Mansoor's (1961:101), What can I speak that is not foreknown?'. See also Qimron (1986: 77). This K*fa should not be confused with the same combination as in Lam 4.14,
4 7

4 6

where the preposition is required by the verb sition, *b, is an asyndetic relative clause.

and what follows the prepo

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

115

+ suf pers 1QS 5.11 TTOT; 1QS6.14 bowb ... irroilT 'should examine him with respect to his intellect/ sim. 1QS 6.17; 1QH 4.6 rrynrrm; 1QH 4.14,15 naianT; 1QH 4.16 naBnrfr (inf)

+ 0 id rei < 1QS 6.7 Q E Q mr (inO,


cf. 1QH 2.15 vmpfTn nzrnn *7ia (ptc) + a rei < 1QS 6.6 nmna ernn BTR (ptc) nanG: + 0 id rei < 1QH 11.21 ]W 'an man ? (cogn obj) (inf) mn G: + ^ pers < 1QH 5.31 'a ? G: + 0 id rei loc < 1QS 1.15 biMOm yw mbb (inf); 1QS 11.10 -jpm o ^ n (ptc) + a loc < 1QS 4.6 n a o ^ nTO(na = *?ana) (ptc); 1QS 4.11 -]enn o n n *roa na*?*? (inf); 1QS 4.12 (ptc); 1QS 5.10 nircnn - p n a n o ^ n n (ptc);
1QS 8.20 na TD ? na D'osQn;
1

Dnn

n a o^in

"ro

1QS 8.21 - p n maria o'a'Tinn (ptc) + b < 1QS 8.13 i2inb robb (inf) + a bwi pers < 1QS 7.15 m i n a b*yi -f?'; > 1QS 7.16 ^an -p* crana D(?): + a < 1QS 8.18 - p n D'Qna -j'xfr (inf); 1QS 9.19 nnb n^aan *7Da... -prb (inf) tD: + a > 1QS 4.15 la'pnn' panna; 1QS 6.1 *obnxv n ^ a ; < 1QS 4.24 n a a n a *obnr\\ sim. 1QS 9.12; 1QH 17.24 bbn D:

+ 0 d rei suf < 1QH 1.30; 3.23 naDE bbrb (inf);


1QH12.3 xrxmnbhwn + suf pers 1QS 10.17 xhbn* L: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 4.17 annota *7D rrana bbmb (inf) tL: + a < 1QH 4.12 onninoa bbmnnb (inf) non G: + bu pers > 1QH 2.16 IQn' *bv

116
-pn

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

G:
+ 0 id rei and b > 1QH 2.17 naa "n nmefr m o m i
+ p
48

< 1QS 7.18 nmn mo'D imi mm

H D T H: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 9.9 DannI3tn R V ? IDT

G:
+ 0 d rei suf < 1QH 4.34 'nTQBR TH3T; 1QH 4.35 nDT TO n a i r a (inf)

H:
+ 0 id rei < 1QS 6.27nan 1'OV D O T G: + 0 1QH 10.5 Dim HQ; and (enmity) < 1QH 4.10 bsfon fox 1 Q Q T + b pers < 1QH 4.26 TD^ODID (ptc) H O T D(?): + a rei < 1QH 11.5 n a n o n a m o m
4 9

TOT

H:
+ suf pers 1QH 9.7 ^nmrn *b + 0 d rei suf > 1QH 9.11 nnmrn $b laVazn n

ppTD: + p partitive (= 0 ) < 1QS 4.20 B P R 17 p p r + suf pers 1QH 6.8 opprrn RanD(?): + 0idrei<lQS4.6 run *n nQR*? Ram 'to hide faithfully mysteries of know ledge' (inf) ; > 1QH 5.11 nnan nannn; 1QH 5.25 (rei cl) 'a nnan n a ; 1QH 9.24 naR Ranm nan D: + d pers and b < 1QS 11.8 nm nxvb omo nan
50 51

The verb cannot possibly mean 'to cast, throw' (so translated by some: Vermes 1987:169, Holm-Nielsen 1960:32, Garcia Martinez 1994:329). It rather means 'to transform, convert'; so Lohse (1986:117) Tcehrten'. This bold combination is unknown to BH. It may be understood as an ap plication of bet communicationis. It is followed in our passage by
4 9

4 8

nnmwnDmDi);
50

5 1

is common. Cf. our discussion on an alleged Aramaism, under 1.7 above. Most likely a D infinitive. The verb root occurs in D passive in BH (Job 24.4 m?rr). See also a D pass, ptc, D'Rmno, at 1QH 8.6, 18. Despite the palaeographic ambiguity, whether to read zvaw or yod, an impf., pace WernbergMoller (1957: 78f.), is unlikely at this point.
nnme?

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION enn D:

117

+ 0 d rei st > lQSb 5.21 V? enrr nrrn


nrn G:

nnai

+ 01QH
pm G(?):

2.15

H T O :

mn "ro (ptc)

+ inf. < 1QS 3.1 mra^pm wb D: + suf pers 1QH 7.7 'jprnm + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 14.5 j p i n nnpm H: + a rei < 1QS 5.1 rra T B K bion p'rnn*? (inf); 1QS 5.3 n n a a t r p i n a n (ptc); 53 1QH 2.28 -jRnaa I D E M pmrn ; pers and > 1QS 9.14 p'nn ? run n n a a (inf);
52 4

1QH 4.36 iQtfoa np 'Tnn

+ 0 id rei < lQSa 2.5,1QH 5.29 TOI p'mn (inf) + bv pers < 1QH 15.11 D'an ^np'iR D:

54

+ 0 d rei suf < lQSa 1.17


1

pTT;
nm

lQSb 3.23 Tinapm ? (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QH 1.31 mn nnpm... tD: + a 1QH 4.39 n a n n a a npmn; 1QH 16.7 rjenjp n n a prnnn ?; 1QH 18.9 nannaa prnno
4

aon G: + b pers < 1QH 17.22,23 -\b K I O T O (inf) rm D: + 0 id rei < 1QH 8.36 D'^ID mn nvnb (inf) n^n D:

+ 0 d rei < 1QH

16.11 - p s n^na

5 2

5 3

5 4

We prefer to take the verb as a defectively spelled Hif'il ptc, rather than Pi<el, as the verb in the sense required here is never used in BH in Pi'el. Or is it possibly a scribal error for D'pmno? Cf. 1QH 18.9nannaa prnno. On the meaning of pmnn 'to apply oneself to (some duty)', see Muraoka 1979b: 97-99. At 1QH 16.7 it is parallel with -apan. Rather than G: so pointed by Lohse (1986:118) and Habermann (1959:117). Garcia Martinez's (1994:330) Thou ... confirmed my soul in your covenant' is not impossible in the context. Holm-Nielsen (1960: 44), referring to Isa 56.4, optsforQal, but in the cited passage (and also vs. 6) we read Tinaa D'p'mo. The sense of the verb in this collocation ('to secure a position') is clearly different from that of -ap'trm 'to hold fast to, adhere to'.

118 ^ H :

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

+ inf. < 1QS 9.10 ncrtf? 1*7nn;

4Q514 frg i col i 4,7 mno ? *?nn

+ 0 d rei suf < 1QS 11.13

'rasa ybrr> nnQ

pbn D:
+ 0 id rei < 1QS 10.25 pin npbnK nan G:

+ bv pers < 1QH 2.25 Dmn


]an G:

ian

+ suf pers 1QS 2.3 a*nb\v nana r o a m ; 1QS 2.8 b\* r o a r r wb;

lQSb 2.22,24,25 naam'; lQSb 2.26,27 naaaTT;


1QH 14.25 'iran; 1QH 16.9 'aamn non G: + a > 1QH 9.28 n'on naa

ppn Gpass.: + 0iQHl.24pipn ron


l

+ 0 id rei > and a 1QH 18.27 ]>2 n n p n tbw nvna ann H:

+ d rei st < lQSb 5.24 p R annn


p n G:

55

+ 0 id rei < nircn C D S 0 Q pnrf? (inf)


pnn G:

+ 0 id rei < 1QH 2.11 D'X? ipnrr era ?


1

aon

G:
+ + + + inf. < 1QH 2.32 Dnnb lacan im jvat* rasa suf pers and (obj compl) < 1QH 4.9 naiR "bob 'aiarann 0 d rei > 1QH 4.13 laiCOTT bsrbl mQT 0 id rei > 1QH 5.26 l a r a r Da ? min nom
1

H: + suf pers 1QH 3.6 'jnvfflv [; sim. 1QH 4.8 Hpass.:


+ a < 1QS 5.11 i n n a a iac?nn wb
56

tD:
+ 01QH 10.5 acannRna + DJ? > 1QS 3.1 aranm wbjyiar ntf
7

5 5

5 6

5 7

The definite article was probably washed away (Charlesworth 1994:129, n. 37). Though a scribal error for in&ma or normn is not impossible, note Si 7.16:m> m a "pe?nn "a*. The difficult p n at 1QS 3.3, ZKDrrn' vcb D'O'an p a , may be an error for p w 'among the number o f or p may mean land, sort'.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION N: + a < 1QS 5.18 i m a a raom + b > 1QH 18.26TO0TT3nD?
1

119

nnn H: + suf pers 1QH 2.34 'Jinnnn tb + jo < 1QH 7.8 n a n n a o nnnnn [K]*? D: + suf pers 1QS 4.21 emp r m a nno ? (inf); + ]Q 1QS 11.14 T3Km'3TnD'; 1QH 11.30 n a n p - n o ' r n ; 1QH 16.12 'nnefr (inO + 0 id rei and jo > 1QH 3.21 an xmn nrnno mm rrn + 0 id pers and p < 1QH11.10 JJUDD a n n r n n o . . . tD:
+ ]D > 1QH 6.8 HQORQ nnon ? (inf)
1

58

mo G: + 0 d rei st < 1QH 4.23 ^ o ' e n n r r *7D 'as nenaa nnno a b pO G:


+ 0

id rei > 1QH 2.29 H D E r f ? T3QO OQ3IDnO'

OTTO

*p G: 0 id rei < 1QH 5.14


HT

H: + pers (ind obj) and 0 d rei suf < 1QS 11.15 ipnx btib rrm (inf) + suf pers 1QH 2.20,31; 3.19,37; 4.5; 5.5; 7.6; 11.3,15 nam*
59

i r r G:
+ 0

d rei suf < 1QS 2.22 rra B P R 'aner

*7D

run ? (inf);

1QS 4.25 ptfu tfTU i n ' n a n ;

+ + + + +

1QH 1.7 omMD nrWT; 1QH 4.32 TOI *ro W T ; 1QH 6.12 nanQRDna'Tia i r r ; 1QH 7.16 nanay ns* n r w r ; 1QH 9.12 TiD'Tomm 0 d rei st < 1QS 5.11 n n n o n run ? (inf) 0 id rei < 1QH 7.13 nwvo n>r biD rmsrv nna d dem pron > 1QH 1.21 nanrao T W T n ?**; 1QH 5.3 n*?K Tuna (inf) PK d rei suf < 1QS 5.19 T i n a PR iirr Ri ?; 1QH 15.20 -jma nro -[maa na faa] run ? (inf) suf pers lQSa 1.10 nrun ? ncoK; 1QH 9.30 'anirp; 1QH 9.35 ']tfT;
1 4 1 1 1

5 8

5 9

To be pointed 'anhnn or such like, and not 'xpnnn (Habermann 1959:117; Lohse 1986:118). Cf. also Qimron 1976:198. Cf. Ps 107.8,15,21,31 DTK v> vrwhBO) nor? rn\

120 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 1QH 12.11 ramsrv; 1QH 12.22 raw + a < 1QS 8.18 orey ban srv b\*f*> 1QH 9.9 n a n o i o w p + a clause < 1QS 10.16,1QH 3.20; 6.6; 9.14 ... ROnmR; 1QH 2.22,33 ... KO W *b. Also 1QH 4.30; 11.7; 14.12; 15.12,13,22,23,25; 16.4,10,11; 18 21. + TOR clause < 1QH 6.7... TORT)tf[T H: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 1.29; 13.13 rDTQD WITlb (inf) + suf pers and a rei < 1QH 4.27 naR*?D 'Da 'JDimn; 1QH 11.9 nanaR n o a orumn; > 1QH 7.27 *3rumn naR^D T O ; 1QH 10.4 i ^ n n [nanajR -noa + b pers and 0 d rei < 1QH 4.28 naTmo:D"nn bab vnmb + suf pers and 0 id rei < 1QH 11.16TORn o 'rumn
62 61

TTP

N: + pers < 1QS 5.20 BHip mift HTH ? (inf) + or suf pers < 1QS 5.14 irnoaa inv nn" mb; and + a 1QH l l . l l ravoinp nu bitn... nmn ? (inf)
4 4

D: + b rei < 1QH 9.10 ronon ? Tfrrr; 1QH 11.31 naaio ? rbn* H: + inf < 1QH 7.18 pflV? ^ m R TO' H: + PR pers < 1QS 5.24 iron nR e?'R main ? (inf) + suf pers 1QS 5.26 urrav
1 1 4

The preposition a in this collocation, also found in Ps 31.8 and Job 35.15, is comparable with that in -a pan; see above. According to Jenni (1992: 252) such a bet comes under bet of 'geistiger Kontakt', in particular 'Aufmerksamkeit, Einsicht'. Though BH affords no example of -a jjmn, the preposition prefixed to a noun indicating the contents of knowledge, -airp, does occur once: Ps 31.8 nDBanrnarurr. Cf. Jenni 1992:252f. The preposition in our 1QH passage is hardly instrumen tal: does m m + acc. pers. mean 'to make someone a knowledgeable person, expert (]1ST)', as suggested by Vermes's (1995: 202) rendering, Thou hast given me knowledge through Thy marvellous mysteries'? The syntagm < spmn + b pers + acc. rei> is well attested in BH: e.g. Exod 18. 20 "pnn m dtp rarrro; Ps 103.7 rwcb vann sniv.
6 0 6 1

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION + + + + 0 id rei < 1QS 9.17 noa n j n rrain ? (inf) d rei suf > 1QS 10.11 n'3lK 3 pers < 1QH 9.23 n nprorr b pers and 0 d rei suf < 1QH 18.121311 "ion
64 1 63 4

121

n'Oirfr (inf)

by G:
-10'

+ inf. < 1QS 11.20 ... borfr blD* ' 0 G (or D): + 0 id rei < 1QS 3.25 newo bo 1 0 ' ]VFbV;
1QS 5.5 P D R TOD "10'*? (inO

+ 0 d rei suf < lQSb 3.21 nDnbv 1 0 ' ; 1QH9.12 ' n n n r n o ' + suf pers 1QH 5.9 ' 3 P 1 0 '
*]0'

H: + ^<1QS6.14 lirn P ^ t f * ^ ^'OIlV? 'to join the council of the commu nity' (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QH 1.35 noon I D ' O T T + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 5.14 m m b& 3nno njwb * p m + suf rei 1QH 5.33 npwb moon N: + G: 'HEbo < 1QS 7.23 D ' 3 i n H: + suf rei and bv > 1QS 6.20 1 3 K ' 2 M ' \X)b 0 ' 3 n n bv 'they shall not spend it on the many'
+ 0 d rei suf < 1QS 7.13 I T R ' S V ;
6 5

< 1QS 8.19 irvb ^pxsn * T O

'35*70

ten

1QH 4.25 DOEX0O m:b 2nm + 0 id rei < 1QH 1.29 DTn ^O'ip R S T T T I ; 1QH 6.31 rrarfpo '*?3 R ' ^ H ? (inf) + n d rei suf < 1QS 7.15 V T I R Q B ? T P R R'2Sion (ptc) + P R d pers st < lQSa 1.23

1QH 1.25, vrmii? ?!? rPDvrrai, does not belong here, as suggested by Mansoor's (1961:102) translation, 'And what shall he plead concerning his iniqui ties?'. Cf. Garcia Martinez (1994: 327): 'How will he defend his infringe ments?' The same applies to the following clause, 1QH 1.26:
PISH B B C D D ?D b\B '01.

6 3

64 The only BH example of the combination -a rrznn with a similar meaning is to be found at Prov 30.6. See also 2 Kgs 19.4. On T here in the sense of membrum virile, see, in addition to the literature mentioned by Charlesworth (1994:33, n. 185), also Licht 1965:164.
6 5

122

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA man bo m K ^irfri Ron ? (inf) + jn UD and bv pers < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 8 ^mcr m i r a bv m od era nrp
4

G:
+ 0

+0

id rei < 1QH 1.8 rm bo n m y nna; 1QH 15.22 rrnnrrcp rei cl > 1QH 1.15 ^nra m y TOK D I K rm ?; 1QH 3.20 nrrcr TOK ? mpo ar; 1QH 4.31 t> T2P rm (asyndetic rei cl)
1 4

HTH: + suf pers lQSb 3.23,1QH 6.9 orvnrfr (inO + suf pers and 0 rei 1QS 10.12 mr mnan 1 shall choose what he instructs + 0 d rei bo < 1QS 11.17 run bio nnmn nna H: + b suf pers < 1QS 6.27 b i t ruropm] + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 2.23 n & S H IPBTin TO' D: + 0 id rei < 1QS 4.2 nQK pix 'Dm *7D V3D?TO* ?(inf); 1QH 6.24 -|T7 TBT^ (inf); 1QH 12.34 jm W + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 7.14 'DtfD IBP ? (inf)
1 1 1 66

1ZD D: + 0 d rei suf < lQSb 4 . 2 8 n o o n TO H: + n d rei suf < 1QS 11.20 rDTDD n 'POrfr (inf) p H: d rei suf < 1QS 3.9 pn'; 1QS 3.15 OraOTD to p n ; 1QS 11.10 n J t t p * Wbwm; 1QS 11.13 TMB-p-fr p*; 1QS 11.16 vwvn bo p - m pn; 1QH 1.19 Drrntfn nmppsn ronm n o s m + suf 1QH 6.10 ararfr (inf); 1QH 10.22 'jmron 1QH 12.11 i r o n ; 1QH 13.10 DDmran; 1QH 15.15 TlTOn; 1QH 15.19 D P T O N + 0 id rei > 1QH 1.28 nsprn; 1QH 18.22 bo yorb (inf) + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 7.8 tfto to p m ; 1QH 7.13 p m ; and b)0 lQSb 3.20 'jent^TO p n b\b; 1QH 7.25 *tol p m ; 1QH 15.13,21 YlSX p n ? (inf);
+ 0
1

> 1QH

15.22

N N P R A N NRFTUJBI

+ d rei and a resumptive pron suf > 1QS 11.11

- t o w r is a familiar BH collocation. The verb is foreign to RH.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION TO* T r a o r a a r m n ' r a BTD D: + bv < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 9 T BTO r t e D: + inf. < 1QS 6.10 IDnh VTR H ^ D ' + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.36 rra rrfo ? (inO; 1QH 8.31 i r a ntD^Gnf)
1 1

+ suf pers 1QS 3.17 nboby

nam;
l

1QH9.34 rhom
+ tfDH: + 0 id pers < lQSa 1.21 trflJPDn ? (inf)
TED D :
67 1

< 1QH 9.36 roncara 7D ? W n


l

+ 0 d rei suf < 1QS 2.8 ymv 1EDb (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QH 4.37 ]TW TSDn + b pers (comm ?) < 1QS 5.6 o m a n o n bob T E D ? (inf) + b rei < 4Q159 frg i col ii 2 prra&B bob T E D + i r a pers vel rei (= peccati) < 1QS 8.6,10 p a n i r a I E D ? (inf);
4 4

(inf)

1QS

11.14

TTDTIJJ ^ D ira

+ bv rei (= peccati) < 1QS 9.4


D Q E K bv TED ?
1

(inf)

Cf. Dpass.: 1QS 3.6 Trniru? ' T D n s r o ' ; 1QS3.8 inon i s r a n . niD H: + 0 i d p e r s < l Q H 4.20 HDTQTOKbo B[BEpn rTDn; 4 1QH 4.26 r e s nmi; *TO OSXOQD nnsn ? (inf) G:
+ n < 1QH 17.23 -|icn nm 'Ton 'TKZDD (inf)

H: + 0 id pers < 1QS 3.24 T1R *n bvnnb (inf)


+ 0 id rei < 1QH 5.36 mi ^ E D H
4

(inf)

ana: + suf pers 1QS 5.23 y r a m r o i ; 1QS 6.22 iran "[ion m n r o ' ; + suf rei 1QS 6.20 p r a innm + 0 d pers suf < lQSa 1.21
6 7 6 8

6 8

All this striking variety of syntagms is well attested in BH. Probably we should read mron ?, a variant reading in 4Q258 frg i, col ii 2.
4

124 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA innoEQ 3TO' icrsn - p o a ra ? G: + 0 id rei < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 7 I T O K > 1QH5.31 Twa^irmp
m ? N:
4

ROTO

ra^

+ to pers < 1QS 5 .6Drrtonntor (ptc)

rb H:
+ to pers < 1QH 5.24 ' t o irto

jbG:
+ to pers < 1QS 7.17 irvn 110' to > 1QS 7.17 yfr vun to O K

lob G:
+ 0 d rei suf < 1QH 2.29 nbn Tiato

mb G:
+ na d rei st < 1QS 9.13tocon r o m iinb<b> D: + nt* d pers and + a rei < 1QS 3.13 ern 'aa "TO rrntoia TIK ^a to na noto (inf) + suf pers and a rei < lQSa 1.7 'ann nooaimofr] + suf pers and 0 id rei < 1QH 2.17 nra 13iatol npb G: + 0 id rei < 1QS 5.16 HOIKO bo D T D np' K1 ?; 1QH 15.24 TTOnpntf? + n suf pers < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 8 iTTTlR vnp (inf)
OKO
4 69 l

(inf)

G: + inf. < 1QS 2.25 ... xnb0K10H to (ptc) + 0 ( T O K ) 1QS 1.4 OKOTOKtoPR K13K/? + a < 1QH 17.24 nn]R3E? nrca "roa O I K O ? (inf)
4

"7TD

G: + 0 id rei < 1QS 5.5 neap *pim ny rfn w irra biob (inf)

mo H: + suf rei and a < 1QH 2.18 nsc? bnsn O T T O ' I + a and 0 id rei < 1QH 2.36 -poo ny toina Ton ? (inf) + a and 0 d rei suf < 1QH 14.20 702x00 ' T O imem -[noa pna T O R [tfn] + 0 d rei and a < 1QH 4.10 rnptoa... namm iranb (inf)
4

6 9

This is the same kind of bet we find in -a pan, q.v.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION mo H: + 0 pers < lQSb 5.25 ]Jtfn rvDn nno G: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 11.3 'MOB TO' + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 3.16 OrtnUB
O^Q H:
70

125

+ 0 id pers < 1QH 3.9 n a t . . . G: + suf 1QH 17.27 m K O ' N (pass): 1QH 4.20 T W ifla' K*? rnm *nn m a H: + m d rei suf < 1QS 6.26 v u n 'B nK nriORa (inf) + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 14.14 J B n o ' $b G: + a < 1QS 9.7 jinaT uBooa I * ? D D ' ; 1QS 9.22 la bvwb 'to one who rules over him' (ptc); 1QH 10.8 n^B^aa^iQ (ptc); 1QH 13.15 larfrQ H: + suf pers and a < 4Q259 fraa JTOD: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 5.19 nan '3R3D *7D (ptc) + 0 d rei < 1QH 4.12 bvfon nariQ bo yuan (possibly G)
Oaa H:

bwnnb (inf).

71

+ 0 id rei > 1QS 3.3 ma ' a m ? 'a' - p i r n + a rei < 1QS 3.7D"nn niRa 'arfr (inf); 1QS11.19 na*n powa tran ? (inf); 1QH 10.20 na-naaa'D'ana (inf); >1QS11.3 rrro n a *>02b rnwi '3'i> ntran v m t t e a a ; 1QS 11.5 '3'i> ntron 0*711; t w r a
1

72

7 0

This must be a jussive. Lohse's and Habermann's pointing, nia , is dubious. Point na\ In the OT the verb combines with HDB in Qal, e.g. Isa 43.25; 44.22; Ps 51.3. I I !Q9.2D ...borfryn. On the zero-linkage in BH, see Num 12.18; 23.21; Isa 64.8. Pace Charlesworth, the verb does not mean 'to consider' (similar Garcia Martmez: 'he regards darkness as paths to light'). We prefer Maier's 'und Finsternis schaut er fr Wege des Lichtes' and Vermes's 'for seeking the ways of light he looks towards darkness'.
7 1 7 2

126 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA + b\* rei < 1QH 4.11 DHOTI b\* O'an ? (inf) IH3H: + 0 id rei < 1QH 8.18 D'tOTO lira'
4

m
G: + a < 1QS 5.13 empn vox* rnnoa nmb (inf), sim. 1QS 8.17; 1QS 6.16; 7.19 D'ann m n a a w K I ? ; 1QS 6.20 D'ann npQa W X sim. 1QS 7.20; 1QH 11.21 'psiniOTI + b < 4Q258 frg i col i 7 B?npn] TOKmncfr I O T vb (II 1QS 5.13 . .. m n o a ) H 'to bring into contact/: + suf and a < 4Q513 frg ii col ii 1 lOTipninTiDaDinn ? (inf) ttHDH: + suf pers 1QS 9.16 W>Tb (inf); 1QS 11.13 '3'3n; 1QH 12.23 Dnrai; 1QH 14.19 TXTM; 1QH 16.12 (inf); and b < 1QH 14.13 yumb varxi ai3 tD: + inf. < 1QS 5.1 aiB^D'aianon (ptc); 1QS 5.10 i i c n a -\bmbi... D'a-unon (ptc); 1QS 5.21; 6.13 + < 1QS 5.10 motf? in' D'ainon (ptc) m3 H: + suf pers and ]Q 1QH 4.8 '2nKD ' 3 T T T ai3 D: + 0 id rei < 1QH 8.13 V 1 D aai3' *?a TU H: + 0 d rei and a pers > 1QH 7.6 'anniD'annamp nri; < and bv vers 1QH 17.26 -pai>?j; [TDjoTip rrn nrnsrcn + 0 id rei < 1QH 8.33 T fprft (inf); 1QH 8.22 T 'D'3na (inf) HT3G: + 0 id rei and bv < 1QS 4.21 nQK m i T ^ r m nra H: + suf pers 1QS 9.18 DTTinan? (inf)
4

**T3

H:

+ suf rei and b pers < 1QS 4.26 aio nvib B P R '3a ? j ? w i
1 1

Less probably, an H form of a doubtful root nn (pace Habermann [1959:118 'JJTTl Lohse H986:125] ' F T ) .
a n d

7 3

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION + suf pers and a rei < 1QS 11.7 owip toraoto^O); 1QH 17.15 DTK Tiaa boitfrnb (inf) + suf pers (dir obj) and d rei (?; dir obj) < lQSb 3.28 [... j rven robnr
74

127

om D: + a pers < 1QS 10.21 o n o n oma wb + suf pers 1QH 9.13; 11.32 *3nom N: + to<lQH6.7 rnaitop jmo toi uv pan to nomai; 1QH 9.13 ymn to non
75

n3 G: + 0 rei d < 1QH 1.10 D'QE nrraa nnK 13 G:

+ b pers < 1QS 7.8 runb


1

Tier;
76

1QS 10.20 OTD 'a ? *]Ka TIDR xb

na3 H: + 0 d rei < 1QH 8.23 WHO ID' na: H: + suf pers lQSb 3.19 rDTpn ? (inf) + a < 1QH 5.13 Timaa nrnan + 0 id rei > 1QH 7.13 nrnan \wb nvvn "TO
1

no: D:
+ 0 id pers < 1QH 2.14 noia 'arm* rnoft (inf)
to3H:

+ 0 id rei + pers < 1QS 4.26 *n bah rtfrra b^mb (inf); andDJ; pers 1QH3.22 run rnrrn uv nbw toi: vwb torn + 0 id rei and UV < lQSb 4.26 0'3D 'DRto D J? toli ^SQI (ptc) + 0 d rei suf and a 1QH 7.34

7 4

The preposition bet may still retain something of its local signification, but
^nri nnn

see Ps 82.8: onan


7 5 7 6

On the difficult moi, see Licht 1965:220. A rendering such as 'I will not hold anger towards those (Charlesworth) should not make us regard the n-phrase as an object. In BH the verb is always used without a noun denoting a sentiment, e.g. Lev 19.18: "|DI> '33 n* TOP K ?! E3pn xb. In BH the verb takes once rn (Lev 19.18) and once *? (Nah 1.2):
1

We further come across CD 13.18, nrfr im ***; ib. 8.5, ntan mp3 ?nKb

128 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

ao H:
+ suf pers and ]Q < 1QH 2.31
no rucpo tfrorn; 1QH 3.5 p 'frzffn + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.13 '30 B7B3 *?2crn Dp3 G: + 0 id rei < 1QS 2.6 Dp] 'QpT3 *7D (ptc); 1QS 5.12 Dp3 Dip]*? (inf. and cogn. obj.)
77

+ *? pers and + 0 id rei < 1QS 7.9 nan * T D TOSH ? optf? (ptc)
4

78

KB?3 G: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 2.4 rD ? Vion *3B KEP; 1QS2.9 1BK'3BKBP; lQSb 3.1 rD' ?** V3B '3TTK > 1QS 10.9 ram TOD y * r + 0 id rei < 1QS 6.1 ] Y U > V * ? ^ KBP; 4Q513 frg ii col ii 5 ]TU> KB73; lQSa 1.20 7VW KB?Q nKB?? (inf); 1QH 6.34 031KB73...; 1QH 10.25 nbv PB?*? ( = n K B ? ? ) (inf); 1QH JT1 '3D KB?K *b; 1QH 16.16 HDB N E T O (ptc) + 3 rei < lQSb 4.23 Dnzmp Brra PKB?? (inf); > 1QH 9.4 KB?n H3'pn 'EHi;
1 4 1 7 9 1 80 81 4

14.19

So in BH: Ezek 24.8 npjDpfr In BH the prep. fomed used with this verb in Qal indicates the personal target of an act of vengeance as in Nah 1.22, i n s ? D p i , so also Ezek 25.12. This complementation occurs alongside that with mem as in 1 Sam 24.13,'xapai "|DQ'\ and sim. Num 31.2, TOlDnnwa. This is particularly prominent in Nifh, e.g. Jer 46.10. On the other hand, in Josh 10.13, ^ np\ we find a zerocomplementation, which one may also identify in the above-mentioned 1 Sam 24.13. Thus the lamed complementation at 1QS 7.9 is unique: one could only refer to Jer 15.15, ' B T T O D p 3 H , where the verb is, however, a Ni/faZ. It appears then that the lamed at our 1QS passage is a plain dat. commodi. So Licht 1957:157 and Mansoor 1961:165. Is this a bet to introduce a direct object? Milik (1955: 126f.), whose translation, 'prsider la tte des saints', does not quite agree with what his footnote seems to be driving at, usefully mentions Si 11.13, where the preposition displays similar syntax in xtimnttf. On Num 11.18, DrnKDDn^nK Tato, also mentioned by Milik (1955:127), see Jenni 1992:273. This sentence division is more likely than that of Lohse (1986: 146), who construes 'fcriK with the preceding 'in* to make a construct phrase, '(nR which is an unattested combination, the reverse sequence of which is attested. Licht (1957:143) appropriately refers to Job 7.13. The preposition bet here is categorized by Jenni (1992: 273) as Teilnahme am Lastentragen', though we may have here to do with ellipsis of ^Tp.
7 8 1 7 9 8 0 8 1 1

7 7

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION H:

129

+ suf pers and id rei < 1QS 5.14 HOOK ]TU> m?W ]B Test he should burden him with the penalty of guilt ( ? ) '
82

303 H: + 0 id rei < 1QS 6.14 lOTQ per DK + suf pers 1QH 5.29 Dnsoa '3Wzn; 1QH 17.9 Dtron
]ra G :

+ suf pers 1QH 8.4 D^u mpoa ^nnp + suf pers (ind obj) and 0 d rei (dir obj) < lQSb 3.26 ROQTPQ [ ] rosir + suf pers (dir obj) and b < 1QS 2.5 7\m<b>b*7VT?P 1QH Z.lOtrajftwia + b pers < lQSb 3.5 7\zh p D'ppj;; 5Q13 frg 2.7 V? ]nn + b pers and 0 id rei < 1QH 11.27 nvi bDV piDi3vf? nnro + suf rei (dir obj) and b pers > 1QS 11.7 ubw nxrwb mm b\* nna umb + 0 d rei < 1QS 2.17 Utobw m i K -jinn ftTU p ; 1QH 4.26 TOOD DKITD ]NRN; 1QH 10.22 sa bv '3OTQ nnn3 a ? + 0 id rei < 1QS 4.17 rhw nan* p i ; 1QS 4.18 n*7U> nvn*? PP p ; 1QH 9.10 TOiar 'En n3nn ]nrn; 1QH 11.4 n m n *aa p n + 0 id rei and *7 rei < 1QH 2.7 TiBD [*7n]^ PC? ? n3^Q p n + a rei < 1QH 3.35 DTipa 13PP + 0 rei and a (rei cl) 1QH 12.11; 13.19; 16.11 'a nnm im n n a ; 1QH 17.17 'a nnn3 na rnrrno; 1QH 14.8 n3'a [ n a i p r a ' p a p o n (ptc)
84 4
4

85

aao
G:

+ suf pers 1QH 2.25 03iaao=) Diaao L: + suf pers 1QH 5.34 '3iaaT0' ] i n [TTIF3[R]

The locution is apparently based on Lev 22.16 nam p) DniK ttofcm. Cf. Deut 28.25; Jer 15.4; 24.9; 29.18; 34.17. mro, an error for '3nra? So Licht 1957:124. The idiomatic collocation bip p occurs three times in the OT with the preposition bet: Ps 46.7; 68.34; Jer 12.8. Cf. also Jenni (1992:96-99).
8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5

130 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA -DOG: + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.9 unvSD 'Q TUDm + ivn < 1QH 5.14 aroa? u n n r r a o N (pass): + -wa < 1QH 3.18 bw n n n 102 nne? *vbi r u c n

TO N:
+ nnQ d pers < 1QS 2.16 *7K nrrKQ morra (inf)

-no
G: + ] D < 1QS 1.15 inoK >pino mo*? H I ? (inf); 1QS 8.17 rroon ^lao mo'; 1QS 6.15 ' T W 'TOO mo ? (inf); 1QH 15.11 nrrc* - W R ^lao mo[ + 0 id rei < 1QS 3.10 " T i H D B T l ]'0' liob I ? (inf)
4 4 1

H:
+ 0 d rei suf and ]Q < 1QS 9.20 bw brx l a m non wb nbo G: + TOO G: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 2.7 TDQ] -poom + 0 pers (rei cl) 1QH 18.13 nnaoo um T 2 T + suf pers 1QH 7.6; 9.32 '3D300 ISO D: + na d rei est < 1QS 1.21 ^ r n p - r s n K o n a o o (ptc); 1QS 1.22 b*mr '33 rruny m o n o o o (ptc) + 0 d rei est > 1QS 10.23 o t o k bva\ *>2wb neon mpis + 0 d rei suf > 1QH 1.25 TlKn 2D3K noo' HQ!; < 1QH 12.30 n a n a a ^ a ISO ? (inf); 1QH 1.30,33; 3.23 rD'mtf?Efl 1EOb (inf); 1QH 10.20 rTTIN ] maoR; 1QH 11.6 n a n a a mSOK; 1QH 13.11 nao*; 1QH 17.17 j m p T S nao ? (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QS 10.24 nooK rrern raun run + n rei < 1QH 11.28 nanon a n a naofa (inf) + (ind obj) and 0 d rei suf < 1QH 6.11 rDTntfts) D ^ n n n ? nao ? (inf)
86 4 1 4 87 4 4 4

pers < 1QH 14.24OTD'3C0 ? rfaon (ptc)

Whether one takes the verb in the rare sense of 'to count exactl/ or such like (Ps 22.18), the interrogative can hardly be its direct object as translated by Vermes (1987:167), 'What shall a man say concerning his sin?', for which one would expect bo. Lohse's (1986:115) 'Wie soll ein Mensch seine Snde auf zhlen ...?' is to be preferred: see also Holm-Nielsen (1960:18). For this sense of the interrogative, see BDB, s.v., 2a. Such a force of it is also recognisable in the following two clauses both beginning with the same interrogative. Corrected in the manuscript from nnoR 'I shall conceal'.
8 7

8 6

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

131

+ b (ind
nno

obj) and 0 id rei < 1QH 18.23 n r a ~wnb 100*? (inf)

EK?):
+ suf rei and ]Q < 1QS 8.12 ntoo imncr to + suf pers 1QH 5.11 OIK *33 " T O 'Xiino

+ na d rei st < 1QS 9.17 mmn raj; na naob (inf) II


+ 0 4Q285 frg iii col ii 2 may nno ? (inO + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.26 m*3 yvn mno H: + suf pers and ]Q 1QH 3.38 noiriQ ninno ' r v n o n + riK d rei (cogn obj) < lQSa 1.13 mOT NTOJJ DK TQJFR (inf) + suf pers lQSb 5.28 roraw; 1QH 16.18 Jinwb (inf) + 0 d pers st < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 2 D "i :n G: + 3 ('to join a covenantal community ) d rei st < 1QS 1.16 m a n rmv>; 1QS 1.18 n n n a D-QTU (inf); 1QS 1.20; 2.10, n n m o n n i O T (ptc); 1QS 2.19 -pou... sim. 1QS 2.21 + 0 ('to transgress') id rei < 1QS 5.7 pin n a w to) (ptc); 1QS 5.14 ran nrrwto) (ptc); 1QS 8.22 nana rnino n m HUSP" + to < 1QH 12.24 n a n a i to in2xb wb (inf) + suf rei 1QH 6.21 n n a w to H:
+ 0
7 4

88

id rei < 1QH 6.35 rpw

BIB

(ptc)

TU>

H: + to pers and 0 d rei st < lQSa 1.11 tninn niBEXBQ v t o TOT ? (inf)
1 90

Licht (1965: 196) holds that the text is dependent on Isa 29.15, n^nnp ?, with a defectively spelled H infinitive; cf. 4Q259 frg i col iii 14, Tnob. BH is consistent in the use of zero-complementation: both EBH (Josh 7.11 'nnn na) and LBH (e.g. 2 Chr 24.20 " nrao nt), whereas QH also displays an tocomplementation: 1QH 12.24 man by iwb Kt>. See s.v. lira. On this extremely difficult passage, see Licht (1965: 257) and Baumgarten (1957:266-69). Licht mentions Jer 6.10 as exemplifying the combination of the verb with bv. The clause cannot possibly mean 'to witness the precepts of the Torah' (so Charlesworth 1994: 113). Vermes's (1987: 101) 'when he calls to witness the judgements of the Law' has some justification, though in BH the object to be invoked is always personal (e.g. Isa 8.2) or heaven and earth (e.g. Deut 4.26) or just DHP (e.g. Jer 32.44). Perhaps in addition to emending bnpn
8 8 8 9 9 0

132

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

TUJ L:

+ 0 id rei < 1QH


mi> G: + awG:

9.3 nttp

T T U P

< 1QH 8.36 non

mtf? (inf)

91

b pers and 0 id rei < 1QS 9.22 ]in Tib rntxb (inf) + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 2.36 nanTQtf 3 i u / ? (inf); 1QH 9.11 TTipn n r a w vb; cf. 1QH 6.6 naon ar\v (ptc) + 0 id pers < 1QH 5.20 OTP nri3W tib + suf pers 1QH 5.5,6,12, '3mu>; 1QH 9.35 'JTQHJ n a ' t o 'OK + ]Q < 1QH 15.12 Tpm ^130 3 W (inf?)
92

pu> G:

+ 0 d rei < 1QH


nwG: +
94

8.22

vite p w f r
1

(inf)
93

pers < 1QS 3.24 T I K '33 ' T D ? nw + 0 id r e i < 1QH 2.34 *3JJ B03 n m w + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 5.6 "n nneo nrarri; 1QH 7.23 '03 nrnn>
9 5

nto H: + 0 id pers < 1QS 5.24 *foC0 ^ erR mton ? (inf); 1QH 5.22 ion *7W 1W ] T W D D niton*? (inf) + suf pers 1QH 3.19 oto; on ? 'arpton ]V73R toraa
4 4 96

nor H: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 2.8 main 7ian 'QUO n o r m ; 1QH 9.12 *rrn nnioOT 'xfr + suf pers 1QH 7.19 nanno*? ^ m o r n ; 1QH 7.31 na'JBfr DTDOT ? (inf); 1QH 10.6 ^mOOT
l 1

n:v G: + 3 'to testify against' < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 9 n 3 n3^ + b suf pers < 1QH 4.18 on ? m m
4 9 7

to topn\ vbv should be followed by to. Based on Isa 50.4 n:n nt* ITO?. If our author understood this hapax verb in the sense of 'to help', the lamed would be analogous to that of nw. The syntagm is analogous to ]Q 1 1 0 or is the ]D partitive, 'none of your statutes'? One expects nur or onn. The form could be a noun: This syntagm or that with ft* is firmly established in BH, e.g. Ps 10.14 Tru>n nnnRDin\ On the basis of these few examples one cannot with confidence speak of a possible lexico-semantic complementary distribution, namely *? pers and r)R rei: note a fluctuation in rrypTib nni? toiar n* I T w 'Q toi (Mekhilta on Exod 15.7, ed. LA. Rabin, p. 135). Rather than a Nipal infinitive. In BH the verb is never used with lamed. See our discussion above, under 1.4.
9 1 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 w 9 5 9 6 9 7

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION N:

133

+ m d suf < 1QS 6.25 ion ? rrjran m ymv: + 0 id rei < 1QS 7.2 nro* rro mm, sim. 1QS 6.27; 7 . 3 , 4 M S , 5, 6,8Ms, 13,14Ms, 15,16,18, 19; 9.1; 4Q159 frg ii-iv 9 D'3Q '30 TOJB* G:
+ 0

id rei < 1QH 8.23 TWO 1QH 10.11 T c u r r r a and + ]Q < 1QH 4.11 O'KDSD run npca

rain

D:

+ nK d rei suf < 1QS 6.22 wr m list? (inf)


tD: + a rei < 1QS 6.170 'ann p a a n s r r *?&; 1QS 7.24 irnncn T Q ^ anrrv; and + o r < 1QS 8.23 You; D I D w r a . . . a n w r to ? + o r < 1QS 9.8 rrann '273 pn o r D3in anrrv
1

-puG:
+ 0

d rei st < 1QS 6.4

'TDK ?

yfrnan IDWP

G: + 0 id rei < 1QS 1.5 VEMO) npn2fl nQK rmwfr (inf), sim. 1QS 8.2; 1QS 5.3 1TPTORutoxh (inf); 1QS 7.5 men near; 1QS 9.23 pan rmwft (inf)

+ nK d rei est < 1QS 9.13

pin m ntoxh (inf)


1

+ 0 d rei < 1QS 1.2 morn ai&n rrttHfr(inf); 1QS 1.7 i n ' r o rrtt?!^ (inf); 1QS 1.7 'pin mew) ? (inf); 1QS 5.12 nQ -ITATBWRRFAUN 'they treated the revealed things with insolence';
99 9 8

All these are examples of a doubly transitive G-stem, as in 2 Chr 36.3: *)CD -oa nKQ prci in r * dan. The above-quoted example at 1QS 6.25 with ntt shows that these accusatives were felt to be genuine accusatives. On the striking reading rbm, see Wernberg-Moller 1957: 111 and Licht 1965:159. For the use of double accusative with this particular verb, compare Lev 22.16: na0R DniR *ofern. Incidentally, these QH examples demonstrate that, pace Konig (i897: 3271), there is no need to suppose that at 2 Chr 36.3 a 3 has been inadvertently dropped on account of a phonetically kindred 0. The zero-linkage is striking. Is it possibly a result of an occasional misuse of the object marker RM for the preposition nR 'with' (e.g. Josh 10.25 DNIKD'DrfaDnK)? Perhaps it is better to identify here a rare sense of the verb, 'to treat', as in Ezek 23.25, nana ^rrfc ten 'and they will treat you with wrath', and ib. 29, RNCFTN"|RRO ten 'and they will treat you with hatred', though in both cases the object is personal.
9 9

134

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 1QS 9.15 ibexbo mew ? (inf); lQSa 1.22... wrrnvrmsp; 1QH 10.12 rfra " T O rtnwv; 1QH 18.21 nba nrrow; TO ?; > 5Q13 frg 4.4 WSP rfrfc + 3 and 0 id rei < 1QS 5.12 D C 'D S X D 03 nTOfr (inf); 1QH 15.19 ufoniui&muinmxh (inO + jo (partitive) < 1QH 14.18 jnn 7DD rnTO TfraiVi] (inf)
4

100

N:
+ o pers < 1QS 9.24 in mown ^lo (ptc) 1RDD: + suf 1QH 13.17 TTIKBTI m o G: + 0 id rei and ]Q < 1QH 2.32 ]V3K e?D] p r i m a mp^n Tznn rrwm; + 0 d rei suf 1QH 2.35 D'TTK TO 'CBS] "IDPI; 1QH 3.19 niroo 'e?Q] nnno ins D: + 0 d rei suf and 3 rei < 1QS 4.2 bwvsxaanttbinEh 'to make his heart fear God's judgements' (inf)
102 101

+ 0 d rei suf < 1QH 1.16 onTOtfOn^O... + suf rei 1QH 1.18 nrrrcoc* biob n^sm + suf pers and ]Q < lQSb 1.7 ] *TOa rDO ?' + id rei > 1QH 5.18 nno^S 0Q] + d rei suf < 1QH 9 . 3 3 O ^ S ? (inf)
4 4

naB D: + nK d rei est < 1QS 8.13 Rrwn y n m OB rrna ? (inf)


1 1 0 0 103

As in BH: e.g. Exod 12.12 and Ezek 16.41; but in 2 Chr 24.24 we find rtt 'with' (?), with which compare a rare use of nfc at Zee 7.9, vm nn era ios marm lom, instead of the usual Dtf in this idiom. 101 j interpretations of the preposition have been proposed: agent of a passive verb, so e.g. Lohse (1986: 35), 'durch ihn', Dupont-Sommer (1987: 38), 'par Lui', and person to whom something happens, e.g. Vermes (1987:75) and Charlesworth (1994: 43), 'all that befalls him'. The former seems to us rather unlikely, whereas for the latter one might cite Dan 9.13, 'a great disaster ... as it happened to Jerusalem (DfrznTD)'. It is, however, uncertain that such a usage can be applied to a neutral situation as in our 1QS passage. This fairly frequent BH verb is never linked to the object of fear by means of bet. The only case of some relevance known to us is Jer 51.46, ntfiora TRTD 'you will be scared of the rumour'. Isa 40.3, on which the text is based and which is actually quoted in the sew o 1 0 2 1 0 3

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

135

+ 0 d rei 1QS 9.19 mnb

jrm

rrTO(inf)

+ 0 d rei dem < 1QH 11.33 n*?K nnbvB nna rrca G: + bo pers and 0 d rei suf < 1QH 5.11 orrafovrca + 0 id rei < 1QH 7.21 na T2n i p a G: + 0 id rei < 1QS 2.6 r f o ronnK T>pa\1QH 14.24 D O T ]Tj> i p i a (ptc) + n d rei suf < 1QS 5.22 vpin T D nR "npa ?; 1QS 5.23 ornraoi orrn n m p i a rrrrfr (ptc)
1 104

+ 0 d rei suf < lQSb 3.2rapjDTip*7D TipD';


lQSb 3.24 vpin * T D n p a + suf pers 1QS 6.21 r m p a ' + inf. < lQSa 1.9 t r a ' w n p a i (ptc) m a H:

+ 0 id rei < 1QH 8.6TOman ? (inf);


1QH 8.10TO nnBQ (ptc)

:na G: + m d rei suf < 1QS 6.26 irra:; TO' PR Bind? (inf)
nna H:

+ 0 id rei < 1QH 2.26


una

nan; 1QH 13.12 m p 'D'p nan ? (inf)


1

G:
+ 0 id rei 1QH 2.29 nbn Tobn fo na ran
105

N (pass): 1QH 3.26 era ' 3 D b v . . . nvvn mtcfia * T D lenan


nna

G:
+ 0 d rei < 1QS 10.2 insiR nna' + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 10.23 'a rrnaR; 1QS 11.3 m R nna; 1QS 11.15 roiTOa'pn^nmsn (ptc); 1QH 10.7; 12.33 'annnna;
106

quel, lacks the particle, and so does the quotation. On ronrro, see Jer 29.18. No exactly similar collocation is known to BH. One wonders, however, whether the verb is actually a Hif'il, for which we may quote Lev 26.16: 71*313 uybs Tnpsm 'and I will appoint terror against you'. 105 Possibly an asyndetic relative clause. 106 I Q G 1113^ ifl-B NNS DK, must be a case of incongruence in view of ib. 10.17, rns nrem; on the Nif'al of this verb, cf. Jer 1.14: runn nnsn JTDSD. Thus one should reject 'wenn er meine Bedrngnis lst' (Lohse) and 's'il fait dferler sur moi la dtresse' (Dupont-Sommer).
1 0 4 1

136 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 1QH 15.16 TOBD r r a bo n n s b (inf); 1QH 8.21 OTipD nnnra; 1QH 11.31 n a c o nnnna inyirnm'po'? + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.26 ipe? ])vb innQ; > 1QH 5.33 ^aata nnnnQ a m o *?K nn; 1QH 6.30 T E D rmsr; 1QH 12.13 n^i'DD^nnnniQ]; 1QH 18.12 mpormBm + 0 id rei and b pers < 1QH 2.18 o*rao " T O ? run -npo mris ? (inf) N (pass): 1QH 3.26 n r a 'ns *?a nnana (inf) piSH: + suf pers lQSb 4.22 napniP + 0 d rei suf > 1QH 9.9 pnsK naOEXBQ D: + inf. < 1QS 5.22 r\wvb nra im vpin ' T O + suf pers(?) 5Q13 frg 1.12 v m n ; and inf < 1QH 6.20 ...^jnrfrnms
1 4

+ bv pers and impf < 4Q159 frg ii-iv 3 + 0 (rei cl) < 1QH 15.18 n r n s nam bon + P K pers < 1QS 7.4 i n n n . . . nrcr OT* H: + inf. < 1QS 4.5; 8.2 rahOTCT(inf., < Mi 6.8) "Htt G: + aidrei<lQS1.13
n a i *7DQ i n * 'roa T u a 6 (inf)
110

109

+ ^ rei < 1QS 3.11 man *?iaQ TfK bv iwb D:


+ b > 1QS 9.25 nS2T BSCBQ ?;
1
4

(inf)

1QH 12.21 lap nanaio ? ^np D: + inf. < lQSa 1.11... T O T ^ a p n "
1

This is a most remarkable syntagm, + impf., the closest parallel to which may be found in Exod 27.20,... injp'i *anfcn na man nnK, and Josh 4.16, fan... DTDH nt ms. This mode of negation is not mentioned by Qimron (1986: 77). So in Syr. That the phrase is not integral to QH is evident from the absence of the preposition lamed, which is, however, found in front of the the infinitive that immediately follows, TOD ?. Charlesworth (1994:6): 'a is perhaps corrected to D'. On "itf* 'to transgress', see Yalon (1967:77). See also BDB, s.v. a, 11.4, and Jenni (1992:262). Two emendations have been suggested: bDpn* and *?ap\
1 0 8 1 0 9
1

1 0 7

1 1 0

1 1 1

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION


D i p D: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 1.14 o r r r w m p b K V ? (inf) enp

137

D: + suf pers lQSa 1.26 Wip + 0 d pers suf < lQSb 3.4 POint tznpH] tD: + ]Q < 1QH 11.10 H: + suf 1QH 15.17... n n e n p n . . .

ni:

mvTi

b*on -p enpnrrb

bnp

H: + m d pers 7D < lQSa 1.4 D'ton * T D n i^np'


i

mp D:

+
mp H:

> 1QH 10.21 rtip*7U>mvbob;


1QH 11.31 m p a r D H o r f r

+ inf. < 1QS 5.8 rroo m m to rnc? ? - I O K n i r o r a I S D to opn; 1QS 5.10 bwn TOK T D D tonn ? W E Atorrnaa o'p* + m d rei suf < 1QS 5.21 TP-Q nKD'prfr (inf) + b d pers suf < 1QS 11.16 n a n Q K p t o p n + 0 id rei < 1QS 8.10 xfrxv nprb n n a opn*? (inf)
4
I

112

+ 0 d rei suf < lQSb 5 . 2 1 n o b o wpnb (inf)


+ suf pers (dir obj) and b (obj comp) < lQSb 5.27 D'toiD*? vnvb roo'pn to 'God set you up as a rod for the rulers'
+ inf. < 1QH 14.17 ib man T i t o ? noB3 to miQ'pn
4

bbpD:
+ md pers est < 1QS 2.4

bv+72 bl\lTO7D PH trtopD D ^ H


l

(ptc)

]p D: + rei < 1QS 9.23 prb R3pD BT (ptc) ro ?


1 113

+ to < 1QH 14.14 ^JT *7D to m ] p + 3 rei/pers < 1QS 10.18 n m i r r r a rcpa

Not 'Raise up the son of your handmaid' (Garcia Martinez; similarly Lohse with 'richte den Sohn deiner Wahrheit auf), but 'Grant the son ... (and) the elect of mankind to stand before thee forever'. Cf. Vermes (1995:88) and Licht (1965:235). In other words the argument is not accusatival, but datival, dot. commodi. Incidentally, ronQK p , has, pace Lohse (op. cit.), nothing to do with truth, though it does correspond to nm earlier in the passage: it is parallel to -pap as in Ps 76.16; 116.16. * The semantic distinction between bet and lamed with this verb roughly cor responds to that which prevails in BH. Most take the prepositional phrase rrrn as adverbial: 'with a spirit of wickedness' (Charlesworth; 'in ...' Vermes),
13

1 1 2

138 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA
rup H:

+ 0 id rei < 1QS 11.2 pn '3po (ptc)

114

Kip G:
+ a rei < 1QS 6.7 nooa wnpb (inf); 1QS 7.1 nooa rmp (ptc) + nKdrei 7D<lQSal.4 m a n 'pin * 7 I P ] na... nnpi
t

anp G: + *?<1QS6.16 " N T O n^U*? ia*npa 'on his approaching the Council of the Community (inf); 1QS 6.19 irrn mo ? anp ? (inf)
7 1 1

D: + n d rei suf < 1QS 6.19 inn n m ianp' + suf pers 1QS 7.21 manp'; 1QS 9.15 Oipb (inf); and b < 1QS 6.22 iwb trip ? (inO; and a 1QS 8.18 nsya inanpi
1

H:
+ 0

id rei < 1QS 8.9 M I T 3 nn anp ? (inf)

mn G:
+ 0 id rei < 1QH 7.2 VI rraciD (inf) + 0 d rei (dem pron) < 1QH 18.18 m? T V t n

H:
+ 0 d rei suf < 4Q513 frg iii 4 ' 3 3 ^ n*on + suf pers (ind obj) and m < 1QH 13.11 ] 10K n onnon

nan H: + 0 id rei < 1QH 10.26 mann ? (inf) + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 10.28... irtranrrann e?[
1

]nN: + a pers < 1QH 9.22 'a ' 3 T I 3 (ptc) mi tD: + bv pers > 1QH 2.12 nnn o'^zn rfrnp m i G: + a pers < 1QS 9.23 la n m n 'one who lords it over him' (ptc)
115

'im Geist der Gottlosigkeit' (Lohse), 'with a godless spirit' (Wernberg-Moller), 'par l'esprit d'impit' (Dupont-Sommer), but cf. 'I shall have no enthusiasm for the wicked spirit' (Garda Martinez) and Licht (1965:219). A HifHl of HDP gives no satisfactory sense here. Qimron (1976: 220), however, so parses the form. None of the seven BH examples (once G) is accompanied by a complement.
1 1 4 1 1 5

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

139

*)-n D(?):
+ 0 id pers < 1QS 10.18 -Qa*]TTK 3103

un
H: + 0 d rei suf < 1QS 10.15 T onK; 1QH 7.22,23 T2ft *7)3 bv 'Dp DTTI; 1QH 15.16 m a a n r a o m m + 0 id pers < 1QH 6.8 r m w m . . . rrno Tjtfponn + 0 id rei < 1QH 6.34 p n TDnn; 1QH 11.12 [naimn*? nncn \pbw] lab D T I O rufrin nsao Dnrfr (inf) L: + suf pers 1QH 11.15 naooriK Dm D:

+ bv pers < 1QS 10.20 jm n-no biD bu orna wb *


pm

G:
+ ]Dd rei < 1QS 1.4 m bDO pimfr (inf); pers 1QS 5 . 1 5 T o p m '

+ ]Q id rei > 1QS 5.15 p m n np 131 ban (* Exod 23.7) D:


+ na suf < 1QH 14.21 v n K - p r n a " an
7

G:
+ 0 id rei (cogn obj) < lQSa 1.13 userai a n a n ? (inf), sim. lQSa 1.20
4

+ 0 d rei (cogn obj) < 1QH 9.23 ' a n a n n


tL: + nu pers < 1QS 9.16 nranTOKnv aannrfr (inf) non t D :
118

+ a pers > 1QS 7.6 n m m m i n a D R ; + a rei > 1QS 7.6 n m m nnvr ] v a D K

]n D: +
1 1 6

pers < 1QS 10.14 ib narra

119

For the lateness of this complementation in BH, which occurs only at Ps 103.13, see Hurvitz (1972:107-109). It is significant that this remarkable exception of nt* plus a suffix is due to the fact that the preceding infinitive is always suffixed, and that, the suffix being the subject of the infinitive, this was the only possible way of arranging the two pronominal elements. Dr Elwolde (Elwolde 1994: 172) refers to another example of the same kind in QH. On the meaning of the verb, see Licht 1965:162. Cf.Ps 95.1 ^naru.
1 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 9

140 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA + a rei > 1QS 10.17 nana Turrcra run G: + a > 1QH 8.8 nir [rrn] * T D vrv vbv n a n rcn G: + a d rei > 1QS 4 . 1 . . . n s T rwrbbv *7Da; > 1QS 9.25 Tvrr m s ' T Q K bion; 1QH 9.10 'jrcoa; 1QH 15.18 n m s T D K ' r o a i^n tf? + 0 rei < 1QS 8.3 JTltf n*-) ? (inf); > 1QS 9.24 mrp la mown * T D
1 121 120

G: + 0 id rei < 1QH 16.10 p n s rrn nnoen H: + 0 pers < 1QS 5.7 pin n a w *7)a jrenn ? (inf); > 1QH 7.12 j w n n O D O Q ^ n a * ? T D + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 9.9 *3H njrcnK 2020 tD: + a > 1QH 8.9 laraon* oruflDoa TO L: + a rei > 1QS 10.16 nrroR v m a a a ; 1QH 11.5 nnmK n a r r n a n ; < 1QH 9.7 n a n i s m TOM nmton D>0 G: + 0 d rei suf > 1QS 2.12 VKh CTBT 13Tir *7l0aQ;
< 1QS 10.10 ^32 OTDK;
122 1

+ 0 + 0

+ 0 + b

1QH 2.20 D"nn nrcsa ^ E A nnD0; 1QH 3.6 7VTNO PJDD3 T D ' * ) ; 1QH 7.34 p i n nno K ? D ^ Q ^ ] -noa d rei suf and obj comp < lQSb 5.26 *?na n a ' n p oemi id rei < 1QH 1.28 ip ^ o n a i 0 0 m ; > 1QH 4.15 ... IDE? Dnw 'TITOD; 1QH 6.26 vbo bv -no a wi 1QH 8.16 am n-rro *aa nno0 id rei (dir obj) > and id rei (obj compl) < 1QH 10.23 n r a ^ nna tf? n r a - E P pers (comm) + id rei < 1QS 3.18 rnrrn TO ft D0'i
1

Cf. Ps. 20.6 "[runaranira. Jenni (1992:107) regards the prep, as causal, but we would rather classify it under his rubric bet communicationis (ib. 160-70, especially 170). * A collocation found in Lev 26.41,43 uns rw See note 120
1 2 0 12 1 2 2

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION + suf 1QS 4.16 yim yp iv i a i na b* *a II 1QS 4.25 rrcnm yp b* ]iae? nai na no; lQH5.7 ...'30e?m + suf pers (dir obj) and obj comp m j < lQSb 3.25 n n btoo - p e n ; lQSb 4.27 pomp p vr; 1QH 2.9... unroh obpi nann vamr\;

141

1QH 2.13 pix nrah o: vnwm; 1QH 7.20 ion *xh an v&m\
+ suf pers (dir obj) and b (obj comp) < 1QH 2.33 nsnm na ? *3T0*im + suf pers (dir obj) and a < 1QH 7.8 DV blXXD *30wn
1

ere? G: + a rei < 1QH 10.30 n a n n a a ^b e?e?[ pejG: + ira < < + ira *?ae?H: + 0 id rei and 0 pers > 1QS 4.22 -pn w a n ^aen ? C P O D '3a roam 'to instruct the perfect of way in heavenly wisdom' (inf) + suf pers 1QH 10.7; 12.33 '3ftoe?n + suf pers and a rei
4 123

rei and id rei < 1QS 10.25 71QO 7iaa m a n -pe?K; and ]Q 1QH 2.21 nne? *opTD ' T O D n a n -pe?m; and a 1QH 5.33 r n o ^ a n a a iaien < 1QH 8.11 i n s n r a nnae?

< 1QS 9.18 vbQ'nnrhiyotf? (inf);


lQSa 1.7 n n a n pp-ina v r ^ a e r ; 1QH 7.26 n a r o a a ^rfoen; 1QH 11.4 natfraiMDa ^ a w r n ; > 1QH 11.10 orteejn natfpa m a + 0 pers and a rei < 1QS 11.1 np^aD^an bwanb (inf) + a rei < 1QS 11.18 naemp narcnQ 'roa b*yotf? (inf); 1QH 12.20 n a m *7iaa ^acanfr] (inf) + suf pers and 0 d rei st < 1QS 9.20 KXQ3n ' T D zhworf? (inf) II
1 2 4

A case of possible double direct object with this verb occurs in LBH, at Dan 9.22: n r a ^ a w f ? . Though the striking position of 1QS 4.22,Do<ZP3anaan, has most likely been influenced by the immediately preceding run (in pfajrunaDneppan ?), the parallelism indicates that the former ought to be construed with b*yD7b, though the preposition bet can do a double-duty, as in rfrTKinoanarfrnrr. In BH the theme of instruction, as in Dan 9.22, quoted in the preceding note, is never indicated by means of bet, but as direct object. Thus the use of bet in QH seems to be an innovation, though it is analogous to the bet used with verbs such as pan, on which see above and s.v. id?. On the difficulty in 1
, 1 1 2 4

1 2 3

Chr 28.19, ^yoi fa? T O anaa *?an; cf. Ehrlich 1914: VII, 352.

142

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA + 3 4Q285 frg iii col ii 4 KSIOT *?33 nb^nb 1QH 10.4 nbto rrwfraQ T ^rran (inf);

no D: + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 11.30 nDTORn rD -nr BQJ no

+m

d rei < 1QS 1.4 O K QTOKtoPK wwh (inf)


1

+ 0 d pers est < 1QS 1.10 JDYl '33 *7D KW ? (inO


+ 0 d suf > 1QS 4.1

nxib we?

TOII

"TO

(ptc?)
MGn

+ 0 id rei < 1QS 4.24 nbw K3BT; 1QH 14.25 nbw

+ suf pers 1QS 5.26 m x r G: + n* d pers st < 1QS 6.12 x r n nzv m bxwn + b < 1QS 6.18; 7.21 m m bvmin fttttP
BTRH

(ptc)

N:
+ rei < 1QS 6.4 unxrf? f ^ B T ;
1QS 6.9 nam nsy
1 2 5

W T I B D B Q ^ T ^ B T

+ bv rei <1QS 6.15 mm blDH 'and all will be asked about his affairs'; 1QS 7.21 O E X D Q H b\* b\W (Kb for bffl); 1QS 8.25 nxv b*o by bw wb Dpass.:

1QH 5.37 ranzp ivhbwpi, sim. 1QH 6.28


racoH: + 0 id rei > 1QH 1.36 n 7imrV32?n; and also < 1QS 10.24
i

On whether the form here is a G or N, see Wernberg-Moller 1957:102. The usage of the verb in N in BH, which is attested only a few times, has nothing in common with its usage in our present case. In G, however, BH uses the verb often with lamed. But the combination means 'to put a question con cerning' as in Deut 4.32, ttxannD'D^io'aw, and Gen 43.7,

1 2 5

xrrbtty\ wxn bw bun.


The preposition which most naturally comes to one's mind, bv, occurs only twice, both in LBH: nibs (Qoh 7.10) and drtrvbs... rnrnibo (Neh 1.2). This ties in with the preponderance in our corpus of this complementation. The translation by Vermes (1995: 77) of 1QS 6.4, 'shall be asked their counsel', appears to be preferable to that by Wernberg-Moller (1957:30), 'shall be asked for their counsel', or Lohse's (1986: 21), 'so sollen sie um ihren Rat befragt werden'. The distinction is rather subtle: 'to ask for' means to put in a request with a view to obtaining something, which obviously does not apply to Gen 43.7 cited above. In this view the idiomatic biblical expression nibvb b bWD would mean 'to put a question, out of concern for a person, about his or her well-being'. Finally, nR 7RB, when followed by pers, means 'to put a question to someone'.

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION aw G:

143

+ nrnw d rei < 1QS 1.17 n n m nab (inf) + ]D < 1QS 5.1 JH ban (inf); 1QS 5.14 oruno rao, cf. 1QH 6.6 naon *arun iros n o b (ptc) + *?K < 1QS 5.8 neno mm"a* aicfr (inf); 1QS 7.24 i r m ns:> ba tffr; 1QH 16.17 7 ^ D n (ptc) + bu < 1QS 7.2 irrn nsr by tij ? a w + < 1QS 5.22 innab -irra mefr (inf); 1QS6.15 notfjaittfr (inf);
1 2 6

1QH 10.12

nsufraD

H: + pers and 0 d rei suf < 1QS 8.7 0*710:1 wrnnb aran ? (inf) + b pers and 0 id rei < 1QS 10.17 sn bio: w*b ym \x\b; 1QH 9.8 nan 'jfrao ? nana** + 0 id rei < 1QH 5.18 nOQ-fr m^O 3 W I ; 1QH 6.23 BB3 3 ^ n b (inf); 1QH 8.24 T 3'B7 + 0 id rei and ixb and b < 1QS 11.1 ... 'oo vowb... rrn nan nitf? rrar a W ? (inf) + ' 0 ^ suf pers < 1QS 5.15 omo ^ . . . 3*w K t >
4 1 127

+ n d rei suf < 1QS 6.9 UHD m BPK a 'Bnb (inf)

+ n d pers < 1QS 6.25 r u n m a'0' 'answers his colleague' + 0 no > 1QS 11.22 ion ano* n o ; and pers > 1QH 1.26 nob p-ren ODEO ^ bro a*er noi. + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 18.9 HOT 3BT) *?K; and ]D > 1QS 10.19 nbw *e?3RO 3 ' 1*7 'B 'I shall not turn my anger away from men of wickedness' + bv rei <1QS 11.18 ron^y bv ywnb 'to dispute your decision' (inf); 1QH 12.30 nannain bv mart?
128 129 130

A familiar interchange between and bo rather than an Aramaism. preferable to a w \ as the photograph of 1QS 11.22 reveals. Rather than 2W as read by Charlesworth 1994. There is a clear tendency for LBH to use lamed in this idiomatic combination, as is eloquently testified by 2 Chr 10.6, ion nrn nob zrtirf? (II1 Kgs 12.6 ion ntn DP HK ^farb), but the con struction with n* is still attested at 2 Chr 10.16, -pan n* nan OTPI, and Neh 6.4, 127
1 2 8 i s

1 2 6

nnnaiDDrnRaw).

The interrogative here may mean 'how?', with 131 understood. See n. 63. Yalon (1967:85) indicated this complementation in the sense required here as typical of RH. The same idiom occurs also at 1QH 7.29; 12.30 (Licht 1965: 236).
1 2 9 1 3 0

144 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA + 0 d rei < 1QH 16.18 -pau '3B ae?n *?K me? G: + a < 1QH 15.23 - p o t a fin *7ia mer tf? nne? tL:

+ a < 1QH 9.9 'a rmvmcb


nne? H: + 0 id pers < 1QH 2.27 t r a i rpron*? (inO rre?G: + suf rei 1QS 10.2 inn?'! Tib G: + 0 d rei suf (idiom) < 1QS 6.5bis nnvnb I T fiber; and + a < lQSa 2.20or?arp[n ?e?^ II lQSa 2.18 onbn ne?na I T m era [nber (si vera lectio) + 0 id rei < 1QH 8.34 DVB rrbuh (inf)
i

D: + naa < 1QS 7.16 on^a rotin rbrb (inf) + suf pers 1QS 7.17 vsrbtP; + p < 1QS 8.22 nmn nsi?a mrfazr + 0 d rei suf > 1QH 8.7 rbtp [b]zvb DTe?Tie?
132 131

obe? D: + id rei < 1QS 2.6 O^TM ' Q ^ Q bia (ptc) + suf 1QS 7.6,7 I D ^ 'to refund i f (inf) + b pers and 0 d rei suf < 1QS 10.18 "frlM ert6 D^BT nam H: + d rei suf < 1QH 16.11 "]H [on] ubvrf? (inf)
TQB? H:

+ suf rei 1QS 4.19 ivb mToer + 0 d suf pers > 1QS 5.19 bano T Q B T n a n + 0 id rei > 1QH 14.15 TOBHlOT[T]if?)*? *7D i?oe? G:

bia

+ na d rei est < 1QS 2.13 mm n n a n nan n waie?a (inf) + suf pers 1QH 4.24 *juer + 0 d rei suf > 1QH 5.12 ... nrwoe? Tune?; < 1QH 10.34 r o a m . . . na'DejQ^Qie?a (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QH 7.3 D'Ql JttQe?Q (inf) + b rei < 1QH 12.12 nae?mp mob TOOB?

On the use of a disjunctive pronoun in a non-subject position, see Qimron 1986:76. Jer 17.8, on which this clause is evidently based, reads bv: Tvrmrhwbirbs. But later in our passage we find, at 1QH 8.10, enxo whvr b by? *.
1 3 2

1 3 1

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

145

H:
+ 0 id rei < 1QS 1.22 O'Drn n o n ba

w&ana (ptc)
(inf)

+ 0 d rei suf < 1QS 7.14 top PODnb (inf);


lQH3.17D^Tpi3TQ'i33 + b (ind obj) < 1QH 18.11 TITOD nwb N:

+ b pers < 1QS 5.23 bmh p p n nvib E P K ban vannb (inf);


1QS 6.2 b n f t ]pn i r a e n + + + + nro suf pers and ]D 1QS 2.3 i n 7D naTlDttP 0 id rei < 1QS 8.3 niBR Traft (inf), sim. 1QS 10.25 0 d pers nom > 1QS 10.21 'aa*?a T O O K Kft b&bl 0 d rei suf < lQSa 1.3 m n a roe?
l

D:
+ 0 d rei est < 1QH 5.36 b\* t w o trraa + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 14.15 " p a n *ft ' n o (ptc)

H:

+ m d rei suf < 1QH 15.14 n a n a n m mvnb


]30D: + 0 (rei cl) 1QH 4.10 n a b a nrae? non narmn + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 5.13 amb anna raz?
]WD

N: + a rei < 1QS 4.4 n o n a n a TOOT]; 1QH 4.36 n a n o n a pnnwa; 10.17 n a r m a 'rajra; 1QH 11.32 na^Qnna [Tmrc?j=pra] + bv> 1QH 5.18 bin VDSJO ba bv cmpn nt J O T * aft; > 1QH 10.16 ] H D K m o n bv
134

D: + suf pers lQSb 2.23 naJJBHTCP; 1QH 9.32 '3B0OTn + 0 d rei suf < 1QH 10.31 'COS]OTOTn[npnDR tD:
+ a < 1QH 9.8 na^ann jiona nos jD[i?]n0n;

The immediately preceding Dinrf? is, with Holm-Nielsen (1960: 51), Garcia Martinez (1995:332) and others, better taken as a locative with the preceding D"l2iD DJ? 'on their approach to', rather than as indirect object of W W (so Dupont-Sommer [1987: 243], 'a l'Abime ils font entendre ...' and Lohse [1986: 121] 'bis zur Meerestiefe lassen sie ihren Schall hren'). This complementation occurs also at 1QH 4.36; 7.18; 10.17; 11.32, possibly under the influence of a semantically affiliated verb, nen, as at 1QM 11.2, brnnraoranoa, a complementation which occurs in BH only once (Isa 50.10, where also it is parallel to -a nen).
1 3 4

1 3 3

146

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA > 1QH 9.13 ITOIffTBK mn'*P03; 1QH 11.6 noei vvwwn romo a n a G: + 0 id pers < 1QS 8.25 ePK D W Hi ? + suf pers 1QS 10.13 '3DBTBT; 1QS 11.14 '3ttSe?; 1QH 4.18 DDBiefr (inf); 1QS 5.6 '3T1DB0 + suf rei 1QH 6.9 DBBe?n -piOTD
1

"JOB G: 0 d rei suf > 1QH 2.32 ronTQI? bv "pse? ? 1CH (inf) ipe? G:
4

+ m d rei est < 1QS 6.7 rne?n n i y ? bio rwrba na i m a mpttP


npe? H: + suf pers and 0 id rei < 1QH 4.11 yOYi DTpBP bpe? G: + 0 d pers st < 1QS 9.14 p r a n '33 'Tip ? (inf) II + nK 4Q259frgicol iii 10 ipe? D: + a 'concerning' < 1QS 6.24 pnmpe?' lies about property' me? D: + suf pers 1QH 12.23; 15.24 mime?' nne?G: + 0 d rei > 1QS 6.4 rnne? ? mvm (inf) + 0 id rei < 1QH 8.13 emp *o nne?' *b
4 135 1

p n D:
+ 0 d rei suf > . . . pnb DITD (inf)
1

+ 0 d rei ("TO) > 1QH 1.14 n p j c n ? n r a n Da ie?K "TO -]Qn G: + 2 > 1QH 2.21 r o n n m OQina (inf); 1QH 4.22 HDD 'DQTO (inf); 1QH 7.20 nanoia naionK DQn H: + 0 id rei < 1QS 4.20 Tlbw m i "7D Dnrfr (inf); 1QH 2.32 anubraonie?K e?S3 (inf. and rei cl); 1QH 3.29 rf? p? "TO Dnn^ (inf); 1QH 4.32 DTK '33*? "pi Dm ? (inf); 1QH 5.28; 8.31 rroonif? (inf)
1

3I?n D :

136

Is this also a case of Jenni's to communicationis? See above, s.v. pi. The verb is attested in classical texts only in D, N, and H, but appears in G only in the early mediaeval period: Ibn Gabirol, piyyut etc. (see Even-Shoshan [1966:1466a, s.v.]). However, if 2vr\Q at 1QS 4.5 be an Aramaizing infinitive, then it can be only G. Its use in N in BH is passive. Therefore an active G
1 3 6

1 3 5

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

147

+ 0 id rei > 1QS 4.1 a m nnK; < lQST45nT3 'W?a awiD (inf. II .wan); lQS4 .24riQ am 'pi; 1QH 14.26 rbw y n bo iwb (ini) + m < 1QH 14.10 ]TOK'ro D K aitfft (inO
,

137

138

+ suf 1QH 14.21 vosn*


G: + nro* < 1QS 5.4 iaa*7 irm nwf? (inf) H:
+ suf pers 1QH 4.25 DOT")

2?an G: + id rei > 1QS 10.19 narra wb nn <'>03K a n

Andereen, FI1970 TheHimvVerbless Cause 14 Na^ville/NewYcric Abingdon Press, Baumgarten, JM 1953. Sacrifce Aixl Wcrdiipamo^ Dead SeaSarJ^HZR^Ml-S^ Bendavkt A 1967-71.fib&rfHebrew and M&tnac H&rew. 2 vd& Td Aviv: Dvir Chaifeswaflv J.M. (wifti F M Cross et d., ed} 1991. The Dead Sea Sadk Hebrew, Anmk,a^QeicTexisxj^ and Related Documents. Tiibir^enAxxBSvflle: J.CR Mchr/Wesbriinsier Jchn Kroc One* D.JA. (ed; executive ed J J . Etwdde) 1993, 1995. The Dictionary cf Oasski fi^.Vdsl-2[^V^ GcheaC 1983. B<pressirgtheltaxm IfS. 47,20818 (Hebrew). Daviesy GI1991. The Use and Non-Use oH in r-febrew Inscription^' in Studies in HdwewandAnmkSynto

would certainly have been possible even in BH. nn appears to be universally understood as casus pendens, cf for instance, \Vernberg-M0ller (1957: 26) 'the otherits assembly He loathes, and all its ways He hates for ever', a translation of ru> Km TOTT "rai rmo nan r\m. But the parallelism with the immediately preceding isb m n rpntrbs "rom mafro HI? ^rfr DHR nm seems to go against such an interpretation, nm in both cases is rather a plain, direct object of the following verb, and therefore rmo must be a co-object of
1 3 7 v 1

MB.
1 3 8

On this Aramaizing infinitive, see Licht 1965:96, and cf. Qimron 1986:65.

148 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA i;lideaEJ.Brin)vl4-a6i DupontSommer, A. 19501 l a Rgle de la ccmmunauie de la nouveOe affiance, RHR138,5-21. . 1967. In La Bible. Laras intafekmentires fed A. Duport&mmer and M FWknenkqp Paris Gaffimaaft3-52. Ehrikh, AR 190B-ia Randlosen zur hnaben BOxL 7 vds Leipzig: JC Hnridis Hwdde^F. 1991 TteUsetf inNnnHbia VT44 (199ft150. . 1993,1995. See Ones> D.J A1993,1995. EvenSho*ai\A19662r^ Freefanan,H 19. ]erentfa Gcmmentoy. Soriano Books of the Bfole. London: SondnoRess Garcia Martinez; F. 1994. The Dead Sea Scrdb Trmshted. The Qumrm Texts in Ercgfefc (Engjih translation by W.GJE. Wafaon). leiden: J. Brffl. Garr, WJR. 1991. Afledednesv Aspect and HbBcal t' ZAH 4,119-34. Gesenkt W. and F. BuhL 1915. VHhebn Gesenius' hmisches und ommiisdies HmdcwrtobuchberdG BeriinSpringer-Veri<, 1962). Habeimann, A M 1959. The Scrdb fron he Judam Desert Jerusalem: Machbaroth lisifruth (Hebrew). lineman, G. 1980. AMjrphokgycfMshia^ to Sie Tmticn cfhe Banna MmuscriptfDeRossi 138). Td-Aviv: Td-Aviv University (Hebrew). HdmNidsen, S196Q HodcydL Psdms from Qumrm. Aaihus Univeisfetsfariagpt Hutvifc^ A1972. TheTrmtion Period in Bfohci Hnetu. Jerusalem: The BiaKk Institute (Hebrew* Jermi, E 1992 Die hmischen Pripotionen. Band 1: Die Pripcsiticn Beth. Stutigart/Beriin/Kcto W. KoHhamnrer. Jauon, P. and T. Muraoka 1991 (1993). A Gnntmar cf BibM Hww. 2 vds Subsicfia Bfolka, 14HL Rome: RrttifidoIstitutoHblkD Knflbb, MA 1967. The Qumrm Cottmunity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Ftea Krrig, FE. 1897. HistorischMisches Bd ID; Zwete FSte;2TdLLapzig:J.CFfinridis Kropat, A1909. Die Syntax des Autos der Chonkverjchen nut der saner Qulen Ein Beitrag TUT historischen Syntax des Hmischen. BZAW, 16 Gieen: Alfred Topeilmann Leaney, A R C 1966 The Rule cf Qumrm and Us Meaning: Mroiukn, Trmslation and Commentary. London: SCMRess libiiJ.19( AContrib^ fror Use in their Attxhed and NonAtlached Forrrtf, US. 5, 221-30 (Hebrew* licht \ 1957. TheThinkgbingRdl.^ VJUderness cf Judaea. Text, Introduction aidCcnvnen^.ja^sskm . W5.mihdeScn.ASadfnmte VMrness cf Judaax 1QS,lQSo,IQSb. Text, htnduc&nandCarima Lohse, E 41986 Die Texte aus Qumrm. Hmisch und Deutsch .... Darmstadt

MURAOKA: VERB COMPLEMENTATION

149

VVTsBenschafflkhe Bud^esdbchaft Mdkr,lT9e&DieTexk>zxjmTo^ Nfen80or,M1961. TheThankgfagHymns. Transport Amutitedwih an bdrodudion. Laden: EJ.BriD. Mather P.H 1981. Syntax. Gminidge Textbooks in lirguistks Cambridge: Cambridge University Ftess Milik, J.T. 1955. In Qumran Cox I (D. Bartrderny and J.T. rvfiGk; Dp, I; Oxford: OarerdonPteSEi 124-28 Nfaiaoka, T. 1979a. On Verb OompfementaiiGn in BWkal Hebrew', VT29,425-35 . 1979b.ttbrewPWHcgkalNofce^, AJBI5,88-101 . 1985. Emphatic VJbrds and Structures in BtbVai Hebrew. Jerusalem/Lekiere The M^nesRess/EJ-BrilL . 1992 The Verbal Redkn in Qumran Aramaic;' in Studies in Qumran Aramaic fed T. Muracka; AbiNSup, 3199-118. . 1995 ^fcteQumrank^ Nebe, G.-W. 1972. Tter Gebrauch der sqgenarmten 'rata acrusativf in DamadciBsdirift xv, 5-9 und 12, RQ 29,257^63. Wzrn, R. 197& Ute BMci Hdbreux Toward cn Histoid Typology (f BfoVai Hdbrew Prose 12 Missoula Scholars Press Qmnon, E 1976 A ChntmarcffaHebrew LM PhD diss, H>rew University, Jen^ . 1978. Thel^uagprftreTenpleScidr, Us. 42,83% . \979.}r\TheDeadSmSaxJlk.Rep^ he Shrine cfihe Bock, Jerusdbn (Tokyo Kbdansha} . 1986L TheHdmvcffoDeadSeaScrdBs. H9& 29. Atlanta: Schdars Press QmroaEandJSlri^ Oxfcrcfc Oxford University Ress Smith, MS 1991. The Origins and Devdcpmentcffo WwConsecutox. Northwest Semitic EvidencefromUgmttoQummn. Harvard Semitic Studies 39. Atlanta: Scholars ftess Stoning, J.F. 1949. The Tcrgum cf hauh Edited wiSt a Tnrisktion. Oxford: Oxford University Press Verrre* G. 1995. The Dead SeaScrottsin Engish. Fdjrthed London: Bsnguin Bocks Wembeig-Maifer, P. 1957. The Mcnud cf Discipline. Trandcted and Artnoktei wih an Intratudicn. Leiden: EJ. BrilL vanderWoude, AS 1994. In De Rotten van de Dcde Zee. Jngdad en in her Nederiands ir^Dedl(EGaraa Kck/Lannoofc Yalca H 1967. Review of M Burrow SepherT8Q952), 6t74 (reprinted in Studies info Dead Sea Sadk PhOdogiai Essays [194&1952]; Jerusalem: Kryat Sepher) (Hebrew*

DIE HEBRISCHE SPRACHE DER NAH AL HEVER DOKUMENTE 5/6Hev 44-46 G.Wilhelm Nebe (Heidelberg) I ; Einleitung 1960 sind in den nrdlichen Felsen des Nahal Hever in der soge nannten 'Briefhhle' sechs Papyri aus der Zeit Bar Kosibas, der Zeit des zweiten jdischen Aufstandes 132-135 nach Christus, gefunden worden. Es handelt sich bei diesen sechs Papyri vornehmlich um Pachtvertrge. Zwei sind in aramischer Sprache abgefat: 5/6Hev 42 (Photo: SHR 5184) und 5/6Hev 43 (Photo: SHR 5183.5183A), in K. Beyers Sammlung der Texte V 36 (ohne Edition des Textes) und V 37 (eine Pachtquittung). Sie datieren vom 1. und 15. Iyyar 132 nach Christus, also aus dem zweiten Monat der ra Bar Kosibas, und sie stammen vermutlich aus dem Raum Engedi. Von den sechs Papyri sind drei in hebrischer Sprache abgefat. Beim sechsten Dokument, ber das bisher sogut wie nichts bekannt ist, handelt es sich um eine Verkaufsurkunde in aramischer Sprache: 5/6Hev 47 (Photo: SHR 5239ab). Im folgenden geht es um die drei hebrisch geschriebenen Pacht vertrge dieses Fundes: 5/6Hev 44 (Photo: SHR 5181.5181 A) = K. Beyer h(ebrisch) V 38; 5/6Hev 45 (Photo: SHR 5182.5182A) = K. Beyer hV 39; 5/6Hev 46 (Photo: SHR 5177.5177A) = K. Beyer hV 40. Bisher ist ber diese drei Papyri nur berichtet und weniges aus ihnen zitiert worden, ihre vollstndige Verffentlichung steht noch aus. Alle drei Dokumente sind von einunddemselben Schreiber in
1 2 3 4

Die Edition der Handschriften-Photos bei E. Tov (Ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993). SHR = Shrine of the Book Photographs, Jerusalem. Die aramischen Texte vom Toten Meer, Ergnzungsband (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1994). Im folgenden abgekrzt als ATTME. Bei K. Beyer als V 83 gezhlt, genauer wre V 41. Ein Dokument hV 41 (K. Beyer, ATTME, 185) existiert nmlich nicht, soweit ich sehe. Ich werde sie zusammen mit weiteren aramischen und hebrischen Doku menten aus der judischen Wste in Krze vorlegen. Dort auch eine ausfhr liche Darlegung und Besprechung der Sprache. Ein Wort zu meiner im fol genden gebotenen Transkription hebrischer und aramischer Wrter. Sie ist
2 3 4

NEBE: 5 / 6 H e v 4 4 ^ 6

151

Engedi geschrieben in schner Buchschrift, die nur bei wenigen Wrtern speziell am Ende der Vertrge in Kanzleischrift bergeht. 5/6Hev 44 datiert vom 28. Marcheschwan (Oktober/November 134), und 5/6Hev 45 und 46 sind einige Tage spter am 2. Kislew (November/Dezember 134) geschrieben. Diese drei Papyri gehren zusam men mit 4QMMT (4Q394-399) und der Kupferrolle (3Q15), den he brischen Bar Kosiba Briefen und dem 1 owe you' Dokument vom Dezember 133 nach Christus aus der judischen Wste zum Textkor pus in protomischnischem Hebrisch.
5

II: Analyse 5/6Hev 44-46 sind uerst wichtige Zeugen fr das Hebrisch der er sten Hlfte des 2. Jahrhunderts nach Christus. Die Orthographie die ser Papyri hlt sich im Rahmen der Schreibungen der aramischen und hebrischen Handschriften vom Toten Meer vom 2. Jahrhundert vor bis 2. Jahrhundert nach Christus. Schreibung und Nichtschreibung von altem, unbetontem, langen - zeigen, da dies - offenbar nicht in allen Fllen gesprochen wurde. Das verwendete Vokabular geht deutlich ber das biblische He brisch hinaus. Es gibt ca. 140 verschiedene Wrter. Von 64 Nomina sind 41 auch biblisch-hebrisch (einschlielich spt-biblisch-hebrisch ]DT zemn 'Zeif, n r o Mab 'Schriftstck', *po sp 'Ende'), 23 sind nicht biblisch hebrisch (einschlielich der Lehnwrter ] n r * 7 denrin [< lat.]; nomos [griech.]; nT zz; ]l2 ?m Marcheschwan; rnsmc? S/tapt 'Genos senschaff [< akkad.]). Von 26 Verben sind 21 auch biblisch-hebrisch (einschlielich spt-biblisch-hebrisch 02D 'sammeln'; 'heben') und 5 nicht biblisch-hebrisch. Es gibt biblische Wrter mit neuer Bedeutung wie >esr 'Ver pflichtung, Einschrnkung' (Num 30 MT issr 'Enthaltungsgelbde'); ]QT zemn 'Saison'; pnnn hahztq 'in Besitz halten, besitzen'; nptn hezq 'Besitzergreifung' (Dan 11.2 und fters 'Mchtigwerden'); "lon haser 'weniger'; n a / ' 'ausschneiden (?)' oder 'sichern'; m n hd 'rechtlich anerkennen'; ]Q "liT yeter men 'darberhinaus, auerdem'; HDD nQli^
y

nicht identisch mit der Lautung bei den Masoreten, sie ist sprachwissen schaftlich erhoben und folgt den semitistischen Arbeiten von K. Beyer, Die aramischen Texte vom Toten Meer (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1984), 1-153, und ATTME, 1-56. Am aufflligsten ist der postulierte Erhalt der kurzen Vokale in offener Silbe. Das T owe you'-Dokument ist verffentlicht von M. Broschi und E. Qimron, EI 20 (1989), 256-61 (hebrisch) und JJS 45 (1994), 286ff. (englisch). Siehe auch K. Beyer, ATTME, 195f. (als hV 82).
5

152 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA \a- ommat kak 'dementsprechend'; 10p qeSer 'Quittung'; H Q Sipp 'frei-, reinhalten'. Das Vokabular steht dem mischnischen Hebrisch nahe bei: nun 'Baum' (coli.); bpi daqal 'Dattelpalme'; np]*an hab'/y 'Einbring en'; DT zz; nptn hezq 'Besitzergreifung'; "Dn hakar 'pachten'; T o n hakr 'Pacht, -zins'; vbo sala 'Sela'; p7nQtf apar laban 'baumloses Land'; nVTB pert 'Frchte'; o n a parns 'Verwalter'; bnp qabal 'Klage erheben'; D"p qayym 'verbindlich'; ' i m ra^y 'blich'; 'en raSSy 'be rechtigt'; men raSt 'Vollmacht, -sgebiet'; m n taba 'fordern'; te#f r 'Streit' (Ps 39:11 tigr). Der grte Teil der 'neuen' Wrter und der mit 'neuen' Wortbe deutungen stammen aus dem Aramischen oder sind durch das Ara mische beeinflut. Wrter mit der typischen hebrisch (sprich kanaanisch)-aramischen Lautopposition (< *d, % *z, *t) sind selten, nur der Hurname m i n n Hahhorot (< aramisch m n , hebrisch c n n 'graben'ein an derer Flurname in diesen Dokumenten ist msnn Hahhapur 'das Gegrabene'und das neue Wort nip 'Quittung', dem im aramis chen Dokument 5/6Hev 43 = V 37 (K. Beyer) nnp entspricht. Auffllig ist die genaue Entsprechung hebrischer Termini mit dem Aramischen, insbesondere in der Gesetzesterminologie: p*?n 1SI?n ha apar hallaban 'baumloses Land' II aramisch-nabatisch W m n w n K ar hewwrt; n t O ra'y 'blich' II aramisch nm haze; MDBlbv al napS 'fr sich selbst' II aramisch ncQ] bv al napSeh; l l O K ^ al 'esr Sa 'mit der Verpflichtung, da' II aramischnabatisch HmOK^I? al esreh di; OTn ]Q men rasnam 'aus ihrem freien Willen' II aramisch ]inmm ]Q men ra tohn; ~\b 'DK KTl mde 'anllak S die Homologie 'ich anerkenne dir, da' II aramisch H -p RTID mde >an lak dl Aramisch sind die Wendungen: ma[K] memareh 'sein Sagen' und bv al napSeh 'fr sich selbst', beide innerhalb des Abschnitts der Vertragsunterschriften. Auffllig ist aber auch der Reichtum der nicht vom Aramischen beeinfluten hebrischen Sprache dieser Dokumente, insbesondere bei den deiktischen Pronomina. Im Singular: HT ze, IT z 'dieser' (wenn dort nicht IT z 'diese'); T*?n hallaz 'jener'; i T ^ n hallaz 'jene.' Im Plural: nbto >elle 'diese', ihbn hallal 'diese' und erstmalig belegtes vbn hallaz 'jene'. Als Relativpronomen ist nur Sa, nicht ltt in Gebrauch, ein igemal nur deiktisch, normalerweise mit determiniertem, aber auch mit indeterminiertem, Bezugswort, b Sal ist nicht immer deutlich vom folgenden Wort getrennt geschrieben, der Artikel n nach bv ist nicht an das b von^ assimiliert. Verglichen mit andern hebrischen Texten der Zeit ist der Artikel n ha sehr hufig gebraucht, auch vor Flurnamen. Der Artikel verc c c c cc y c c c c c y c c

NEBE: 5/6Hev 44-46

153

schwindet nach der Akkusativpartikel n wie gewhnlich nach den Prpositionen 3, D, b. Wie im Aramischen der Zeit ist die Prposition el nicht in Gebrauch. 'Zwischen' ist *3*3 bene- und rrti'n ben{- wie im Alt-He brischen. ]Q 'von' assimiliert sein n nur gelegentlich an den folgen den Konsonanten, einmal vor dem Artikel -HD mehha-, sonst ist ]Q im mer wie im Aramischen erhalten (13 mal). 1300 memmenn 'von ihm' steht neben hemmenn, das auch im mischnischen Hebrisch belegt ist. Einmal ist das b von iTOB3 bv <al napSeh an das folgende n zu an-napSeh assimiliert, bv mit b und Infinitiv constructus 'es obliegt zu tun' ist vielleicht aramisch, selten biblisch-hebrisch, auch im Misch nischen gebruchlich. Nicht HR >at, ot, sondern n ist die Akkusativpartikel, proklitisch vor dem Bezugswort, der Anlautvokal von nfc ist wohl mit dem vor ausgehenden Wort verschmolzen. Der Artikel n ha ist an das voraus gehende t assimiliert (ebenso ibbn 'diese' mit n zu ibbn), das heit wahrscheinlich -(>a)t- und -CaHha- > ta-. Syntaktisch auffllig ist, da n in einer Kette von Nominativen beim letzten Glied steht wie b selten spt-biblisch-hebrisch und biblisch-aramisch. Aramisch ist die Konjunktion K^K (< en + l) (Murabba t auch nb\b) 'wenn nicht' anstelle von hebrisch DK An aufflligen Formen der Nominalbildung sind zu nennen das Hifil-Verbalabstrakt n n * o n habe'/y, wenn nicht die aramische Form haW\y vorliegt, und der Plural von per-, m T B pert 'Frchte', auch im Mischnischen und im Aramischen der Zeit (5/6Hev 43: ]n penn) bekannt. Einmal ist die aramische Kardinalzahl "in had anstelle von inK 'ahad 'eins' gebraucht wie ganz selten biblisch-hebrisch. Wie im spt-biblischen Hebrisch steht die Kardinalzahl meist nach dem Gezhlten vielleicht unter aramischem Einflu. Die Maskulin-Plural-Endung ist immer 0'- Am auer 3 mal j ' i n , 2 mal ]TIT und einmal p n i K . Der Genitiv ist durch den Status constructus oder durch b Sal beim Nomen rectum ausgedrckt (zum Beispiel: ITtf^R bw pb heleq Sal El azar 'der Teil des Eleazar') oder mit vorausgeschicktem Suffix am Nomen regens wie im Aramischen und Mischnischen (zum
y 6 c 3 7 y c y c

M. Bar-Asher, Wonenu 55 (1991), 75, will in 4Q386,1, II, 4 pm ohne Suffix in der Bedeutung von ]Q lesen. Als Lesung liegt dort aber pnr (getrennt geschrieben) 'dieser von' nher. ' Siehe A. Kropat, Die Syntax des Autors der Chronik verglichen mit der seiner Quellen (Gieen: Alfred Tpelmann, 1909), 6, und R. Polzin, Late Biblical He brew: Toward an Historical Typology of Biblical Hebrew Prose (Missoula: Scholars Press, 1976), 67f.

154

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


c

Beispiel: JWOD b T03TD pams Sal Sem n 'der Verwalter des Simeon'). Aramisch ist auch das oben schon erwhnte TlOR bv, wo das Suffix dem folgenden Satz mit 'da' vorausgeschickt ist. Vielleicht unter Einflu des aramischen Afel ist neben dem Hifil auch ein Ifil gebraucht wie selten im Mischnischen. Die palographischen Daten zeigen eindeutig, da hebrisch mn 'sein' und nicht aramisch mn verwendet ist. Auffllig ist ein vermeintlich althebrisches Langimperfekt mit -n: ]vrr Sa-yehyn 'da sie sein werden'. Wahrscheinlich ist das finale -n durch aramisch yehzvn beeinflut. Ca. 20 Perfekte und Imperfekte sind gebraucht. Ein KonsekutivTempus ist nicht dabei. Zwei Perfekte sind verbunden bei ip^m i m ras zvahalaq 'auf eigenen Wunsch hin haben sie aufgeteilf, mehrere Imperfekte bei OT3DRi...rww...iTiTWD Sa ezro ... wa'gejwa agge ... wa'eknos 'da ich se ... und ausschneide/sichere ... und sammle'. Auf der andern Seite drckt der Schreiber das Futur periphrastisch durch ein Partizip und ein Imperfekt von nvr aus wie im spt-biblischen und mischnischen Hebrisch und im Aramischen (zum Beispiel: jmr n^nno Satehyezre waknes 'da du sst und sammelst'. Soweit die bedeutendsten Erscheinungen des Hebrischen von 5/6Hev 44-46.
y c y c

III: Zusammenfassung Wie ist das Hebrisch dieser Dokumente 5/6Hev 44-46 zu beurteilen? Vokabular, Wortform und Wortsyntax zeigen eine besondere Nhe zum spt-biblischen und insonderheit zum mischnischen Hebrisch. Die Vielzahl der Aramaismen knnte zu dem Schlu fhren, dies Hebrisch sei ein bloes Kunstobjekt der bersetzung. Dagegen sprechen aber der Reichtum und die Variationsbreite der Sprache ohne direkten aramischen Einflu, wie insbesondere bei den deiktischen Pronomina deutlich. Das neue Wort IVp, verwandt mit aramisch inp 'Quittung', wie ich meine, kann keine etymologisch korrekte (*t > hebrisch , aramisch n), knstliche Wortbildung sein. Sieht man einmal von der Kupferrolle (3Q15) und der hebrischen Bar Kosiba Korrespondenz ab, so reprsentieren 4QMiqst Ma ae hatTr (4Q394-399) aus der Mitte des 2. Jahrhunderts vor Christus und die Mischna (2. Jahrhundert nach Christus) eine hebrische Sprache der Halacha. Sie geben sich als eine Umgangssprache theologischer Schulen und theologischen Rechts. Die drei Dokumente
c 8

Ich nenne das Hebrisch von 4QMMT protomischnisch, obwohl es dem biblischen (insbesondere dem spten) Hebrisch noch nahesteht: Konseku-

NEBE: 5/6Hev 44-46

155

5/6Hev 44-46 von 134 nach Christus reprsentieren eine hebrische Sprache der Verwaltung und des 'brgerlichen' Rechts neben den Rechtssprachen der Zeit, aramisch und griechisch. Bis jetzt knnen wir nichts Sicheres ber die Ursprnge und die Verbreitung dieses Hebrisch der 'brgerlichen' und theologischen Rechtssprache sagen. Der Ersatz des Gleitlautes durch Hamza (R) bei np]R3rr habe'/habey 'Ertrag' ist eine Erscheinung des judischen Aramisch der Zeit und weist in die Gegend, wo diese Dokumente erstellt sind. Das heit aber nicht, da diesem Hebrisch kein alter he brischer Dialekt von auerhalb Judas zugrundeliegen kann. HT, IT und weisen mglicherweise auf nordhebrische Ursprnge, n an stelle von nK in den ammonitischen Raum und auf das Punische. Ich scheue mich angesichts fehlender Zeugnisse fr dieses Hebrisch im 5. bis 3. Jahrhundert vor Christus, das protomischnische wie das mischnische Hebrisch als die Umgangssprache der Zeit des zweiten Tempels zu erklren. Insbesondere deutsche Hebraisten pflegen das protomischnische und mischnische Hebrisch Zweige des Neuhebrischen zu nennen. Diese Bezeichnung ist angesichts des heutigen modernen Hebrisch nicht gerade glcklich. Deshalb schlage ich 'Mittelhebrisch 2' vor in Opposition zu 'Mittelhebrisch V fr das spt-biblische und das Qumran-Hebrische. Obwohl wir ber die Ursprnge, die Verbreitung und die genaue Einordnung des Hebrischen der Nahal Hever Dokumente noch nichts Sicheres und Endgltiges sagen knnen, so haben die Doku mente 5/6Hev 44-46 unser Wissen ber das Hebrisch des 2. Jahr hunderts nach Christus doch ganz entschieden erweitert.
9 10 11 12

tivtemporal, bedingt durch biblische Zitate; Objektsuffixe am Verbum; Demonstrativa H T und if?**; die Akkusativpartikel ist nR; Gebrauch der Prpo sition die Prposition ]0 fast ausschlielich mit assimiliertem n. Siehe E. Qimron, DJD, X (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 65-108. Siehe E.A. Knauf, 'War "Biblisch-Hebrisch" eine Sprache?', ZAH 3 (1990), 23 (Sa nordhebrisch-israelitisch, nicht ammonitisch). Siehe vor allem die Ar beiten von G.A. Rendsburg wie The Galilean background of Mishnaic He brew', in L.I. Levine (Ed.), The Galilee in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, Mass./London: Harvard University Press, 1992), 225-40. Vergleiche die Amman Zitadellen Inschrift, Zeile 5, und J. Friedrich und W. Rllig, Phnizisch-punische Grammatik (Rom: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1970), 121. So vor allem E. Qimron im Anschlu an E.Y. Kutscher, insbesondere E. Qimron, 'Observations on the History of Early Hebrew', in D. Dimant und U. Rappaport (Eds), The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992), 349-61. Auch ich in meiner Arbeit, Text und Sprache der hebrischen Weisheitsschrift aus der Kairoer Geniza (Bern/Frankfurt: Lang, 1993), 29ff.
9 1 0 1 1 1 2

156

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

TV: 5/6Hev 44 (Transkription und bersetzung) A: Text

13

Zur Transkription: " ber einem mehrdeutigen Buchstabenrest; ber V \ wenn beides zu lesen mglich ist; r 1 Emendation; [ ] Textlcke; < > versehentliche Auslassung; {} versehentliche Hinzufgung; ( ) Verdeutlichung der bersetzung. Eine detaillierte Begrndung meiner Lesungen und bersetzungen erfolgt in meiner in Anmerkung 4 angezeigten Arbeit. Ich danke allen Teilnehmern am Leidener Symposium fr ihre Fragen und Vorschlge. E. Qimrons Einwand gegen meine Konjektur von DTpm in Dnpin in Zeile 13,16 (auch in Zeile 20 hat der Schreiber ? und 1 verschrieben!) habe ich dankend angenommen.

1 3

NEBE: 5 / 6 H e v 44-46

157

B: bersetzung
(1) Am 28. Marcheschwan (Okt./Nov.) im Jahre drei des Simeon, des Sohnes des Kosiba, (2) des Frsten Israels, in Engedi. Heute haben wunschgem freiwillig untereinander aufgeteilt (3) Eleazar, der Sohn des Eleazar, der Sohn des Hotta, und Eliezer, der Sohn des Samuel, (4) beide aus Engedi, und Tahenna, der Sohn des Simeon, und Elma, der Sohn des Juda, (5) beide aus Halluhit in Mahoz Eglten, wohnhaft in En- (6) gedi, die Grundstcke, die sie von Jonatan, dem Sohn des Mahanaym, dem Verwalter (7) des Simeon, des Sohnes des Kosiba, des Frsten Israels, in Engedi gepachtet haben: Das Grundstck, (8) das genannt wird Hahhorot und Hammasukim, und ihre ganze (Nutzungs)vollmacht, und das Grundstck, (9) das genannt wird Hahhapur, und seine ganze (Nutzungs)vollmacht, <und das Grundstck, das genannt wird> Hassulam, und seine ganze (Nutzungs)vollmacht. (10) Und dies sind die Grundstcke, die zugefallen sind dem Teil des Eleazar, dem Sohn des Eleazar, (11) und dem des Eliezer, dem Sohn des Samuel: Das Grundstck, das genannt wird Hahhapur, und das Grundstck, (12) das genannt wird Hassulam, samt der weien (= baumlosen) Erdscholle auf ihnen und allen Bumen (13) auf ihnen gem dem fr sie blichen und gem ihrer Besitzhaltung. Und dies ist das Grundstck, das zugefallen ist (14) dem Tahenna, dem Sohn des Simeon, und dem Elma, dem Sohn des Juda: Das Grundstck, das genannt wird (15) Hahhorot und Hammasukim, samt der weien (= baumlosen) Erdscholle auf ihnen und allen (16) Bumen <auf ihnen> gem dem fr sie blichen und gem ihrer Besitzhaltung, mit der Verpflichtung darber, da (17) jene vier Mnner die Pacht(summe) fr jene Grundstcke bezahlen, (18) die sie von Jonatan, dem Sohn des Mahanaym, gepachtet haben: Eleazar, der Sohn des Eleazar, (19) <der Sohn> des Hotta, und Eliezer, der Sohn des Samuel, zahlen beide die Hlfte (20) jenes Silbers weniger sechzehn Denare, das sind (21) vier Sela, nur, und Tahenna, der Sohn des Simeon, und Elma, der Sohn (22) des Juda, zahlen beide die (andere) Hlfte jenes Silbers (23) und auerdem noch sechzehn Denare, das sind (24) vier Sela. Und diese Mnner sind nicht (verfgungs)berechtigt, zu folgen (25) diesem [Schrift]stck gegen die Berechnung jener Einteilung die ganze Zeit, solange (26) [Jonatan] ihnen verpachtet hat. Und es ist verbindlich zu ihren Lasten und zwischen ihnen alles, was oben geschrieben ist. (27) Eleazar, der Sohn des Eleazar, zu Lasten von ihm selbst (verpflichtet sich). (28) Eliezer, der Sohn des Samuel, zu Lasten von ihm selbst (verpflichtet sich). Geschrieben hat Masabbala, der Sohn des Simeon, sein (Namen)sagen. (29) Tahenna, der Sohn des Simeon, zu Lasten von ihm selbst (verpflichtet sich). Geschrieben hat Sapun, der Sohn des Simeon, sein (Namen)sagen. (30) Elma, der Sohn des Juda, zu Lasten von ihm selbst (verpflichtet sich). Geschrieben hat Josef, der Sohn des Simeon, sein (Namen)sagen. (31) Juda, der Sohn des Josef, Zeuge. (32) Eleazar, der Sohn des Juda, Zeuge. (33) Simeon, der Sohn des Josef, Zeuge. Palalya, der Sohn des Buta, [Zeuge].

PERIPHRASTIC TENSES IN BEN SIRA W. Th. van Peursen (Leiden)

I ; Introduction In any discussion of the language of Ben Sira (Sir), one of the main problems is the relationship of the Hebrew of Ben Sira to Biblical He brew (BH), Mishnaic Hebrew (MH) and Aramaic. One of the areas in which important changes occurred between BH and MH and in which similarities to Aramaic are evident, is that of the construction of a finite form of the verb m n combined with a participle. No agree ment, however, has been reached about whether the changes which can be noticed in Hebrew, should be ascribed to Aramaic influence. Before considering the occurrences of the periphrastic construc tion in Sir, we will have a brief look at the use of this construction in BH, MH and Aramaic. Special attention will be paid to the pe riphrastic imperative, which occurs at least once in Sir.
2 3

The author wishes to express his gratitude to Professor T. Muraoka for com menting on earlier versions of this article. The investigations were supported by the Foundation for Research in the Field of Philosophy and Theology (SFR, which is subsidized by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Re search (NWO). Other abbreviations: A, B, C, D, E, F, M, Q = MSS of Sir; Btxt = main text of M S B; Bmg = marginal readings of M S B; G = the Greek translation of Sir; S = the Syriac translation of Sir; BBS = "I^TK nirpn rrsrmpflp ,~npon ,R"PO p 1Q0 U*ban [The Book of Ben Sira. Text, Concordance and an Analysis of the Vocabulary] (ed. Z. Ben Hayyim; Jerusalem: Academy of the Hebrew Language and Shrine of the Book, 1973 [this lacks MS F, which was incorporated in the Academy of the Hebrew Language's 1988 microfiche edition of, and concor dance to, Ben Sira and the Qumran and tannaitic literature]); LBH = Late Bib lical Hebrew; PC = prefix-conjugation; SC = suffix-conjugation. 5.11 (A) -inoorvn, but see also 5.10 (A, C) -[Toorrn, 5.11 (C) pzan'n, 13.9 (A) pirn rrn, 13.13 (A) T H T rrm, 31(34).22 (B) sua rrn, 32(35).22 (E, F) T H ? rrn and the prohibitive, the negative counterpart of the imperative, in 5.9 (C) mir vrn (cf. M S A mm ... mir rnnn *at).
2 3

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES II: Periphrastic tenses in Hebrew and Aramaic 1: Biblical Hebrew
41

159

In BH, the periphrastic construction serves primarily to denote dura tivity, particularly in the past, but also in the future. The perfect and imperfect forms of mn express the temporal sphere, whereas the par ticiple conveys durative aspect. The verb mn, therefore, is not only a copula, but also a time indicator, e.g., Job 1.14 rnennvn*)pnn 'the cows were ploughing'. In LBH, the number of periphrastic forms increases. Some schol ars relate this increase in the periphrastic construction to a broadening of its use. As in Aramaic, it is employed in a loose, free manner. It is no longer restricted to durative or iterative actions, but can also de note instantaneous or unique acts. Other scholars give a rather dif ferent picture: the increase in the periphrastic construction is not to be explained by a weakening of its original function, but by a reduction in other ways of expressing the same thing. To express durativity or iterativity, the older means were no longer felt sufficient. As a conse quence, the regular use of the periphrastic construction became a ne cessity.
5 6 7 4

R. Bartelmus, HYH. Bedeutung und Funktion eines hebrischen Allerwelts wortes (ATAT, 17; St. Ottilien: EOS, 1982), 205-208; G. Bergstrsser, Hebri sche Grammatik I (Leipzig: Vogel, 1918), 72-74; S.R. Driver, A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other Syntactical Questions (Third ed.; Ox ford: Clarendon Press, 1892), 169-70; J.C.L. Gibson, Davidson's Introductory Hebrew Grammar: Syntax (Fourth ed.; Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1994), 138; A. Gordon, The Development of the Participle in Biblical, Mishnaic, and Mod ern Hebrew , Afroasiatic Linguistics 8 (1982), 121-79 (141-45); J.C. Greenfield, The "Periphrastic Imperative" in Aramaic and Hebrew', IEJ 19 (1969), 199210 (209); P. Joon and T. Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (Rev. ed.; 2 vols.; Subsidia Biblica, 14.1-2; Rome: Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 1993), 121 e-f; 154m; E. Knig, Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebude der hebrischen Sprache (III: Historisch-komparative Syntax der hebrischen Sprache; Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1897); E. Sellin, Die verbal-nominale Doppelnatur der hebrischen Participien und Infini tive und ihre darauf beruhende verschiedene Construktion (Leipzig: Ackermann & Glaser, 1889), 35-36; B.K. Waltke and M. O'Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990), 37.7.1. Related to the use of rrn to express clearly the temporal sphere is the notion 'at just that time...'; related to the durative aspect of the construction is its in choative use. See Waltke-O'Connor, Biblical Hebrew Syntax, 37.7.1b; Bergstrsser, Hebrische Grammatik, 73; cf. Joon-Muraoka, Grammar, 121g. Bergstrsser, Hebrische Grammatik, 73; P. Joon, Grammaire de Vh&oreu bblique (Second ed.; Rome: Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 1923), 121g; Knig, Syn tax, 132. Driver, Treatise, 170 ('the older forms are felt to be insufficient' to express durativity); M. H. Segal, 'Mishnaic Hebrew and its Relation to Biblical He7 5 6 7

160

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Most scholars deny the presence of the periphrastic imperative in BH. In the doubtful examples of Exod 34.2 ]TM rrm and 19.15 vn, ]TM is probably a pure adjective ('ready') and in Ps 30.11 nn> m n , is a substantive ('helper').
8

2: Qumran Hebrew

In Qumran Hebrew the periphrastic construction is well-attested. A few scrolls show a more frequent use of it, in particular the Temple Scroll, which has 29 occurrences of rrn + participle as against about 20 in the other non-biblical scrolls.
10

3: Mishnaic Hebrew

The verbal system employed in Mishnaic Hebrew differs radically from that of BH. In M.H. Segal's grammar, one still finds the view that the MH verbal system is primarily a tripartite tense-system, in which qatal, qotel, and yiqtol denote past, present, and future respec tively. E.Y. Kutscher and his school have put forward a rather dif12

brew and to Aramaic', JQR 20 (1908), 647-737 (698-99) (participle with rrn in MH, but also already in the Memoirs of Nehemiah, taking the place of the frequentative and iterative use of the old perfect consecutive and of the sim ple tenses); similarly Gordon, Development of the Participle', 22. Cf. JouonMuraoka, Grammar, 121g: 'On occasion the periphrastic construction appears superfluous, particularly in the later books, but a close look suggests that the real force of the construction is akin to that of the inchoative imperfect of Greek or the graphic historic present' (see also note 5). Joiion-Muraoka, Grammar, 121eN; cf. Greenfield, 'Periphrastic Imperative', 209. E. Qimron, n i m nmo m^ao bw nnni?n pto^n pnpn (PhD diss., Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1976), 288; The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (HSS, 29; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986), 70. Y. Yadin, ttnponrfran (3 vols.; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Insti tute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Shrine of the Book, 1977), 1.30; Qimron, vipanrfrin'TQnmh, L . 42 (1978), 83-98 (96); for 4QMMT, see Qimron and J. Strugnell, Miqsat Ma'ase ha-Torah (DJD, 10; Ox ford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 79. A. Bendavid, D'DDn yuhi m p o ]Wb (Second ed.; 2 vols.; Tel Aviv: Devir, 1967-1971) 11.540-42; Gordon, 'Development of the Participle', 32-33; M.Z. Kaddari, nraon rxota nvr bus bs, in Post-Biblical Hebrew Syntax and Semantics: Studies in Diachronic Hebrew, 1 (Ramat-Gan: Bar-Han University Press, 1991), 290-304 (296,300-304 = Annual of the Bar-Ilan University 16-17 [1979], 112-25); M. Mishor, DWmp^aMMnrDTflD (PhD diss., Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1983), 351-400; see also the following notes. M.H. Segal, A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927), 324-27.
8 9 1 0 e 1 1 1 2

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES


13

161

ferent and more elaborate view: the perfect is employed only to de note past action; the participle indicates present or future action; the imperfect no longer denotes the future, but has turned into a modal form. The imperfect is mainly restricted to subordinate clauses; in main clauses it is chiefly used to indicate desire or command. Moreover, the imperfect has lost its function of conveying durative or iterative aspect in the past. To indicate repeated, usual, and concur rent action, periphrastic tenses with the auxiliary verb m n are used. They are frequently employed to denote an action that occurs as the background to another, shorter-lasting, action. The periphrastic con struction is mainly used for the past, but also for the future and the imperative. Sometimes, in order to emphasize the futurity of an act, b TnJJ is employed. Kutscher's view is nowadays accepted by many scholars, though it has been modified on certain points such as the non-modal use of the imperfect, the use of the perfect to describe a present state, and the performative function of the perfect. The function of m n in the periphrastic construction has changed, from a copula which is also a time indicator to an auxiliary. In BH, where m n served as copula and time reference clue, it is mainly found in order clearly to express past and future. In MH, where the function of m n + participle is primarily to indicate aspect, it is found in all tenses, including the imperative. The periphrastic imperative is wellknown in commands of general import: l^e doing' (constantly), com pare m. Abot 3.2 rTD^Q ^ HQ^en ^DDQ 'Tin 'pray for the peace of the ruling power' (regularly and habitually) with m. Ta anit 3.8 TWVll D'DBH T T T 0 ^ s n n bwnn 'Tin*? V? noWD 'once they said to Honi the Cir cle Drawer: pray that rain may come down'.
14 c

4: Aramaic The periphrastic construction of the perfect and imperfect of m n with the participle is common in all Aramaic dialects. It is mainly used to denote durative, iterative, or habitual action, but can also be used for an instantaneous or unique act, and in a good number of cases differE.Y. Kutscher, 'Hebrew Language, Mishnaic', Encyclopaedia Judaica 16 (Jer usalem: Keter, 1971), 1590-1607 (1600-1601); A History of the Hebrew Language (Jerusalem/Leiden: Magnes/E.J. Brill, 1982), 218; S. Sharvit, tnorn ranra rnon ]Vfrl, Studies in Hebrew and Semitic Languages Dedicated to the Memory of Prof Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher (ed. G.B. Sarfatti; Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan Univer sity Press, 1980), Hebrew section, 110-25 (111-12). See Mishor, EMDnraTJJD; Qimron, D r o n p ^ r n ' ^ n a n ' w LH. 55 (1991), 8996; cf. A. Senz-Badillos, A History of the Hebrew Language (translated by J.F. Elwolde; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 193-94.
1 3 1 4

162

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

ence in meaning from the non-periphrastic alternative cannot be rec ognized. The periphrastic imperative, however, is rare. It is not attested in Biblical Aramaic or Qumran Aramaic and is only rarely found in some of the Egyptian Aramaic documents. However, it is employed several times in the Hermopolis Letters and in Galilaean Aramaic and Christian Palestinian Aramaic. According to J.C. Greenfield these occurrences may be traces of a much wider use in Western Aramaic.
15

5: Aramaic influence on Hebrew? In Aramaic the periphrastic forms are extensively used, especially in the perfect, but also with other forms of the verb hwh. In MH we see a large increase in the number of periphrastic forms. The question arises of the r61e Aramaic actually played in the changes that occurred in Hebrew. Segal regarded the periphrastic construction as native to Hebrew and not borrowed from Aramaic. This view has also been defended by Gordon. Both scholars claim that Aramaic influence did not cause the increase in m n + participle, but at most accelerated it. It should be noted, however, that Segal, in his refutation of the the ory that MH was an artificial language, tried to minimize the extent of the Aramaic influence, a point on which he has been criticized by Kutscher. A different view is taken by Greenfield ('perhaps due to Aramaic influence'), and B.K. Waltke and M. O'Connor ('probably the result of Aramaic influence', quoting P. Joiion). Kutscher warns against hasty conclusions: 'All these changes in MH almost exactly
16 17 18 19 20 21

Greenfield, 'Periphrastic Imperative', 200; T. Muraoka, 'Notes on the Syn tax of Biblical Aramaic', JSS 11 (1966), 151-67 (158-60); T. Muraoka and B. Porten, A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic (forthcoming); H.B. Rosen, 'On the Use of Tenses in the Aramaic of Daniel', JSS 6 (1961), 183-203 (184). See Section II.l on the different opinions regarding LBH. M.H. Segal, 'Mishnaic Hebrew and ... Aramaic', 698-700. Gordon, T)evelopment of the Participle', 142. Kutscher, History, 1%. Greenfield, 'Periphrastic Imperative', 209. Waltke-O'Connor, Biblical Hebrew Syntax, 37.7.1c; Jouon, Grammaire, 121g (Joiion's remark quoted by Waltke-O'Connor has been omitted in JouonMuraoka, Grammar). It is clear that the question of Aramaic influence might be directly related to the interpretation of the periphrastic construction. Waltke and O'Connor and Jouon, who explain its increase in LBH as a conse quence of the weakening of its meaning, assume Aramaic influence, whereas for Segal, Gordon and Driver, who regard its increase as the result of an in ternal development in which other means to express durativity or iterativity are lost, there is no need to resort to external factors (Aramaic influence) to account for it. See Section II.l.
1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1

1 5

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES

163

parallel Aramaic. Therefore, the simplest assumption would be that this too should be ascribed to Aramaic influence. But since Aramaic itself underwent far-reaching changes in this respect... we had best refrain from drawing conclusions'. The question of Aramaic influence is also relevant for the Book of Ben Sira. Even apart from the Aramaic influence on Hebrew in gen eral, we have to reckon with a strong Aramaic element in Ben Sira's Hebrew, which may be related to an Aramaizing tendency which is characteristic of all Wisdom literature.
22 23

Ill: Periphrastic tenses in Ben Sira When we turn to Ben Sira, the first step is to determine which forms can be regarded as periphrastic. Our point of departure will be the criterion of replaceability as it is laid down by R. Bartelmus in his study on the verb rrn. For Bartelmus, the criterion for establishing whether a construction of mn + participle is periphrastic is whether it could or could not be replaced by a non-periphrastic form of the same root. On the one hand this approach includes constructions with forms other than *POlp -participles, e.g., adjectives, on the other hand it excludes constructions where the noun, though in form a participle, does not allow for substitution by a construction without rrn. To this category belong substantivized participles and all passive participles. According to this criterion of replaceability, we can leave out of consideration constructions with the passive participle like 51.30 (B) "pl^D DE VP 'the name of the Lord be blessed' (a quotation of Ps
24 25 w

113.2), with a substantivized participle like 7.6 (A) beriD mrb e?pnn

'do not seek to become a ruler', and with a preposition like 12.11 (A) D rfraoD ft rrn *be as one who reveals a secret'. On the other hand, we may include in our discussion constructions with adjectives like 51.27
(B) *nn ]Bp 'I was young', which has Ttftop (Gen 32.11) as its non-pe

riphrastic alternative. Applying this criterion, we can select the fol-

26

2 2

Kutscher, History, 218. A. Hurvitz, The Chronological Significance of "Aramaisms" in Biblical Hebrew' IE] 18 (1968), 234-40 (240); see also G.R. Driver, Hebrew Poetic Dic tion', SVT, 1 (1953), 26-39; I. Young, Diversity in Pre-Exilic Hebrew (Forschungen zum Alten Textament, 5; Tbingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1993), 83. Bartelmus, HYH (see note 4), 205. Bartelmus includes 'participles' of certain Stative verbs (verbal adjectives) as well. In our discussion below, we will also include other cases of rrn + ad jective that could have been replaced by a finite form of a stative verb. * In Gen 32.11 the SC of the stative verb p p has present meaning (1 am too insignificant for all the kindnesses'), whereas in Sir 51.27 the construction
2 3 2 4 2 5 6

164

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

lowing occurrences of periphrastic constructions in Sir: 5.9 5.9 5.11 5.11 6.6 13.9 13.13 31(34).6 31(34).22 32(35).22 42.1 42.8 51.17 51.24 51.27 C A A C A A A B B E,F M(B) M, B Q B B

nriBi...rrnTrrnn ?K nnoQ rrn o m vrr pirn rrn

jrm* rrn Tnrnvr

nrrn rm n^nn ...nwas

Excluded from the following discussion is 31(34).22 (B) jrffifnvr l^e humble' (cf. m. Abot 6.1 jrms 'im), though it might be argued that, as far as can be discerned, rrn in our verse conveys the same meaning as the HifHl of NX in Mic 6.8 (MTOTtftt;Targum vm). If this is true, we may see n*n (periphrastic) and JJ32*m (nonperiphrastic) as two interchangeable alternatives. However, even if we were to make such a claim, it appears that in Ben Sira difference in meaning excluded the possibility of the non-periphrastic construction, for the meaning of Vixn in 16.25 (A) and 32(35).3 (B), 'act in a measured way , differs from that in Mic 6.8. A few forms mentioned in the list above cannot serve as a solid base for our description of Ben Sira's use of the periphrastic construction because of textual problems. On 5.9 (A) rmsi ... nvrn
7 28 29

with rrn has past meaning. It seems therefore that nvr functions as time-indi cator (see above in the discussion of BH) and that *n"n ]Dp does not meet our criterion of replaceability. Since there are already other (text-critical) reasons to exclude w n ]Bp from the discussion (see below), we can leave this problem aside. It should be noted, however, that a construction with the SC of rrn can also have present meaning, and that the SC of a stative verb can also have past meaning. Cf. Sir 31(34).6 (B) vncrm '(they) are numerous' and 1 Chr 5.23; 23.17131 'they were numerous'. B: on. R. Smend, Die Weisheit des Jesus Sirach erklrt (Berlin: Reimer, 1906), 153. In this context, mention should be made of 49.10 (B), where the periphrastic construction can be restored in a damaged part of the manuscript. The extant Hebrew text is DP... IBDnoxi? vm and the reconstruction Dn[nnmnjia nno^i? Tin 'may their bones flourish where they lie' (see also G and S) is likely. Compare
2 7 2 8 2 9

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES

165

and 5.11 (C) rrn, see the discussion of 5.9-11 below. The last two items in our list come from the MS B text of the acrostic poem in 51.13-30. This poem has been so poorly preserved in MS B that P.W. Skehan, A.A. Di Leila, M. Delcor, and others have assumed it to be a retroversion from Syriac: 51.24 (B) n vrn TKQ nans DDBBXI
30

51.27 (B)

n*nteyi nn vnom
31

In 51.24, rpnn seems to be an addition which is not found in G or S. In 51.27,1 Tl"n is inserted under the influence of w n in the opening line of the poem (51.13) and should be omitted with G and S; instead of 'nTOJJ 'I stood', we should read 'n^Qtf 'I laboured' and ]0p is better taken temporally ('a short time' and not 'young', cf. Isa 5A7). Thus, we can reconstruct the following text: T t e t f p p O O D T i n u n n'nfc^DI nn 'see with your own eyes: I have laboured but a little in her and have found her'.
32

The relevance of the transmission of the Hebrew text of Sir for a description of the periphrastic construction in Sir can be illustrated by 32(35).21-22: B Toejn'jnnmoi ^nnoynzincnn^K B mg ...nnn B nnrn-pnnnKin o ^Kn ^n-aneon^K E Tnr nvr -[nnnazn D W I "pn... F TnnYi-jnnmcn trOTn^mannnn^ Whereas MSS E and F have the periphrastic construction Tnt n*n *be careful', B mg and B have nnrn, and B txt has l>e on your guard'. "Pnr n'n is also found in 13.13 (A), which is quoted by S. Schechter as an example of Ben Sira's 'failure' in his attempt to imitate biblical style. Compare Qoh 12.12 nnrn, Ezra 4.22 m p v m , m. Abot
33 1 1 2 1 2 1 34

3 0

3 1

3 2

3 3

3 4

the non-periphrastic form at Isa 66.14: ruman K K T D DD'mun 'your bones will flourish like the grass'. M. Delcor, *Le texte hbreu du cantique de Siracide LI, 13 et ss. et les anciennes versions', Textus 6 (1968), 27-47 (46-47); P.W. Skehan and A.A. Di Lella, The Wisdom of Ben Sira (AB; New York: Doubleday, 1987), 576-77. M.H. Segal, tfron imo p nao (Second d.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1958), 362; Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 575. Segal, KTop-fiO,363; P.W. Skehan, The Acrostic Poem in Sirach 51:13-30', HTR 64 (1971), 387-400 (398); Smend, Weisheit des Jsus Sirach, 509. The four cola in B are two parallel renderings of the same line, signalled as B andB . S. Schechter and C. Taylor, The Wisdom of Ben Sira. Portions of the Book Ecclesiasticus from Hebrew Manuscripts in the Cairo Geniza (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1899 [reprinted, Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1979]),
! 2

166

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

1.11 -inrn (but m. Abot 1.9 and elsewhere T n r n m ) . In 42.8 (B, M) we


findnvrTiVYn.

We cannot establish the original text of our verse by weighting the textual witnesses, though a few things can be said about the manuscripts. It can be argued that MSS E and F are related in some way because of many, sometimes peculiar, readings they have in common against MS B . In a number of cases where E or F differ from Btxt, they agree with Bmg. As far as the relation of Btxt and Bmg is concerned, new light has been shed on the value of the marginal read ings of MS B by the discovery of the Masada Scroll. In a considerable number of cases the main text of MS B has more biblical language and the margin has Aramaic or mishnaic phraseology. Whereas earlier scholars like R. Smend regarded this as the indication of a recension that introduced Aramaic or more 'vulgar expressions, Bmg is now often supported by the Masada Scroll. A closer look at all the variants, however, yields a more complicated picture. Besides, in the lines un der discussion, Bmg has the more biblical expression and MSS E and F mishnaic phraseology. Accordingly, these general observations do not help us in establishing the original text here, even if we were to ignore the principle that it is methodologically unsound to evaluate individual variant readings only on the basis of a general assessment of the manuscripts. Another way in which one may try to solve the problem is by evaluating the variant readings themselves. If Schechter and others are right in regarding "inn as more classical and Tnr nvr as mishnaic, we can pose the question: did Ben Sira use the more classical biblical expression ""inn, which was altered by a copyist to the mishnaic (and Aramaic) Tnr mn, or did Ben Sira himself use the mishnaic phraseol ogy which was changed into the more biblical idiom? This question is relevant in quite a number of cases where a second rendering of the text is found in the margin, as a doublet in the main text or in another manuscript. For in not a few instances, two parallel renderings of the text have been transmitted: one in biblical style and another in mish naic or Aramaic language (see above on Btxt, Bmg and M). On these occurrences, there are two opposing views. According to one view, mishnaic and Aramaic phraseology entered the text in the process of
35 36 7

33.
3 5

3 6

P.C. Beentjes, 'A Closer Look at the Newly Discovered Sixth Hebrew Manuscript (MS F) of Ben Sira', EstBib 51 (1993), 171-86 (175); A.A. Di Leila, The Newly Discovered Sixth Manuscript of Ben Sira from the Cairo Geniza', Bib 69 (1988) 226-38 (228). J. Marcus, 'A Fifth M S of Ben Sira', JQR n.s. 21 (1930-31), 223-40 (225).

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES


37

167

textual transmission (thus, for example, Segal); according to the other view, the biblical style is secondary and entered the text as a re sult of a tendency to render the text in a more common, biblical, idiom (thus, for example, Y. Yadin). To a certain extent the latter view has been vindicated by the discovery of the Masada scroll. Rea soning in this way, one might be inclined to regard the mishnaic THT mn as original, but again nothing can be said with any certainty. What can be said, however, is that this passage shows the fluctuation between periphrastic and non-periphrastic constructions in the pro cess of textual transmission. We are touching here upon a question that requires further investigation.
38 39

The last case where the use of the periphrastic construction cannot be established with certainty is 51.17. B nKTrrinRHoW? naob'bn^rbv Q * / m n \m *>inbab *>b nrrn rftm The reading of nbv as participle is not certain since it can be interpret ed in different ways. The following proposals have been put forward. 1. nbv 'her yoke' (V bbv); this interpretation, which is also re flected in S, is the most appropriate for ms B, but does not fit the con text of Q. 2. rbv 'reason', as in MH (V bbv), 'and for me she has been a rea son that I give thanks to my teacher'. One may object, however, that on the other occasions in this section that we find qatal in the a-colon and >eqtol in the b-colon (14bc, 18cd, 19cd, 20ab), qatal expresses an event in the past, and 'eqtol the speaker's intention for the future, e.g., 14bc (Q): rBBrrrransiO "Tin m r o b nan 'she came to me in her beauty, and until the end I will seek her'. 3. rr^l (V b&) 'profit, advantage' (cf. Isa 48.17, where the HifHl of the verb is found alongside iftb pi. 'teach', as in our text). n*pjn, however, is not found elsewhere (nouns formed from the root by are n"?inn [e.g., 1QH 6.10] and nbvn (Sir 30.23 [B] and 41.14 [B, M]), and only the HifHl ofb& is attested. 4. G RCPORCOICRI 'progress' seems to reflect nb'V or n*bu from the root
40 41 3 7 3 8

4 0

4 1

M.H. Segal, fcO'Opant?, Us. 7 (1936), 100-20 (107-13); KTOpnoo, 20. Y. Yadin, rrnflao KTO p n^ao [The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada] (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1965), 9. On 32(35).22, see further Beentjes, 'A Closer Look', 176-78, 183; Di Leila, The Newly Discovered Sixth Manuscript', 236; Segal, wro p ISO, 209; Smend, Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, 294-95; Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 395. I. Rabinowitz, The Qumran Hebrew Original of Ben Sira's Concluding Acrostic on Wisdom', HUCA 42 (1971) 173-84 (177); Rabinowitz reads a plu ral: 'teachers'. Skehan, 'Acrostic Poem', 393; Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 574-75.
3 9

168 THE HEBREW OF THE DE AD SE A SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

5. n ?!?, participle of 'give suck'. This view is supported by the fact that the poem 51.13-30 deals with Wisdom personified as a beautiful woman and by Ben Sira's use of the image of Wisdom as mother, in 4.11 and 15.2, as someone who nourishes those who come to her, in 24.20-21, and as a lovely woman, in 4.11-19; 14.20-15.8; 24 and elsewhere. The objection that is used in BH and MH only in connection with animals is met by the use of *7)tf relating to human be ings in 1QH 7.21 and 9.36. However, if we accept this interpretation, it is not easy to decide whether the form should be taken as a partici ple ('nursing') or as a substantivized participle ('a nurse'; thus J.A. Sanders).
u

43

In the remaining cases of the periphrastic construction the question arises as to what led Ben Sira to use it. It appears that stylistic factors are the most satisfactory explanation for the use of the periphrastic construction. In 13.9-10 and 6.6 the periphrastic construction may be used for the sake of variety. 13.9-10 (A) - p r p '-DI pirn rrn ana anp won p prnnn " T W prnnn p anpnn 13.13 (A) oon ' T O K nv -pnn bm T H I rrm noe?n It is hard to discern any difference in meaning between pYll mil 'keep your distance' in 13.9 and the second prnnn in the following verse. (The first prnnn, however, has almost passive sense.) One finds the Qal of p m in 7.2 (C) and 9.13 (A) (both imperatives) and also in Prov 19.7; 22.5. MS A has a Hifil at 7.2. Compare m. Abot 1.7 m p r o p m n 1ceep yourself far from an evil neighbour'. According to Di Leila, 13.9 is the opening line of the second stanza in the poem of 13.1-14.2. The concluding line of this stanza
45 46

T. Muraoka, 'Sir. 51:13-^30: An Erotic Hymn to Wisdom?', JSJ10 (1979) 16678 (171); Rabinowitz, The Qumran Hebrew Original', 177; contrast M. Delcor, *Le texte hbreu', 33. J. A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumrn Cave 11 (HQPsf) (DJD, 4; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), 82; The Dead Sea Psalms Scroll (New York: Cornell University Press, 1967), 114-15,117; Delcor, 'Le texte hbreu', 33; C. Deutsch, The Sirach 51 Acrostic: Confession and Exhortation', ZA W94 (1982), 400-409 (402). Deutsch, The Sirach 51 Acrostic', 402; contrast Rabinowitz, The Qumran Hebrew Original', 177; Muraoka, 'Sir. 51:13-30', 170-71. Smend (Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, xlv) mentions pirn rnn as one of the expres sions which may point to Aramaic influence. Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 253; a diffrent position is taken by P.C. Beentjes ('How Can a Jug Be Friends with a Kettle? A Note on the Struc ture of Ben Sira Chapter 13', BZ 36 [1992], 87-93), but this does not affect our analysis of 13.9-10.
4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6

4 2

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES

169

(13.13) also contains a periphrastic imperative in the a-colon. nDCBH l>e on your guard in this line stands in parallel to "IQBn in the concluding line of the preceding stanza (13.8); on mm mm see above (32(35).22).
7

ubv *>b\*w ]n Ten nm n3m nix -pn P)*PQ im -[mo bmn ran vm -pha *ran 13m 'be many (Qal) is found in MS A in 3.27 and 11.29. m m in 11.32 (A) can be either Qal or HifHl ('multiplies'). Ben Sira may have chosen the periphrastic construction for the sake of variety or in order to avoid the sequence 1ST ...mm. Also reasons of rhythm may have played a role. D'm v m has two stressed syllables, whereas mm has one. Lines 5-6 now has the pattern 4+4 / / 3 + 3 . Furthermore, we may say that v m does double duty (though not v m but m m is under stood in the b-colon). The periphrastic construction with n m is also found in 31(34).6 (B) 3HT ftun vn M l 'many are those who have been entrapped through gold' (see also note 26). 6.5-6 (A)
A7 7 48

42.1 is another example of stylistic variation. Here, too, the periph rastic construction is followed by the non-periphrastic alternative and variation of the two constructions is used to mark the end and the be ginning of a stanza: 42.1 (B) VT bo T i n ]n Nsoi nata era n"m (M) mto'pjnjnKscn 001*30*13 n\m (B, M) Kern 0'3B won bm eron b& rib* by -[K 42.8 (B, M) m bo vEh irm* B T R I nQK3 mm rrvn Instead of 0*13 'ashamed' (reading of Yadin and others) BBS has 0 " 3 (cf. 26.15 [C] n p a ) ; '13 can best be regarded as a participle of 013 'to be ashamed' on the analogy of the strong verb, probably under Ara maic influence (cf. m. Abot 2.5 MS Kaufmann ]vran 'the shamefaced man'). As in 13.9-10, the periphrastic construction (013 n"m 'and you will be ashamed') is followed by the non-periphrastic alternative (013T) b\b 'do not be ashamed'). The non-periphrastic construction with 0 1 3 is found several other times in Sir. The perfect consecutive of 013 is found in Isa 19.9,20.5 and elsewhere. In the concordance of BBS, is categorized as an imperative (cf. Prov 3.4 OIKl DvfrK ' r 2 3 310 ^301 ]n K2SD1 'and you will find favour and success in the sight of God and man'), but a participle (connected to n"m) is possible as well. In the parallel line, 42.8, too, n"m of the a49
5 0

51

47

MsAt >KTB.

4 8
4 9

According to Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 68.


M has a lacuna where B has

5 0
5 1

M has a lacuna where B hastfttscw.


Yadin, Kmoprfrao, 22.

170

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

colon is understood in the b-colon. For the periphrastic construction with "IVTT (42.8), see above, on 32(35).22. The section 41.14-42.8 is called nennOTQ 'instruction concerning shame' (41.14). It is composed of two stanzas in 41.17-42.1d and 42.1e--8, preceded by an introduction (41.14-16). 42.1cd is the conclud ing line of the first stanza which stands in parallel to the concluding line of the following stanza in 42.8. Both verses have the perfect con secutive rvvn following the imperative (Bin 41.17) and prohibitive (2?inn *7R 42.1e) in the first line of both stanzas. The periphrastic con struction gives more weight to the concluding lines of both stanzas and intensifies the parallelism between them. The last example to be discussed is 5.9-11. -pan V P iron
nana ncan n n - p a m

-psnh* -poo nvi


pxnb i r a o nvr mn^n-rirnn **
1

bwbDb-pnbw
-pnn nvp TTOO

-pan

bv

-poo

nvr

n J D 3 mvn my - p a m
52

n m e n m o e n jdi nvr

Before discussing these verses, we have to solve some textual prob lems. It seems that especially in MS C the text has been altered to a more biblical form of language. Moreover, some scribal errors have slipped in. In 9a Vin is to be read with C; cf. vrn b* in 6.1 (A). In 9b MS C seems to be more original; in A " p i was meant as a correction of rfTQE 'stream', which may have entered the text from 4.26 (A: bm r t a E ^b TOOT) and replaced the Aramaic b^W 'way . However, in stead of taking the place of rfTQe? it replaced bob 'to every'. rniQl 'and turning' may have been written to smooth the text. In 10a, read with A (V added above the line) and G "pin bv 'in your knowledge'. Read in 10b with A, inK 'one' and VP tie', though n w cannot be ruled out. In 11a, A's nnQQ 'hurrying, swift' is preferable; C's 'prepared, ready' may have come from Ps 112.7-8 (]1D3 / / -poo; + n m t t ) . The bib lical p a n 'listen, give ear' (A) has replaced the 'mishnaic' ninoe? 'listening' (C; cf. m. Abot 5.12 ninoe? ? 1HQ); raiD does not fit the
7 53
1

5 2

5 3

See also A.A. Di Leila, The Hebrew Text of Sirach: A Text-Critical and Histori cal Study (Studies in Classical Literature, 1; The Hague: Mouton, 1966), 23-24; H.P. Rger, Text und Textform im hebrischen Sirach: Untersuchungen zur Textgeschichte und Textkritik der hebrischen Sirachfragmente aus der kairoer Geniza (BZAW, 112; Berlin: De Gruyter, 1970), 38-39; Segal, tO'op-o, 33-34; Smend, Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, 50-51. Cf. Smend, Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, 50: 'nxeii ist fr pT\ b& gleichmacherisch gesetzt'.
m

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES

171

context, which deals with listening to questions, not to good words or instruction. It may have been added under the influence of roiCD njriQE 'good news' in Prov 15.30 and 25.25. Read in l i b with A rrn 'in patience' (cf. Qoh 7.8); in C, the biblical mun mi? 'you shall surely an swer has taken the place of the mishnaic expression DJnQ 3'evi; cf. Aramaic 02T)) 3Tin (Ezra 5.11; Dan 3.16). is a later addition from Job 42.8 niD3 *>b* o r r m Kb O 'you have not spoken what is right about me'. These observations yield the following reconstruction: b^m bob "pr\ bm n n bob n-m Tm ba
7

-pnn V P irwi ana nen n n -piai


7

"jron by -pao nvr


njnoefr T I O D rpn

1. m i l 'winnowing refers to an iterative action as may be clear from n n bob 'to every wind'. In BH one finds the non-periphrastic imperative, prohibitive, and imperfect of n i T , but all of these forms usually refer to unique actions, e.g., Ezek 5.2 xvnb m m rPEbram 'scat ter a third to the wind'. The participle is found in Ruth 3.2 m r m nan onOTn p a DK 'behold, he will be winnowing barley at the threshing floor . 2. ~pao 'steadfasf may be regarded as a passive participle that has become an adjective, compare 32(35).l (F) and 44.6 (M: TlD OQO 'sup ported with strength'; G and S apparently read '?QO 'supported [with]', but B has OQTO 'leaning [on]'), Isa 26.3, Ps 111.8,112.8). Since -pQO nvi does not meet the criterion of replaceability, it is not covered by our definition of the periphrastic construction. 3. The non-periphrastic construction with *ino pi. ('hurry, be swift') is found in 6.7 (A) in the apodosis of a conditional sentence: vbv rren ? nnon bm imp p e r n nma mp 'when you gain a friend, test him in the gaining and do not hurry to trust him'. The action referred to is not as general as in our verse, but is specific to a particular event, which is given in the protasis. This may account for the difference between 6.7 and 5.11 (but see the periphrastic construction in 13.9 [A], discussed above). In BH one finds the non-periphrastic prohibitive i n o n b\b with general application (Qoh 5.1). The imperative TlD occurs only in reference to unique actions (1 Sam 9.12 and elsewhere). In 5.9-11 we find both the imperative and the prohibitive of nvr con nected with a participle to indicate iterative action. Remarkably, three periphrastic forms are concentrated in one stanza. According to Di Leila, 5.1-6.4 is a 22-line structure that contains three poems. All the five forms of rpn are found in the middle poem (5.9-6.1), and four of them in the first stanza (5.9-12). It is reasonable, therefore, to assume
7 1 5 4 55
5 4

5 5

Ms A pernor p e n . Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sim, 181.

172

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

that Ben Sira used the construction with mn as a literary device to mark off a stanza. This assumption gains support from the stylistic use of the periphrastic construction in 4.29-31: A

C We cannot go into the textual problems of these verses. The di vergences between A and C do not affect our analysis of the pe riphrastic construction. The poem 4.20-31 contains thirteen pro hibitive forms and two imperatives. The last three ^CDpn b\b forms are formed with rrn, which may be regarded as a kind of climax. Admit tedly, none of these forms meets our criterion of the periphrastic con struction, but one should be aware that other constructions would have been possible, particularly in the last line, where the Yin bfc con struction is maintained while its subject has changed (third person feminine instead of second person masculine); cf. 31(34).12 (B) *?R nnan 'do not open' and 31(34).14, 18 (B) T D'toCOn^ 'do not stretch out your hand'. The stylistic use of constructions with rrn in 4.19-31 and 5.9-11 becomes even more prominent when we take into account the analy sis of 4.20-6.17 by P.C. Beentjes. According to Beentjes, we should re gard 4.20-6.17 as a literary unit, introduced by the explicit address *33 'my son' in 4.20, enclosed between two passages dealing explicitly with Wisdom (4.11-19 and 6.18-37), and unified by the large number of statements introduced by la with a PC form. In this analysis, the two passages in which mn predominates, 4.29-31 and 5.9-11, belong to the same literary unit. Moreover, they enclose the section 5.1-8, which also is characterized by the frequent use of one particular verb (TDK 'sayO.
57 56

TV: Conclusions From our survey of the occurrences of the periphrastic construction
5 6

See the discussion in Rger, Text und Textform, 34-35; Segal, RTO p "BO, 2930; Skehan-Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 177; Smend, Weisheit des Jesus Sirach, 46-47. P. C. Beentjes, 'Ben Sira 5,1-8: A Rhetorical and Literary Analysis', The Lit erary Analysis of Hebrew Texts. Papers read at a Symposium held at the Juda Palache Institute. University of Amsterdam (5 February 1990) (ed. E.G.L. Schrijver, N.A. van Uchelen and I.E. Zwiep; Publications of the Juda Palache Insti tute, 7; Amsterdam: Juda Palache Institute, 1992), 45-59 (49-53).
5 7

VAN PEURSEN: PERIPHRASTIC TENSES

173

we may draw the following conclusions. 1. Periphrastic and non-periphrastic constructions sometimes in terchange in the process of textual transmission (32(35).22; 51.24,27). 2. As far as the meaning is concerned, we see that, as in MH, rrn is more than a copula and time indicator. It also indicates durative or iterative aspect. A form like nnQQ rrn resembles the periphrastic im perative with a command of general import in MH: T>e hastening ha bitually/constantly . However, to express durative, iterative or habit ual aspect, the construction with nvr is not obligatory, and sometimes differences in meaning from the non-periphrastic construction are not recognizable (e.g., 13.9-10; 42.1). 3. Since it is not grammatically obligatory to use the periphrastic construction, other factors must be involved. It appears that mainly stylistic reasons account for Ben Sira's use of the construction. These reasons may be related to variation (6.6; 13.9-10; 42.1), rhythm (6.6) or parallelism (42.1, 8). The construction is used to mark the opening lines or concluding lines of a stanza (6.6; 13.9-10; 42.1, 8) and some times a stanza as a whole is marked off by the frequent use of n*n (5.9-11). 4. From this observation, a final remark should be made on the general character of Ben Sira's language. S. Schechter, M.H. Segal, D. Strauss and others have claimed that the mishnaic elements in Ben Sira's language are slips or mistakes made out of ignorance. To quote Schechter: 'But great as his acquaintance with the Scriptures was, and strained as his efforts were in imitating them, he failed in the end. For, as is the case with all imitators, in unguarded moments such phrases, idioms, particles and peculiar constructions escaped him as to furnish us with a sufficiently strong number of criteria, betraying the real char acter of the language of his time'. This assessment has been con tested by C. Rabin. According to Rabin, the strong mishnaic element is intentional, it reflects a change in stylistic taste towards the vernac ular Hebrew. The skilful and artistic way in which Ben Sira made use of the periphrastic construction supports Rabin's view. We cannot assume that in eight, nine or ten 'unguarded moments' the pe riphrastic construction 'escaped' the inattentive Ben Sira and entered the text against his will. Ben Sira used the periphrastic construction deliberately in order to embellish his book.
7 58 59

Schechter-Taylor, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 33 (italics mine); see further S. Fraenkel, 'Zur Sprache des hebrischen Sirach', MGWJ 43 (1899), 481^84; Segal R T O p "ISO, 13; D. Strauss, Sprachliche Studien in den hebrischen SirachFragmenten (Zrich: Schaufelberger, 1900). C. Rabin, The Historical Background of Qumran Hebrew', ScrHier 4 (1958), 144-61 (152).
5 9

5 8

A NEW APPROACH TO THE USE OF FORMS OF THE IMPERFECT WITHOUT PERSONAL ENDINGS E. Qimron (Beer Sheva)

J; The phenomenon and previous research In the Hebrew of the Bible (BH) and the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSSH) there are three types of imperfect verbal forms: normal (^Op'), lengthened (only in the first person: n'Pp], n'Ppt^n^pK'l), and shortened (in the second and third persons, in forms such as Dp], Dp],fair,Dp]*})-} the lengthened and shortened forms will henceforce be called 'special forms'. The Medieval Hebrew grammarians considered all these forms interchangeable (ignoring the function of shortened forms in Arabic). Gesenius was apparently the first to observe that the special forms represent the optative mood and that the waxv-consecutive necessitates shortened forms. Luzzatto also made the same observation independently of Gesenius. This view is still the predominant one in modern research, albeit with some added improvements, modifications, and restrictions (see below). It has been recognized that the original use of the forms became somewhat undermined, especially in Late Biblical Hebrew (LBH), with, on the one hand, the special forms
2 3 4

In the Tiberian (and Babylonian) tradition, the shortened and imperfect forms have been preserved only in categories that have a vowel in the (closed) final syllable, be this an original long vowel or not. The text of the Bible itself, however, may indicate that shortened imperfect forms originally occurred in other categories as well. Examing the spelling of Pbf5/ Pbfpn in BH, 1 found that in the non-conversive and non-modal imperfect, the plene spelling is used in more than twenty percent of the occurrences, whereas in the conversive imperfect it is used in just half a percent (0.006) of occurrences. Modal ^ b p (after ^ or before tc) is always defective (26 times), ^ b p forms at the beginning of the clause are also spelt defectively 16 times against one case of *PitDp' (on the form of the imperfect in initial positions, see below, section IV). This difference in spelling can only be explained on the assumption that the vowel of the ultima in forms such as ? b p ' ] and ^ f ? ' ^ or t o ^ p ' was short and unaccentuated. See Esther Goldenberg, 'Hebrew Language, Medieval', Encyclopaedia ]udaka 16 (1971), 1607-42, p. 1620. W. Gesenius, Hebrische Grammatik (Halle, 1828), 36. See also H. Ewald, Hebrische Sprachlehre (Leipzig, 1842), 90-92. S.D. Luzzatto, Kxwnwn, Vol. II (Przemysl, 1888), 49-51.
t , t 1 1 t 2 4

QIMRON: FORMS OF THE IMPERFECT

175

sometimes used indicatively and, on the other, the regular forms used optatively. I am in complete agreement with what has been said about the original function of the various forms, which is demon strated both by Comparative Semitics and by the exclusive use of the particles bfc and with the special forms of the imperfect (and with the imperative). 1 will, however, claim that this original function was extensively undermined in BH, and that syntax instead often regu lates the use of BH verbal forms and, specifically, the position of the verb in the clause.
5 6

II: Method Since the use of the various forms changed during the history of an cient Hebrew, it is worth examining usage not only in the earliest sources, that is, in BH, but also in later stages of Hebrew, for example in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The rules underlying the use of the forms in the late phases might have already been partially operative in earlier periods. Thus, the study of the various functions of the forms in the Semitic languages, on the one hand, and in DSSH, on the other, may well elucidate the usage in BH. Every phase of Hebrew should be thoroughly studied without be ing prejudiced by the original function of a given form. The research should have an extensive basis, ideally comprising all the relevant texts. This last requirement could only be partially achieved in the present study. I have, however, made an extensive survey of the rele vant texts, to test the validity of the rules I propose. While there are exceptions in both BH and DSSH, a detailed description is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, I am convinced that the material pre sented here is sufficient to indicate the validity of my thesis.
5

S.R. Driver, A Treatise on the Use of Tenses in Hebrew and some other Syntactical Questions. (Third ed.; Oxford, 1892), 170-75 (where the author cites the views of some leading grammarians); G. Bergstrasser, Hebraische Grammatik, Vol. II (Leipzig, 1929), 10, especially 10b and 101-p; H.M. Orlinsky, 'On the Cohortative and Jussive after an Imperative or Interjection in Biblical He brew', JQR 32 (1942), 273-77; E. Qimron, 'Consecutive and Conjunctive Im perfect: the Form of the Imperfect with Waw in Biblical Hebrew', JQR 77 (1987), 151-53; R.C. Steiner, The History of the Ancient Hebrew Modal System and Labov's Rule of Compensatory Structural Change', in Towards a Social Science of Language: Papers in Honor of William Labov (2 vols.; ed. G.R. Guy, C. Feagin, D. Schiffrin, and J. Baugh; Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1995). Very exceptionally with other verbal forms, e.g. wnnwn (Gen 40.14). See S.E. Fassberg, Studies in Biblical Syntax (Jerusalem, 1994), 36 (Hebrew). In DSSH as well, is always followed by the shortened imperfect (second and third persons).
6

176

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

III: The forms of the first person consecutive imperfect It has been noticed that in the imperfect with consecutive waw, some forms of the first person singular differ from second and third person singular forms in that the former are identical either with the normal forms (e.g. DlpKl vs. Op>1 or D'pKl vs. Dp ' l) or with the lengthened im perfect HDlpKl (especially in LBH). Bergstrasser observed that this dis tinction is secondary and that originally there was no such different iation. He observed that the forms of the first person in ' b verbs are farKi etc., and that those of V'V are always spelt defectively in the Torah. It should be added that this distinction according to person is systematic in the Tiberian tradition, being found not only in V'tf verbs and in the HifHl fropRl) but also in ' D and e.g. -n .Kl (vs. rf\), -)QK1 (vs. ")Qn), bDfcl (vs. *73K 1). All these forms of the first person consecutive imperfect are identical with those of the regular imper fect. A significant contribution to the subject has been made by David Talshir, who demonstrated that in LBH not only the first person sin gular of the imperfect with waw-consecutive can have the normal (as against lengthened) form, but also the first person plural, for exam ple TDOTl (Neh 4.3) and 31031 (Neh 4.9[Kt]). Let me add that this phe nomenon also occurs occasionally in the Samaritan oral tradition, in those verbs which still preserve shortened forms: wyal, wtal vs. welli, wnelli, zvyaba, wtaba vs. wa'bu, wna'bu wyaS, wtaS vs. wesH, zvneSsi
7 f

10

11

7 8

Bergstrasser (note 5), 5d. Ibid.; also in Moabite: Mesa* inscription lines 3,9; tnai, line 6; pin, line

9. The Babylonian tradition is not absolutely consistent with the Tiberian in regard to the forms of the conversive imperfect. On the one hand, some first person forms are identical with second and first person forms (unlike Tib erian): fiR ) (vs. lltk), bbti, Gen 3.12 (in pause = MT ^iRj), On the other hand, some conversive imperfect forms in the second and third persons still preserve the original penultimate stress (unlike their Tiberian counterparts); see I. Yeiyin, *"?aan itpm nopnoon nnnan yafTn m o o (Jerusalem, 1986), 585. The form "fifti apparently preserves the original penultimate stress; the sere being unstressed has not been changed to patafr according to Thilippi's law' (see p. 93 of E. Qimron, mnpon nrnun n r a / n ^ wtrn, US. 59 [1986], 77-102). D. Talshir, rv^KTinn ronsan *?K npna -jainon i r o n ronsa rnnnsnn, Tarbiz, 56 (1987), 585-91. See Z. Ben-Hayyim, The Literary and Oral Tradition of Hebrew and Aramaic Amongst the Samaritans, Vol. V (Jerusalem, 1977), 127-28. Ben-Hayyim did not realize that the variant forms are not free variants but forms used in comple mentary distribution (according to persons). See also p. 367 of my review (article) of this book in Kiryat Sefer 54 (1979).
5 1 0 1 1 9

QIMRON: FORMS OF THE IMPERFECT

177

wyere, wtere vs. wereH wyasab vs. wnesob Thus, this behaviour of the first person, strange as it may seem is a real feature of Hebrew prior to the period of the Mishnah, being at tested in a variety of traditions. Bergstrasser explains the use of the regular forms in the consecutive imperfect of the first person singular as being on the analogy of the modal system. One may, however, wonder why the regular rather than the lengthened forms are used. While BH uses both normal and lengthened imperfects in the first person consecutive or conjunctive imperfect, DSSH knows only the form rfropKl irrespective of whether the waw is conversive or con junctive. This feature can easily be explained as analogous to the modal system. The forms of the imperfect with waw in DSSH thus became identical with the early modal forms. According to the prevailing view, BH shortened forms are used in the second and third persons of the consecutive and modal imperfects. I have previously demonstrated that such shortened forms may also occur with conjunctive waw, as in DSSH. I considered my observa tion significant, claiming that it was an indispensable first step to wards a comprehensive morphosyntactical re-examination of the moods in BH. According to this observation shortened btop'') forms should not necessarily be given an optative nuance. Regrettably, scholars have not heeded my call for such a reappraisal and have in stead maintained the earlier misconceptions. Recognizing the influ ence of the modal forms of the imperfect on the non-modal ones is of great significance for the re-examination of the function of these forms. On the one hand, any discussion should not mix together the forms of the first person with those of the second and third persons. On the other hand, the forms should not necessarily be explained as having their original function.
12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Bergstrasser (note 5), ibid. In fact, rfrCDpKi andrfaapEare also used and are most frequent in the late biblical books (see Talshir [note 10], 589-90). Talshir disagrees with Berg strasser about the development of the various forms of the first person. He suggests, for example, that the use of noipKi rather than Dipto should be re garded as the result of analogy with the modal system, and that, later, DipKl sometimes replaced noTpw. Exceptions are found in the biblical and apocryphal scrolls. See E. Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta, 1986), 45-46. See my article mentioned in note 5. Ibid., 153. See, for example, B.K. Waltke and M. O'Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake, 1990), 564-79.
1 3 1 4 15 1 6 1 7 1 8

1 2

178 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA IV: Forms without waw As we have seen, the various forms in BH are often not used in their original function. Are they at a stage where they are becoming free variants or did each of them acquire a new function? The answer to this question may be found in DSSH, which represents a later devel opment in the use of these forms. Let me describe the rule in some of the major scrolls. In the second part of lQIsa , the form ntapK (and ntapKI) is used at the beginning of clauses while tapK is always used in non-initial positions, as the following examples show. In initial position: lQlsa 41.18-19
a a

lQIsa 43.13 In non-initial position: lQlsa 45.1-2


a

D T 2 Q r w p a -prm rmro onra? ta rrnnBtt tro neno ? row* 0*0 vivb naion now* ] i pin 01m no riK n m c n rrmt* n r r Trown nmn eniCQronraT D ' ^ K roarer 1 2 1 /7 ^tt 3K
1

c n i m "j^To^HEhnnoK

c r a t a ^ncn

In both positions: lQlsa 42.14-16


a

lQIsa 46.4 lQIsa 66.9


a

rrfrTO npattntt Z ? H / 7 K otaJD 1 T W I I K o n n / n n / w m r r nBwtvrrnmriyEfc n"*b rmro T Iflra7Koaiw>*TDI rnran -ntf? norrafr rowno n o w ... a^KD'oaro rmvteoK^K nrna ron D K TOR? 7^7K R V T I ']K
n

In the major sectarian Scrolls, the form ntapK (and ntapKl) is used initially, but also non-initially, though this is very rare. tapK is practi cally never used in initial position: 1QH 10.5-7 rrDmn ] n a nvnnb nai nnssn i o t a am no ^p^Xeo)Krow ' r n o r n fcta prnnxnn 'a nnnns ata mKnoi ^ n m r Kta ^ntacn ata
19

Exceptions are to be found in some biblical scrolls. Even lQIsa exceptionally uses 'xsp* rather than nboptt in initial position, e.g. D'BK (= MT) at 50.2.

1 9

QIMRON: FORMS OF THE IMPERFECT 1QH 9.8-14 nnmn '3 w i r o t f T i ion *sbxb mwtti /7nraK7... p'TwrrxBDcn wi nmnm by nanmjwmMvmbosn... ' B D E D S ...b/wnropBin I T O D bbm... "a* T O D ? vira ba\ nana mom n W r i D V 130 D J ? 1 B Q 2 7 Q Tp3 JtttttTlSB npiai ana t w o tun r m a a *7[K]( )73K me? ^ a ? ^bax D w o n i v m r p m I D K ... ' p i s nombvtT]... m r r a a /roflttoram ^ D E N Z P ncaaa n s n w n v T D K 3 /77ra7 urn... I D E ? :natf > T n'roo rra( )na ' T DnKonoai... t> rmwsnp aao /ircwvion 'wi nnTfiHKvrnaaai... jann ? .. .*n bo O S C B D i T a *a nsmnum bo bm iimb nwttwb i r r /TanKinjrnpai ... topttwb... na: ^ n K a i o a j n K V ? ... nbw vmw nwtt wb train ^ir^ai... Dmswb...Drnttwb\ ... 7 7 & K D^pn... nnDKrrmna... ' a a t a 7 7 / 3 2 ? K K V ? run 7[jj(n)0KrrBnn rau>a... V I S E D n*>nm c r r a ipa pin npbm... awttnyi rarum
1

179

1QS 10.9-26

The rules govering the use of the forms in DSSH also operate in BH, in the first person but more especially in the second and third per sons. The following examples (some drawn from extensive sequences of texts) include synonymous optative expressions and the use of dif ferent forms in parallel: Judg 6.39 bo rrm p u n bo bm uiab nran but ann v r Ps 72.13 ! W 7 ' c r 3 r a K rrosxn ]vaw bi by om Gen 9.25-27 ... vmb rrmwiay i^y ]WD T T I K nam ]yo V H . . . mspbumb* n& Isa 47.3 yiEnn ,7K7nm -priv (lQlsa n ^ n ) Prov 3.28(Qr) / / 7 K nnQT awi -J ? -jW? 7 0 K T 7 Exod 20.19 n7DJ]D O V T ^ R 7 3 7 ' t>K7
20 a 1

For the first person, see Orlinsky (note 5), 273-75. Driver (note 5), 214-15, observes that usually the shortened form 'stands at the beginning of a clause'. He supposed 'that (e.g.) DBP was retained primarily as a reminiscence of the normal ... On the other hand, where the shorter form occurs, preceded by 1 (84a), it must be admitted to be doubtful whether the punctuation repre sents a genuine tradition' (p. 215). Note that imperfect forms without wow in the second and third persons are rarely used in initial position in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Imperfect forms with waw are always short in the major nonbiblical scrolls . This is not the case with lQIsa .
a

2 0

180

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


21

Note the forms in the blessing of Moses (Deut 33), (7) iTiTHTiffi nun ... (6) vno v n . . . n i t o w (24)vm^1 ',7'... (ll)/72;nnVT7^D1 the blessing of Jacob (Gen 49), ^(Kt-n) m p v r . . . io# pryi, and in the Admonition (Deut 28): (21 )-J3" pDT (13) nQ*7 /7VXT7K*^J... (8)-[flB (36) "]n " 7^7... (25) o u n r o - n nrarai... (39) rawn *b p . . . (38) rrron ircnnm jtit / 7 ^ "pnpa n&K nan... (40) 770/7 a*? pen ... (44)-2>rnrmnxm mrb wrv m . . . (43) - p ^ . Perhaps most instructive of all are the following equivalent wishes or requests: 1 Kgs 1.31,39 (ubsb) pnn t p vs. Neh2.3 rrrvrfaxfr-pan Ps 122.7 -pTOUtWTV vs. 1 Kgs 2.33 D - t e m r r . . . u n f a TIT ? 1 Chr 21.23 v?m men "]*PQn '3 TH bhh vs. 2 Sam 10.12 w r a man rnwp *n Jer 42.5 ]DKTI DDK itf? 133 T P vs. Judg 11.10 TJTnrajra&rrrr'* 1 Kgs 10.9112 Chr 9.8 -]rD f r f a * " TP Ruth 2.19 " j r a "[TDD TP Prov 5.18 "|VQ "pTpD TP vs. Gen 27.33 rrrr-p-ami Deut 7.14 rrrm -p-a Admittedly, there are some exceptions to the rule (and even contradictory examples), such as: 2 Sam 14.17 ... nnmb -pan ' h r - q i ^k: n v r
4 1
2

* p j p 77'-|Tfa* )
/y

,r

(cf. 1 Sam 17.37 - p r HTP i p) Zep 3.17 nra iraroa nrr nnora -]fa> BPBP Gen 1.22 p K 3 m ' *] w n (=4QGen , butTOTin 4QGenS)
b

In 4QDeut 33.10-11 (see Julie A. Duncan, *New Readings for the "Blessings of Moses" from Qumran', JBL 114 [1995], 273-90), we finditfWBi... nop].... TP nsnnpiT. On the other hand, HQPs 119.172 uses the regular form in initial position: ran rather than MT pn. In 4QpGen [4Q254] 5.4: p v n . This is the only example in the Bible of w preceded by a normal imperfect, where a choice between special and normal forms is available. Cf. *ppR n 'iTi in an inscription from Kuntillet Ajrud (and other parallels), cited in S. Ahituv, Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions (Jerusalem, 1992), 158 (Hebrew).
a 5 2 c 2 3 2 4

2 1

QIMRON: FORMS OF THE IMPERFECT

181

Such exceptions indicate that this new system based on syntax was not yet fully developed in BH. Nevertheless, the overall arrange ment of the forms according to the position of the verb is clearly evi dent in BH. Keeping in mind that the forms with initial waw always stand at the beginning of clauses, the rule appears very inclusive and the exceptions are relatively insignificant. The special forms, thus, came to be employed typically in clause-initial position, whether or not they began with waw. One may say that morphologically the imperfect forms were constructed on the analogy of the modal system, and syntactically they were influenced by the consecutive imperfect, coming in initial position. This rule fully explains why in purpose clauses beginning with the verb the modal forms are used (...HDnKl'PKB), while in those beginning with a particle (JtfQ*?, ]S, the indicative forms are used. The dominance of the syntactic element (the use of the special forms in clause-initial position) indicates that the original modal sys tem had become very weakened and was on the verge of being re placed. The following preliminary observations follow from my anal ysis. 1. Every imperfect form could be used optatively. 2. The special forms are also used indicatively. 3. The use of the forms depends on their syntactical position. 4. The original usage is still consistently evident only after or before KJ. 5. The interpretation of BH in the light of DSSH has been benefi cial. Finally, I have to add that Mishnaic Hebrew exhibits a system which must have developed quite differently in early times. Even those who believe that the tenses in LBH or DSSH reflect the transi tion from LBH to Mishnaic Hebrew realize that the increase of ntapK forms in late BH and DSSH is inconsistent with this view. The fact that rrtapK acquires new functions in the Second Temple period makes any comparison with Mishnaic Hebrew untenable.
25 26 27

2 5

2 6

2 7

See Fassberg (note 6), 76-92. E.Y. Kutscher, The Language and Linguistic Background of the Isaiah Scroll (lQIsa*) (Leiden, 1974), 326-27. Note that in Samaritan Hebrew, nbopw denotes the past (Z. Ben-Hayyim [note 11], 129-30).

HOW TO WRITE A POEM: THE CASE OF PSALM 151 A (HQPs 28.3-12)*


a

Mark S.Smith (Philadelphia)

J; Introduction Psalm 151 is so numbered in Greek and Syriac psalters, and it is at tested in psalter texts in Old Latin, Ethiopic, Coptic and Armenian. A Hebrew version of this text was unknown until the discovery of the Psalms Scroll in Cave 11 at Qumran. J.A. Sanders published the scroll first in 1963 in a preliminary edition and then in 1965 in the form of
3 1 2

* This paper represents two presentations made at the Leiden Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira, held 11-14 December, 1995 at the Rijks Universiteit te Leiden. The discussion of the text of Psalm 151 in sections of I through IV of this essay was the basis for my workshop at the symposium, and section V, the appendix on superscriptions in HQPs , repre sents my lecture. Because of the closeness of subject matter in the two contri butions, I have combined them into a single paper for this volume. I wish to express very warm thanks to Professor T. Muraoka for the invitation to the Symposium, as well as appreciation for the improvements to my paper sug gested at the Symposium by Professor Muraoka and other participants; these are cited below. J. Magne, 'Les textes grec et syriaque du Psaume 151', RQ 8 (1975), 548-64; 'Le verset des trois pierres dans le tradition du Psaume 151', RQ 8 (1975), 565-91; R. Meyer, T)ie Septuaginta-Fassung von Psalm 151,1-5, als Ergebnis einer dogmatischer Korrectur', in Das ferne und nahe Wort (Fs. Leonard Rost; BZAW, 105; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967), 164-72; D.N. Wigtil, The Sequence of the Translations of the Apocryphal Psalm 151', RQ 11 (1983), 401^407. See W. Baars (ed.), 'Apocryphal Psalms', in The Old Testament in Syriac ac cording to the Peshitta Version edited by the Peshitta Institute, Part IV, fascicle 6 (Leiden: EJ. Brill, 1972), i-ix, 1-4; Magne, Textes'; 'Verset'; M. Noth, 'Die fnf syrisch berlieferten apocryphen Psalmen', ZAW 48 (1930), 4, 8, 11; H. Schneider, 'Biblische Oden im syrohexaplarischen Psalter', BW 40 (1959), 20205; P.W. Skehan, 'Again the Syriac Apocryphal Psalms', CBQ 38 (1976), 14358; H.H. Spoer, 'Psalm 151', ZAW28 (1908), 65-67; J. Strugnell, 'Notes on the Text and Transmission of the Apocryphal Psalms 151,154 (= Syr. II) and 155 (= Syr. III)', HTR 59 (1966), 258-72, 278-81; Wigtil, 'Sequence'. See S. Strelcyn, 'Le psaume 151 dans le tradition thiopienne', JSS 23 (1978), 316-29; G. Viaud, 'Le Psaume 151 dans le liturgie copte', Bulletin de Vlnstitut Franais d'Archologie Orientale du Caire 67 (1969), 1-8. The first work contains a critical Ethiopic edition with translation and notes.
a 1 2 3

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)

183

an editio princeps.* The final composition in this scroll was Psalm 151 (HQPs column 28, lines 3-14). A terminus ad quern of the third century has been generally accepted largely on the witness to the text in the LXX. However, dates of either the second or first century B.C. have been proposed for the Septuagintal psalter. Perhaps a better indicator of a second-century date (or earlier), this text displays none of the thematic traits specifically associated with Qumran community literature. Lines 3-14, attesting to two poems, offer a rare opportunity to witness the process of poetic composition in the Second Temple period. The psalm was regarded rightly by its editor as a sort of 'midrash' on the life of David in 1 Sam 16.1-13. This sort of composition is not altogether exceptional. Yet there is evidence, albeit scanty, for such a genre earlier than the Syriac Psalms 152-153. J. Strugnell points to the survival of such a piece in Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum 59.4. The second half of this composition includes many of the same themes found in Psalm 151 (the mention of shepherding; David's father and brothers; his anointing; the reference to 'messengers' as in LXX Psalm 151 but not HQPs 28; the prophet). The text also shows the technique of taking language from 1 Samuel. Pseudo-Philo 62.5 contains a line which J. Strugnell and D. Harrington compare with the opening of Ps 151: 'For I, the least among my brothers, was tending sheep'. Ben Sira 47.1-12's praise of David for his many exploits might be placed in the same or a similar subgenre. Ben Sira 47.4 compares well with the final verse in LXX and Syriac: 'As a youth he slew the giant and did away with the people's disgrace' (cf. 1 Sam 17.26). One of the methods of composition utilized in
a 5 6 7 8 9 a 10

J.A. Sanders, Tsalm 151 in HQPss', ZA W75 (1963), 73-86; The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (DJD, IV; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), 53-64. * So F.M. Cross, 'David, Orpheus, and Psalm 151:3-4', BASOR 231 (1978), 6971. G. Dorival, M. Harl and O. Munnich, La Bible grecque: du judasme hellnistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerf/C.N.R.S., 1988), 91, 93, 97. O. Munnich prefers the earlier date based on a relative chronology of the LXX Psalter's influence on the translation of other LXX books. See Munnich, 'Etude lexicographique du Psautier des Septante' (2 vols.; these presentee pour le doctorat; Paris: Universit de Paris-Sorbonne, 1982), 1,19-53. See the summary of his views in Dorival, Harl and Munnich, La Bible grecque, 96, 111. For the grammatical basis of this argument, see A. Hurvitz, The Language and Date of Psalm 151 from Qumran', EI 8 (1967), 82-87 (Hebrew). Sanders, Psalms Scroll, 56. J. Strugnell, 'More Psalms of "David"', CBQ 27 (1965), 207-16. For a translation, see D. Harrington, Tseudo-Philo', in Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Vol. 2; ed. J.H. Charlesworth; Garden City: Doubleday, 1985), 372. Strugnell, 'More Psalms', 215, n.6; Harrington, Tseudo-Philo', 375.
6 7 8 9 1 0

184

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

Psalm 151, namely using words and phrases from 1 Samuel 17, finds its closest analogue in Ben Sira 47.1-12. Whatever the precise relationship among these texts, they point to a number of late poetic texts devoted to developing the biblical biography of David, or in the case of the psalm texts, Davidic autobiography. While Sanders' view of Psalm as a 'midrash' has been generally accepted, the extent of the borrowing from these chapters has not been sufficiently noted. The dependence on 1 Samuel 15-18 (but especially 16-17) indicates how the process of composition incorpo11 12

On this point, see S. Talmon, Tisqah Be>emsa Pasuq and HQPs', Textus 5 (1966), 19. The secondary literature does not sufficiently address this point: P. Auffret, 'Structure littraire et interprtation du Psaume 151 de la grotte 11 de Qumran', RQ 9 (1977), 163-88; J. Baumgarten, 'Perek Shirah, an Early Response to Psalm 151', RQ 9 (1978), 575-9; W.H. Brownlee, The HQ Counterpart to Psalm 151, 1-5', RQ 4 (1963), 379-88; J. Carmignac, 'La forme potique du Psaume 151 de la grotte 11', RQ 4 (1963), 371-78; 'Prcisions sur la forme du Psaume 151', RQ 5 (1965), 249-52; 'Nouvelles prcisions sur le Psaume 151', RQ 8 (1975), 593-97; J.H. Charlesworth with J.A. Sanders, 'More Psalms of David', in Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1; ed. J.H. Charlesworth; Garden City: Doubleday, 1983), 609-15; F. Collela, 'II testo ebraica del Salmo', Rivista Biblica Italiana 14 (1966), 365-38; Cross, 'David'; A. Dupont-Sommer, 'Le Psaume CLI dans HQPs et le problme de son origine essnienne', Semitica 14 (1964), 25-62; R.Y. Ebied, 'A Triglot volume of the Epistle of the Laodiceans, Psalm 151 and other Biblical Materials', Bib 47 (1966), 243-54; F. Garda Martinez, 'Salmos apocrifos en Qumran', EstBib 40 (1982), 200-201; M. Haran, The Two Text-Forms of Psalm 151', JJS 39 (1988), 171-82; Hurvitz, 'Language and Date'; Magne, 'Orphisme, pythagorisme, essnisme dans le texte hbreu du Psaume 151?', RQ 8 (1975), 508-47; "'Seigneur de l'univers" ou David-Orphe? Defense de mon interprtation du Psaume 151', RQ 9 (1977), 189-96; R. Mancini, 'Note sul 151', RSO 65 (1991), 125-29; M. Philonenko, 'David humili et simplex. L'interprtation essnienne d'un personnage biblique et son iconographie', CRAIBL Fvrier 1978, 536-48; I. Rabinowitz, The Alleged Orphism of HQPss 28:3-12', ZAW 76 (1964), 193-200; Sanders, 'Psalm 151'; 'Responsum', ZAW 76 (1964), 200; Psalms Scroll; 'A Multivalent Text: Psalm 151:3-4 Revisited', H AR 8 (1984), 167-84; F. Sen, 'El Salmo 151 merece anadirse al Salterio como obra maestra', Separata de Cultura Biblica 29 (1972), 167-73; P.W. Skehan, The Apocryphal Psalm 151', CBQ 25 (1963), 407-409 = Israelite Wisdom Literature (CBQMS I; Washington, DC: The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1971), 64-66; 'Again', 143-47; Morton Smith, 'Psalm 151, David, Jesus and Orpheus', ZAW 92 (1980), 247-53; J. Starcky, 'Le psaume 151 de Septuaginte retrouv Qumran', Le Monde de la Bible 6 (1979), 8-10; B. Storfjell, The Chiastic Structure of Psalm 151', AUSS 25 (1987), 97106; S. Talmon, The World of Qumran From Within (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1989), 244-72; B. Uffenheimer, 'Psalm 151 from Qumran', Molad 22 (1964), 6 9 81 (Hebrew); R. Weiss, Tsalm 151', Massa 15 May 1964 (Hebrew), 'Additions to the Subject of Psalm 151' Massa 29 January 1965 (Hebrew). The studies of Skehan on this text and others in HQPs deserve more consideration than they have received in recent discussions.
1 2 a 3 3 a

1 1

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)

185

rated phrases and words from this biblical book. By isolating the material drawn from 1 Samuel, it is possible to see how the author then added and arranged the material. This arrangement included some aspects of syntax, in particular verbal syntax. Hence, detailing the extensive borrowings provides a key to understanding the build ing process involved in the composition of this text. It may be no ac cident that the borrowings from 1 Samuel appear in the material shared by all the versions, but, as stressed by M. Haran and discussed below at greater length, the other material does not appear in the Hebrew Vorlage of the Greek and Syriac versions. Therefore, additions to the 1 Samuel material generally represent the compositional activity of the author of HQPs 28.3-14. (In turn, it would seem that the Greek and Syriac versions attest to a Hebrew Vorlage that like Ben Sira 47 stayed considerably closer to the lan guage borrowed from 1 Samuel 16-17.) Before proceeding, it is necessary to clarify the relationship be tween HQPs 28.3-14 and the other versions of Psalm 151. The dis crepancies between the extant Hebrew version and the shorter Greek and Syriac versions may in some cases provide an idea of how the redactor added to an older Hebrew version represented by these lat ter versions. Some of these discrepancies, in particular the LXX and Syriac counterparts to HQPs 7-8 and perhaps 9-10, are not helpful for this discussion, as they may contain haplographies in the Greek and Syriac versions rather than expansions on the part of the extant Hebrew version. However, some of the longer readings in HQPs 4, 5-6 and perhaps 10-12, compared with their LXX and Syriac counter parts, seem to represent expansions in the extant Hebrew version. Sanders regarded the difficult form of the LXX even in these cases as the result of internal reduction of an original to which the extant He brew version is a witness. This approach may suit the evident basis
13 a a 14 a 15 a 16

Haran, Two Text-Forms ', 172-73. For the Greek, on which the Syriac is dependent, a glance at the parallels assembled in the older work by F. W. Mozley suggests this point. See Mozley, The Psalter of the Church: The Septuagint Psalms Compared with the Hebrew, with Various Notes (Cambridge: Cam bridge University Press, 1905), 190. The Syriac versions are directly dependent on the LXX (Strugnell, 'Notes', 261-65; Skehan, 'Again', 143-47). Strugnell disputes Sanders' claim that the Syriac superscription is closer to the extant Hebrew than LXX. The compli cated issues of the Greek and Syriac versions and their many variants are not treated here. Rather, these versions are discussed in tandem here in order to highlight the differences with the extant Hebrew version which is the focus of this discussion. So Sanders, Psalms Scroll, 59. See also Strugnell, 'Notes', 265. See below for further discussion. See below for further discussion.
1 4 1 5 1 6

1 3

186 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA for haplography in the LXX and Syriac counterparts to HQPs 7-8 and perhaps 9-10, but it hardly explains the whole-scale loss de manded by this approach for the very long plus in 5-6. Nor does it do justice to the extra material in either lines 11-12 or 1 3 - 1 4 . It seems more reasonable to admit textual problems on the side of the LXX and Syriac versions here, but it may not be a matter of a reduction of the massive sort envisioned by J. A. Sanders and J. Strugnell and accepted by J. Charles worth. Rather, the Greek and Syriac versions had a shorter Hebrew Vorlage which differed on a number of points from the extant Hebrew version. As M. Haran has argued, the Greek and Syriac versions are closer to the original Hebrew Vorlage that was inherited by the 'author' of the HQPsA text, which represents an expansive version relative to the Greek and Syriac treatment. (Given the process of com position under discussion, it may be more appropriate to label the author of the expanded extant Hebrew version an 'author-redactor' or the like.) Indeed, the extant Hebrew version seems to have inherited a single poem about David's life perhaps culminating in his defeat of Goliath (hence the allusion to this episode in the su perscriptions in the Greek and Syriac versions). Then the authorredactor made two poems out of his received material and provided each one with its own superscription; hence the reference to Goliath was perhaps taken from the first superscription as reflected in the Greek and Syriac versions and used in the second superscription of the Hebrew version. While the second poem is extant only in the very fragmentary lines 13-14 of HQPs 28, the Greek and Syriac versions are more extensive at this point. Furthermore, there is room for eight more lines at the bottom of column 28, more than enough room to
17 18 19 20 a a

2 0

The plus in lines 13-14 is not addressed here. For now, see correctly Haran, Two Text-Forms'. Strugnell, 'Notes', 281; Charlesworth with Sanders, 'More Psalms', 612. In addition to the pluses in HQPs 28.3-12, the Greek and Syriac versions show a few differences which reflect a different Hebrew Vorlage, e.g., LXX 'angel' (from Hebrew ybo) for HQPs 28:8 'prophet' (see L. H. Silberman, Trophets/Angels: LXX and Qumran 151 and the Epistle to the Hebrews', in Standing Before God: Studies on Prayer in Scriptures and in Tradition with Essays in Honor of John M. Oesterreicher [ed. A. Finkel and L. Frizzell; New York: Ktav, 1981)], 91-101) and LXX ev x eXou TTI<; xpiaeox; amou, 'the oil of his anointment', compared with 0"npn ] D M 'with the holy oil', in line 11 (see Strugnell, 'Notes', 268). LXX tip^ooav 'he fitted' (reflecting p) has no corre sponding verb in HQPs 28 line 3, as noted by Haran (Two Text-Forms', 175). Unlike Haran, I would be inclined to view this as a possible addition and not the original. Haran, Two Text-Forms', 176-77.
1 8 1 9 a a a

1 7

SMITH: PSALM 151A ( H Q P s 28.3-12)


21

187

sing the praises of David for his victory over Goliath. Therefore, HQPs 28.3-14 is generally expansive relative to the Greek and Syriac versions, except in the cases of possible haplography in the LXX and Syriac counterparts to HQPs 7-8 and perhaps 9-10. In sum, the expressions from 1 Samuel 15-18 and the additions special to HQPs 28.3-14 will help to illustrate the compositional process for HQPs 28.3-14. The purpose of this study is to examine in detail the process of composition in Psalm 151 as represented by HQPs 28.3-12. This es say proceeds in five parts: (1) text and translation of the Hebrew ver sion of Psalm 151, presented first for the sake of reference and clarifi cation; (2) palaeographical and philological notes and discussion of the sections in the poem; (3) sources for the poem's composition; (4) stylistic strategies in the poem's composition; and (5) an appendix comparing the syntax of the superscriptions in Psalm 151 with that of others in HQPs . To anticipate, the four main points insufficiently appreciated up to this point are: (1) the use of previous texts by the author-redactor of H Q P s 28.3-14; (2) the author-redactor's departure from inherited tradition in describing David and God's relationship in the middle of the poem; (3) the double-bicola construction of HQPs 28.3-12; and (4) the role of verbal syntax in the construction of this poem.
a a a a a a a

II: Text and translation ofUQPs" Superscription Type 3. A Halleluyah Putative author Of David, son of Jesse.

283-14

m^n

'BT p TH*?

Could some of the content of Ben Sira 47 have constituted some material in the lacuna? This possibility does not seem so remote when Ben Sira 47.4 is compared with the final verse of Psalm 151 in LXX and Syriac. There is also a sizeable extra attested in Ethiopic and Arabic versions in this section of the poem; is it possible that this material, generally regarded as an interpolation, was actually part of a Hebrew Vorlage somehow rearranged and lost from the Greek and Syriac versions? The possibility seems too remote and convenient, but it would seem that further material existed at one time such that a second superscription would be added.

2 1

188 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA Poem I. David's glorification of Yahweh
22

A: David as his father's shepherd among the sons I was the least of my brothers. And smallest of my father's sons. 4. And he made me shepherd to his sheep. And ruler over his goats. B: David's honouring of God And my hands made a pipe. And my fingers a lyre. 5. And I gave honour to Yahweh, I truly said to myself: C: David as God's witness 6. The mountains do not witness to Him, Nor do the hills tell of Him, Nor the trees, my words, Nor the sheep, my compositions'. II. God's glorification of David C: God as David's witness 7. For who can tell and who can express And who can relate the deeds of the Lord of All? 8. The God of All has seen. He has heard and he has listened. B : God's honouring of David among his family He sent His prophet to anoint me, 9. Samuel to raise me. My brothers came out to meet him, Handsome of form and handsome of appearance. 10. (Though) tall in their height, Handsome in their hair, The Lord God Chose them not.
v

TTC6

rum *izm

tod rmb rromto '(DEfln^RvnoK

vow* nR]ram

T2V *a\ T O ^ Q o "Ton ] n pmn aim mo Kin

'anuria ? w a a rib

ronon 'sn mrm onDipno'naan onttrao'B'n mrr irnwb

2 2

For this two-fold division, see Sanders, Psalms Scroll, 56.

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12) A': David as shepherd of God's people 11. And he sent for and took me from after the sheep. And he anointed me with the holy oil. And he made me leader for His people 12. And ruler over the sons of His covenant. Superscription Biographical information 13. The beginning of the stre[ng]th of [Davjid, After the prophet of God anointed him. Poem Then I saw the Philistine, Cursing from the r[anks of the Philistines]. 14. ...I... (about eight lines missing).
23

189

jaw?

TP"Q 'DID * P C 7 V D 1

rafts *nMm *m [Drafts rronrloo * p r a

Ill: Notes and sections The first poetic unit of lines 3b-4a consists of two synonymously par allel bicola. The second bicola consisting of lines 4b-5 poetically fol lows suit. Sanders does not construe the lines as the introduction to the direct speech in the following lines, but this is the standard use of the comparable biblical expression, 'to say in one's heart'. The poetic parallelism militates, however, in favour of construing this unit as two bicola. The third unit of line 6 contains several structural and philologi cal problems. The attempt to take Kft in the first two lines as precative by I. Rabinowitz and F.M. Cross has not been adopted except by B. Storfjell. It is not clear that the precative was still used
24 25

2 3

2 4

On average, the scroll has room for a total of twenty-three lines. Sanders does not count the blank line after line 2 in his enumeration of this column, which means 15 lines are extant, leaving another possible eight lines. Rabinowitz, 'Alleged Orphism', 193; Cross, 'Notes', 69. Storfjell, 'Chiastic Structure', 101. See the criticisms of Morton Smith, Tsalm 151', 253; and M. Weinfeld, The Angelic Song over the Luminaries in the Qumran Texts', in Time To Prepare the Way in the Wilderness: Papers on the Qumran Scrolls by Fellows of the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew Uni versity, Jerusalem, 1989-90 (ed. D. Dimant and L. H. Schiffman; STDJ, 16; Lei den: EJ. Brill, 1995), 154, n. 108.

190 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA in this period. The word ftr, rendered here as a prepositional phrase at the end of the second line of line 6, was taken in the editio princeps as a verb. There is little supporting evidence and the rabbinic citations, the chief basis for the putative verb, were criticized by Rabinowitz. Sanders considered but rejected the view adopted here that fttf (for ifttf, a variation known elsewhere in this scroll ) is parallel to ft in the preceding line. In contrast, Strugnell and Cross adopted this view. It might be objected that such a prepositional phrase would not follow Titf* 'to witness', since in BH the verb Titf* takes ft rather than the standard -3 T I J ; * . (Commentators have noted the same syntactical issue with respect to ft in the preceding line.) Comparing yv"p^] in Neh 8.15, Skehan viewed the word as a noun in construct to the following as 'the boughs of trees'. Weinfeld accepted this rendering. This approach would break the syntactical parallelism found in the four poetic lines in this unit ('mountains ... hills ... trees ... sheep') by having a construct phrase syntactically unparalleled. Morever, the contents of such a hypothetical construct phrase would seem out of place. Scholars have noted modifications in usage in late Hebrew po etry. Such changes in the expected use of verb-preposition combina tions have been viewed as poor composition on the part of the author. It may be asked, however, whether poetic considerations such as allit eration are at work. In this regard W. G. E. Watson comments: Consonantal patterns tend to force a poet's hand, leading to the selection of particular words or word-forms which best fit the alliterative scheme. They dictate the choice between syn onyms, tip the scales in favour of rare words and word-forms and can also lead to the avoidance of certain words as non-al literative. In a study of Second Isaiah, L. Boadt suggested that the author uses prepositions in unexpected ways in order to heighten allitera26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

3 4

Rabinowitz, 'Alleged Orphism', 198. See E. Qimron, The Psalms Scroll from Qumran: A Linguistic Survey , L . 34 (1969-70), 99-116, esp. 107 (Hebrew); see also Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (HSS, 29; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986), 33-34,59. See Cross, 'David', 69. Haran, Two Text-Forms', 175-76. See Haran, Two Text-Forms', 175-76. Skehan, 'Apocryphal Psalm 151'. Weinfeld, 'Angelic Song', 154. The abverbial use of the phrase in initial position ('Above ... ') is common in older West Semitic texts (e.g. Ugaritic), but does not appear suitable here. W.G.E. Watson, Classical Hebrew Poetry: A Guide to its Techniques (JSOTSup, 26; Sheffield: JSOT, 1984), 228.
2 7 7 e 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3

2 6

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)


35

191

tion. Such a hypothesis may be tested against the use of ft and ftv in HQPs 28.3-12. When alliterative considerations are introduced into the discussion, the usage seems to reflect a creative use on the part of the author-redactor. Specifically, using ft instead of -3 works well with the other ft in the first line: ft ... toft. Similarly, *ft maintains the same alliteration in the second line: ftv... toft. Sonant aspects may also govern the selection of and TV7? as parallel verbs, even though these verbs are hardly a known word-pair. The verbs as well as the prepositional phrases and negative particles in these two parallel lines may be considered examples of 'sound pairs', according to the definition of A. Berlin: 'the repetition in parallel words or lines of the same or similar consonants in any order within close proximity'. Such prosodic considerations may lie behind the modifications to the more traditional grammar and usage. The suffixes on - i m * and the two cases of -fetfQ* in this line and the next were all read as yod by Sanders and Skehan, but Strugnell and Cross read waw in all three instances. T. H. Gaster, followed by Morton Smith, voiced strong criticism of Cross's readings. Accord ing to E. Puech, the suffixes on the nouns are to be read as yod. While yod and waw are similar when the head of yod is thin, the heads of these letters are thick, even triangular, which is characteristic of many instances of yod in this text, but only rarely at best of waw. Cross allows that yod may be the correct reading on -121 and 'may be a confusion of the scribe'. (Or, could haplography be involved due to the following waw, hence o > n 3 " i ? ) In the cases of -iDVO*, the letter is longer but exhibits the stance more characteristic of yod. The readings of the editio princeps therefore are retained here. Finally, Strugnell, though he reads these letters as waw, perhaps provides some indirect evidence for reading yod. As noted above, the Greek and Syriac versions provide no corresponding text for this section, but Strugnell discusses a version in an Arabic psalter which renders all of the pertia 36 37 38 39 40

3 5

3 6

3 7

3 8

3 9

Boadt, Intentional Alliteration', CBQ 45 (1983), 353-63, esp. 357-59. Y. Avishur discusses the word-pairs Df and "TOO* and "W* and #00*, as well as Titf* and na *, but not iyf and TIP* See Avishur, Stylistic Studies of WordPairs in Biblical and Ancient Semitic Literatures (AOAT, 210; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1984). Berlin, The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism (Bloomington/Indianapolis: Indi ana University, 1985) 104; Berlin's italics. Strugnell, 'Notes', 280; Cross, TSJotes', 69. See also Garcia Martinez, 'Salmos apocrifos'; The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English (English translation by W.G.E. Watson; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994), 310. Gaster apud Morton Smith, Tsalm 151', 253. Puech, personal communication, cited with permission and gratitude.
1

4 0

192 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA

nent suffix forms as first person singular. Strugnell comments of the passage: 'The closeness in thought is surely too great to be accidental'. It may be that this point applies to the issue of the suf fixes. To be sure, the Arabic version's reading of all the suffixes in the lines corresponding to H Q P s 28.6-7 as first person singular is not original. However, the Arabic version may have inherited one or more first person suffixes, which was levelled through the rest of the suffixal forms at some point in the tradition. The two cases of -fetfQ* in this line and the next have been trans lated generally to mean 'deeds'. Skehan drew attention to 'EWQ in Ps 45.2 and argued that the correct rendering in both instances is 'my compositions'.42 in its description of David's praise of God, Ben Sira
a

41

47.8 (manuscript B) reads rrnvr ]m VTCBtfQ bD2, which may be rendered

'with all his compositions he offered praises'. This passage is espe cially close to the language and context of Psalm 151. Finally, this in terpretation improves the poetic parallelism. The resulting arrangement in line 6 is of double bicola exhibiting synonymous parallelism as found thus far clearly in lines 3b-4a and arguably in lines 4b-5. The syntactical difficulty with this solution for line 6 is the lack of a verb clearly heading the scond bicolon. For that reason, it might be argued that the lines should be rearranged accord ingly, perhaps in the following manner. The mountains do not witness to him, ft toft onnn Neither the hills; rniom The boughs of the trees do not tell train ftv 1TF wb my words, nain Neither the sheep, my deeds. While the grammatical difficulty is alleviated by this approach, the resulting poetic parallelism for the first bicolon militates against this solution. Furthermore, this approach requires a scribal error in reading ftv for ftv. In this instance it may be wiser to allow the ap parent poetic parallelism to lead to the understanding of the grammar instead of assuming prior grammatical constraints on the poetic ex pression. The fourth unit of lines 7-8a also has some major interpretational cruces. A. Hurvitz insightfully proposes that the titles, 'Lord of AH' faDnjVTK) and 'God of All' (Ton rrfrK) should be recognized here.
43 44

Strugnell, 'Notes', 280. Skehan, 'Apocryphal Psalm 151', 407 This possibility was raised by Professor J. Hoftijzer (personal communica tion). Hurvitz, 'Adon Hakkol Cron]TnO', Tarbrz 34 (1964-65), 224-27; 'Language and Date', 83-87; 'Observations on the Language of the Third Apocryphal
4 2 4 3 4 4

4 1

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)


45

193

Sanders had noted r m " r o ^ p m in 1QH 10.8. Hurvitz compared the first title with pfr'K'TDp -m in 4Q403 l.ii.33, and the title is recon structed in a text that was unavailable to Hurvitz, namely 4Q409 line 8: bbn 'TDH ]P"TK m -pan, '[and bless the Lo]rd of all, praise. .. J. A. Fitzmyer notes Kvpios TKXVTWV Tord of air in Romans 10.12 as well as tfpa D^tfi nnij, 'Lord and Master over all', in lQApGen 20.13 and, in Josephus, Antiquities 20.4.22.90, xSv jcdvxov ... novov Kal rcpSrov ifrniuu- Kupiov 1 have considered you the first and only Lord of all'. The second title may be compared with ban *>nb\* in Ben Sira 33.1 and 45.23 and ban PJTPK in 5QRegle I.2. The titles are paralleled also in Ben Sira 18.1-2 (cited below in section III). Most accept the yod reading, but they do not translate 'my deeds', a notable exception being Rabinowitz. Rather, they construe the final yod as the plural form in construct to the following divine title ('deeds of the King of All', or the like) as rendered above in section I. (Hurvitz considers both possibilities.) It should be noted that all renderings require some relative imbalance of lines. Finally, it should be noted that the Greek and Arabic versions understand T o n as an object 'for whatever their judgement is worth'. Another way to read this unit, which preserves the divine titles, is as follows. For who will tell and who can express "QT 'Ql TIP O And who will relate my deeds? nw>0 nfc "ISO' 'Ql rwn'ron p u t The Lord of All has seen, MRirr 7Drr rrfra The God of All, he has heard pron Kim and he has listened. Though without parallel, the context might seem to favour 'my compositions' or 'my deeds', since the preceding context concerns David's deeds and words. Commentators perhaps overlook this possibility not only because of the lack of parallels, but because the idea of David's self-proclamation conflicts with preconceptions of
47 48 49 50 51 ,

5 0 5 1

Psalm from Qumran', RQ 5 (1964-66), 228, n. 7. This view is, however, not ac cepted by a number of commentators, a notable exception being Cross CNotes', 70). Sanders, Psalms Scroll, 57. See E. Qimron, Times for Praising God: A Fragment of a Scroll from Qum ran', JQR 80 (1990), 341-47. This evidence meets part of Skehan's objections voiced in 'Again', 147. Fitzmyer, Romans (AB, 33; Garden City: Doubleday, 1992), 593. The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, Vol. I: Alef (ed. D.J.A. Clines; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), 280. See P.W. Skehan and A. A. Di Leila, The Wisdom of Ben Sira (AB, 39; Garden City: Doubleday, 1987), 278,295. Rabinowitz, 'Alleged Orphism', 1%. Strugnell,'Notes', 281.
4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9

194 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA David's humility. Yet it is arguable that this is the central point in the Hebrew version: David recounts his devotion in lines 3-7, which is why God rewards him in lines 7-12. This approach, as represented in the translation immediately above, has two problems, however. The length of the last line is conspicuous. Furthermore, the theology implied by the second line, which would have David praising himself rather than God, seems odd and lacks parallels. In contrast, the read ing offered by the line division and translation in section I incurs no such problems. The only point to note is the initial position of the *qatal form in the third poetic line; such syntax has parallels in the biblical corpus (e.g. Exod 15.9,10,13,14; Deut 32.5,26; Judg 5.7,19). The fifth unit seems the longest, running from line 8b through the end of line 10. The two bicola in lines 8b-9 offer no problems. The defective spelling of "inn for IKnn in line 9 is notable. It is likewise at tested in the HQPs 21.11 version of Ben Sira 51.14: m r a ft nan, liter ally 'she came to me in her beaut/. (Given the context, the last word in this clause may involve paranomasia with m r a , 'with torah'.) The major interpretive issue in this unit is whether to read line 10 as two or four lines. The parallelism here is open to either interpretation. There are two factors in favour of seeing only two poetic lines in line 10. The internal parallelism of the last poetic line in line 9 would per haps suggest the same in the case of line 10a. Moreover, the syntax of what is taken here as two lines is more properly speaking a single line from a grammatical point of view. There are two points which per haps suggest reading the unit as four lines. The addition of D'nftfc relative to LXX might imply an attempt to fill out the obviously short line. Furthermore, most of the other units in this poem seem to be double bicola, and the same may be the case here. The final unit of the first poem exhibits the double bicola struc ture as found clearly in most units of this poem and arguably for all the units. For the first line of the second poem Talmon reconstructs the la cuna TtftfDB], 'I [hearjd'. Sanders has read instead Tipjlio, which ad mittedly is less suitable.
52 53 a 54 55

5 2

For this two-fold division, see Sanders, Psalms Scroll, 56. See P. Jouon and T. Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Part Three: Syntax (Subsidia Biblica 14. II; Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1991) 155k (reference courtesy of Professor T. Muraoka). The form in or nn for iKn 'form, beauty occurs twice elsewhere in Ben Sira, in the Masada manuscript of 43.9 and 18 (Dr J.F. Elwolde, personal com munication). ^Talmon, Tisqah',20.
5 3 5 4 7

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12) IV: Sources for the poem's composition

195

The various phrases known from 1 Samuel 16-17, with some echoes from 15 as well, constituted the building blocks for the external edi fice of this text (marked in the translation as A, B, V and A'). (This is true not only of the first psalm attested here in lines 3 through 12, but also in the second psalm, the beginning of whose poem is preserved fragmentarily in lines 13-14.) The following list contains fourteen items from 1 Samuel 15-18 which served as building blocks for HQPs 28.3-12.
a

HQPs 28 1. 2. 3. small 3 (]0p)

1 Samuel 15-18 16.11,17.14 (19j?n);

15.17 (|bj?)*
he set me/him 3 pxren) shepherd to sheep 3 ( u c 6 n n ) 18.5 (TOftrj) 16.11 17.15

(TiHrriHn?); vni^);
4. 5. 6. 7. lyre he sent (Samuel) to meet him handsome 4 CVSD)

8(n^) 9 omnp ?)
1

cf. 17.34 16.16,23 CTto) 16.1 (^tfptiK)

16.4 (inanpV)
17.42 (rmnbngp); 16.12 (D^nsr* 'tfnaiDi)

9(n*ODn 'En mnn *EP)

8. 9.

tall in height the Lord did not choose 10. he sent

9 tonDTpnovori) I0(mrr nrattf?)


10 (rfwn)

16.7 (inoip ppa)


16.8, 9 ,10016

mm nra)

11. 12. 13. 14.

16.12 (n^'l); cf. 15.18; 18.5 ... send and take 10 Oanpn rfazh) 16.11 (Hipirnfatf); cf. 17.31 take... and anoint 10-11 0anron...'3npn) 16.13 (ntfpn...nj?3) he anointed me/ 15.17 (^qijtan) 11 O A N R O N ) you 16.13 (ntpq ])Q2;n); anoint with oil ll (pra'arratan) cf. 18.14,16
T 9

5 6

Cf. m

]Bp in Ben Sira 51:27 (B).

196 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA In addition to the material from 1 Samuel 15-18, four cases of bor rowings from other royal biblical passages may be noted. 15. my compositions 6fatfQ Ps45.2 WW} (Ben Sira 47.8 [B]
57 ,

16. took from after the sheep

10-11 ]K12in "inKQ '3np'1


2 Sam 7.8 Jlfefij "TTKD... ^ W T j ? ?
4
4 58

17. anointed with holy oil 18. leader for his people

59

Ps 78.71 nijn ? iann nt>y nn$Q 11 BTipn pti'wmn Ps 89.21 rnrnpo voip ]oc?3 llTD^Ta" 1 Sam 13.14 "iOV'bv TJJ; cf. 1 Sam 8.16,10.1; 2 Sam 6.21,7.8, etc.

The net effect of these comparisons is noteworthy. It is evident that the two outer envelopes, lines 3-5 and 8-12, are constructed mainly from expressions found in 1 Samuel. The poem in the two outside envelopes uses material from 1 Samuel 15-18 (but mainly 1 6 17), and then the author-redactor filled in this construction with the material from his own hand. Many non-biblical and late expressions serve to complete the outer edifice of the poem and a small part of its inner structure as well. Ten such expressions in lines 3-5 and 8-12 appear in the follow ing order. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5-6. W/ a o(3) v n n n ^ Q (4) U>iD* in an expression of 'giving' honour (5) tiDn...noK*(5) ' r o n ] r m / / r o n r i b * (7 -S)
61 62 , 63 , 1 6 0

5 7 5 8

Skehan, 'Apocryphal Psalm 151', 407. 2 Sam 7.8 refers back to 1 Samuel 16. Noted by Skehan, 'Apocryphal Psalm 151', 407. Haran (Two Text-Forms', 174) rightly regards the parallelism as innova tive on the part of the author-redactor, especially in view of the biblical wordpair, 'brother'//'sons of mother'. He considers it artificial, but the change over and against the standard biblical parallel word-pair may represent a su perior evocation of the theme of 1 Samuel 15-18. See Haran, Two Text-Forms', 175. Cf. the BH idiom, ata I D K * (e.g. Pss 14 = 53.1; also Qoh 2.1, 3.17, etc. as noted by Rabinowitz, 'Alleged Orphism', 197). For the parallelism of divine titles, see Ps 114.7. So Sanders, Psalms Scroll,
5 9 6 0 6 2 6 3

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)


7. 8.
'ftlft^KTOB

197

(8-9)" n m o n *sn ninn *B (9)

9. 10.

Dirtncrfipnao) TPmvcn (11-12).

These ten expressions do not occur in the Greek and Syriac versions, but only in the expanded Hebrew version, rightly emphasized by Haran. They show four strategies for completing lines. First, the author-redactor extends usage from material in the older version of the poem. So, for example, in line 4 draws on the more traditional use of this word attested in line 11 (written superlinearly). In a similar vein, D ' B * as a verb for giving honour in line 5 is perhaps an extension of this verb's more regular usage in line 11. Perhaps the expression Tinn '333 in 11-12 owes its first noun to *33 in line 3. Second, the poet used traditional biblical wordings (in addition to items noted above). So the construction of the parallel 3TU7 and -TCD in line 4 was completed in accord with this traditional word-pair known
65

in Gen 4.21, Ps 150.4, Job 21.12 and 30.31. Similarly, mcion 'fin mnn *B in line 9 shows a modification of 1 Sam 17.42 (rwnQ H E P ) and 16.12
66

OfcODiBID'rynEP). T h e handsome hair of David's brothers is a trait borrowed from Absalom (2 Sam 14.26)'. Third, the poet used non-biblical and current religious language. This would seem to apply to 7Dn ] n K / / r o n nftfc in lines 7-8 (as noted above). Perhaps to be included here is the phrase, Tin3 '333, in 11-12 which may have sounded traditional to the poet. Fourth, the poet ventured new parallel expressions to match ma terial borrowed from 1 Samuel: for ^ITOIQ*? in line 8, 'ftlft in line 9; and, for onoip3D *rmin in line 9,DnOT3D'fim in line 10. Given these observations, the poet at times appears more adroit at using older ma terial than in coining original expressions or even in offering parallel expressions. A further observation, one perhaps even more conspicuous, may be derived from noting the distribution of the borrowings from 1 Samuel: the central section of the poem shows no comparable bor rowing. Here the 'midrash' ends, unveiling the main thematic point
67 l l

57. Haran, Two Text-Forms', 176. It may be added that it is precisely many of these items which provided the linguistic basis for a post-exilic date. See Hurvitz, 'Language and Date'; Haran, Two Text-Forms', 172-73. Cf.Estherl.il. Skehan, 'Apocryphal Psalm 151', 407.
6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7

198 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA placed strategically in the middle. Before pursuing this point, it is necessary to study the poet's sources for this section as well, not only to discern this main point more clearly, but also to examine the poet's method of construction in the middle sections of his poem (marked in the translation as C and C ) . As noted above, *7Dn ym/Zbun nV?R in lines 7-8 constitute idioms current in the author-redactor's time. For form and content, other sources provided models. The form of the statement in lines 5-6 echoes biblical passages. Sanders cited Mic 6.12, Isa 44.23 and 55.12. The addition of the negative in line 6 seems to represent the author-redactor's modification. The negative form of this assertion relative to biblical models has been attributed to the in fluence of Orphism, but this view met with strong criticism and is not generally held now. In either case, David's claim in line 6 seems su perlative in comparison with the biblical examples. Regarding the question in line 7, Sanders compared Isa 40.12-13 as well as a number of passages in Ben Sira. Of these, Ben Sira 16.22 (manuscript B) is perhaps the most pertinent since like line 7, it juxta poses -tolJD* with an interrogative clause containing + the HifMl of 12*: T3-Pr ^np-re niDVO, 'my (?) righteous deeds, who can relate?'. The Greek text of Ben Sira 18.1-2,4 is also helpful, as it contains the same juxtaposition of question and statement about God known from HQPs 28.7. P.W. Skehan translates: The Eternal is the judge of all alike; Kupioq ^iovo<; SiKctio&GiiGexai the Lord alone is just. iced OUK EOXW aAAo<; nki\v duxou Whom has he made equal ouGevi e^ercovnoev to describing his works, e^ayyeiXai xd epya auxou and who can probe KOCIX{<; eijixvidoei his mighty deeds? xd ^eyaXeia auxou 1QS 11.20 shows a similar question: rDTTO m bOTlb *7D' 'QT (cf. 1QH frg 16.4-5).
68 69 a 71 72

7 1

7 2

Sanders, Psalms Scroll, 57. See Sanders, 'Psalm 151'; Charles worth with Sanders, 'More Psalms'; Magne, 'Orphisme'; '"Seigneur de l'univers"'. For strenuous criticism, see Rabinowitz, 'Alleged Orphism'; Cross, T>avid' esp. 71; Morton Smith, Tsalm 151'; see also Skehan, 'Again', 147. There seems to be a question of whether the suffix is to be read as waw or yod, but context favours yod. To the best of my knowledge, the parallel was proposed first by M.R. Lehman, 'HQPs and Ben Sira', RQ11 (1983), 249. See also Weinfeld, 'Angelic Song', 154-55. The parallels between Ben Sira and the non-biblical texts in llQPs* are notable (as are its parallels with Jubilees) and may prove helpful in locating more precisely the sort of circles involved in the final stages of the production of the Psalms Scroll. Skehan in Skehan and Di Leila, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 278.
6 9 7 0 a

6 8

SMITH: PSALM 151A (llQPs 28.3-12)

199

In general, the author-redactor drew on contemporary religious idiom to construct the centre of the poem just as he had inherited and modified material from 1 Samuel 15-18 for the outer part of the poem. The reason for this difference perhaps lies with the Samuel material: the outer sections of A and A* and B and B* focus on the deeds of David and God, while the central sections of C and C dwell on David's internal expressions about his relationship with God, a subject for which 1 Samuel 15-18 did not provide ready material. The author-redactor therefore turned to more contemporary religious ex pression. The twist on this expression, if correctly understood, would ap pear to be the author-redactor's own. HQPs 28.4-8 stresses David's piety and knowledge of the divine. Perhaps thanks to the prophetic gift of his music (line 4), David has the capacity to give witness to God unlike the mountains and hills (lines 5-6). This witness that na ture is incapable of rendering includes 'my compositions' and 'my words', that is, David's own faithful words (line 6). Thus, David asks who can appreciate his devotion, and the answer is God. Or, it might be said, 'only God'. The third person singular pronoun in line 8 seems to express an implicit contrast ; that is, only God has seen and heard. Both the question and response witness to David's piety insofar as his words in praise of God are known fully only by God. In turn, God's glory is made manifest by David's unparalleled praise. This presentation of David's internal expression in lines 6-7 rep resents the author-redactor's single greatest departure from either biblical and extra-biblical models or the Hebrew Vorlage of his com position. This passage perhaps represents the author-redactor's own special contribution to the traditional characterization of David. The words of David mediate knowledge of God to the reading commu nity. Nature does not fathom the designs of God, but these have been providentially provided in this, the last psalm of HQPs (not to men tion the LXX), perhaps even as a commentary on the view of David underlying the scroll as a whole. (This would be consistent with the exalted portrait of David in column 27.5-11, which may have served as the final comment in an earlier stage of the scroll). Moreover, David is a model for the community; in the words of I. Rabinowitz: This psalm is a homily with David as exemplum: David, though an insignificant stripling, glorified the Lord, and so came himself to glory; we too, then, humble though we may
a 73 a

For this use, see S.A. Geller, 'Cleft Sentences with Pleonastic Pronoun: A Syntactic Construction of Biblical Hebrew and Some of its Literary Uses', JANES 20 (1991), 22.

7 3

200

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA


74

be, may expect future glory if now we honour God. If the author-redactor's own material betrays his special view of the collection, it falls on the avenue of divine communication embodied in the words of David. This view may have been traditional in the post-exilic psalmic tradition, and it is consistent with other descriptions of David.

V: Stylistic strategies in the poem's composition The content of the poem exhibits traditional strategies; this is true also of style. The poem largely adheres to traditional canons of synonymous parallelism. Not in every case is the parallelism fully maintained (e.g.oaO'm^R/mn'nraKV? in line 10), but in general there seems to be an attempt at regularity. The extant Hebrew version generally represents an expansion of an older poem, surviving perhaps only fragmentarily in the Greek and Syriac versions. Based on the style of expansions identified in the preceding section, it is possible to observe the poef s stylistic strategy in creating this poem. First, the arrangement of lines into groupings of two bicola was invented by the author-redactor of the extant Hebrew version. This is clear from the following additions relative to the Greek and Syriac versions: 1. The addition of v r m a a btiin) in line 4 provided a fourth line to the first set of double bicola in lines 3-4. 2. To form the second group of double bicola, a second bicolon in line 5 was added to the first one in line 4. 3. The third set of double bicola in lines 5-6 apparently was an original creation in the Hebrew version which perhaps illustrates the author-redactor's own plan at work. 4. The fourth set of double bicola in lines 7-8 is difficult to assess against the Greek and Syriac evidence, and perhaps Sanders, Strugnell and others are correct in seeing haplography at work in the Greek and Syriac versions. For the first part of this section, LXX seems to assume a different Vorlage: 'pit? T3 rai-u avayyeXexTcp Kupia> jn.o\>
aro Kupio aro eiaaicouei.
J " -

If correct, it is possible that the Hebrew version essentially doubled the amount of material, issuing in a double bicolon for this unit. The details are unclear, however, and it is impossible to assess exactly the degree of manipulation of the Hebrew Vorlage that was before the author-redactor of the extant Hebrew version.
Rabinowitz, 'Alleged Orphism', 199.

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)

201

5-6. For the fifth and sixth sets of double bicola in lines 8-10, it is possible that the Greek and Syriac versions had a tricolon and a bicolon in their Hebrew Vorlage: 0 6 x 6 5 e^oneoxeiXev x6v ayyeAov avxov icai fjpe tie EK T<DV icpo|3dxcov xoS
icoxpdq |xo\> Kai expioe \IE ev xcp eAxxiq>

xf\<j xpioeax; acbxov oi dSeAxpoi \LOX> K O X O I \ieyaXoi 03 n r a n r r t f T j Kal o\>x E\)56KT[OEV ev auxoiq Kvpioq. If correct, it would suggest that the author-redactor of the Hebrew version transposed the second and third line of the tricolon to the next poetic unit in lines 11-12 (which he also expanded into a double colon). The author-redactor also added a second parallel line to the first line that was left, yielding a bicolon, and also added another bicolon inspired by the following bicolon about David's brothers. Relative to the bicolon in the Greek, the Hebrew version is greatly expanded and may accordingly be regarded as two bicola. In sum, the author of the extant Hebrew version regularized according to the scheme devised for the rest of the poem. 7. The last set of double bicola in lines 11-12 reflects the addition of a bicolon relative to the Greek and Syriac versions. In most of these units the double bicolon structure is clear and with out difficulty (A, C, C and A'). In some cases (B and B'), this struc ture, though grammatically more debatable, is defensible. The double bicola arrangement was hardly exceptional. Psalm 154 shows a very similar plan of double bicola. Each of its main five sections contains two sets of bicola, if allowance is made for two probable expansions and one possibly deliberate departure. The two apparent expansions are 'his glory to all the simple' in line 2 and the extra line in 17* ap parently not attested in 4Q488 col. A: '[raises a horn from Ja]cob, a judge [of the peoples from Israel]'. The deliberate departure appro priately appears at the centre of the poem which is dominated by four participial clauses dependent on a main clause. Second, the author-redactor permitted some variation in linelength. The shortest is the line 03 D*nV ?K /mrr n r n W\b in line 10, which stood for a bicolon. The author-redactor also allowed two rather long lines to complete two of the double bicola in lines 8 and 9. Apparently too long for the line, in line 10 represents a case of
75
7 5

Morton Smith (Tsalm 151', 248,250) permits less variation than the authorredactor, and as a consequence resorts to bracketing several items from the poetic structure and offers one sizable emendation.

202 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA anacrusis, designed to resume the same verb in line 8 . Such usage is not exceptional; compare mm q n p in Ps 154 in llQPs* 18.15. The use of a resumptive phrase is likewise not uncommon; the opening of the thanksgiving, *Hjn mm *nmp, in Ps 155 in HQPs^ 24.17, resumes the language of the opening of the prayer, TrtOp mm, in HQPs 24.1. To judge from these two cases in Psalm 151, regularity of line-length was evidently subordinated to the scheme of double bicola in this text. Third, the double bicola were organized on the macro-level ac cording to the traditional plan of a chiastic structure. Such a model was not only available in the biblical corpus; it also informs the structure of Psalm 154 and perhaps the prayer section of Psalm 155. The chiastic plan of Psalm 151 is evident, especially in A and A' and C and C . The outer units, A and A', attest the verbs D'fa* and btin*. The nouns, brothers' and 'sheep/ initially used in A to refer to David's family and work, are extended in A' to describe his new royal capac ity. I would suspect as well verbal assonance between vrTP"U3 in A and ma in A\ The two inside units, C and C , use the phrase n m (and also the verb of this root), as well as the HifMl of the verb 133* (and here the verbal resonance with in line 5 may be noted). Some clever paranomasia may be suspected as well: 'totfO in the last line of second bicolon of C and .VQE* in the last line of the second bicolon of C ; and perhaps ambitiously (on my part or the poet's, I am unsure), ntn in the first line of the second bicolon in C may have evoked mn* in the context by ]Hl^m in the last line of C, but perhaps in conjunction with the poem's larger context, particularly nim in line 4. If correct, the paranomasia perhaps evokes the notion that as David was the good shepherd (njri*), Yahweh watched (HR")*) over him. This chiastic plan was not without its problems. The final verb in B seems to introduce the direct speech in C. The verbal contents of B and B' do not correspond. Furthermore, B contains one set of double bicola while B' has two. As a result, the chiastic plan is unevenly rep resented. It may be that the material for B*, which the author-redactor inherited, placed some constraints on his arrangement, or such in consistencies may have bothered the author of the poem less than modern critics. Thus far, all six sections of the poem suggest tradi tional building methods, including citation of biblical material, para phrase of biblical material and slight variations as well as a general adherence to biblical parallelism and macro-structure. The method of
a 77 78 76

7 6

Skehan, 'Apocryphal Psalm 151', 407; Morton Smith, 'Psalm 151', 248,250. For this poetic plan here, see Storfjell, 'Chiastic Structure'. For criticisms of the proposal for a chiastic structure, see Auffret, 'Structure littraire'.
7 7 7 8

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)

203

construction shows a general plan of double bicola, arranged accord ing to a traditional chiastic plan.

VI: Appendix, A syntactical taxonomy of the superscriptions in HQPs


a

The two superscriptions in the Hebrew version of Psalm 151 in HQPs 28.3 and 11 may be situated within the larger context of the corpus of superscriptions preserved in HQPs . This discussion may begin with a basic list of the evidence.
a

Superscription 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 93.1 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

llQPs

MT Ps 103.1 Ps 104.1 Ps 121.1 Ps 122.1 Ps 123.1 Ps 126.1 Ps 127.1 Ps 130.1 Ps 145.1 Ps 138.1 not in MT Ps Ps 133.1 Ps 143.1 Ps 140.1 Psl51 Psl51

rrbvan T O TIT*? rfrsn

frgCII frgEI.6 3.1 3.7 3.15 4.9 4.16 5.10 16.7 21.1 22.16 23.7 25.6 27.12 28.3 28.13

rcbsan T B

-mi ?-nam man ? Tpir?rnppatf>nn

It may be noted that there are no superscriptions at 14.9 (no m ^ n as in MT Ps 135.1 ) or in the Apostrophe to Zion, the Hymn to Creator, or in Psalms 150 and 155. The attested superscriptions in the preceding list may be de scribed according to the following sigla:
79 80

7 9

8 0

The text of this psalm, including the superscription, has been subject to many changes. The form of m ^ n appears at the end of what corresponds to MT Ps 135.1 and the two parallel lines are also transposed relative to MT (cf. MTPs 113.1). At col 2.6, Tvbbn would be expected (cf. MT Ps 148.1), but the text reads

t?7n.

204 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA + app. est. impv. N N-app. PN prep. syntactical relation (prepositional or construct) apposition construct imperative noun noun in apposition proper name preposition

Translation into such grammatical terms yields the following nine types: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. prep. + N(PN) prep. +N (PN) app. prep. + N N (est.) + N N (est.) + N + prep. + N (PN) N (est.) + N + prep. + N (PN) + verb clause N + prep. + N(PN) prep. + N N app. prep. + N (PN) impv. app. prep. + N(PN) + Napp. impv. TTft (frgCID/ nrb (frg E col 16) n t e ' P T n ^ ] (3.15) rrbxm ~ra(3.l) -mrbrrbvan T B ? (3.7) mxbBh[ nbvan nno] (4 .16)

81

D'nftK (28.13) -vrbrbEn (16.7) T r t TTQTQ (25.6) T r f ? TOTD UXlri? (27.12) ^ p T n ^ n n ^ n (28.3)

rrhhn (22.16).
As expected, the preposition is always -% and the noun following it is always a person and usually a proper name. There are no free standing nouns (cf. MT Ps 98.1). Other differences may be more com plicated. First, the superscriptions never attest to a noun following -b + PN; this situation contrasts with plQTQ lynb (?) in 4QPs*or "liOTQ lyib * MT Psalms 101.1 and 110.1. Second, there are never two nouns for musical terms in apposition as in MT Ps 108.1. While these two sets of differences may be due only to the distribution of attested superscriptions, some other psalm scrolls occasionally add such material to their superscriptions. For example, TE? iTib in 4QPs l 1.2 corresponds to zero in MT Ps 33.1. Finally, the issue of whether m ^ n should be regarded as an imperative or a fossilized noun will be bracketed until the end of this discussion. These nine items may be classified according to four major syna s n ( 8 1

On the assumption that the standard reconstruction as given here is correct.

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12) tactical types. Type I:L + N la lb Ic Id H:N + N Ha III: impv. Ilia IV: variants IVa Syntactical Relation

205

L + PN v Trf? (frg C lH/l nb (frg E16) N + L + PN ivrb nbon (16.7); -nrb mora (25.6) L + N app. N + L + PN T r t TIDTD nxy> (27.12) L + PN + L +N n^a ?T nfr](3.l5)
t ,

N(cst) + N rrfan T B J (3.1) impv. rrhbn (22.16) N (est.) + N + prep. + N (PN) ivrb nrbssan -ra (3.7) nntwhl nbvan Tri] (4.16) N (est.) + N + prep. + N (PN) + verb clause
Tpifrrripparfain

IVb

IVc

DVrf?KiraiTOQ2?Q(28.11) impv. app. prep. + N (PN) + N app. wp7>rh7vthn (28.3)

Category I involves plus noun. The simplest form of this type appears in la and is replicated in lb, Ic and Id. Ib merely adds a noun to the type reflected by la. Ic combines the form of la and Ib while Id is syntactically la + la. In the syntax exhibited by this first category more complex superscriptions are based on simpler ones. It may be noted further that all of the variant syntactical forms in this category are traditional. Ia is attested in many MT superscriptions (e.g. Psalms 25, 26, 27, 28, 35, 103, 138, 414) and in HQapPs . Ib occurs in MT (lllbniDTQ in Psalms 15, 23, 29, 141, 143, 145; llY?n*?sn in 17, 86;
a 82

nbnb in 90) and in DSS (opn^an w*b nbnn) in 4Q381 24.4; rftnn TPinxfr in 4Q380 l.ii.8; cf. frrfrnn in 4Q380 4.2; and pnTWXbrftan See E. Puech, 'HQPsAp : Un rituel d'exorcismes. Essai de reconstruction', RQ14 (1990), 377-408.
8 2 3

206 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA nTOK^QTiKtonniTP in 4Q381 3 3 . 8 ) Ic is known in MT (Psalms 13,19,20,21,41,51,64,140,141) and DSS (e.g., non^DH [T70 mujcfr in 1QM 1.1). Id is found in MT Psalm 121. Category II appears only once in HQPs , but this type is well known from the MT Psalter (Psalms 120,123,125,126,128,129,130, 132, 134). To the best of my knowledge it does not appear in DSS. This is not, however, unexpected since rrfrtfDn T B belongs to a very specific group of Psalms. Yet it is perhaps worth noting that DSS show no attempt to imitate this category. Category III is attested in HQPs only once. It is strongly attested in biblical material. For example, MT has it in Psalms 145-150. According to L.M. Barr, the different distributions of TPftftn in MT, LXX and l l Q P s of Psalms 146-150 are not the result of scribal error. Rather, Barr argues that m ^ n serves as a conclusion formula in HQPs but as an introductory formula in LXX, while MT shows both usages, resulting in TVfthn functioning as an inclusion This term appears also once in the DSS, specifically 4Q448 col. A, line 1: rpV^n pflDTD. As the editors of that text note, this word is not used otherwise in Qumran community literature, and accordingly they argue that m ^ n is not sectarian. Category IV constitutes various combinations of categories I, II and III, and/or innovations relative to them. Syntactically type IVa combines types lb and Ha. As found with category I, the more complex syntactical form in IVa constitutes a combination of the simpler ones. IVa is traditional, known from MT (Psalms 122, 124, 127, 131, 133). Type IVb attested in HQPs 28.11 is syntactically the most complex superscription in the Cave 11 Psalms scroll. It may be broken down into two major parts. First, the construct using n^nn occurs three times in MT, twice with nouns (Prov 9.10; Qoh 10.13) as in IVb, and once with a verb (Hos 1.2). The sort of syntax reflected here, N (cons.) + N, is also attested in type II. Second, a verbal clause as found in IVb is exceptional for HQPs , but verbal clauses in psalmic superscriptions are known. What is exceptional relative to the biblical exa a a a 85 86 a a 83

8 3

For the superscriptions in 4Q380 and 381, see E. Schuller, Non-Canonical Psalms from Qumran: A Pseudepigraphic Collection (HSS, 28; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986), 25-27. Barr, 'Halel yah: A Broken Inclusio', CBQ 45 (1983), 195-200, esp. 198-99. E. Eshel, H Eshel, and A. Yardeni, 'A Qumran Composition Containing Part of Ps. 154 and a Prayer for the Welfare of King Jonathan and his Kingdom', IEJ 42 (1992), 199-229 (= Tarbiz 60 [1991], 295-327 [Hebrew]). Compare the use of the alleluia that closes the considerably later Odes of Solomon 3-42, evidently modelled on the biblical examples. Eshel, Eshel and Yardeni, 'Qumran Composition', 202.
8 4 8 5 8 6

SMITH: PSALM 151A (HQPs 28.3-12)

207

amples is the subordinating conjunction. Biblical superscriptions with temporal clauses use either -3 + infinitive construct (Psalms 3, 34,56, 57,59,60,63,142; so also 4Q381 33.8; cf. Psalm 18), (Psalm 18) or '5 (Psalm 102). In contrast, IVb employs -Q* plus *qatal as found in Mishnaic Hebrew. Unlike all other types of syntax in the superscrip tions of HQPs , the verbal clause in IVb reflects an innovation. Based on contextual arguments, it may be further suggested that this super scription belongs to a stage of l l Q P s later than that of the other su perscriptions. Unlike all of the other superscriptions, this one seems to constitute a secondary development within the history of Psalm 151. Indeed, LXX entirely lacks this superscription, and its contents evidently drew on those of the first poem in HQPs 28 (line 8, pre sented in section II above). Furthermore, the use of this sort of super scription, namely spliced between two sections of biblical material, is known in DSS, specifically 4Q379 (4QPsalms of Joshua) 22.H.7 with reconstructions completed by 4Q175 (4QTestimonia): n o m 'mirrfrnro nppntn'Ti [snur nfrp run. In 4Q379 22.ii.7, this superscription appears between two biblical quotes (Deut 33.8-11 and Josh 6.26). Similarly, the superscription in IVb, namely the second superscription in the Hebrew version of Psalm 151 (HQPs 28.11), is positioned between what are presented as two psalms celebrating the life of David. The final superscription to be discussed is IVc. This superscrip tion begins with 7V>i?bn, a label not attested in any other version of this text. As noted above in the discussion of III, this word is not found in LXX and its presence here might be regarded as something of a mystery. If HQPs scroll were dependent on a Psalter which in cluded 150 psalms as in MT, LXX and Syriac, then this word here might be explained as an extension of the use of this word from the superscriptions in Psalms 146-150. While it seems unlikely that Psalm 151 was composed for or with the collection of Halleluyah psalms of 146-150 (J. Strugnell calling Psalm 151 'very unhalleluyahlike' ), this psalm was attached secondarily to Psalms 146-150, at which stage it probably received the designation of halleluyah. In syntactical terms IVc reflects the use of m ^ n attested in category III. Furthermore, if m^xr were to be regarded as a fossilized noun, then
a a a 87 a a 88 89 90

8 7

See C. Newsom, The "Psalms of Joshua" from Qumran Cave 4', JJS 39

(1988), 68-69; and J.M. Allegro, Qumrn Cave 4:1 (4Q158-4Q186) (DJD, V; Ox
ford: Clarendon Press, 1968), 57-60, pl. XXI. For a comparable biblical use of the first verb, see Num 7.1. See Strugnell, 'Notes', 267; Haran, Two Text-Forms', 181. Strugnell, 'Notes', 267.
8 8 8 9

9 0

For further discussion, see Barr, 'Halelu yah?, 200 and n. 22.

208 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA IVc might be regarded as modeled in part on type lb (N + L + PN) and II (N est. + N). The rest of the superscription is based on tradi tional material (see 2 Sam 23.1; Ps 72.20). As this survey indicates, the superscriptions of H Q P s are almost entirely traditional, showing only one major innovation with type IVb (28.11). This view of the traditional character of these superscriptions may be illustrated further by comparing superscriptions in other DSS. There is a growing tendency in later stages of textual witnesses to the book of Psalms and in DSS to add references to fixed times, but HQPs shows no such development. Nor are there any superscrip tions indicating the psalms' purpose, apparently as in MT (Psalms 38, 60,70,88) and 1QH 5.12. There are no superscriptions beginning with 'words of ...' as in 4Q242 (4QPrNab ar), frgs 1-3, line 1 or 4Q504-506 (4QDibHam " ), frg 8 (reverse). In closing, HQPs seems to reflect the conventions of 'standard' psalms (later recognized in Jewish and Christian canons as 'biblical' psalms) with the exception of type IVb (col. 28.11) which apparently represents a secondary development internal to the history of this psalm. It is noted above that superscriptions are absent from all of the texts which do not appear in LXX Psalter. If superscriptions were markers of psalms deemed 'standard' (and later 'canonical'), then it might explain the distribution of superscriptions in this scroll. If this observation is correct, it would also indicate that Psalm 151 was con sidered 'standard'. (Whether or not this psalm was counted as the 151st psalm as opposed to the 150th is unknown.) If these supposi tions are correct, it would add a further argument for an ancient awareness of Psalm 151 as a 'standard' psalm, as reflected explicitly in the superscription to this psalm in LXX which calls it 'a genuine psalm of David' (6 yaAjioq i8i6ypa<po<; eiq AauiS) even though for LXX it is 'outside the number' (e^coGev %ox> dpiGuoS). Perhaps for the textual tradition of the book of Psalms represented by HQPs , Psalm 151 was not 'outside the number', but was reckoned as the last psalm in the traditional, 'standard' Psalter as canonized later in Christian tradition.
a 91 a a <: a a

9 1

See B. Nitzan, Qumran Prayer and Religious Poetry (English translation by J.

Chipman; STDJ, 12; Leiden: EJ. Brill, 1994) 42-45,49-63.

INDEX OF TEXTS CITED


15.14194 18.20 94,120 18.21 77 19.15 160 20.19 83,179 23.7139 24.13 75 27.20 136 29.34 6 33.11 75 33.16 12 34.2160 Leviticus 4.2260 12.2 21,39 18.13 3 19.18127 19.32 82 22.16 129, 133 22.27 67 25.33 10,60 26.180 26.5 21 26.16 135 26.41140 26.43 140 27.29 12 Numbers (52) 1-236 5.29 60 6.19 37 7.1 207 10 36 11.4 38 11.842 11.18128 11.28 75 12.8125 4.26131 4.32142 7.8 7 7.14180 7.1790 7.215 9.5 7,82 12.23 9 13.1104 13.4 7 18.3.37 18.6 8 18.12 7,12, 104 18.1883 18.20 77 18.224 19.15 80 20.18 20.3 7 20.14 7 20.15 6 23.155 25.7 79 28.8180 28.21180 28.25129, 180 28.36 180 28.38-40180 28.43-44180 1.175 4.16136 6.26 207 7.11131 10.13128 10.25 133 10.2766 15.19 48 Judges 1.15 48 2.16 80 5.7 63,194 5.19 194 6.13 61 6.39 179 9.3812 10.1 81 11.10180 18.30 80 1 Samuel (196) 2.3 37 9.12171 10.1196 13.14196 16.30 46 21.1810 23.21125 24.2 77 24.1781 30151 30.15 81 31.2128 32.14 79 35.34 8 Deutero nomy 28.65 41 32.5194 32.6% 32.26194 32.285 32.3310 33.6-7180 33.8-11 207 33.11180 33.24180 34.10 79 Joshua

Bible Genesis 1.4 87 1.22180 3.12176 3.19 41 4.1290 4.21197 6.210 9.25-27 179 15.1 77 17.6107 20.18 90 21.30 90 24.3-4 90 24.11 66 24.65 3 26.3 81 26.7 90 27.33180 30.20 39 30.41 67 31.10 66 32.11163 36.1 4,9 36.89,10 40.14175 41.39 94 43.7142 45.6 66 49.16-17180 50.15 96 Exodus 1.880 2.1781 12.12134 13.3 66 15.7132 15.9194 15.10194 15.13194

210

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 8.20 79 8.2790 8.3787 10.9180 12.6143 14.14 83 19.12 38 2 Kings 19.4121 Isaiah 1.1 77 1.16 41 3.9 96 8.2131 9.13-1411 10.12 33 13.21 39 15.9 43 16.740 17.6 39,46 19.9169 20.5169 22.112 24.1710 26.3171 27.3 33 27.11 6 28.10,13 44 29.15 131 40.3 4,134 40.12-13198 42.25 111 43.25 125 44.22 125 44.23 198 47.3179 48.17 167 50.4132 50.10 145 50.11 46 54.7165 54.9 60 55.12 198 56.4117 57.20 113 64.8125 66.14 164 Jeremiah 1.14135 6.10131 11.5 81 12.8129 14.9 21 14.1743 15.15128 17.8144 24.9129 29.18 129, 135 32.44131 33.2260 34.17129 38.2241 40.1 27 40.4 27 42.5180 46.10128 51.46 134 Ezekiel 5.2171 16.41134 23.25 133 23.29133 24.8128 25.12128 Hosea 1.2 206 5.13 43 8.13 33 Amos 5.18108 5.2610,11 8.11 77 9.1111 Jonah (53) 4.4 96,113 4.7-832 Micah 6.1-2198 6.8164 7.1108 7.6 82 Nahum 1.2127 1.22128 Habakkuk 2.728 2.85 2.1710 Zephaniah 3.17113, 180 Zechariah 7.9134 11.1111 13.711 Psalms 1.5 82 3 207 10.14132 13 206 13.6 96 14.1196 15 205 17 205 17.1246 18 207 19-21 206 19.8104 20.6140 22.18130 23 205 25-28 205 29 205

13.21 21 15-18184, 187,195, 196,199 15.17195 15.18195 16-17185, 195 16196 16.1-13183 16.1195 16.4195 16.7195 16.8-10195 16.11195 16.12195, 197 16.13195 16.16 195 16.23 195 17184 17.4 38 17.14195 17.15195 17.23 38 17.26 183 17.31195 17.34195 17.37180 17.42195, 197 18.5 195 18.14,16 195 24.13 128 31.1231 2 Samuel 6.21196 7.8196 10.12180 14.17180 14.26 197 23.1 208 1 Kings 1.31180 1.39 180 2.33 180 6.38 4

INDEX OF TEXTS CITED 30.11160 31.8120 32.6 66 33.1 204 34 207 35 205 38 208 41206 44.5 9 45.2192,196 46.7129 50.1125 51206 51.3 100,125 53.1.1% 56 207 57207 59-60 207 60 208 63 207 64 206 68.34 129 70 208 72.13179 72.20 208 78.71196 80.14 25 82.8127 84.1140 86 205 88 208 89.21196 90 205 93.1 203 94.21113 95.1139 98.1 204 100.4102 101.1 204 102 207 103 205 103.1 203 103.794,120 103.10 96, 113 103.13 96, 139 104.1 203 105.19 66 107.8119 107.15 119 107.21119 107.31119 108.1 204 110.1 204 111.8171 112.7-^8170 112.8171 113.1 203 113.2163 114.7196 116.7% 117.1 23 119.1796 119.19113 119.53 41 119.135108 120 206 121 206 121.1 203 122-24 32 122.1 203 122.7 180 123 206 123.1 203 125-26 206 126.1 203 127.1 203 128-30 206 129 32 130.1 203 132 206 133 32 133.1 203 134 206 135 32 135.1 203 136-3732 136.7 46 137.8% 138 205 138.1 203 140-41 206 140.1 203 141 205 142 207 142.8% 143 205 143.1 203 144 32 144.14 39 145-50 206 145.1 203 146-50 206, 207 146 32 148.1 203 150 203 150.4197 151(A) 182208 passim 152-53 183 154 202 155 202,203 Job 1.14 159 2.842 4.16 38 6.17 66 6.24 95 7.13128 9.30 41 15.17 32,62 17.1512 17.9 38 20.25 25 21.12197 24.4116 26.6 41 30.5 25 30.31197 33.7 44 35.15 120 36.244 39.1 66 39.266 39.6 41 42.8171 Proverbs 1.23 94 3.4169 3.28(Qr) 179 5.18180 9.10 206 15.11 41 15.30171 16.25 44 19.7168 22.5168 22.10 58 23.3108 23.6-790 23.6108

211
23.10-11 90 23.20-21 90 23.26-2790 24.1-2290 24.1-290 24.15-16 90 24.19-20 90 25.11 41 25.25 171 26.18 46 27.20 41 30.6 121 30.33 90 Ruth (54) 2.19180 3.2171 4.5 79 Song of Songs (32, 52) 2.4 36 6.9 9 6.12 20 Ecclesiastes (28,52) 1.763 1.17 34 5.1171 7.8171 7.10142 8.9 67 10.13 206 11.3 63 12.12165 Lament ations (54) 3.49 43 4.14114

212

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SlRA 1 Chronicles (40) 5.23163 7.8 21 8.1954 9.22 43 10.12 31 16.41 43 21.23 180 22.1 34 23.17 163 28.19 141 29.3 54 2 Chronicles 9.8180 9.29(Qr) 76 10.6143 10.16 143 15.8 76 19.5 80 20.11 96 24.20 131 24.24 134 25.27 67 33.19 80 35.3 95 36.3 133 John 4.4-5 69 4.4 42 4.11-19168, 172 4.11168 4.1763,64, 65 4.19-31172 4.19 59 4.20-6.17 172 4.20-31172 4.20172 4.26170 4.29-31172 4.29 45 4.31 66 5.1-6.4171 5.1-S 172 5.765 5.9-11165, 170,171, 172,173 5.9-6.1171 5.9-12171 5.9158,164 5.9a 170 5.9b 170 5.10158 5.10a 170 5.10b 170 5.11164, 165,171 5.11a 170 5.11b 171 5.1259 6.1170 6.5-6169 6.6164,168, 173 6.758,171 6.10 62 6.18-37172 6.3258 6.33 58 6.3659 6.3761 7.2168 7.6 32,59, 7.1188 7.16 89,118 7.1787 7.20 63 7.22 58,63 7.23 58 7.2458 7.2558,59 7.26 58 7.32 68,163 8.1 69,89 8.288,89 8.5 30,88 8.730 8.9 61 8.10 69 8.1887 9.3 69 9.863 9.1266,88 9.13 69,88, 168 10.9 31 10.31 44 11.6 44 11.7 64 11.864 11.10 59,60, 70 11.13 30,128 11.19 65 11.23 88 11.27 64 11.29-30 32 11.29169 11.32169 11.33 69 11.34 31 12.258 12.5 69 12.1159,69, 163 12.1269,79 12.14 24 12.15 60,64, 65,70 13.1-14.2 168 13.1 59 13.2 60 13.6 59 13.764 13.8169 13.9-10168, 169,173 13.9158, 164,168,

Esther (28, 31,53) 1.831 3.4 80 5.13 67 7.5 34 Daniel (34) 1.17 95 2.28 76 3.16 171 8.16 95 8.23 80 9.13 134 9.22 96,141 9.23 95 10.11 95 11.2 151 11.33 95 12.3 42 12.11 66 Ezra (28,37, 40,54) 4.22 165 5.11171 6.14 76 Nehemiah (28,37, 159) 1.2142 2.3180 4.3176 4.9(Kt) 176 6.4143 6.12 76 8.895 8.12 95 8.15 190 10.138 11.23 34,38 12.46 46 13.29 41

14.6 37 Romans 10.12193 Ben Sira 3.868 3.13 58 3.16-1790 3.16 89 3.22 61 3.24 46 3.27169 3.31 66

INDEX OF TEXTS CITED


171 13.10 69 13.13158, 164,165, 168,169 13.22 22 14.1 62 14.2 62 14.4 59 14.11-12 88 14.11 59 14.16 61 14.1861 14.20 62 14.20-15.8 168 14.2462 15.2 168 15.4 69 15.11 61 15.15 58 15.17 61 16.2 59 16.8 62 16.10-11 89 16.10 62 16.1732 16.1865 16.21 59 16.2260,89, 198 16.25164 16.26 65 18.1-2193, 198 18.4 198 20.4 31 23.16 64 24168 24.20-21 168 25.8 63 26.15 169 30.12 67,69 30.13 69 30.1831,46 30.19 61 30.23 167 30.24 43 30.26 89 30.32 65 30.34 69 30.36 69 30.40 30 32.21 64 32.22 64 32.23 64 32.24 64 33.1193 33.3 68 33.7 23 34.3 59 34.4 60 34.6 163, 164,169 34.862 34.9 68 34.10 61,62 34.12 60,172 34.13 30 34.14 63,172 34.15 32,61 34.16 45,61 34.18 59,172 34.21 31 34.22 158, 164 34.27 59,62 35.1171 35.268 35.3164 35.759 35.11 65 35.21-22165 35.22 158, 164,167, 169,170, 173 35.23 31 36.22 68 36.23 45 36.24 39 36.25 44 36.31 62 37.3 62 37.869 37.11 44 37.1258 37.13 43 37.15 68 37.19 48,62 37.20 62 37.23 62 37.26 80 38.5 70 38.869 38.12 69 38.1469 38.16 31 38.2365 38.25 39 39.31 65 40.166 40.5 66 40.11 63 40.14 65 40.19 79 40.26 42 40.29 39 41.3 30 41.959 41.14-42.8 170 41.14-16170 41.14167, 170 41.17-42.1d 170 41.17170 42.1 164, 169,173 42.1cd 170 42.1e-8170 42.1e 170 42.4 33 42.8164, 166,169, 170,173 42.10 39 42.11 63 42.15 32,62 42.16 42 42.24 30 43.3 65 43.7 28 43.845 43.9 194 43.11 48 43.13 46 43.18 43,194 43.25 38 44.3 31,62, 75 44.6171 44.862 44.9 32,62, 64 44.18 70 45.269 45.23 64,193

213
45.24 33,69 46.1 61,75 46.265 46.5 44,65 46.6 70 46.8 70 46.10 70 46.13 75 46.19 66 46.20 75 47185 47.1-12183, 184 47.1-288 47.1 79 47.4 183,187 47.8 46,192, 196 47.23-24 70 47.23 61,64, 79 48.1 64, 79 48.5 62 48.15 64 48.16 62 48.25 65 49.6-7 62,89 49.10164 49.12 62 50-51 87 50.4 62 50.5 67 50.10 39,46 50.1267 50.14 65 50.19 65 50.24 33 50.27 41 50.28 63 50.29 87 51.1287 51.13165 51.13-30 165,168 51.14194 51.14bc 167 51.17164, 167 51.18cd 167 51.19cd 167 51.20ab 167 51.23 30 51.24164,

214 THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA
165,173 51.2788, 163,164, 165,173, 195 51.30163 Dead Sea Scrolls lQIsa (48, 85) 37.30 48 37.3848 40.1233 40.15 33 41.18-19 178 42.14-16 178 42.14 47 42.24 32 43.13178 45.1-2178 46.4178 50.2178 65.133 66.9 178 lQpHab 2.5-6 4 2.6 4 2.12-13 5 3.25 3.13-145 4.9 32 4.13 32 5.6 5 6.3-4 8 6.6-78 8.238 8.15 5 9.75 10.3 5 10.9 10 12.4-5 10 12.7 5,10 12.9 10
a

lQApGen (48) 10.12 48 20.13 193 1QH (26,37, 42) 1.7112,119 1.8122 1.10127 1.12 46 1.13112 1.14146 1.15122 1.16134 1.18134 1.19122 1.21113,119 1.23114 1.24118 1.25121,130 1.26121,143 1.27112 1.28 122,140 1.29 93,120, 121 1.30115,130 1.31112,117 1.33130 1.34113 1.35121 1.36 109,142 1.3795,111 2.7129,130 2.8132 2.9141 2.11118 2.12114,138 2.13 111, 141 2.14127 2.15115,117 2.16115 2.17 96,116, 124 2.1897,124, 136 2.20119,140 2.21112, 141,146 2.22120

2.23102, 113,122 2.25118,129 2.26 104, 109,135 2.27144 2.28117 2.29124,135 2.30112 2.31119,128 2.32118, 134,146 2.33120,141 2.34119,132 2.35134 2.36 124,132 3.3108 3.5128 3.6118,140 3.9 125 3.16 24 3.17145 3.18130 3.19 119, 132,134 3.20 120,122 3.21119 3.22110,127 3.23115,130 3.25112 3.26 135,136 3.29146 3.30109 3.32112,114 3.35129 3.37119 3.38131 4.5 108,119 4.6 115 4.8118,126 4.9114,118 4.10 116, 124.145 4.11126, 133.146 4.12115,125 4.13118 4.14115 4.15115,140 4.16 115 4.17109,115 4.1896,132, 146

4.20 103, 104,123, 125 4.21103 4.22146 4.23119 4.24144 4.25121,147 4.26 103, 116,123, 129 4.27 93,108, 120 4.28 93,120 4.29 113 4.30 120 4.31122 4.32119,146 4.33109 4.34116 4.35 116 4.36117,145 4.37123 4.38112 4.39117 5.3119 5.5119,132 5.6132 5.7101,141 5.9109,121, 130 5.11116, 131.135 5.12113, 132,144, 208 5.13114, 127,128, 145 5.14121,130 5.16110 5.17114 5.18134, 143,145 5.20111,132 5.22132 5.24124 5.25 116 5.26118, 131.136 5.28146 5.29117,129 5.31 99,114,

INDEX O F TEXTS CITED

215
11.21110, 115,126 11.27129 11.2895, 111, 130 11.30119, 142 11.31120, 136.137 11.32145 11.33135 12.3115 12.11120, 122,129 12.12144 12.13136 12.20 96,141 12.21136 12.22120 12.23 126, 146 12.24103, 131 12.30130, 143 12.31.12 12.32114 12.32b 114 12.3395, 114,135, 141 12.34113, 114,122 13.3113 13.10122 13.11112, 130.138 13.12135 13.13 95, 111 13.15125 13.17134 13.19 129 14.5117 14.8106,129 14.10147 14.13126 14.14107, 125,137 14.15144, 145 14.17137 14.19108, 126,128

115,124 5.33 109, 121,136, 141 5.34129 5.36 101, 123,145 5.37142 5.39 109 6.4113 6.5 111 6.6132,143 6.7120,127 6.8116,119, 139 6.9122,146 6.10122,167 6.11130 6.12119 6.15 113 6.20 136 6.21131 6.23 143 6.24 122 6.25 103,110 6.26 140 6.27102 6.28142 6.30 114,136 6.31121 6.34 102, 128,139 6.35 110,131 7.2 41,138 7.3144 7.5 111 7.6 99,119, 126,130 7.7117 7.8119,122, 141 7.10 129 7.12102, 109,113, 140 7.13119, 122,127 7.14122 7.16119 7.18120,145 7.19 113,132 7.20 141,146 7.21135,168

7.22139 7.23 132,139 7.25122 7.26 95,141 7.27 93,120 7.29110,143 7.31132 7.3295,111 7.34127,140 836 8.4129 8.6116,135 8.7144 8.8140 8.9140 8.10101, 135,144 8.11141 8.13126,146 8.14109 8.15114 8.16140 8.18116,126 8.21136 8.22126,132 8.23 127,133 8.24143 8.28102 8.31123,146 8.33126 8.34144 8.35113 8.36117,132 9.3132 9.4128 9.7116,140 9.8143,145 9.8-14179 9.9 120,136, 140,144 9.10 111, 120,129, 140 9.11116,132 9.12119, 121,132 9.13127,146 9.22103.138 9.23121.139 9.24116 9.26108 9.28118 9.30 96,113,

119 9.32145 9.33134 9.34123 9.35113, 119,132 9.36 123,168 10.493,96, 120,142 105-7178 105116,118 10.6132 10.795,114, 135,141 10.8104, 125,193 10.11133 10.12134, 143 10.16145 10.17145 10.20 125, 130 10.21137 10.22 122, 129 10.23 92,140 10.25128 10.26138 10.28138 10.30141 10.31145 10.33 110 10.34144 11.2112 11.3119 11.4 96,129, 141 11.5116,140 11.6112, 130,146 11.9 93,99, 120 11.10 96, 119,137, 141 11.11120 11.12139 11.13105 11.15119, 139 11.16 93,99, 120

216

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 123 17.24108, 115,124 17.26 99,126 17.27125 18.4113 18.9 117,143 18.11145 18.12 121, 136 18.13 130 18.14 100, 113 18.18138 18.19 113 18.21134 18.22 122 18.23 131 18.24 113 18.26 119 18.27 105, 118 18.28 111 18.29 46 frg 3.15 47 frg5.8 45 frg 16.4-5 198 frg 45.5 47 1QM (34,35, 36,38,42, 45) 1.1 206 1.5 5 1.105 1.11-125 2.8-9 6 3.11 46 5.5 39 5.839 6.235 6.3 35,46 6.13 46 6.15 35 9.86 10.15 11.2145 12.75 13.4 7 13.5 5,7 13.734 15.16 15.95 17.1 47 1QS (26,36, 39,42,55) 1.1114 1.2133 1.3 99,106, 108, 111 1.4 99,106, 124,139, 142 1.5 99,114, 133 1.7110,133 1.9108 1.10142 1.1194,110 1.13136 1.14109,137 1.15115,130 1.16 98,110, 131 1.17143 1.18131 1.19103,112 1.20131 1.21103,130 1.22103, 130,145 1.25 45 2.1 96,103, 112,113 2.2112 2.3108,118, 145 2.4128,137 2.5 7,129 2.6101,128, 135,144 2.7-8 7 2.7 7 2.8118,123 2.9128 2.10131 2.12103, 104,110, 140 2.13144 2.14114 2.15 99,111, 114 2.16 109,130 2.17129 2.18102, 103,110 2.19131 2.21131 2.22119 2.25 106,124 2.26113 3.1117,118 3.2 41,110 3.3 118,125 3.6123 3.7125 3.8123 3.9 45,122 3.10 130 3.11136 3.13 96,124 3.15 105,122 3.16 125 3.17112,123 3.18-19 4 3.18140 3.24 107, 123,132 3.25121 3.26 108 4.1140,142, 147 4.2108,122, 134 4.4145 4.5136,147 4.6100,103, 115,116 4.11115 4.12100, 103,115 4.15115 4.16 141 4.17129 4.18129 4.19 144 4.20112, 116,146 4.21119,126 4.2295,96, 111,141 4.24115,

14.20124 14.21 97, 139,147 14.24102, 130,135 14.25118, 142 14.26147 15.10 112 15.11117, 130 15.12132 15.13122 15.14112, 145 15.15122 15.16 136, 139 15.17112, 137 15.18136, 140 15.19111, 122,134 15.20 107, 119 15.21122 15.22122 15.23 111, 144 15.24124 15.32-33 12 16.6 112 16.7 99,114, 117 16.9 118 16.10 111, 140 16.11117, 129,144 16.12119, 126 16.16 128 16.17143 16.18131, 144 17.9129 17.15127 17.17129, 130 17.21 95, 111 17.22117 17.23117,

INDEX OF TEXTS CITED 142,147 4.25 119,141 4.26 126,127 5.1110,117, 126,143 5.2102,104 5.3117,133 5.4147 5.5121,124 5.6 106,123, 124,146 5.7 94,103, 104,110, 131,140 5.8110,137, 143 5.9 102,104, 1135.20 110.114, 120 5.10 102, 110.115, 126,137 5.11115, 118,119 5.12128, 133,134 5.13 99,110, 126 5.14 103, 120,129, 131,143 5.15 139,143 5.16 109,124 5.17-1812 5.18 97,109, 119 5.19 119, 125,144 5.21126,137 5.22 107, 135,136, 143 5.23 123, 135,145 5.24107, 120,132 5.25 114 5.26 120,142 6.1110,115 6.2145 6.4 133,142, 146 6.5 98,112, 144 6.6106,115 6.7115,138, 146 6.9 107,142, 1436.20 112,121, 123,126 6.10123 6.11 48,114 6.12106, 112,114, 142 6.13114,126 6.14115, 121,129 6.15 95,110, 111,130, 142,143 6.16 110, 126,138 6.17115,133 6.18142 6.19138 6.21135 6.22123, 133,138 6.24146 6.25 8,104, 109,133, 143 6.26107, 125,135 6.27116, 122,133 7.1 8,109, 138 7.299,114, 133,143 7.3110,133 7.4133,136 7.5 99,114, 133 7.6133,139, 144 7.7144 7.8127,133 7.9104,114, 1287.20 126 7.11 43 7.12 31 7.13-14 8 7.13106, 121,133 7.14133,145 7.15 98,106, 115,121, 133 7.1612,97, 98,109, 115,133, 144 7.1712,106, 124,144 7.18109, 116,133 7.19 126,133 7.21138,142 7.23 109,121 7.24 99,133, 143 7.25 98 8.2133 8.3 140,145 8.4 37 8.6 123 8.7 4,143 8.9138 8.10 123,137 8.12131 8.13 107, 110,115, 134 8.1410 8.15 4 8.17126,130 8.18115, 120,138 8.19106,121 8.20 98,115 8.21 98,102, 104,110, 115 8.22103, 131,144 8.23 133 8.24110,114 8.25 142,146 9.1133 9.4123 9.5109 9.7125 9.8133 9.9 41,110,

217
116 9.10 118 9.12115 9.13124,133 9.14107, 117,146 9.15134.138 9.16126.139 9.17103, 107,121, 131 9.1837,95, 126,141 9.19 4,96, 104,115, 135 9.20 96,99, 110,125, 130,141 9.22 103, 104,125, 132 9.23 103, 106,133, 137,138 9.24104, 134,140 9.25 108, 136,140 9.26112 10.2135,144 10.6 112 10.721 10.9-26 179 10.9128 10.10 94, 109,110, 140 10.11121 10.1248, 111,122 10.13112, 146 10.14112, 139 10.15 139 10.16 112, 120,140 10.17115, 135,140, 143 10.18137, 139,144

218

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 1.4106,137, 138 1.5 95,111 1.795,124, 141 1.9110,135 1.10119 1.11131,136 1.13131,139 1.17117 1.20110, 128,139 1.21123 1.22134 1.23110,121 1.26137 2.4110 2.5117 2.9 98,114 2.10-11 6 2.10 6 2.18106,144 2.19112 2.20144 lQSb 1.2111 1.7134 2.22118 2.23 145 2.24118 2.25118 2.26118 2.27118 3.1128 3.2135 3.4137 3.5129 3.19127 3.20 122 3.21100, 111, 121 3.23 117,122 3.24135 3.25112,141 3.26 93,129 3.28127 4.22136 4.23128 4.26 127 4.27 108,141 3QJub [3Q5] 2.2 43 3Q15 (57, 151,154) 11.10 48 11.16 27 2.3 26,38 4QGen 180 4QGen8 180 4QpNah [4Q169] 3.2.745
b

10.19108, 143,147 10.20%, 102,127, 139 10.21127, 145 10.23130, 135 10.24130, 142 10.25118, 141.145 11.1102, 141,143 11.2138 11.3 105, 125,135 11.4-511 11.4 11,105 11.5 106,125 11.7 99,111, 127,129 11.8 116 11.10 102, 115,122 11.11105, 122 11.13110, 118,122, 126,135 11.14119, 123.146 11.15-16 7 11.15119, 135 11.16100, 122,137 11.17122 11.18105, 141,143 11.19 95, 111,125 11.2012, 121,122, 198 11.2295,99, 111, 143 lQSa (26) 1.3 4,145

4.28122 5.21117,137 5.24118 5.25125 5.26140 5.27137 5.28113,131 lQNoah [1Q19] (25) lQMyst [1Q27] 1.2.8 25 1.1.3 105 1.1.4105 1Q29

4QDeut

10-11180 4QPs 204 4QPs 1.2204 4QQoh 6.5 47 4Q153 frg ii col ii 3 109 4Q159
a k

13.4 45 14.1 45

frg i col ii 2 123 frg i col ii 4 109 frg ii-iv 2 131 frg ii-iv 3 136 frg ii-iv 7 124 frg ii-iv 8 97,112, 122,124 frg ii-iv 9 123,132, 133 4QpIsa [4Q164J 1.3 35
d

INDEX OF TEXTS CITED 4QMidr EschatV Flor [4Q174J 13 81


4

219 4QApocJos [4Q371] 447 4QPsJos [4Q378] 11.282 4QPsJos [4Q 379] 22.ii.7 207 4QapPs [4Q380] l.ii.8 205 4.2 205 44.232 4QapPs [4Q381] 24.2 25 24.4 205 33.8 206,207 46.6 43 4QpsEzek [4Q385] (54) 1.9 54 2.10 43 3.1 21 4.834 4Q386 1.2.4153
a b a b a a

4QJub [4Q22324] 2.2.9-10 81

17.3.242 18.3.1 54,55 18.4.254 18.5.10 23


Q a-b
D

4QTestimonia [4Q175] (207) 1.21 67 2.3 47 4Q181 2.837

4Q242(4Q PrNab )
ar

[4Q26667](39) 4QD [4Q268] 1.230 4QTohD [4Q280] 445 4QOtot [4Q319] (36) 4QMishmarotABM4Q 320-21] (47,54) 4QMishmarotB ~ [4Q32121a](24)
a C

frg i-iii 1 208 4QpGen [4Q252] 1.1.10 48 4QpGen [4Q254]


c a

4QMidr Eschat / Cat [4Q 177]


b a

5.4180 4Q258

1.5 67 7.5 39 9.3 43 30.2 39 4QCryptic [4Q186] (35) 1.2.834 2.1.1 24 4QJub [4Q219] 1.2.719 4Q222 1.754
d

frg i col i 7 99,126 frg i, col ii 2 123 frg iii col i 1 109 4Q259 (125) frg i col iii 10 107, 146 frg i col iii 14131 frg iii col ii 2 107,131 frg iii col ii 4 96,99,142 4QD [4Q266] 2.1.12-13 6
a

4QMishmarotC [4Q32224] (36) 4Q341 (24)

4QMMT [4Q39499] (32, 34,49,54,

220

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA 4Q417 2.1.16 44 4QM [4Q491] 11.1.16 46 4Q418 24,41 8.11 39 55.11 43 4QJub8 [4Q422] (54) 26.241 4Q424 3.5 43 4QRitMar [4Q502] (40) 4QPrQuot [4Q503] (35) 4QDibHam [4Q504] 3.2.13 34 4Q521 4QDibHam ) [4Q504506]
M a a

55,57, 151,154) B3123 B66 67 B75 47 B79 34 B837 CIO 37 C21 34 4QShirShabb [4Q400] (35,36,37, 46)
a

4QShir MasWl [4Q511] 35.3 43

4QM8 [4Q497] 6.1.3 46

4QRitPur [4Q512] 1.12.4 45

4QapLam [4Q501] 4 42 6 41

4Q513 frg ii col ii 1 126 frg ii col ii 5 128 frg iii 4138 4Q514 frg i col 118 frg i col 109 frg i col 118 frg i col 109 i4 i6 i7 i9

1.1.17 45 1.2.33 193 4QShirShabb [4Q403]


d

4QH [4Q427] 7.2.8 28 4QH [4Q432] 4.1.4 24


f

1.1.37 45 4QShirShabb [4Q405]


f

20.2.13 46 4Q448 (54) 4Q409 8193 4Q413 1.2 39 4Q416 (24) 4.5 42 6.6 37 10.2.8 37 2.1 33 A1206 4Q458 15.2 76 4Q462 16 25 4Q488 A 201 4QShir Maskil [4Q510]
3

2.2.842 5.2.12 25 4QApJos [4Q522] (48) 4QUnid (54)


d

frg 8 (rvs) 208

1.5 39 5QRegle [5Q13] 1.2193

INDEX OF TEXTS CITED 1.9 95,111 1.12136 2.7 45,129 4.4134 5Q16 1.3 45 HQPs [11Q5] (25) 2.6 203 3.1 203,204, 205 3.7 203,204, 205 3.15 204,205 4-6185 4.9 203 4.16 203, 204,205 5-6186 5.10 203 7-10187 7-8185,186 9-10 185, 10-12185 14.9 203 16.7 203, 204,205 18.15 202 21.1 203 21.11194 22.16 203, 204,205 23.7 203 24.1 202 24.6 40 24.17 202 25.6 203, 204,205 27.11 76 27.12 203, 204,205 28.3-12182208 passim 28.3 186, 203,204, 205
a

221 1.11 94 1.13 4 1.15 28 2.15 111 3.17 3.10 48 3.186 4.2-410 4.1510 4.1710,25 4.19-2010 4.19-2111 5.6-7 7 5.6 7 5.9-10 7 5.9 3 5.116 5.12-13 7 5.13 46 5.16 6 5.175 6.3-510 6.4-710 6.19 4 7.1 47 7.15-1611 7.16-1710 7.17-1811 7.17-20 10 7.19-20 81 7.21 37 8.2-3 4 8.4 24 8.5 47,127 8.7 25 8.10-1110 8.10-1210 8.1310 8.14-15 7 8.20 4 9.112 9.2-412 9.12 7 9.176 9.19 94 9.20-21 8 9.20 6 9.21-226 9.22 94 10.4 43 10.15 67 10.165 11.6-76

28.8186 28.11-14186 28.11 186, 203,205, 206,207, 208 28.13 203, 204 119.172180 frg CII203, 204,205 frgE 16 203, 204,205 HQapPs [11Q11] (205) 2.1239 11QT [11Q1920] (39, 54) 2.4 34 2.1234 15.12-13 6 16.10 6 16.13-14 6 16.18 3,6 18.10 47 25.10-1113 26.9 3 28.5-6 6 31.9 7 33.2 67 33.13 45 41.16 34 43.12 6 43.16 6 45.13 7 45.14 8 46.4 7 46.12 7 47.18 7 48.7-6 48.76 48.11-12 7 48.12 7 49.12 42
a

50.76 50.10-115 50.186 51.6-7 7 51.7-88 51.19-21 7 51.20 37 52.4-5 6,12 52.5 8 52.18-19 6 52.19-20 7 53.6 9 53.84 54.5-6 7 54.6104 54.11-12 7 55.12 7 55.15-16 7 56.15 6 57.5 43 57.8 43 58.3 67 59.5-6 8 60.12-13 8 60.16 7 60.19-2012 60.20 7 61.4 4 61.14 8 61.15 7 62.11-13 7 62.11 7 62.12-13 6 66.9 8 66.14 6 Mur 45 7 26 5/6Hev4347 (150-155 passim) CD (31,32,42, 36,42,54) 1.5 4 1.8-9 6

222

THE HEBREW OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND BEN SIRA Mishnah Orlah 1.267 Ta'anit b. Sanhdrin 2.4 96 2.5 96 2.9 22 3.848,161 Sotah 9.15 82 Sanhdrin 10.3 82 11.5 77 Abot 1.7168 1.9166 1.11165 2.5169 2.721 3.2161 5.12170 6.1164 Bekhorot 7.6 22 Arad 24 22,32 Tosefta
c

11.22 45 12.9 37 12.15 5,7 13.3 7 13.5 6 13.8105 13.18127 13.20 36 14.855 14.20 8 15.125 15.4 6 15.8 34 16.2-411 16.1112 16.13 31 16.155 19.9 11 19.15 4 19.1747 19.22-24 10 19.2210 19.27-28 7 20.2 4 20.3 4 20.124,34, 38 Genizah Psalms (23,49, 54) 2.13 46 2.15 46 3.1 54 4.12 26 4.222 Liber Antiquitatum BMicarum 59.4.183 62.5 183 Jewish Antiquities 20.4193

Talmud b. 'Abodah Zarah 53b 108

Kadesh Barnea 120 Kh. Tannin (20)

63a 108 Mekhilta Ex 15.7132 Ex 18.21 77 Ex 20.19 83 Sifre Numbers 104.1 36 Genesis Rabbah 51108 Inscriptions Amman citadel line 5155

Kuntillet Ajrud (180)


c

Lachish 3.7 21 Mesha* lines 3 , 6 , 9 176 Nimrud Ivory inscr. 3 20 Tel Dan (20) line 9 22 Yavneh Yam (21) Elephantine papyri (22)

Eduyot

1.1 77 Sanhdrin 4.10 82

BethShearim 17 22 22 22 Gezer calendar line 6 20