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# Math 170 Project

## Section 3.3 #10

Summary
Logical Form and Logical Equivalence:
A statement is a english sentence that is either true or false. In logic a statement can be denoted by lower case letters such as (p,q,r,s,t) If statements are true we can say its true value is true or T, or it is false, F. An Argument is a multiple statements trying to show the truth of an assertion or conclusion.(the end of a argument) Arguments can be shown logical through truth tables for the logica operations used in the argument.

Summary cont.
Logically Equivalent: Two statements are called logically equivalent if they have exact same truth table. Predicate - a sentence that has a finite number of variables and is a statement when certain variables are given values. The domain of the variable is the set of all the values that can be put into that variable. Universal Quantifier: , stands for, for all, meaning either all real numbers, all integers, all people. within the range.

Summary cont.
To disprove a universal statement you give and show a counterexample that will prove the statement false. Existential Quantifier: , is a statement that is defined as true for when certain variables within the statement are true. Best way to prove those is with an example. Meaning choose a variable that would be inside the statements set, and prove that if that is inputed in that the argument is still true.

Summary cont.
Statements with multiple Quantifiers: are statements that can have both Universal quantifier as well as an existential quantifier. This makes for a complex and confusing statement when first looked at. In order to solve this you do the quantifier that appears first in the statement. So to prove it first do not take it as a whole but take it by parts, the first quantifier, then the next and so on. If all prove to be true then the statement in a whole is true, otherwise it is false.

Biography

Biography cont.
George Boole was an English mathematician in the early 1800s (18151864) who made great advances in the area of logic by working to create algebra of logic and The Rule of 0 and 1. He was the oldest of four children, and his parents were Mary Ann Joyce and John Boole. His father had a passion for the maths and sciences, and was his first teacher. Due to his familys poverty George started working at the age of just 16 at a school as a teachers assistant. This same year he read Lacroixs Calcul Diffrentiel, which gave him a good start into the advanced studies of mathematics.

With his experience in teaching and passion for learning, he then opened his own school at the age of 19. He would
then be a schoolmaster for the next 15 years, and during this time start to contribute towards the mathematical community, including his first paper On certain theorems in the calculus of variations. In 1842 Boole initiated a

lifetime friendship and correspondence with another famous logistician Augustus De Morgan. Five years later

Biography cont.
A while later in 1855 he married Mary Everest, and had five children. Be kept publishing mathematical books and papers some of which would be used as textbooks at Cambridge. In 1864 while walking to a class in heavy rain, and then teaching in wet clothes he caught pneumonia and died at the age of 49.

Bibliography
http://www.personal.kent.edu/~rmuhamma/Philosophy/Logic/SymbolicLogic/3equivalenence.htm http://raider.mountunion.edu/mth/MTH125/Spring2013/Chapter2/LogicalFormAndLogicalEquival ence.html http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/boole/ http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Boole.html