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FacultyofAgricultural,FoodandEnvironmentalQualitySciences TheHebrewUniversityofJerusalem

FEEDINGTHEFUTURETHROUGHKNOWLEDGEDRIVENAGRICULTURE: ANINTEGRATIVEAPPROACH

a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olivetreesandhoney,alandinwhichyouwilleatbreadwithoutscarcity,inwhich youwilllacknothingDeuteronomy8;8 March2007

FEEDINGTHEFUTURETHROUGHKNOWLEDGEDRIVENAGRICULTURE: ANINTEGRATIVEAPPROACH

(March2007)

TableofContents
EXECUTIVESUMMARY INTRODUCTION THECHALLENGE WHYHEBREWUNIVERSITY THEWAY:APARADIGMSHIFT THEINTEGRATIONMODEL THEPILLARS THE ROBERT H. SMITH INSTITUTE OF PLANT SCIENCES AND GENETICS IN AGRICULTURE THEINSTITUTEOFBIOCHEMISTRY,FOODSCIENCESANDNUTRITION THENEWINSTITUTEOFENVIRONMENTALSCIENCESANDNATURALRESOURCESIN AGRICULTURE THENEWCOMPLEXOFANIMALSCIENCESANDVETERINARYMEDICINE ENCHANCING CROSSDISCLIPLINARY COLLLABORATION THROUGH FOUR UNIQUE RESEARCHCENTERS THERESEARCHCENTERFORBASICAGRICULTURALSCIENCES THERESEARCHCENTERFORSUSTAINABLEANIMALHEALTHANDHUSBANDRY THERESEARCHCENTERFORNUTRAGENOMICSANDFUNCTIONALFOOD THE RESEARCH CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, SUSTAINABILITY ANDBIOENERGY SHARINGKNOWLEDGEMULTIPLYINGTHEIMPACT TEACHINGPROGRAMS EDUCATIONINAGRICULTURESHOULDKNOWNOBOUNDARIES SUPPORTINGTHEINTEGRATIONMODELWITHNECESSARYRESOURCES RETAININGANDATTRACTINGTOPSCIENTISTS STRENGTHENINGINFRASTRUCTUREANDINVESTINGINRESEARCH CONCLUSION

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FEEDINGTHEFUTURETHROUGHKNOWLEDGEDRIVENAGRICULTURE: ANINTEGRATIVEAPPROACH
ExecutiveSummary
Our future is not guaranteed. With a population growing exponentially and fragile ecosystems damaged by human activity, the earth is under threat. We face a daunting challenge: to provide enough healthy food for the worlds increasing populations, while preserving the environment. With its team of worldrenowned scientists, proven track recordforinnovativeresearchandappliedagriculturalstrategies,anditskeylocationinthe ecologically diverse Middle East, the Faculty of Agricultural Food and Environmental QualitySciencesisuniquelypoisedtofacethechallengeofpreservingourcollectivefuture. Our vision is to develop and disseminate innovative, daring and broadly applicable solutions to provide healthy nutrition, in a sustainable manner, to an ever hungrier planet. Our strategy is to assemble the collective expertise of the Faculty of Agricultural Food and Environmental Quality Sciences around four pillar Institutes, closely linked by four interdisciplinaryresearchcenters. We believe that only synergistic, integrative and interdisciplinary research across traditional boundaries will lead to the scientific advances we aim to achieve. Thus we will reorganize the arcane departmental structure of the Faculty around four main research entities: the Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, the Institute of Biochemistry, Food Sciences and Nutrition, the new Institute of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources in Agriculture, and the new Complex of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. This reorganization will enhance interaction and collaboration between and among researchers in related disciplines, and enable us to produceanddisseminateinnovativeadvancesinthesediscretefieldsofknowledge. In addition, to further facilitate and fuel interdisciplinary and integrative approaches to agricultural science,andtoencourageinnovationandcreativity,theseentitieswillbe linked by four dynamic interdisciplinary research centers: the Research Center for Basic Agricultural Sciences; the Research Center for Sustainable Animal Health and Husbandry; the Research Center for Environmental Protection, Sustainability and Bio energy;andtheResearchCenterforNutragenomicsandFunctionalFood. The new structure of the Faculty will be based on the combination of existing successful concepts with new, revolutionary approaches to agricultural sciences. We will: (i) increase interaction among scientists with various areas of expertise. The utility of this strategy has been amply demonstrated in the case of the recently established Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, which joined three formerly distinct departments. The success of the Smith Institute will serve as a blueprint for other sub

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disciplines on campus, and all will then function in concert with each other. (ii) introduce Systems Biology to agricultural research. This novel approach involves integrating the input from exact science specialists (e.g., mathematicians, physicists, engineers etc.) into the contextofagriculturalsystems,thuscombiningourlocalavailablescientificstrengthsjoined by nonbiology scientists from outside the Faculty, to dissect fundamental phenomena and solve complex problems on a goaloriented basis. This unorthodox approach promises to provideamorecomprehensiveunderstandingofproblems,andthus,morenovelsolutions. Realizing our vision rests on our continued ability to recruit talented and imaginative faculty, to fund the research they will perform, and to provide a supportive physical environment, including necessary research labs and equipment, that will encourage and enable synergism within disciplines as well as fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration. Specifically, we need to build a physical home for the new Institute of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources in Agriculture, a new teaching laboratory annex and renovationoftwofloorsintheInstituteofBiochemistry,FoodSciencesandNutrition,and a new wing and common space for the new Complex of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. We need to create and endow the four interdisciplinary research centers, and equip the newly formed research entities with stateoftheart scientific instruments and equipment,whileattractingandfundingthehighestqualityofnewfacultyrecruits. The scientists at the Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences are eager to embark on this novel and daring plan. We feel sure that theproposed integrated approach will lead to the development of the innovative strategies required for nourishing mankindwhilepreservingourenvironment.

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TheChallenge
The world is changing; populations are expanding steadily and food sources are neither keeping pace, nor are they distributed equitably. Pollution, erosion, nonpotable water, and soil depletion, among other environmental changes, are seriously and perhaps irreversibly impacting the delicate balance of our ecosystem and further curtailing mans ability to produce healthy food. Ironically, in many instances, those very innovations that have ultimatelybroughtincreasedbountytoourdinnertableshavealsotakenaheavytollonour environment and on our wellbeing. Adding to the paradox is the fact that while supermarket shelves in most of the West are brimming with unprecedented plenty, even causing alarm over increasing rates of obesity, millions of people in developing areas suffer fromchronichungerandmalnutrition. Factsabouthunger:* Morethan840millionpeopleintheworldaremalnourished799millionof themliveinthedevelopingworld. Morethan153millionoftheworldsmalnourishedpeoplearechildrenunder theageof5. Sixmillionchildrenundertheageof5dieeveryyearasaresultofhunger. Malnutritioncanseverelyaffectachildsintellectualdevelopment. Malnourishedchildrenoftenhavestuntedgrowthandscoresignificantlylower onmathandlanguageachievementteststhandowellnourishedchildren. Lackofdietarydiversityandessentialmineralsandvitaminsalsocontributesto increasedchildandadultmortality.VitaminAdeficiencyimpairstheimmune system,increasingtheannualdeathtollfrommeaslesandotherdiseasesbyan estimated1.3million2.5millionchildren. Whileeverycountryintheworldhasthepotentialtogrowenoughfoodtofeed itself,54nationscurrentlydonotproduceenoughfoodtofeedtheir populations,norcantheyaffordtoimportthenecessarycommoditiestomake upthegap.
*source:http://www.care.org/campaigns/worldhunger/facts.asp

With our collective future at stake, this dichotomous reality must serve as a wakeup call to the scientific community, in general, and agronomists, in particular, to weigh competitive agricultural production needs against a growing list of pressing environmental concerns, to ensure enough food, healthy food, for those who need it. While most agree that achieving highlyadvanced and sustainable agricultural practices is not linked to one particular technology, the charge is clear: scientists and, in fact, all stakeholders must search for new and more effective means of utilizing the Earths limited natural resources in sustainable ways. Our challenge at The Hebrew Universitys Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences is to lead in the global environment of agricultural practices by introducing novel approaches in research and problemsolving, aimed at helping the world feed itself. This challenge can be met by harnessing state of the art research and

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teaching with daring initiatives which combine traditional with innovative and sophisticatedconcepts.Morespecifically,westriveto: 1) Compileahighqualitypivotalcoreofindividualsworking,inconcert,ina supportiveenvironmentthatwillyieldintraandinterdisciplinarysolutionsfor complexproblemsonalocal,regionalandgloballevel; 2) Identifynewfrontiersandchallengetheminordertomakeourenvironmentamore sustainableone; 3) IntroduceaSystemsBiologyresearchapproach,integratingtheinputfromexact sciencespecialistsintothecontextofagriculturalsystems;and 4) Freelyperpetuateknowledgeforthebenefitofall.

WhyUs?
The Hebrew Universitys Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, (The Faculty), Israels leading research institute for advanced agricultural technology, whose researchers have a proven track record in advancing Israeli and world agriculture, is prepared to embrace the complex challenges of feeding our hungry planet by developing novel, creative ways to grow and preserve healthy food, while protecting and sustaining the environment. The Faculty is already a worldrecognized center of excellence and its vision and future plans are based on its unique qualities. These include the fact that theFacultyisauniquehubof: 1) Naturalresourcesatthecradleofagriculturestaplesandaresourceforfutureones. 2) Geological and climate diversity soil (arable and desert), water (potable, saline, ultra saline, seawater), landscape (fertile, rocky, sandy, coastal), all within close (maximum4hoursdrive)proximity. 3) Human resources a melting pot of cultures and traditions (scientists and general populationalike). 4) Politicaldiversitytangentandinteractivewithdiversepopulationsandentities. Our faculty combines high quality basic and applied research with the ability to conduct largescale interdisciplinary research. It is endowed with the ability to dissect the traits of complex biological systems, encompassing plants, animals and microorganisms, and to harness our understanding, along with ingenuity, towards beneficial outcomes for agricultureandenvironmentalmanagement. The Faculty is considered among the top such faculties worldwide and leads the way in cuttingedge agricultural breakthroughs. Some of our past achievements and innovations include: Improved Plant Traits (taste, fragrance, nutritional value), Soil and Water Management (drip irrigation), Plant and Environmental Protection (soil solarization, bio fertilization and biocontrol) and Domesticated Animal Management (optimization of the dairyindustry,heattolerantchickenbreeding).

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The Facultys proven achievements reveal its potential, which can be further expanded to new and groundbreaking levels to tackle the agricultural, environmental and health challengesofthe21stcentury.

TheWay:AParadigmShiftTransitiontoIntegration
Inordertoremainatthecuttingedgeofagriculturalresearchanddevelopmentandtomeet the challenges of modern agriculture, our Faculty will need to undergo significant restructuring,nothingshortofafullscaleparadigmshift.Specifically,theFacultywillalter the patterns of scientific research from the traditional emphasis on single scientistbased programs by adapting (via reorganization and incentives) a fullyintegrated approach to research, teaching and outreach; a new organizational model which will bring together a powerful intellectual community of top scientists to facilitate a multidisciplinary approach to agriculture. Numerous programs and faculty members from environmental science to food science and nutrition to agricultural policy and planning, from economics to animal science to community development will come together to address the challenges of environmentallyresponsible, healthy food production in novel ways. The Faculty will reorganize around an integrative model that focuses on modern and sustainable agriculture as a continuum across several main anchors ranging from (1) sustainable resources, through (2) the process of food production (both animal and plant), to (3) consumption (delivery and consumption of the healthy food end product). In order to reorganize around this concept, a number of currently disparate departments will be combined on both intellectualandphysicallevels. The new integrated system will be far better equipped to best utilize human and scientific resources to examine the scientific, technological, business and social repercussions of agricultural options and, ultimately, to translate research into innovative solutions applicable around the globe. This new system will enable the Faculty to realize its full potentialinresearchandteachingand,thus,tocontributetotheglobaleffort. The transition to integration on the Rehovot campus has in fact already begun with the creation of the Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture at the Hebrew University, which brought together scientists from diverse fields such as Agricultural Botany; Field Crops, Vegetables and Genetics; and Horticulture, enabling the Faculty to break though the frontiers of plant science (by increasing productivity) and genetics (by developing new technologies). Thismerger ensured thatscientific resources are shared, duplication of efforts is avoided, and brain power from different disciplines and perspectivesisbroughttobearonscientificchallenges.Today,theRobertH.SmithInstitute for Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture serves as Israels largest and most diverse academicinstitutedevotedtotheimportantfieldofplantsciences,withanimpressivearray of achievements. Within only three years of its inception, the Robert H. Smith Institute for Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture has already created the platform required for new scientific collaborations to be formed. Novel activities within the Institute are already impactingthegeneralscientificcommunity(viafirstclasspublications),thankstothesenew

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research alliances. For example, by combining the power of genetics with plant biochemistry, we are able to decipher fundamental mechanisms required for proper light utilization by plants. Another interdisciplinary venture linking a developmental biology approach to plant physiology has brought about novel insights concerning the regulation of plant cell growth. What the Robert H. Smith Institute is doing for plant sciences, the proposed new integrative restructuring process will do on an even grander scale for agriculturalandenvironmentalscienceasawhole. In addition, the introduction of a new concept Systems Biology into agricultural sciences is part and parcel of our vision. Biologists are making remarkable strides in their ability to reveal all changes in genes, RNA and proteins within a modified organism. However, sifting through this huge amount of data and comprehending its significance requires expertise from a variety of fields beyond biology such as computer science, mathematical modeling, physics, etc. Such an approach is referred to asSystems Biology, anditprovidesapromisingnewpathfortheadvancementofsciencewhileatthesametime takingintoaccountandthusavoidingpotentialnegativeimpactonourfragileenvironment. Todosowemustcombineourlocalavailablescientificstrengths(inanappropriatephysical and intellectual environment) and involve nonbiology scientists from outside the Faculty, on a goaloriented basis. In this manner we will form unique scientific cadres within our Faculty, with other Faculties at the Hebrew University, as well as with neighboring and international institutes. This unorthodox approach promises to provide an original, comprehensive understanding of the problems at hand and, concomitantly, innovative solutionstowardsthechallengesofhelpingtheworldfeeditself.

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TheIntegratedSystem
The planned integrated system will be composed of two existing and two new major academic pillars: the existing Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and

Genetics in Agriculture and the existing Institute of Biochemistry, Food Sciences andNutrition,alongwiththenewInstituteofEnvironmentalSciencesandNatural Resources in Agriculture and the Complex of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine.
THEINTEGRATIONMODEL The Facultywide integration model rests on the development of two additional major integrative frameworks in addition to the existing Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture and to the existingInstituteofBiochemistry,FoodSciencesandNutrition:

1)

A new Institute of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources in Agriculture will bring together top researchers in fields ranging from plant pathology and microbiology to entomology and soil and water sciences to developandimplementnewwaystomanagenaturalresources. A new Complex of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine will combine theStudyofAnimalScienceswiththeKoretSchoolofVeterinaryMedicinein ordertoencouragestrongercollaborationintheresearchanddevelopmentof farmanimalbiosciences. In addition, four new interdisciplinary Research Centers will further encourage and fuel integrative approaches to agricultural research and development, namely: the Research Center for Basic Agricultural Sciences ; the ResearchCenterforSustainableAnimalHealthandHusbandry;theResearchCenter for Environmental Protection, Sustainability and Bioenergy; and the Research CenterforNutragenomicsandFunctionalFood.

2)

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TheFourPillars
1.TheRobertH.SmithInstituteofPlantSciencesandGeneticsinAgriculture
The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture amalgamates three formerly distinct departments Agricultural Botany;Field Crops, Vegetables and Genetics; and Horticulture and is the largest, most diverse interdisciplinary Israeli academic institution devoted to plant sciences. The Institute combines applied and basic research, employing conventional and novel research tools, at the wholeorganism and cellularmolecular levels. Its 25 faculty members are actively engaged in exploiting the wealth of plant variation and in identifying solutions to the agricultural problems currently facing Israel and neighboring countries as well as those arising from the constantly changingharmfulglobalconditions. TheInstituteisengagedinfourmajorthematicareas: Management and interaction of agricultural plants with the environment (functional physiology and tolerance to abiotic stress; control of vegetative and reproductive development; management of agricultural crops and their products) Biotechnology and biochemistry at the cellular, tissue and intact organism level (production of natural compounds; propagation materials and micro propagation;developmentoftransgenicplantsandbioactiveproducts) Genetics, breeding and genomics (general genetics; breeding of crops and farm animals for qualitative and quantitative traits; molecular genetics, genomics, proteomicsandbioinformatics) Applied ecology (general ecology of plants and their environment; weed control; natureconservation,openareas,forests,andlandscaping) SeveralcentersoperatewithintheRobertH.SmithInstitute.TheKennedyLeighCenterfor Horticultural Research, founded in 1992 by the KennedyLeigh Charitable Trust, is now an active element within the Robert H. Smith Institute and continues to promote and advance teaching and research in all aspects of horticulture, at both national and international levels. Two additional centers were created following the establishment of the Institute: The Wolfson Center for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology in SemiArid Climates and the Robert H. Smith Transgenic Greenhouse Center. The establishment of The Robert H. Smith Institute motivated the Wolfson Family Charitable Trust to invest one million British pounds to provide institute members with stateoftheart equipment in order to exploit the wealth of natural plant variation, and to engage in the ongoing worldwide revolution in plant genomics and proteomics, to identify solutions to agricultural problems and to develop crop plants which are more tolerant to abiotic stress. At the Robert H. Smith Transgenic Greenhouse Center, the first newly constructed greenhouse, the only one of its kind in Israel, has been specifically designed for the evaluation of novel transgenic plants underconfined,strictlycontrolledenvironmentalconditionsthroughouttheyear.

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2.TheInstituteofBiochemistry,FoodSciencesandNutrition
The Institute of Biochemistry, Food Sciences and Nutrition includes the School of Nutritional Sciences and the Department of Food Biochemistry. Striving to maintain excellence in its research and teaching of nutrition and food science, it awards degrees at both the undergraduate and graduate levels and admission standards are very high. The staff includes 12 research scientists and 3 full time teaching members. The Institute hosts researchers studying the effects of nutrients on health at the molecular, cellular, and physiological levels, as well as researchers studying the molecular composition, physical properties and technological aspects of foods. Thus, the Institute presents a multidisciplinary research environment that combines biochemical and medical expertise in nutrition and metabolism with studies on the effects of nutrients on cell biology, together with an understanding of the chemistry, physics and technology of food and food components. The interaction between nutrition and human physiology is complex and relatestogeneticdifferencesbetweenindividuals.Afullunderstandingoftheimpactofdiet onhealthwilloccuronlywhengene/nutrientinteractionsareelucidated. The Institute is in a unique position to be a frontrunner in innovative projects such as the development of tiny edible capsules or nanoparticles which allow medicines and supplementstobeincorporatedintofoods,enablingthereleaseoftheircontentsondemand at targeted tissues in the body. In collaboration with plant scientists, whole genome metabolic profiling of fruits and vegetables can be carried out to identify secondary metaboliteswithhealthbenefitsandorganolepticproperties. TheInstitutehasfourmajorareasofresearchexpertiseandactivity: a. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: Identification and isolation of biologically active components from plant sources and investigation of their effects on metabolism and gene expression.Therapeuticpropertiesaresubstantiatedinwholeanimalmodelsandinhuman studiesthatprovideascientificbasisforhealthclaims.Foodproductssuchaspepper,olive oil, artichoke and compounds isolated from plants are examples of candidates for research andapplication. b. Advanced Food Science, Technology and Biochemistry: Methods for improving food quality and innovative technologies for new product development. Projects include developing environmentallyfriendly protective coatings for foods and agricultural products, drying of foods, development of a legumebased infant formula and new approachesforpreventingfoodspoilage. c. Nutrigenomics: Examining the effects of diet and dietary components on geneexpression andmetabolismatacellular,tissueandwholeanimallevel.Projectsincludeusingprobiotic bacteria as anticancer and antiinflammatory agents; anticarcinogenic agents derived from different plants; nutrients which help prevent obesity and others which promote bone development.

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d. Clinical and Community Nutrition Interventions: Assessing the nutritional needs of the new immigrant Ethiopian community and providing nutrition education programs to improveeatinghabitsinthispopulation. Scientists at this Institute seek to better understand the physiological effects of foods on the body by looking at the impact on metabolic pathways and gene expression in order to preventdiseaseandpromotegoodhealth.

3.The(new)InstituteofEnvironmentalSciencesandNaturalResourcesin Agriculture
AgricultureandtheEnvironmentTowardsHarmoniousCoexistence The modernization and intensification of agriculture in Israel has been achieved by providing farmers with scientific and technical support and by economic planning and stable marketing policies. Using advanced knowledge, generated in great part by scientists at the Hebrew Universitys Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences in Rehovot, farmers have been able to increase yields as well as the variety of produce they grow. Faculty scientists have been at the forefront of national and internationalaridandsemiaridzoneresearchintowaystorenderthedesertandwilderness fertileandhaveaidedinturningIsraelsaridandsemiaridregionsintoarablelands. Intensive agriculture over extended areas and prolonged periods is known to have adverse effectsontheenvironment.ThisiscertainlytrueinIsrael,wherealmostallthelandsuitable for agriculture is actually farmed and water resources are currently overutilized. The environmental situation in this country is particularly critical, as there are few natural resources, and these have to be most carefully managed and protected, while at the same time used intensively. The intensive and rapid agricultural and industrial development in Israel, coupled with limitations in space and resources, has already imposed acute environmentalproblemsthatwillsoonbecommonintherestoftheindustrializedworld(in many cases for the same reasons, yet at a slower pace). Intense exploitation of the land, water, biotic and open spaces has forced the Israeli scientist to investigate issues on the cuttingedgeofenvironmentalsciences. RegionalandGlobalConcerns These environmental challenges are magnified by the regional overlap of resources and the factthatfreshwater,wastewater,insects,pests,andplantdiseasesdonotrecognizeborders. Thus,improperuseofwaterresourceshaslednotonlytonationalbuttoregionalproblems. Future plans for the utilization of scarce resources such as soil and water, new environmental management practices and integrated control of pests and diseases must accordingly be based on regional strategies. Indeed, a number of existing research collaborations, with Jordanian, Egyptian and Palestinian scientists, in the fields of water safety and its utilization, remediation, pest control and pollination can serve as models for futureregionalnetworksandwillsurelyhaveimplicationsondealingwithsimilarproblems aroundtheworld.

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EnvironmentalStudies,ResearchandManagement TheexpertiseofresearchersstudyingtheenvironmentattheHebrewUniversitysFacultyof Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences is recognized on national, regional and international levels. At present, some 30 Faculty scientists are conducting over 50 research projects concerned with environmental quality, and over 100 students are studying Environmental Quality at the Faculty at undergraduate and graduate levels, including a new program on Conservation Biology and Ecosystem Management launched in 2005. About30%oftheprofessionalsattheIsraeliMinistryoftheEnvironmentaregraduateswith advanced degrees from the Faculty, and many other faculty graduates are employed by other agencies focusing on the environment and applied ecology, such as the Ministries of AgricultureandHealth,theForestryDivisionoftheJewishNationalFund,andtheNational Parks Authority as well as water treatment facilities and various other companies across the country (which serve environmental needs such as monitoring toxic waste levels, biological remediationofpollutedsoilsandwaters,etc.). OurAims In its new configuration, activity at the Institute will be dedicated to the preservation and improvement of the environment in general, and of soil, water and biotic resources in particular. By bringing together (physically and conceptually) the researchers in the departments of (i) Soil and Water Sciences; (ii) Entomology; and (iii) Plant Pathology and Microbiology, we will enhance the Facultys research on arid and semiarid regions, thus enabling the Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences to continue to lead in addressing the complex environmental problems that face Israel and the world, now and in the years ahead. This intensification of teaching and research in the fields of environmentalqualitysciencesandnaturalresourceswillgreatlyinfluencethequalityoflife intheStateofIsrael,theregionandtheworld. Together with others at the Faculty, Institute scientists will work towards greater, cleaner and safer crop productivity, thus making foodstuffs, as well as industrial raw materials, moreabundantlyavailable,whileatthesametimeensuringanappropriatebalancebetween agriculture and the environment. By pioneering technologies that increase yields and thus bring about reductions in prices, making food plentiful and potentially more affordable to populations in developing countries, Faculty scientists will contribute to human wellbeing and social stability. Concurrently, this work facilitates efforts of the more developed countries to sustain their standard of living, without damaging the environment, in changingclimaticconditions. Examples of Institute research areas include: wastewater recycling and utilization, composting of agricultural wastes and their application as soil amendments in arid and semiarid regions, yield improvement in dry land agriculture, water conservation, breeding salttolerant crops and use of saline water for crop production, use of natural enemies for biologicalcontrolofvariouspestsanddiseases,andunderstandingandaffectingtheactivity ofmicroorganismsintheirenvironment(e.g.,curbingtheactivityofdetrimentalspecieslike

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disease causing agents while enhancing that of beneficial species like degraders of toxic wastes).TheestablishmentofanInstituteforEnvironmentalSciencesandNaturalResources inAgriculturewillfacilitateinterdisciplinarycollaborationsrequiringnovelcombinationsof scientific expertise. The close proximity of the scientists involved will also encourage the more efficient sharing of expensive scientific instrumentation by the scientists and their students. JointAcademicActivitiesandTeachingPrograms Faculty members of the three departments currently cooperate in the Environmental Quality Sciences study program. As a result of the new Institute, this study program will be enhanced and strengthened by the synergistic activities fostered between the members of the various departments. In addition to existing programs in Environmental Quality, the Faculty recently developed a new teaching program entitled Conservation Biology and Ecosystem Management, which is taught jointly by faculty members from Entomology and Plant Pathology, together with members of the Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and GeneticsinAgricultureandtheDepartmentofAnimalSciences. The Institute will encourage interdisciplinary research projects and the joint supervisionofgraduatestudents. The Institute will encourage synergism by conducting an interdisciplinary seminar covering the various disciplines related to environmental sciences and natural resources. The Institute framework will enable scientific equipment to be shared among the variousmembers,thusensuringmaximumutilization. Participation in the academic programs run by the Institute will be open to all faculty members with relevant expertise and interests, including those from the Department of Animal Sciences, and from the Smith Institute of Plant Sciences (via theproposedresearchcenterseethegeneralfacultyvisionscheme). PotentialBenefits The Institute will ensure the Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences continued leadership role in research on environmental and natural resources onthenationalandinternationallevels. The Institute will play a central role in higher learning and training of experts in EnvironmentalSciencesandNaturalResources. The Institute will facilitate synergism among the diverse expertise of its members who specialize in areas such as: Environmental quality, applied ecology, sustainable agriculture, and management of natural resources (focusing on soil, water and biotic interactionsbetweenagriculturalandneighboringhabitats). The Institute will enhance the effectiveness of the currently existing departments in research, teaching and administrative functions. This will be ensured by the planned physical proximity of the scientists along with the support to be provided by the proposedresearchcenters.

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4.The(new)ComplexofAnimalSciencesandVeterinaryMedicine
As the world population increases along with the demand for healthier and cleaner food, livestock farming in the 21st century faces new challenges. Among these challenges are: the development of watereconomic crops, adaptation of farm animals to hot and arid climates, generating new technologies for farming (e.g. fish culture systems), improvement of reproduction, animal welfare, management of disease outbreaks affecting animals and humans especially zoonoses (diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans such as chicken flu or mad cow disease), conservation of wildlife and endangered species, strengthening the humananimal bond, improvement of public health conditions and environmental quality in animal production. Continued research and development that will meet these challenges must be supported by highly knowledgeable agricultural and veterinaryscientistsandmanagers. RegionalandGlobalConcerns Israels location in the midst of the developing Middle East has rendered the animal husbandry practice to be highly vulnerable to disease risks. Notwithstanding, this risk has been minimized in Israel due to the integration of sciencebased production methods with advanced veterinary services for detection and eradication of diseases. Continued research and development in these fields is a necessity for maintaining Israels leading edge in farm animal bio and veterinary medicalsciences. Becoming a center of excellence in the Middle East with a focus on collaboration with neighboring countries is an important challenge for the new Complex for Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. In an age where the movement of people, livestock, animal feed and animal products is common practice, the dissemination of knowledge and goods (e.g., successful breeds) can be extremely efficient and benefit a large number of people on a global scale. We must, however, remember that the spread of disease (e.g., bird flu, SARS etc.) is also more rapid due to this expanding freedom of movement. Thus, a high level of expertise is required to take advantage of the pros, while avoiding the cons, of mobility and the exchange of animals and agricultural goodsinthemodernera. AnimalSciencesandVeterinaryMedicineStudiesandResearch TheFacultyofAgricultural,FoodandEnvironmentalQualitySciencesistheonlyinstitution inIsraelofferinghighereducationinthefieldsofAnimalSciencesandVeterinaryMedicine. Atpresent,approximately26FacultymembersfromtheDepartmentofAnimalSciencesand from the School of Veterinary Medicine are conducting research projects regarding farm animal agriculture. Over 270 students study Animal Sciences at the undergraduate level, andover160studentsstudyforhigherdegreesinthejointteachingprogramofAnimaland Veterinary Sciences. Some of the students combine Animal Sciences studies with other programs such as Environmental Quality, Biotechnology or Economy. Many of these graduates are then recruited by the Ministry of Agriculture or the Ministry of Environment, while others are employed in biotech companies or continue their academic studies. An additional160studentsenrolleachyearinafouryearVeterinaryMedicineprogramandare abletocombinethisprogramwithgraduatedegreestudies(DVM/PhDcombinedprogram).

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Research in the Department of Animal Sciences mainly involves the physiology of growth and reproduction, stress physiology, nutrition, growth and development as affected by environmental impact and aquaculture, while the research conducted in the Veterinary School involves metabolic diseases, infectious diseases of pet and farm animals, zoonotic diseases, epidemiology, biomechanics, pathophysiology, neurophysiology, pharmacology, bioanthropology, and comparative oncology. Collaborations between researchers from both units focus on subjects such as nutrition and diseases or fish reproduction. The new Complex will be located on the Rehovot campus with an affiliation to the Veterinary HospitallocatedintheBeitDaganresearchcenter. OurAims The new Complex for Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine will create the physical proximity required to combine world class researchers from the Department of Animal Sciences with those at the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine. This, in turn will encourage the development of cuttingedge research in farm animal biosciences in a manner that combines the conceptual and practical skills of scientists involved in breeding/raising animals together with experts in veterinary medicine (a combination which perhaps surprisingly, does not exist today). Research in the Department of Animal Sciences involves aspects of growth and reproduction of farm animals, while the research conducted in the Veterinary School involves different aspects of disease in pet and farm animals. The complementary nature of these units and their physical proximity provide an ideal setting for collaboration and for more efficient use of resources, while maintaining independent research agendas as well. The Complex for Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine aims tocreatea world renownedcenterforthe researchofdomesticanimalsinbothhealthyand diseased states, in arid and desert climates. This closer collaboration will also enable joint educational programs for both local and foreign students in animal and veterinary sciences, aswellasjointseminarsandotheractivities.

JointFacilitiesandAcademicActivities Shared large and sophisticated equipment, such as imaging systems, clean laboratories for invitro fertilization (IVF) research, a specific pathogen free (SPF) unit or equipment for embryonic development studies, all of which will be located within easy access of all Complexscientists. Combined venues such as seminar rooms, a conference room, and a common site to facilitatestaffandstudentinteractions.

PotentialBenefits The new Complex of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine will create a focal point for collaborations between Israel and neighboring countries or other regions which confrontproblemswithanimalfarminginhotandaridareas.

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The distinctive research which will be produced in such a center, where specialists in animal husbandry will constantly interact with experts in veterinary medicine. In addition to establishing novel research programs, this will serve as a core for attracting additional excellent scientists (in these and other fields as in the case of a Systems Biologyapproach). This Complex with its unique educational agenda will serve as a base for establishing new academic educational programs and for spreading knowledge to both Israeli and foreignstudents.

EnhancingCrossdisciplinaryCollaborationthrough FourUniqueResearchCenters

Inordertotakefurtheradvantageofthegreatpotentialforinterdisciplinaryand collaborativeresearch,beyondorganizingtheentirefacultyaroundthefourpillars,the FacultyseekstoestablishfourResearchCenterswhichwillcrossdisciplinesandoffer incentivesforcollaborationacrosstheentirecontinuumofagriculture:fromthenew InstituteofNaturalResourcesandtheEnvironment,totheSmithInstituteofPlantSciences, tothenewComplexofAnimalSciencesandVeterinaryMedicine,totheInstituteof Biochemistry,FoodScienceandNutrition. Thesecenterswillenablethefollowingactivities: (i) Innovative research initiatives based on the creative merging of academic forces from different disciplines (researchers residing in the differentrestructuredfacultyframeworks). (ii) Attractionofyoungscientists(graduateandpostdoctoralstudents)to enhance and diversify the composition of national and international researchteams. (iii) Inviting highranking visiting scientists to complement the existing cadreofscientistsfunctioningonspecificprojects. (iv) Sponsorship of relevant complex workshops and seminars for brainstorminganddisseminationofknowledge. In principle, research center support is intended to provide the fuel for extraordinary activities (beyond the scope of traditional funding) that emerge from nonconventional approaches to meeting scientific challenges of a fundamental as well as applied nature. The function of the centers will create a unique research atmosphere, essential for performing exceptionalscience. The four research centers will encompass all levels of interdisciplinary agricultural research. AcenterforbasicresearchwillbethehublinkingthefourFacultyresearchpillars.Accessto this hub will enable scientists to probe and dissect challenges of a fundamental nature, along with the integration of input from exact sciences (system biology). The other three centers will span the entire food production process, including diverse plant and animal food

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sources, quantitative/qualitative optimization of nutrition and biofuels, holistic approaches towards coping with modern agriculture (intact organism), along with environmental protectionandsustainability.

1.TheResearchCenterforBasicAgriculturalSciences
In order to further develop agrotechnology, researchers need to increase our basic understanding of scientific phenomena related to agriculture. To this end, the Faculty will create a multidisciplinary research center aimed at addressing basic questions related to agriculture; focusing on bacteria, fungi, harmful and beneficial insects, plants, and vertebrates at the molecular, organism and community levels of biological organization. ThisCenterwillenableabetterunderstandingoffundamentalaspectsofagriculturerelated sciences, and will be a hub where researchers from across the campuswill be encouraged to collaborate. A. Research at the Molecular Level. Elucidating the nature of the basic building blocks of any process provides a significant advantage if changes or alterations in the process are considered. The genetic material (DNA and RNA), the functional genetic products (proteins) and some of the products of their activities (biochemicals) are the primary players in the life of any organism. This center will support activities aimed at identifying, isolating and analyzing such components of life. This includes natural compounds of nutritional value (high quality proteins), health value (vitamins and other potential food additives) and therapeutic value (antifungal, antipest and anti cancerous). In addition to the analysis of known organisms (be they beneficial or detrimental), powerful new tools will be employed to analyze the massive uncultured plant and microbial diversity present in the environment to provide new molecules for therapeuticandbiotechnologicalapplications. B. Research at the Intact Organism Level. Current advances in our abilities to analyze specific traits of an organism have caused us to focus on the level of complete, intact organisms. Even though a functional life form comprises an immense number of variables,weareeagertobravethechallengeofunderstandingcomplexsystemssuchan intact organism. Thus, research at this level of biological organization will focus on the physiology and behavior of the agriculturalrelated organisms of interest. This includes membersoftheplant,fungalandanimalkingdom(anythingfromthedevelopmentofan allergenicfungalsporetonutrientutilizationinplants,theendocrinefunctioninfishand mammals to reproductive and sexual behavior in insects). The overall objective of this type of work is to identify targets for improving food production or management practices, based on intimate, detailed and rigorously researched biological understanding. C. Research at the Community and Ecosystem Level. Agriculture is practiced in the field (be it land, sea or in the future space) and new methods must be employed in order to understand the spatial and temporal behavior of plant, microbe and animal species in the environment (including interactions amongst them). The objectives of inquiry at the community level are to understand how species interact to stabilize

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ecosystems, how best to manage populations of pests, pathogens and invasive species, and how to conserve biodiversity on the one hand, and exploit its offerings to better mankind,ontheother. D. Systems Biology. The remarkable advances in biological research provide us with a plethoraofdatathatcanbetappedindiverseways.Invitingscientistsfromfieldsofexact sciences (e.g., mathematicians, physicists, computer scientists) to join Faculty scientists to probe our data, together, will yield new concepts and possibilities which can be experimentally addressed. The Faculty will be the first to adopt this truly interdisciplinaryapproachtoagriculturalresearch.

2.TheResearchCenterforSustainableAnimalHealthandHusbandry
Themodernlivestockindustrymakesexcessiveuseofdrugsandpharmaceuticalstocombat infective diseases. Excess drug usage causes three major problems: a) diseaseprone animals whose health depends on drugs rather than on natural immunity; b) pharmaceutical remnants which are stored in the animal carcass and passed to the human consumer; c) excretion of drugs in urine that leads to underground water contamination. Hence, the reduction of pharmaceutical usage is a major objective in sustainable agricultural practice and in animal research. This Center seeks to investigate the means to produce novel, safe and potent vaccines to prevent infective diseases, boost natural immunity, and alleviate the needforexcessivedruguse. Intensive livestock farming, as practiced in Israel, results in an excess of animal excrement, which percolates through the upper soil and is a major source of underground water contamination.Thisisfurthercomplicatedbypharmaceuticalcontaminantspresentinurine. Toovercomethisthreatandtopreservethepurityofadiminishingwaterreservoir,research is aimed atdeveloping strategies to detoxify large animal excretions in particular by using environmentallyfriendlymicroorganismsandplants. Animal welfare is becoming an increasingly important issue in the livestock industry. Thus, new avenues are being sought to reduce animal densities during the growth period to provide a more humane, but not less productive, environment. The technology required in this area requires a novel approach to animal husbandry so that production is maintained while animals are allowed to live under nonstressful conditions on the one hand and maintain a rational ecological balance in grazing areas and other open spaces adjacent to animalrearingcentersontheother.

3.TheResearchCenterforNutragenomicsandFunctionalFood
Functional foods are foods designed to provide a specific beneficial physiological effect on health, performance and/or wellbeing extending beyond the provision of simple nutrients. The Research Center for for Nutragenomics and Functional Food will be based on the Facultys interdisciplinary expertise in molecular plant and applied plant sciences; human

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nutrition with special emphasis on children, the aging and those with special health requirements;foodchemistryandtechnology,andconsumerresearch. Understanding the specific dietary factors of functional foods will allow researchers at the center to address the special needs of population groups in order to help them meet their unique nutrition requirements and thus reduce the occurrence of dietrelated diseases and disorders, such as obesity and allergies. This knowledge could also lead to reformulation of processed foods, and development of novel foods and ingredients, dietetic foods and foods with nutritional and health benefits, thus, offering consumers a myriad of accessible wellness products preventing a spectrum of illnesses and disorders. Functional foods can also be utilized to enhance mental performance, fight cancer, and improve overall human dispositionandperformance. The distinctive sets of expertise on the Rehovot campus allow for a multidisciplinary approach to research directed at improving human wellbeing. Animal scientists can develop new diets for farm animals that then alter the nutrient composition of food consumed by humans for example, omega3 enriched eggs, meat and milk products. Collaborationwithplantscientistscanleadtothedevelopmentofnewvarietiesoffruitsand vegetables with increased concentrations of specific compounds beneficial to health. These advances may be achieved by changing the growing conditions of plants, through conventional genetic methodologies (cross breeding) or by using molecular techniques. Biologically active ingredients can be isolated, characterized, analyzed and utilized in the food and beverage industries. Food technologists can use stateoftheart methods to incorporate beneficial compounds found in plants into a wide range of foodstuffs in biologically available forms and can develop analytical methods for quality control and accuratefoodlabeling. The interdisciplinary nature of this research center also provides the opportunity for scientists who are not experts in nutrition to initiate and lead research schemes which may provide novel nutritionrelated outputs. Thus, such a research platform may be the testing groundfornewpotentialusesformicroorganisms,plantsandanimals(e.g.,identifyingnew sources for proteins, vitamins and other nutritional requirements for human and animal welfare). In addition to the promotion of scientific excellence, this research is expected to benefit the community at large through addressing problems unique to specific populations, and by increasing awareness among the general public as to what constitutes proper nutrition and whyitisimportant.

4.TheResearchCenterforEnvironmentalProtection,SustainabilityandBioenergy
The world is facing significant andvital challenges to its environment, requiring us to battle desertificationandtodevelopalternativeenergyresources.Toaddressthesechallenges,this center focuses on four main goals, namely: (1) reclaiming and utilizing wastewater, (2) the

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development of new crops and microorganisms for alternative renewable bioenergy sources and their utilization in novel chemical and biochemical processes, (3) warding off desertificationand(4)maintainingplanthealth. Israel is unique in its ability to reclaim water. However, recently it was proven that when wastewater and sludge are introduced into soils and sediments, an interaction takes place changing their properties. Fundamental understanding gained through research would enablereductionoftheassociatedrisksofaccumulationinthefoodchain,(eco)toxicological effects,developmentofresistantmicrobialstrains,andgroundwatercontamination,andwill ultimatelyallowasafeandsustainableutilizationofthispreciousresource. The increasing demand for biological resources, especially for renewable alternative energy, can only be met through innovation and advancement of knowledge in the sustainable management, production and use of energy crops. At the core of this effort is the development of a basis for new, sustainable, safer, affordable, ecoefficient and competitive alternative energy grown on marginal or desert land, utilizing reclaimed water. Hence, this fulfills twomain objectives, namely, resolving the problem of desertification and bioenergy production. To realize the potential in the production of chemicals derived from biological oils and to enable the rational development of designer oil products at sufficient yields to make them commerciallyviable,anewplatformofunderstandingisurgentlyrequired.Thisnecessitates the combined research efforts of plant scientists, geneticists, ecologists and soil and water specialists in order to dissect and harness the biochemical process leading to oil production intargetoilproducingspecies.Theresultscouldfacilitatetherapiddomesticationofunder utilized species as new industrial crops, the improvement of existing oil crops and the development of novel oil crops through gene transfer methods. The full range of applications will be investigated. Research performed would provide an opportunity to applynewgenomicknowledgeinthedevelopmentofvegetableoilsforindustrialuse,while addressingtheagronomicandruralimplicationsfortheirintroduction. Recent years of population and income growth have aggravated the problem of over utilization of natural resources in many parts of the world. Policy makers are now interested in economic incentives to ration the utilization of natural resources. At the same time, there has been a rise in new innovative agro and biotechnologies that enhance food productionandassistincreatingenvironmentallysustainablegrowth.Thereareobstaclesto the widespread application of these technologies, such as modest adoption rates in developing countries and consumer opposition in developed countries. Thus, economists willjoinscientistsinthepursuitofanaffordablesourceofbioenergy. Plant health is a significant limiting factor in food production. The center will support interdisciplinary research striving to improve plant health in a manner that will not compromise the environment. The development of nontraditional means for enhancing crop protection, whether by avoiding or controlling detrimental factors, will be one of the foci of this center, in concert with the other activities mentioned.

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SharingknowledgeMultiplyingtheimpact
A pinnacle of any scientific accomplishment, regardless of its magnitude, is sharing the finding(s) with others. We believe that teaching and training future generations of scientists is part and parcel of our commitment to disseminate our knowledge on the one hand, and establishthenextgenerationsofscientificleadership,ontheother. TeachingProgramsattheFacultyofAgriculturalFoodandEnvironmentalSciences As the sheer volume of accumulated knowledge increases at a staggering pace, we attempt to provide our students with a firm grounding in the basic sciences while fostering their ability to think critically and to synthesize a meaningful understanding from the overwhelming flood of information they face. Our teaching programs provide knowledge and skills. Most importantly, we attempt to inculcate the ability to acquire more knowledge andskills,byproviding toolsforcontinuouslearning,anattributewebelieveisessentialfor both scientists and professionals in the 21st century. In order to challenge, stimulate and inspire our students, we offer a wide range of introductory courses aimed at informing and exciting undergraduates about their chosen field, and comprehensive courses for training in thelatestadvancesofvariousdisciplines. Accordingly, we offer our undergraduate and graduate students various study programs formedalongtraditionaldisciplinarylines(Table1). Table1.StudyPrograms. LeadingtoB.Sc.: LeadingtoM.Sc.: PlantSciences PlantSciencesInAgriculture AnimalSciences FieldCrops PlantProtection HorticultureandOrnamentals Soil&WaterSciences GeneticsandBreeding Biochemistry&FoodSciences PlantProtection Nutrition Soil&WaterSciences AgriculturalEconomics&Management Biochemistry&FoodSciences Hotel&TourismManagement Nutrition AgriculturalEconomics&Management Currently, over 1,200 students are enrolled in undergraduate programs, and more than 500 in the various programs leading to the Masters degree. In addition over 300 students are working on their Ph.D.s under the tutelage of faculty members or associated scientists, and wegraduate40veterinarianseachyearfromtheonlyschoolofveterinarymedicineinIsrael, alsoonourcampus.

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In addition to these traditional study programs, we have forged a number of novel inter disciplinary programs (Table 2), which aim to create tenable curricular and professional links between the various disciplines represented on campus. These programs allow students to combine studies in their primary program with courses from the interdisciplinary program. While the traditional curricula provide specific professional competencies, interdisciplinary programs combine several competencies, and provide a wider intellectual vision. The end result is a trained professional with well established skills inthebasicsciencesandabroadperspectiveinabroad,novelandupdatedfield. Table2.InterdisciplinaryUndergraduateandGraduateStudyPrograms B.Sc.: Biotechnology NatureConservationandManagement AgricultureandtheEnvironment Agriculture,EconomicsandMarketing M.Sc.: Biotechnology AnimalandVeterinarySciences EnvironmentalQualityandNaturalResources EducationinAgricultureShouldKnowNoBoundaries The Facultys teaching and research activities go way beyond the borders of our small country. In order to increase our impact on agricultural practice worldwide, we currently offer 2 international M.Sc. programs, in Nutrition and in Plant Sciences, which are attended mainly by young scientists from the developing world and Eastern Europe (see accompanying map of the Facultys international outreach). The programs are filled to capacity,provingtheirstrongreputationinternationally.Inaddition,Facultyscientistsoften collaboratewithcolleaguesabroad,andhostthematconferencesontheRehovotcampus. In additional to its international training, the Faculty offers a variety of courses and training programs aimed at training Israeli professionals in modern agricultural approaches. The Faculty also has programs aimed at sharing our intellectual and technical expertise with the wider public be they food industry giants or new immigrant mothers.

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SupportingtheIntegrationModelwithNecessaryResources
For six years you may sow your field and for six years you may prune your vineyard; and you may gather of its crop. But the seventh year shall be a complete rest for the land, a Sabbath for Hashem; your field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune. Leviticus25:34 Quality research and development is impossible without the proper resources human and physical. Faculties require top scientists, who in turn require stateoftheart facilities and equipment and sufficient research funding to remain on the cutting edge of scientific inquiry.

RetainingandAttractingTopScientists
TheimpressiveachievementsandstrongreputationoftheFacultyofAgricultural,Foodand Environmental Quality Sciences are due to the outstanding, innovative scientists that have beenattractedtothisFacultyovertheyears.Inordertocontinuetobreakresearchfrontiers and lead the world in sustainable agricultural innovations, the Faculty must continue to recruitandabsorbtopscientistsinthemostrelevantareasofinquiry. Top candidates measure the prospect of joining the Hebrew University against competing offers from other worldclass institutions and profitable industries that offer stateoftheart laboratories to incoming scientists. As dedicated researchers, candidates are prepared to earn significantly lower salaries than they would receive in other industries and at other institutions. Candidates will not, however, compromise their research. This is both understandable and laudable. Clearly, the Universitys ultimate success in recruiting these top scientists and enabling them to fulfill their research potential depends on maintaining a strong cadre of scientific colleagues who can challenge and inspire one another, and the availabilityofproperlabs,necessaryscientificequipment,andresearchfundingcomparable tothefinestuniversitiesintheUnitedStatesandelsewhere.

Attracting top young scientists to the Faculty will ensure that the best human resources are puttoworkaddressingtheveryrealchallengesforsustaininghumanlifeonthisplanetover time. The suggested reorganization will land the Faculty at the nexus of research and academiaandwillhelptoattracttopscientistspassionatetoworkinanenvironmentatonce competitiveandcollaborative,withsharedresourcesandaccesstocrossknowledge.

StrengtheningInfrastructureandInvestinginResearch
The Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences can claim outstanding achievements in many areas of agricultural science, but the physical infrastructure to support this research must be modernized if this high level of scientific inquiry is to continue. The Faculty is, at this point, stretched beyond its capacity. Laboratory and teaching facilities must be renovated and equipment added in order to allow faculty to

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maximize their research potential, and to attract young scientists to join them. New spaces must be created and others renovated to allow space for interdisciplinary inquiry to thrive. Cuttingedge research will be possible only with enough funding to enable research, conferences, travel, the funding of research assistants and the purchase of necessary equipment.

Conclusion
Joseph amassed grain like the sand of the sea in great abundance until he ceased counting, fortherewasnonumberGenesis41:49 TheFacultyofAgricultural,FoodandEnvironmentalSciencesoftheHebrewUniversityhas hadaremarkableimpactonworldagriculturalpractice.TheonlysuchFacultyofitskind,in a relatively small country in a developing area, it has managed to lead and innovate in best farming practices, in the creation of innovative new means of producing and protecting plants and animals, and in the study of nutrition and human health and wellbeing. Drip irrigation, longlife cherry tomatoes and vitamin enriched pomelos, increased yields, protected crops, and water recycling are just some of the many innovations attributable to this Faculty. Just as importantly, the Faculty has played a major role in improving agricultural practice in developing nations by sharing research, knowledge, and applied solutions developed at the Faculty through educational programs for international students andcollaborativeprojectswithcolleaguesworldwide. A new integrative model, supported by adequate resources for research, infrastructure, and the absorption of top young researchers, coupled with the Facultys core of outstanding scientists and record of outstanding achievements, will ensure that the Faculty will play a major role in addressing the next agricultural environmental challenge: feeding the future throughknowledgedrivenagriculture.

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