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Contents
1 Introduction 3
2 Planning Aspects 9
2.1 Polarization Mode Dispersion 10
2.2 Channel Management 12
2.3 Dispersion Management 14
2.4 Power Management 18
3 Exercise 27
4 Solution 31


Planning
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1 Introduction
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The planning of a DWDM line turns out to be a comparatively complicated matter.
Therefore, lets look first at the usual situation we encounter in planning.

Starting point
Customer specifies the layout of his network:
span length
fiber type
span attenuation

System planning yields
Placement of the network elements
Dispersion management
Power settings along the link
Determination of limitations, e.g. channel number, bitrate

Obstacles
To get to these final results, we have to take into regard all the effects which are
limiting or influencing the transmission on DWDM lines, e.g.:
Attenuation
Dispersion
Non-linearities
PMD
Noise


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As some kind of aid the ITU has already defined some typical scenarios:

Long-Haul-Routes
Span Attenuation 22dB
Hop Length aprox. 80km
Number of optical amplifiers max 7
Maximum Route Length 8*80km=640km
Very Long-Haul-Routes
Span Attenuation 33dB
Hop Length aprox. 120km
Number of optical amplifiers max 4
Maximum Route Length 5*120km=600km
Ultra Long-Haul-Routes
Span Attenuation 44dB
Hop Length aprox. 160km
Number of optical amplifiers max: none
Maximum Route Length 160km

In fact, depending on the manufacturer and the equipment used, much higher route
lengths are possible.


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E/O O/E
E/O O/E O/E
E/O O/E O/E O/E
E/O O/E
Long Haul
Very-Long-Haul
Attenuation Length
22dB
2X22dB
aprox. 80km
aprox. 160km
33dB
3X33dB
aprox. 120km
aprox. 360km
Attenuation Length

Fig. 1 Examples for routes according to ITU

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2 Planning Aspects
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Some aspects of planning we are going to talk about are:
PMD
Channel management
Dispersion management
Power management


2.1 Polarization Mode Dispersion
The values of PMD coefficients for a fiber type are usually supplied by the producer.
As PMD is heavily dependent on environmental conditions, measurements may be
necessary to obtain the actual values, especially on older fibers.
Unfortunately PMD gets very important when transmitting higher bitrates. Even
though the total PMD only rises with the square root of the fiber length, this causes a
severe limitation.
When actual PMD data is available planning for PMD can be done, using PMD
compensators as discussed in the previous chapter.

PMD is considered acceptable when the induced delay is below 10% of the bit time:
< 0.1 / bit rate
As an example, using a 64km span with a delay coefficient of 1.3ps/km the total
delay time is 10.4ps. This way, the maximum transmittable bit-rate is 9.6Gbit/s.

Typical values specified for fiber from the producer are e.g. around 2.5ps/km.

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40Gbit/s
20Gbit/s
10Gbit/s
2,5 Gbit/s
10
1
10
3
10
2
10
1
0,1 0,5 0,9 1,3 1,7 2,1 2,5 2,9
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

R
o
u
t
e
l
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

k
m
PMD-Delay Coefficient in ps/ km

Fig. 2 Influence of PMD on maximum route length for different bitrates

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2.2 Channel Management
As well the channel density as the transmitted bitrates have an effect on the
achievable route lengths.

Channel Density and Number
Absolute limitations are given by crosstalk and distortion. In fact, the practical
limitations are already given by wavelength stability, tolerances and filter slopes.
The more channels, the higher the total output power necessary to bridge a
specified distance.
Nonlinearities limit the maximum total output power
We reach the realm of nonlinearities when P
total
> P
characteristic
(a fiber characteristic)
Sometimes specific channel positioning has to be made in order to cope with
strong FWM.

Bitrates
The higher the bitrates, the worse the effects of disturbances like Dispersion, PMD
and nonlinear effects.

Consequences
The more channels, the shorter the hops.
The higher the bitrates, the shorter the hops.

This is in fact exactly what we would have expected according to the
bandwidth/length product.

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channel spacing data rate
FWM
SRS
XPM
GVD
SPM
XPM
FWM, SRS
p
e
n
a
l
t
y
p
e
n
a
l
t
y

Fig. 3 Influence of channel spacing and data rate on nonlinearities


Equally spaced
channels
Unequally spaced channels

Fig. 4 Example of channel positioning to avoid FWM effects
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2.3 Dispersion Management
Another issue is dispersion. Depending on the bitrate a system can tolerate a certain
degree of dispersion, the rest has to be compensated for to avoid bit errors.
This can be done in different ways, using pre- and post-compensation, so a kind of
sawtooth profile results. The important fact is that the total allowable dispersion at the
receive side is not exceeded.



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b)
c)
a)
0
0
0
0
0
0
d
i
s
p
e
r
s
i
o
n
d
i
s
p
e
r
s
i
o
n
d
i
s
p
e
r
s
i
o
n
SSMF
1
SSMF
N-1
SSMF
N
SSMF
1
SSMF
N-1
SSMF
N
SSMF
1
SSMF
N-1
SSMF
N
distance
distance
distance
DCF
N
DCF
1
DCF
N-1
DCF
N-1
DCF
1
DCF
N
DCF
N-1
DCF
1
DCF
N

Fig. 5 Dispersion with compensation
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Here the selection of the fiber plays a major role: usual G.652 fiber has a
comparatively high dispersion (around 18ps/nm*km), dispersion shifted fiber near
none (but a lot of FWM) and non zero fiber in the range of about 1ps/nm*km. FWM is
not the only effect which is influenced by dispersion though. SPM is another
nonlinearity which is heavily dependent on a certain dispersion. Therefore a certain
level of dispersion over all the link is desirable.


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T1523380-96
100
10
1
4 2 0 2 4
Channel spacing
2.0 nm
1.5 nm
1.0 nm
Chromatic dispersion (ps/nmkm)
4
-
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
G
b
i
t
/
s
)

Fig. 6 FWM dependent restrictions on transmission capacity in relation to dispersion
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2.4 Power Management
Conventional Transmission Systems
After all those considerations, the main point is the power management. With an
ordinary route the power budget simply is given by:
Power Budget = Transmitter Output Power - Receiver Sensitivity (@ at an
acceptable biterror rate)
If the power budget is exceeded by the miscellaneous losses, the incoming power at
the receive side drops below the acceptable value and biterrors occur.
To be considered as well is the minimum optical-to-signal noise ratio.
OSNR = Output Power 10*log( Number of amplifiers ) Noise power generated
by each Amplifier
The OSNR is strongly reduced with the number of spans due to the accumulation of
ASE noise generated by line amplifiers. Typical values for the minimum OSNR are
around 20~25dB. A solution to increase the OSNR is to increase the transmitter
output power.
The output power can also be limited by SPM because this effect occurs even in
single-channel systems but, for the typical output values ( < 0dBm), it is not
significant.
These considerations are generally sufficient for conventional single-channel systems
with bitrates up to 2.5Gb/s.

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Tx Rx
P
out
P
B
R
s
P
B
=P
out
-R
s
P
B
> span loss
span
loss
additional
loss
good Power Budget
bad Power Budget

Fig. 7 Example of power evolution in a connection with line amplifiers


0 2 4 6 8 10
25
30
35
40
45
50

O
S
N
R

[
d
B
]
number of fiber spans
minimum OSNR

Fig. 8 Example of the optical signal-to-noise ration as a function of the number of fiber spans
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WDM Systems
In the case of multi-channel systems the total output power required is much larger,
depending on the number of used channels.
Total Output Power = 10*log( Number of Channels ) + Output Power for each
channel
The required output power per channel can be determined in the same way as
before, using the power budget. However, special considerations have to be taken
into account when performing pre-emphasis.
For example, a 16-channel system with 0dBm of required output power per channel
would have a total output power of 12dBm. This high power is supplied by additional
booster amplifiers, which can increase the amount of noise power and reduce the
OSNR. This of course, limits considerably the number of spans.
Another problem is that the required powers are enough to cross the non-linearity
threshold. As a rule, the total output power has to be kept below a certain power,
referred to as P
characteristic.
This is defined for each type of non-linear effect and each
fiber type.
The dominant non-linear effect depends on the type of fiber used. Here are the most
typical cases:
G.652 SMF: Cross-Phase Modulation
G.653 DSF: Four-Wave Mixing

In the case of G.653 the power limitations can be so high that WDM systems can not
be implemented.


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Fig. 9 Occurrence of nonlinearities for different channel powers and span numbers, example 1

Fig. 10 Occurrence of nonlinearities for different channel powers and span numbers, example 2
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Preemphasis
What makes the planning even more complicated is the fact that the EDFAs display
certain non-linearities of amplification as well. In order to cope with that, pre-
attenuation before the amps has to be done in order to equalize the output power for
all wavelengths. That means in addition to the rest of the power budget calculation
the values for the VOAs (variable optical attenuators) have to be calculated, for each
channel at the input as well for all the cascaded in-line amplifiers.
To make things even more complicated, if Raman Tilt occurs additionally, that has to
be caterded for as well!

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Fig. 11 Importance of Preemphasis of EDFAs on the channel power spectrum


without pre-emphasis
A
with pre-emphasis
A


Fig. 12 Spectrum before and after preemphazise

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Result
Complicated projects at the edge of performance can not be calculated manually but
only by numerical approximations.
For standard projects data from previous projects could be used, staying within the
recommended limits. Still, even in this case using numerical tools to optimize the line
seems appropriate.


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Fig. 13 Screen dump of a numerical simulator for a DWDM connection

Fig. 14 Further example for numerical simulator
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3 Exercise
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Exercise
Title:
Basic planning aspects
Objectives:
An idea of which factors have to be taken in account when
doing WDM planning
Pre-requisite:
Chapter Basics of DWDM planning of WDM Basics course

Query
1.
For an STM-256 line a span length of 500km can
be carried out easily without PMD compensation.
Yes No

2.
PMD has to be taken into account in single-
channel STM-16 transmission lines.
Yes No

3.
The route length is independent of the bitrates
carried.
Yes No

4.
Dispersion compensation can only be used in the
terminal equipments.
Yes No

5.
For WDM systems non-zero dispersion shifted
fibers or SSMF should be used.
Yes No

6.
The number of channels influences the maximum
route length.
Yes No

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4 Solution
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Solution
Title:
Basic planning aspects
Objectives:
An idea of which factors have to be taken in account when
doing WDM planning
Pre-requisite:
Chapter Basics of DWDM planning of WDM Basics course

Query
1.
For an STM-256 line a span length of 500km can
be carried out easily without PMD compensation.
Yes No

2.
PMD has to be taken into account in conventional
single-channel transmission lines.
Yes No

3.
The route length is independent of the bitrates
carried.
Yes No

4.
Dispersion compensation can only be used in the
terminal equipments.
Yes No

5.
For WDM systems non-zero dispersion shifted
fibers or SSMF should be used.
Yes No

6.
The number of channels influences the maximum
route length.
Yes No


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