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The term cement is commonly used to refer to powdered materials which develop strong adhesive qualities when combined with water. These materials are more properly known as hydraulic cements. Gypsum plaster, common lime, hydraulic limes, natural pozzolana, and Portland cements are the more common hydraulic cements, with Portland cement being the most important in construction. Cement was first invented by the Egyptians. Cement was later reinvented by the Greeks and the Babylonians who made their mortar out of lime. Later, the Romans produced cement from pozzolana, an ash found in all of the volcanic areas of Italy, by mixing the ash with lime. Cement is a fine grayish powder which, when mixed with water, forms a thick paste. When this paste is mixed with sand and gravel and allowed to dry it is called concrete. About ninety-nine percent of all cement used today is Portland cement. The name Portland cement is not a brand name. This name was given to the cement by Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, England who obtained a patent for his product in 1824. The concrete made from the cement resembled the color of the natural limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel. The balance of cement used today consists of masonry cement, which is fifty percent Portland cement and fifty percent ground lime rock. The first cement manufactured in the United States was produced in 1871 by David Saylor of Coplay, Pennsylvania. There are two types of raw materials which are combined to make cement:

Lime-containing materials, such as limestone, marble, oyster shells, marl, chalk, etc. Clay and clay-like materials, such as shale, slag from blast furnaces, bauxite, iron ore, silica, sand, etc.

It takes approximately 3,400 lbs. of raw materials to make one ton (2,000 lbs.) of Portland cement. The mixture of materials is finely ground in a raw mill. The resultant raw mix is burned in a rotary kiln at temperatures around 4482 degrees Celsius to form clinker. The clinker nodules are then ground with about 3 % gypsum to produce cement with a fineness typically of less than 90 micrometers.

Fig 1 Process(Assembly line)


2.1Gray Ordinary Portland Cement

Our Gray Ordinary Portland Cement is a high-quality, cost-effective building materialmainly composed of clinkerthat meets all applicable chemical and physical requirements and is widely used in all construction segments: residential, commercial, industrial, and public infrastructure.

2.2White Portland Cement

CEMEX is one of the world's largest producers of White Portland Cement. We manufacture this type of cement with limestone, low iron content kaolin clay, and gypsum. Customers use our White Portland Cement in architectural works requiring great brightness and artistic finishes, to create mosaics and artificial granite, and for sculptural casts and other applications where white prevails.

2.3 Masonry or Mortar

Masonry or mortar is a Portland cement that we mix with finely ground inert matter (limestone). Our customers use this type of cement for multiple purposes, including concrete blocks, templates, road surfaces, finishes, and brick work.

2.4 Oil-well Cement

Our oil-well cement is a specially designed variety of hydraulic cement produced with gray Portland clinker. It usually forges slowly and is manageable at high temperatures and pressures. Produced in classes from A to H and J, our oil-well cement is applicable for different depth, chemical aggression, or pressure levels.


Udayapur cement industries LTD. Is a fully govt. owned industry in Nepal established on 14th june 1987 . This company also holds the largest market share in the Nepalese market. According to the market requirement Udayapur Cement Industries has different products spread all over the Nepal. Udayapur Cement Industries Ltd. is to produce & distribute Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Pozzolana Portland Cement (PPC) at competitive prices to achieve the needs and satisfaction of its valued customers in Nepal, which can be achieved through meeting the statutory & regulatory requirements of country, using high grade of raw material & Continual improvement in quality of works and services rendered by the company, enhancing the involvement of all levels of employees, using best available resources and by reviewing quality objectives time to time.

Fig 3.1 Udayapur cement loading station

For the best manufacture of cement, this Industry uses high quality clinker imported only from the Best Suppliers including Shree Cement, Prism Cement and Vasavadutta Cement and likewise. The main raw material Lime (CaO) is controlled by very advanced technology with computerized weigh feeder, used for the product of Gaida Cement brands. We pay best effort on making consistent and qualitative product; as a result, our products could be compared with any local as well as imported cement available in market. This Cement Industry produces OPC and PPC cement, whereas its unit produces Slag Cement, as per market need products are supplied to specific area and for specific use.

The factory is located at Udayapur District of eastern region , which is nearly 200 km from the border of India The company also has another manufacturing unit located at Birgunj with a production capacity of additional 900 MT/day or 18,000 bags of cement /day. This plant produces Portland slag cement. Thus, in the total company produces 1800 MT/Day or 36,000 bags of cement /day, daily covering all the major market of Nepal, on time on demand.

Fig 4.1 Stacker

With an appropriate Quality monitoring unit located in factory, in Kathmandu and in India controls quality of regular supply along with huge production capacity of 36,000 bags of cement per day, insures steady supply of freshly grinded cement to builders, contractors and engineers at any time of the year. Jagdamba Cement Industries Pvt. Ltd. holds frequent Lab tests in reputed laboratories in Nepal and India. NATIONAL TEST HOUSE (NR), Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Department of Consumer Affairs as well as NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, Independent Testing Laboratories, Ballabgarh are the main Laboratories in India, whereas in Nepal almost every Government and non-Government Laboratories are holding our frequent cement tests. Jagdamba Cement is one of the highest selling cement in Nepal since 2001, which has become a distinct brand name in the Nepalese market. This company holds the largest market share in the Nepalese market.

Table no. 1 Cement Industry symbols

The production of cement takes place with several steps: Quarrying of limestone and shale Dredging the ocean floor for shells Digging for clay and marl Grinding Blending of components Fine grinding Burning Finish grinding Packaging and/or shipping


Fig 6.2 Step in manufacturing portland cement


Quarrying of limestone and shale is accomplished by using explosives to blast the rocks from the ground. After blasting, huge power shovels are used to load dump trucks or small railroad cars for transportation to the cement plant, which is usually nearby. The ocean floor is dredged to obtain the shells, while clay and marl are dug out of the ground with power shovels. All of the raw materials are transported to the plant. Burnt limestone alone will not create cement. It needs the CaCO3 of the limestone mixed with the silicates in the clay. Shale. When the two burned together in a kiln combine to form a clinker that is ground into the powdered cement.



After the raw materials have been transported to the plant, the limestone and shale which have been blasted out of the quarry must be crushed into smaller pieces. Some of the pieces, when blasted out, are quite large. The pieces are then dumped into primary crushers which reduce them to the size of a softball. The pieces are carried by conveyors to secondary crushers which crush the rocks into fragments usually no larger than 3/4 inch across.

Fig 8.1 Grinding



Fig 9.1 Flow Diagram


10. BLENDING The process of mixing is called blending.

After the rock is crushed, plant chemists analyze the rock and raw materials to determine their mineral content. The chemists also determine the proportions of each raw material to utilize in order to obtain a uniform cement product. The various raw materials are then mixed in proper proportions and prepared for fine grinding.

Fig 10.1 Blending



When the raw materials have been blended, they must be ground into a fine powder. This may be done by one of two methods:

Wet process, or Dry process

The wet process of fine grinding is the older process, having been used in Europe prior to the manufacture of cement in the United States. This process is used more often when clay and marl, which are very moist, are included in the composition of the cement. In the wet process, the blended raw materials are moved into ball or tube mills which are cylindrical rotating drums which contain steel balls. These steel balls grind the raw materials into smaller fragments of up to 200 of an inch. As the grinding is done, water is added until a slurry (thin mud) forms, and the slurry is stored in open tanks where additional mixing is done. Some of the water may be removed from the slurry before it is burned, or the slurry may be sent to the kiln as is and the water evaporated during the burning. The dry process of fine grinding is accomplished with a similar set of ball or tube mills; however, water is not added during the grinding. The dry materials are stored in silos where additional mixing and blending may be done.


Burning the blended materials is the key in the process of making cement. The wet or dry mix is fed into the kiln, which is one of the largest pieces of moving machinery in the industry. It is generally twelve feet or more in diameter and 500 feet or more in length, made of steel and lined with firebrick. It revolves on large roller bearings and is gradually slanted with the intake end higher than the output end. As the kiln revolves, the materials roll and slide downward for approximately four hours. In the burning zone, where the heat can reach 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the materials become incandescent and change in color from purple to violet to orange. Here, the gases are driven from the raw materials, which actually change the properties of the raw materials. What emerges is clinker which is round, marble-sized, glass-hard balls which are harder than the quarried rock. The clinker is then fed into a cooler where it is cooled for storage.

Fig 12.1 Generalized diagram of long dry process kiln



The cooled clinker is mixed with a small amount of gypsum, which will help regulate the setting time when the cement is mixed with other materials and becomes concrete. Here again there are primary and secondary grinders. The primary grinders leave the clinker, ground to the fineness of sand, and the secondary grinders leave the clinker ground to the fineness of flour, which is the final product ready for marketing.




A ball mill is a horizontal cylinder partly filled with steel balls (or occasionally other shapes) that rotates on its axis, imparting a tumbling and cascading action to the balls. Material fed through the mill is crushed by impact and ground by attrition between the balls. The grinding media are usually made of high-chromium steel. The smaller grades are occasionally cylindrical ("pebs") rather than spherical. There exists a speed of rotation (the "critical speed") at which the contents of the mill would simply ride over the roof of the mill due to centrifugal action. The critical speed (rpm) is given by:

nC = 42.29/d,

where d is the internal diameter in Metres.

Ball mills are normally operated at around 75% of critical speed, so a mill with diameter 5 Metres will turn at around 14 rpm.



The mill is usually divided into at least two chambers, (Depends upon feed input size presently mill installed with Roller Press are mostly single chambered), allowing the use of different sizes of grinding media. Large balls are used at the inlet, to crush clinker nodules (which can be over 25 mm in diameter). Ball diameter here is in the range 6080 mm. In a two-chamber mill, the media in the second chamber are typically in the range 1540 mm, although media down to 5 mm are sometimes encountered. As a general rule, the size of media has to match the size of material being ground: large media can't produce the ultra-fine particles required in the finished cement, but small media can't break large clinker particles. Mills with as many as four chambers, allowing a tight segregation of media sizes, were once used, but this is now becoming rare. Alternatives to multi-chamber mills are: Pairs of mills, run in tandem, charged with different-sized media. Use of alternative technology (see Roll-presses below) to crush the clinker prior to finegrinding in a ball mill. A current of air is passed through the mill. This helps keep the mill cool, and sweeps out evaporated moisture which would otherwise cause hydration and disrupt material flow. The dusty exhaust air is cleaned, usually with bag filters.



The hardness of clinker is important for the energy cost of the grinding process. It depends both on the clinker's mineral composition and its thermal history. The easiest-ground clinker mineral is alite, so high-alite clinkers reduce grinding costs, although they are more expensive to make in the kiln. The toughest mineral is belite, because it is harder, and is somewhat plastic, so that crystals tend to flatten rather than shatter when impacted in the mill. The mode of burning of the clinker is also important. Clinker rapidly burned at the minimum temperature for combination, then rapidly cooled, contains small, defective crystals that grind easily. These crystals are usually also optimal for reactivity. On the other hand, long burning at excess temperature, and slow cooling, lead to large, well-formed crystals that are hard to grind and un-reactive. The effect of such a clinker can be to double milling costs.

Table 2 kiln process thermo chemical reactions



These have been used for many years for the less exacting raw-milling process, but recently roller mills, in combination with high-efficiency separators, have been used for cement grinding. The grinding action employs much greater stress on the material than in a ball mill, and is therefore more efficient. Energy consumption is typically half that of a ball mill. However, the narrowness of the particle size distribution of the cement is problematic, and the process has yet to receive wide acceptance.


These consist of a pair of rollers set 830 mm apart and counter-rotating with surface speed around 0.9 - 1.8 m.s1. The bearings of the rollers are designed to deliver a pressure of 50 MPa or more. The bed of material drawn between the rollers emerges as a slab-like agglomeration of highly fractured particles. The energy efficiency of this process is comparatively high. Systems have been designed, including a de-agglomerator and separator, which will deliver material of cement fineness. However, particle size distribution is again a problem, and roll presses are now increasingly popular as a "pre-grind" process, with the cement finished in a single chamber ball mill. This gives good cement performance, and reduces energy consumption by 20-40% compared with a standard ball mill system.



The cement mills on a cement plant are usually sized for a clinker consumption considerably greater than the output of the plant's kilns. This is for two reasons:

The mills are sized to cope with peaks in market demand for cement. In temperate countries, the summer demand for cement is usually much higher than that in winter. Excess clinker produced in winter goes into storage in readiness for summer demand peaks. For this reason, plants with highly seasonal demand usually have very large clinker stores.

Cement milling is the largest user of electric power on a cement plant, and because they can easily be started and stopped, it often pays to operate cement mills only during "offpeak" periods when cheaper power is available. This is also favourable for electricity producers, who can negotiate power prices with major users in order to balance their generating capacity over 24 hours. More sophisticated arrangements such as "power shedding" are often employed. This consists of the cement manufacturer shutting down the plant at short notice when the power supplier expects a critical demand peak, in return for favourable prices. Clearly, plenty of excess cement milling capacity is needed in order to "catch up" after such interruptions.







In addition to control of temperature (mentioned above), the main requirement is to obtain a consistent fineness of the product. From the earliest times, fineness was measured by sieving the cement. As cements have become finer, the use of sieves is less applicable, but the amount retained on a 45 m sieve is still measured, usually by air-jet sieving or wet-sieving. The amount passing this sieve (typically 95% in modern general-purpose cements) is related to the overall strength-development potential of the cement, because the larger particles are essentially unreactive.

Fig 19.1 Control of product quality The main measure of fineness today is specific surface. Because cement particles react with water at their surface, the specific surface area is directly related to the cement's initial reactivity. By adjusting the fineness of grind, the manufacture can produce a range of products from a single clinker. Tight control of fineness is necessary in order to obtain cement with the desired consistent day-to-day performance, so round-the-clock measurements are made on the cement as it is produced, and mill feed-rates and separator settings are adjusted to maintain constant specific surface. A more comprehensive picture of fineness is given by particle size analysis yielding a measure of the amount of each size range present, from sub-micrometer upwards. This used to be mainly

a research tool, but with the advent of cheap, industrialized laser-diffraction analyzers, its use for routine control is becoming more frequent. This may take the form of a desk-top analyzer fed with automatically gathered samples in a robotized laboratory, or, increasingly commonly, instruments attached directly to the output ducts of the mill. In either case, the results can be fed directly into the mill control system, allowing complete automation of fineness control. In addition to fineness, added materials in the cement must be controlled. In the case of gypsum addition, the material used is frequently of variable quality, and it is normal practice to measure the sulfate content of the cement regularly, typically by x-ray fluorescence, using the results to adjust the gypsum feed rate. Again, this process is often completely automated. Similar measurement and control protocols are applied to other materials added, such as limestone, slag and fly-a

The final product is shipped either in bulk (ships, barges, tanker trucks, railroad cars, etc.) or in strong paper bags which are filled by machine. In the United States, one bag of Portland cement contains 94 pounds of cement, and a barrel weighs four times that amount, or 376 pounds. In Canada, one bag weighs 87 1/2 pounds and a barrel weighs 350 pounds. Masonry cement bags contain only seventy pounds of cement. When cement is shipped, the shipping documents may include sack weights. This must be verified by the auditor since only the cement is taxable. Sack weights must be excluded.