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Course Objectives After completing this course, you should be able to: Identify common fan coil, unit

t heater, and unit ventilator control strategies, including strengths and weaknesses of each. Describe the control loop and explain how the common control components support the control loop functionality. Describe the commonalities and differences in the control components and strategies for fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators. Identify the impact on environment, cost, and maintenance based on control selection parameters for fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators. Lessons Menu Two-pipe Changeover Control Loop Control Functions Control Selection Parameters Common Control Strategies Control Functions Recall that the Control System is a device or a series of devices used to regulate HVAC System operations. The functions of these systems can be either manual or automated. Automated control functions can be implemented in two general ways: standalone or networked. Click on the link to read about each type of control function.

Standalone controls require dedicated control components for each step of the control loop (sensor, controller, controlled device) and each control loop needed by a single piece of mechanical equipment to carry out functional control strategies.

Standalone controls require dedicated control components for each step of the control loop (sensor, controller, controlled device) and each control loop needed by a single piece of mechanical equipment to carry out functional control strategies. Networked controls use digital technology to share many of the sensors and control logic functions between one or more control loops. They also can readily tie together the larger control strategies that often cross over different mechanical system types and locations within a building.


Purpose of Control Strategies

Fan coils and unit heaters regulate temperature. Unit ventilators also regulate the percentage of outside air allowed in by the dampers. For fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators, the primary purpose of the control strategy is controlling each zone individually. Common Control Strategies A zone is a section of a building that has its own dedicated controller and piece of mechanical equipmentin this case, a fan coil, unit heater, or unit ventilator. Control strategies ensure the comfort of occupants in particular zones, even if they have different loads. The zone is not necessarily defined by the walls around a space, but rather by how much space and load the controller and terminal unit are responsible for. Whats so important about control strategies? For example, in an average office building, conditions must be kept comfortable for employees, or the company risks losing productivity. Office spaces will have one control strategy for their particular zones. Conversely, if a conference room is hot and not well-ventilated, it will be hard to

convince clients to stay around long enough to make deals. Therefore, while a conference room might be located among offices, each is its own zone and would be controlled individually Recall that there are usually two types of zones in a building: interior zones and exterior zones with different heating and cooling needs. Within these, there can be many smaller zones or spaces with individual thermostats and terminal units. Interior and exterior zones may have to control different mechanical equipment. Interior zones may only require cooling, while exterior zones may require both heating and cooling. To accommodate this, one system, like a VAV system, may be used for the whole building, while fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators are only used as needed in the exterior zone. Thus, the interior zone thermostats are only controlling a cooling VAV box, while the exterior thermostats must control cooling at sometimes and heating at other times.

Variable Air Volume Use of varying air volume to control the condition of the air in a zone in contrast to the use of constant flow with varying temperatures.

Common Control Strategies: Two-Pipe Changeover To coordinate the source energy and terminal usage strategy, the two-pipe system must be able to carry out a changeover function. What is a two-pipe changeover? It is a portion of the strategy used in two-pipe all-water systems to change the temperature of water provided to the terminal unit. Two-pipe all-water systems are limited to providing only one temperature of water to a unit at a time. Therefore, a changeover is required when a zones needs change. The changeover can be manual or centrally controlled with the thermostat.
all-water system An HVAC System which distributes heated or chilled water from a central plant through pipes to terminal equipment placed in the conditioned zone to provide heating/cooling to the space.

Two-Pipe Changeover

Because the changeover occurs at the central equipment room, the terminal unitin this case, the fan coil, unit heater, or unit ventilatormust coordinate with the actions at the source.

If the terminal unit is networked, this coordination is automatic. If the units are not networked, a separate sensor in each unit measures the water temperature in that unit. It is a two-position sensor that detects whether water is above or below a certain temperature. The thermostat needs to be informed which temperature water hot or cold it has available to carry out its temperature control function. For a 4-pipe system, no changeover is required.

Common Control Functions for Each Unit Type Because fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators have different inherent capabilities, not all control functions apply to each. View the table below to note which control functions are combined for the strategy applied to each unit type.

Two-Position vs. Proportional Controls

Much of Johnson Controls' business is focused on proportional controls. Proportional controls provide smoother, more stable regulation. Change is proportional to the need. However, fan coils and unit heaters are simple, low-cost equipment solutions, so often the less-expensive, simpler two-position controls are appropriate to use with them. For example, a fan coil might be used in the entryway of a building, between the inside and outside door, to temper the cold outside air before it reaches the second set of doors. In that case, a two-position control would be sufficient.

Controls: Strengths and Weaknesses Various controls provide unique strengths and weaknesses. View the table below to note the strengths and weaknesses of each type of control.

Control Loop Recall that the control loop is the system of control components (sensor, controller, and controlled device) that work together to modulate a buildings internal environment.

sensor The sensor senses things in the indoor environment that the HVAC System needs to respond to. controller The controller component of the control system starts to work based on what the sensor senses


Sensor &Controller

Controlled Device

Unit Ventilator Control System Unit ventilators use a slightly different control system than fan coils and unit heaters, because in addition to controlling temperature, they must control the amount of fresh air brought into a space. Unit ventilators can bring in free cooling if the outdoor air is cooler than the indoor air. A damper actuator usually maintains a fixed minimum air flow, but the amount of air allowed in can be increased up to 100%. The damper can also be closed if the outdoor air is too cold, if there is a freeze threat, or if the space in unoccupied.

Safety Control Another difference in the unit ventilator is the safety control requirement. A low-limit controller is a safety that can sense a potential freezing condition in the unit ventilator and close the outdoor damper. Usually, the zone sensor communicates with the valve actuator and damper actuator to regulate temperature. In rare instances, the safety controller overrides the sensor to close the damper. It is only used in a unit ventilator.

in addition to controlling temperature, they must control the amount of fresh air brought into a space.

Control Components: Similarities and Differences Fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators use various control components. Review the table below to identify which control components are used by each unit type.

Controls Selection Parameters When selecting a control system, there are many factors to consider. The following questions may be helpful in the selection process.

What impact does the accuracy of my sensor, controller, and controlled device have? Click on the link to see some suggested considerations for more and less accurate controls. More Accurate More accurate controls make it easier to regulate temperature at a setpoint. The accuracy of the ventilation rate is key to meeting the local building code's ventilation requirements. Proportional controls are more accurate, but the initial cost is higher. Less Accurate

Two-position controls are less accurate than proportional controls.

Because they are less accurate, they are more likely to allow larger space temperature variations. Two-position controls are less accurate, but they are also less expensive to maintain.

What level of control will the occupants have? What will be the impact?

Greater occupant control means more opportunity for occupants to tamper with systems and possibly cause problems. Occupant controlled systems are easier for occupants to use

Will the control system be standalone, or will it be part of a network?

Standalone systems: Make individual zone control easier. Generally use more energy, because individuals can constantly be changing the settings. Might require maintenance due to human tampering. Are easier for occupants to control. Require no network technology.

Controls Selection Parameters

Networked systems: Make controlling an entire building easier. Are more expensive initially. Centrally managed systems can save energy by eliminating occupant tampering. Might require additional maintenance of the network. Are easier for building management to oversee.

Customer Application Now that you know more about fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators control systems, lets go back to your discussion with the customer. What are some of the questions that you might ask him? Here are some questions you might ask the customer: Do you need to regulate the temperature at a stable set point? Do you want occupants to be able to control individual zones? Is initial cost or maintenance cost a bigger concern? Will the building have a network that manages heating and cooling?


Congratulations, you have successfully completed the Fan Coils, Unit Heaters, and Unit Ventilators Control Systems course. Now that you have completed this course, you should be able to: Discuss control loops and control systems strategies with clients. Describe the function of the control loop and what impact it has. Determine the different control needs for fan coils, unit heaters, and unit ventilators.