You are on page 1of 41

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.

1)

CHAPTER 1 : The World Through Our Senses

1|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

SENSORY ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS


1. Sensory organs are used to detect every changes in the environment. (a) Sensory organs are possessed by human and all animals. (b) Sensory organs allow the body to respond to the stimuli surroundings. Stimuli from the surroundings. Stimuli are changes that happen in the environment. (c) Sensory organs have receptors that receive the stimuli and then, send them as impulses to the brain to be analysed. The brain will then, give a response through the related effectors. Examples of effectors are muscles and glands. 2. The sensory organs found in humans are the skin, eyes, nose, ears and tongue. 3. Table 1.1 shows the stimuli for the sensory organs found in our body.

2|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

3|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

We have five sensory organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin that are sensitive to different stimuli.

The Skin and the Sense of Touch


1. The skin is the outermost layer of the human body which covers and protects the human body. 2. The skin is a sensory organs which is sensitive to touch. 3. The human skin sonsists of two layers: (a) The epidermis layer which consists of dead cells and acts as a protector. (b) The dermis layer consists of living cells, blood vessels, nerves and sweat glands. The dermis also has receptors which are sensitive to head, cold, contact (touch) and pressure. 4. Receptors are the ends of the nerves which are very sensitive to stimuli. 5. Each receptor is connected to a nerve. When stimulated, it sends a nerve signal known as an impluse to the brain to be interpreted. 6. Pain receptors are the closest to the skin surface. This is followed by touch receptors, heat receptors and cold receptors. Pressure receptors lie deep down in the adipose tissue beneath the dermis layer. 7. Different parts of the skin have different levels and sensitivity. The skin sensitivity depends on: (a) The depth of receptors in the skin. The palms of our hands, the lips and the neck are more sensitve than the soles of our feet. (b) How close together the receptors are. The parts of the skin which have receptors close to one another are more sensitive.

4|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

5|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. The arrangement of the apparatus is set up as shown in Figure. 2. Your partner is blindfolded using the piece of black cloth. 3. One or two toothpicks are used to prick the parts of the body as listed in the table below. 4. Your partner has to guess whether one or two tootpicks were used.

1. Skin on the different parts of the body have different degrees of sensitivity to touch. 2. The skin on the fingertips, lips, area behind the ear and neck are sensitive to touch. 3. The skin on the palm of the hand, knee, sole of the foot and elbow are not so sensitive to

6|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


touch. 4. The other parts of the body that are very sensitive to touch are the eyelids and armpits.

Different parts of the body have different degrees of sensitivity to the stimulus of touch.

The Nose and the Sense of Smell


1. The nose is a sensory organ which is sensitive to smell. 2. The cavity of the nose is lined by 2 types of cells: (a) Glandular cells which secrete slime ( muscus ). (b) Cells of the smell receptors. 3. The cells of the smell receptors are found on the upper part of the nasal cavity, which are connected to the nerve endings that in turn convey smell impulses to the brain. 4. Chemical substances, inhaled through the nose, dissolve in the mucus and stimulate the sensory cells of smell. Then, impulses are sent to the brain through the nerves to be interpreted. 5. When we have flu, the thick layer of mucus in the nose hinders these sensory cells from being stimulated and we are then, unable to smell as usual.

6. Hair and mucus in the nasal cavity function to filter dust from the air so that only clean air can enter the lungs. 7. The sensivity of smell of animals such as cats, rats and dogs is greater than that of humans, which is relatively quite weak.

The Tongue and Sense of Taste


1. The tongue is the sensory organ for taste. It can detect salt, sour, sweet and bitter tastes. 2. There are small bumps on the surface of the tongue known as taste buds. 3. The taste buds are cells which are sensitive to taste. 4. Different parts of the tongue have different tastes.

7|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

5. Most food have the combination of all types of tastes. 6. When we eat, the chemical substances from the food dissolve in the saliva and stimulate the taste buds. 7. Then, the receptors on the taste buds send impulses to the brain to be interpreted. 8. Our taste and smell sensory organs help us to feel the palatability of food. This is because the mouth cavity and nose cavity are connected. Therefore, the taste and smell of food can be experienced at the same time. 9. When the nose is pinched while eating, the palatability of the food that is being eaten cannot be tasted. 10. When someone is having a flu, the taste of food cannot be detected because too much of mucus block the sensory cells.

8|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. Food cannot be identified accurately when the nose is pinched. 2. All types of food can be identified accurately with the help of the senses of smell and taste. 3. When the nose is pinched, only the sense of taste in volved in tasting. 4. When the nose is not pinched, both the sense of taste and the sense of smell are involved in tasting.

The Ears and the Sense of Hearing and Balance


1. The ears are the sensory organs for hearing and are sensitive to sound. 2. The human ear is divided into three parts: (a) Outer ear - filled with air (b) Middle ear - filled with air (c) Inner ear - filled with fluid 3. Each part of the ear has its own function as shown in Table 1.3.

9|Page

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

4. The hearing mechanism: (a) The earlobe collects and directs sound waves into the eardrum through the ear canal. (b) The eardrum vibrates and the sound vibration in tranferred to the ear bones (ossicle). (c) The ossicles strenghen these vibrations snd convey them to the oval window. (d) The vibrations of the oval window cause the fluid in the cochlea to produce nerve impulses. (e) The nerve impulses are sent to the brain by the auditory nerve to be interpreted. 5. The ear as a balancing organ: (a) Apart from functioning as a hearing organ, the ear also controls the balance of the body. (b) Any bodily movements will stimulate the receptors in the semicircular canals to produce impulses. (c) The brain will interpret these impulses and direct the muscles to respond and to balance up the

10 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


body.

SENSE OF SIGHT

1. The eye is the sensory organ of sight and responds to light.

11 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

2. Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations.

The sight mechanism


1. Light is reflected off an object into our eyes. 2. The light travels through the pupil and the eye lens. 3. Finally the light is focused onto the retina. 4. The image formed on the retina is real, inverted and smaller than the object. 5. The optic nerve then sends the nerve impulses from the retina to the brain. The brain interprets the image as upright.

12 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

6. The formation of an image on the retina of the eye to the stage where we can see is summarised in Figure.

7. The condition of the eye lens looking at near and distant objects is shown below :

8. The flow chart below summarises the route of light rays from the object entering the eye.

LIGHT AND SIGHT


Characteristics of light Reflection of light
13 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. Light rays are reflected by an opaque surface. 2. A smooth and shiny opaque surface, like a plane mirror, reflects nearly all the light rays that fall on it. 3. According to the Law of Reflection, (a) the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal are all on the same plane. (b) the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. 4. The Law of Reflection is obeyed only if the parallel light rays fall onto a uniform surface. The reflected light rays are also parallel and in order. 5. If the parallel light rays fall on a non-uniform rough surface, the reflected light rays will not be parallel or in order but dispersed. 6. The knowledge of the reflection of light is used in the following instruments : (a) the periscope - used in submarines to see the situation on the surface of the sea. (b) kaleidoscope - produces attractive patterns of small objects in it. 7. The light ray is reflected when it is directed towards the plane mirror. The characteristics of the image formed are as follows : (a) virtual ( cannot be formed on a screen ). (b) vertical. (c) of the same size as the object. (d) the distance of the image behind the mirror is the same as the distance of the object in front of the mirror. (e) laterally inverted.

1. A line AB is drawn.

14 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


2. A plane mirror is placed vertically using platicine at the line AB. 3. Using a ray box, an incident ray is directed onto the plane mirror at an angle as shown in Figure 1.20. 4. The incident ray line and the reflected ray line are drawn on the white paper. The normal is drawn perpendicular to the surface of the plane mirror at the point where the two light rays meet. 5. Both the angles, angle of incidence (i) and the angle of reflection (r) are measuring using a protractor. The measurements are recorded in the table below. 6. The activity is repeated for different angles of incidense.

1. Light is reflected by the plane mirror. 2. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. 3. As the angle of incidence increases , the angle of reflection also increases.

Light reflection takes place when incident light rays fall on the surface of a plane mirror.

Refraction of light
1. Refraction of light takes place when light travels through two different media with different densities at an angle. 2. The speed of light changes when it moves from one medium to another with a different density which causes the light to be refracted (bent). 3. The following shows the three situations of the movement of light rays through two different media.

15 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

16 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


1. The apparatus and material are set up as shown in Figure 1.21. 2. A light ray from the ray box is directed onto the surface of the glass block. 3. The outline of the glass block, the incident ray and the emergent ray are drawn on the white paper. The normal is drawn. 4. The angle of incidence, a ( and a' ) and the angle of refraction, b( and b' ) are measured and recorded in the table. 5. The above steps are repeated for different values of the angle of incident 2 and 3.

1. When light rays travel from a less dense medium to a denser medium to a denser medium, it will bend towards the normal. 2. When light rays travel from a denser medium to a less dense medium, it will bend away from the normal.

Light rays bend or a refracted when it travels through media with different densities.

4. The following examples shows how light travels from one medium to another with different densities.

17 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

5. Daily phenomena of refraction of light are shown below :

18 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

Eye defects

Short-sightedness

3. The defect may be caused by (a) abnormally long eyeballs. (b) eye lens that are abnormally thick. this happens because the ciliary muscles are weak and are unable to make the eye lens thinner. 4. The defect can be corrected by wearing concave lenses ( diverging lenses ). 5. A concave lens divergas the light rays before they enter the eye.

19 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1) Long-sightedness

1. A long-sighted person can see distant objects clearly but near objects appear blur. 2. Long sightedness occurs because the image of a near objects falls behind the retina. 3. The defect may be caused by (a) abnormally short eyeballs. (b) eye lens that are abnormally thin. This happens because the ciliary muscles are weak and are unable to make the eye lens thicker. 4. The defect can be corrected by using convex lenses ( converging lenses ). 5. A convex lens converges the light rays before they enter the eye.

Summary of short-sightedness ang long-sightedness and correction of defects

20 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

Part A

To show short-sightedness and the correction of the defect

21 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. The apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 1.24. 2. Light rays from the ray box are directed onto the convex lens with a short focal length. An image is formed in front of the surface X of the flask. This condition shows the defect knowm as short-sightedness. 3. A concave lens is placed in front of the convex lens so that a clear image is formed on the surface of the flask. 4. The light rays which show-sightedness and how it is corrected are drawn.

Part B

To show long-sightedness and the correction of the defect

1. The apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 1.24 but the convex lens with short focal length is substituted with a convex lens of long focal length. 2. light rays from the ray box are directed onto the convex lens. An image is formed behind the surface X of the flask. The condition shows the defect known as long-sightedness. 3. Another convex lens is placed in front of the convex lens so that a clear image is formed on the surface X of the flask. 4. The light rays which show long-sightedness and how it is corrected are drawn.

22 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


1. The convex lens on the flask represents the eye lens. 2. the fluorescent solution represents the vitreous humour. 3. The surface X of the flask represents the retina. 4. Short-sightedness is caused by an abnormally long eyeball or abnormally thick eye lens. 5. Long-sightedness is caused by an abnormally short eyeball or abnormally thin eye lens.

Short-sightedness can be corrected by wearing specracles with concave lenses. Long-sightedness can be corrected by wearing spectacles with convex lenses.

Astigmatism

1. Astigmatism is caused by the irregular curvature of the cornea. 2. All the light rays from an object do not meet at a point on the retina. On the other hand, some light rays are focused on the retina while others are focused either in front or behind the retina. 3. In many cases, astigmatism causes blurred vision for either near or distant objects. 4. To correct astigmatism, the optician recommends cylindrical lenses ( asymmetrical lens ).

Limitation of the sense of sight Optical illusion


1. Sometimes what we see may not appear to be the real thing. This is because the brain cannot interpret accurately what is actually seen by the eye. 2. This limitation of the sense of sight is known as optical illusion ( confusion of the brain ).

23 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. The pictures (a) to (f) Figure 1.27 are observed carefully. 2. A ruler is used to measure if necessary.

24 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. The limitation of the sense of sight seen in the above activities is known as optical illusion. 2. The brain cannot accurately interpret what is seen by the eye.

Optical illusion happens when the brain cannot accurately interpret objects viewed.

Blind spot

25 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

At a certain distance from your eyes, the dot disappears from the sight of your right eye.

1. At a certain distance, the dot disappears from sight because the dot falls on the blind spot of your eye. 2. The image cannot be detected because the blind spot does anot have any nerve receptors that can detect the light impulses received.

When the image cannot be seen, the image at that moment is formed on the blind spot.

Stereoscopic vision and monocular vision Stereoscopic vision


1. Stereoscopic vision is vision involving both eyes. 2. The brain will combine the vision from both eyes to from both eyes to from a threedimensional image. 3. This enables us to estimate distances accurately. 4. The stereoscopic field of vision is narrow. 5. Predators usually have stereoscopic vision.

26 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

Monocular vision
1. Monocular vision is vision involving one eye only. This makes estimating distances accurately difficult. 2. Monocular vision produces a flat image. 3. The monocular field of vision is wide. 4. Preys usually have monocular vision.

Comparison between stereoscopic vision and monocular vision

27 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

Use of optical instruments


1. Optical instruments can be used to help overcome the limitations of the sense of sight. 2. The microscope is an optical instrument which helps us see fine and small objects. 3. The telescope and binoculars are optical instruments that help us see distant objects. 4. The periscope is used in submarines to see above the sea level. 5. X-ray machines enable us to observe our bodies' internal organs. 6. A special machine called the ultrasonic scanner can produce an image of a foetus in a pregnant woman's womb on a screen.

28 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

SOUND AND HEARING


Production of Sound
1. Vibrations produce sound : (a) Sound is a form of energy produced by vibration. (b) When an object vibrates, the kinetic energy from the object is converted into sound energy. (c) Vibrating objects that produce sound are : i. Musical instuments such as guitar, voilin and drum when played. ii. A tuning fork when knocked. iii. Air at the mount of a tube containing water when blown. iv. The tissues in our vocal cords vibrate when we talk. v. Sound produced by animals when their limbs are moved : - Vibrations of the wings of bees and mosquitoes produce sound. - Grasshoppers produce sound when their hind legh are brushing against their wings, causing their wings to vibrate.

Transfer of Sound
1. Sound can be transferred from one place to another through a medium. 2. Sound can move through a solid, a liquid or a gas. Sound is transferred through the air when we listen to someone talking. 3. Sound moves fastest through solid, followed by liquid and slowest through a vacuum as there are no particles in a vacuum. 4. The arrangement of particles in matter influence the transfer of sound. Compact arrangement of particles in a solid enables the vibration to be transferred quickly. 5. Particles in a gas are very far apart from each other. Therefore, the transfer of vibration is not efficient.

29 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

(a) An electrical bell is installed in a glass jar. (b) The switch of the electrical bell is turned on. (c) The air in the glass jar is then, removed using a vacuum pump. (d) Observations are recorded.

(a) The sound of ringing bell is heard when the switch is turned on. (b) The sound of ringing bell becomes weaker when the air is removed from the glass jar. It cannot be heard when all the air is removed from the jar.

(a) Sound cannot be transferred through a vacuum. (b) Transfer of sound needs a medium.

The reflection and absorption of sound


1. When sound waves are blocked by an object, they may be reflected or absorbed by the object. 2. An object which has hard and smooth surfaces is a good sound reflector. Examples : Plank, glass, metal. 3. Reflected sound is known as an echo. Echo does not occur in a small room because sound

30 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


is reflected very quickly. 4. An object which has soft and rough surfaces is a good sound absorber. Therefore, soft materias are normally used reduce echo especially in a hall. Actions to reduce echo are : (a) The floor of a hall is covered by carpets. (b) Soft cushions and curtains are put in a hall or big room. (c) The walls are lined by sponge or cardboard punched with holes. 5. Some equipments are invented using the principle of echo to benefit mankind.

6. Echo is used to prevent ships from colliding with rocks under the sea. Echo is also used to trace fishes in the ocean and to determine the depth of the ocean.

31 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

Hearing Defect
1. The most common hearing defects are the inability to detect sound and the difficulty of hearing with with ease. 2. Deafness may be caused by several factors :

32 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


(a) Damage of the ossicles. (b) Damage of the eardrums. (c) Damage of the cochlea. (d) Damage of the auditory nerve. 3. Bacterial or viral infections and high fever may lead to damage of the inner ear. 4. Long exposure to loud sound may increase the chance of becoming deaf. 5. Some of the hearing limitations can be corrected by using modern devices. (a) Hearing aids can be used to help people with hearing problems. (b) Surgery can be carried out to replace damaged ossicles and to repair damaged eardrums. (c) Implantation of electronic gadgets into the ears can help deaf people to hear again. 6. Nonetheless, a severe damage of the auditory nerves cannot be corrected. 7. Looking after the ears : (a) Prevent the ears from being exposed to loud sound, especially while listening to music. (b) Avoid digging the ears with sharp objects. (c) Avoid from inflicting tight slaps onto the ears. (d) Clean up the ears with cotton buds regularly so that the ear canal is not blocked.

Limitations of the Sense of Hearing


1. The range of hearing frequency. (a) Human beings : i. The human ear can only detect sound between a frequency range of 20Hz to 20 000 Hz. ii. The rearing range differs from one individual to another. - It is harder for old people to hear because their eardrums are less elastic. - For individuals who are exposed to continues sound pollution like loud sound of vehicles or machines, their ability to hear will decrease. (b) Animals : i. Some animals can detect the ultrasonic frequencies that humans are not able to. The ultrasonic frequencies are sound with frequencies exceeding 20 000 Hz. ii. The range of hearing frequency for several animals is shown in the following table.

2. Devices to overcome the hearing limitations.

33 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

3. Stereophonic hearing (a) Hearing by using both sides of the ears is known as stereophonic hearing. (b) Stereophonic hearing allows us to determine the direction of sound accurately. i. A sound coming from the right side will stimulate the right ear first. ii. The sound waves will then, reach the left ear. the impulses are sent to the brain to be interpreted earlier than the left ear. iii. The right ear will hear the sound louder than the left ear. iv. The differences in the loudness or speed of the sound that reaches the ears allows us to determine the direction or the source of sound. (c) Stereophonic hearing is important to humans and animals because it can help to determine the direction or source of a sound. This is important because : i. It can help avoid danger such as enemies, predators or moving vehicles. ii. It can help animals to obtain their food. (d) The direction of sound is difficult to determine using only one ear.

STIMULI AND RESPONSE IN PLANTS


1. Plants can detect and respond to stimuli around them. 2. The response by plants to stimuli is called tropism. 3. There are two types of tropism : (a) Positive tropism - response by plants toward s the stimulus. (b) negative tropism - response by plants away from the stimulus. 4. Plants respond to light, gravity and water. there are also plants that respond to the stimulus of touch. 5. The tropic movements are importants to plants because these movements help the plants get necessities like light and water and minerals. This enables plants to grow healthily.

34 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

6. Examples of tropic responses and nastic movement are given as follows :

35 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

7. Tropic differences between the responses of the plant shoots and plant roots are given below.

36 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. Three to five green pea seedlings are germinated separately on moist cotton in two evaporating dishes two days before the start of the experiment. 2. The evaporating dish labelled P, containing green pea seedlings, is placed under the sun. 3. The evaporating dish labelled Q, containing green pea seedlings, is placed in a closed box with a hole under the sun as shown in Figure 1.37. 4. The arrangement of the apparatus is left for three days. 5. The observations are recorded at the end of the experiment.

37 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. The shoot of the plant grows towards the light stimulus and this is called positive phototropism. 2. The root of the plant grows away from the light stimulus and shows negative phototropism. 3. The seedlings in evaporating dish P acts as a control experiment to compare the results at the end of the experiment. 4. The moist cotton supplies water to the seedlight for germination and growth.

1. The hypothesis made can be accepted. 2. The plant shoot grows towards the light source while the plant root grows away from the light source.

38 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. Three to five green pea seedlings are geterminated on damp cotton wool in two petri dishes separately two days before the experiment is started. 2. Petri dishes A and B are placed in position as shown in figure 1.38. Petri dish B is placed in a vertical position using plasticine. 3. The arrangement of the apparatus is left for three days in a dark cupboard. 4. The observations are recorded at the end of the experiment.

1. The plant root grows towards the direction of the stimulus of gravity and shows positive geotropism. 2. The plant shoot grows away from the stimulus of gravity and shows negative geotropism. 3. The seedlings in petri dishes A and B are kept in a dark cupboard so that the growth of the seedlings will not be affected by light.

1. The hypothesis mad ecan be accepted. 2. The plant root grows towards gravity while the plant shoot grows away from gravity.

39 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)

1. Three to five green pea seedlings are germinated on damp cotton wool on wire gauze. 2. The arrangement of apparatus set X and Y are set up as shown in Figure 1.39. 3. Both sets of apparatus are kepst in a dark cupboard. 4. The condition of the root and shoot are observed after three days.

1. The function of the silica gel ( or anhydrous calcium chloride ) is to absorb the water. 2. The seedlings are kept in the dark cupboard so that they do not receive any light and

40 | P a g e

RAMANATH FORM 2 (C.1)


respond to it. 3. The plant root responds to the water stimulus and is said to show positive hydrotropism. 4. The plant shoot grows away from water and is said to show negative. 5. The water stimulus gives a stronger effect to plant roots than gravity.

1. The hypothesis made can be accepted. 2. The plant root grows towards the direction of water.

41 | P a g e