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Classical Control

Topics covered: Modeling. g ODEs. Linearization. Laplace transform. Transfer functions. Block diagrams. Masons Rule. Time response p specifications. p Effects of zeros and poles. Stability via Routh-Hurwitz. Feedback: Disturbance rejection, Sensitivity, Steady Steady-state state tracking. PID controllers and Ziegler-Nichols tuning procedure. Actuator saturation and integrator wind-up. Root locus. Frequency response--Bode and Nyquist diagrams. Stability Margins. Margins Design of dynamic compensators.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Classical Control
Text: Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 4th Edition, Edition G.F. G F Franklin, Franklin J.D. J D Powel and A. A Emami Emami-Naeini Naeini Prentice Hall 2002.

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

What is control?
For any analysis we need a mathematical MODEL of the system Model Relation between gas pedal and speed: 10 mph change in speed per each degree rotation of gas pedal Disturbance Slope of road: 5 mph change in speed per each degree change of slope Block diagram for the cruise control plant:

w 0.5
Control (degrees)

Slope (degrees)

y = 10(u 0.5w)
10
Output speed (mph)

y
3

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

What is control?
O Open-loop l cruise i control: t l

w
PLANT

0.5 r 1/10 u + 10 yol


Reference (mph)

r u= 10
yol = 10(u 0.5w) r = 10( 0.5w) 10 = r 5w

eol = r yol = 5w r yol w eol [%] = = 500 r r


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

r = 65, w = 0 eol = 0 r = 65, w = 1 eol = 5mph, eol = 7.69%

OK when: h 1- Plant is known exactly 2- There is no disturbance

What is control?
Cl Closed-loop d l cruise i control: t l

w
PLANT

u = 20(r ycll )
ycl = 10(u 0.5w)

0.5 + r 1/10 u + 10 ycl

200 5 = r w 201 201

1 5 ecl = r ycl = r+ w 201 201 r ycl 1 5 w ecl [%] = = + r 201 201 r


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

1 % = 0.5% 201 1 5 5 r = 65, w = 1 ecl = + = 0.69% 201 201 65 r = 65, w = 0 ecl =


5

What is control?
Feedback control can help: reference following (tracking) disturbance rejection changing dynamic behavior LARGE gain is essential but there is a STABILITY limit The The issue of how to get the gain as large as possible to reduce the errors due to disturbances and uncertainties without making the system become unstable is what much of feedback control design is all about about First step in this design process: DYNAMIC MODEL

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:

F = ma
& = u bx & m& x & v=x &=& & a=v x

Newtons law

velocity acceleration

b u Vo 1m & + v = v v = =Vo e st ,u =U o e st m m Uo s + b m

T Transfer f Function F ti
d s dt

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:

F = I

Newtons law

&& = lmg sin + Tc ml 2 angular velocity = & && & = = I = ml 2


angular acceleration moment of inertia

g Tc g Tc & & & & + sin = 2 sin + = 2 l ml l ml

Linearization

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
g Tc & & + = 2 l ml
Reduce to first order equations:

x1 = & x2 =

&1 = x2 x g Tc &2 = x1 + 2 x l ml

0 x1 Tc &= g x , u 2 x ml l x2 l
General case:

1 0 x + u 0 1

State Variable Representation

& = Fx + Gu x y = Hx + Ju
9

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL): The algebraic Th l b i sum of f currents entering i a node d is i zero at every instant Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL) The algebraic sum of voltages around a loop is zero at every instant
Resistors:
vR (t ) = RiR (t ) iR (t ) = GvR (t )

iR
+ vR

iC
+ vC

iL
+ vL

Capacitors:
1 dv (t ) iC (t ) = C C vC (t ) = iC ( ) d + vC (0) dt C0
t

Inductors:

di (t ) 1 vL (t ) = L L iL (t ) = vL ( ) d + iL (0) dt L0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

10

Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
OP AMP:

vO = A(v p vn ), A
vp +
ip

+
in

RI + -

RO A(vp-v vn)

iO

vO +

v p = vn i p = in = 0

v+
n

To work in the linear mode we need FEEDBACK!!!

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

11

Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
R2 R1 C
+ -

KCL:

v1

vO

1 1 dvO = vO vI dt R2C R1C

1 t R2 = (OC) vO (t ) = vO (0 ) v I ( ) d R1C 0
v1

vO

1 K = RC
12

Inverting integrator
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
ELECTRO-MECHANICAL C O C C S SYSTEMS: S S DC C Motor torque armature current

T = K t ia &m e = K e
emf shaft velocity

&&m = b &m + T J m dia va + Raia + L +e=0 dt


Obtain the State Variable Representation
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

13

Dynamic Models
HEAT-FLOW: Heat Flow Temperature Difference

1 q = (T1 T2 ) R 1 & T= q C
Thermal capacitance Thermal resistance

1 1 1 & (To TI ) TI = + CI R1 R2

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

14

Dynamic Models
FLUID-FLOW: Mass rate Mass Conservation law l

& = win wout m


l mass fl flow Inlet Outlet l mass fl flow

1 & & & = Ah h = (win wout ) m A


A: area of the tank : density of fluid h: height of water
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

15

Linearization
Dynamic System:

& = f ( x, u ) x
0 = f ( xo , uo )
Equilibrium

Denote

x = x xo , u = u uo
& = f ( xo + x, uo + u ) x

Taylor Expansion

f f & f ( xo , uo ) + x x + u u xo ,uo x xo ,uo f f F ,G x xo ,uo u xo ,uo


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

& Fx + Gu x
16

Linearization

& Fx + Gu x
F f x xo ,uo f1 f1 f1 f1 x L x u L u n m f 1 1 = M ,G = M M M u xo ,uo f n L f n f n L f n x1 u1 xn um xo ,uo xo ,uo

Example: Pendulum with friction

k & g & & + + sin = 0 m l

0 1 k x &= g x cos x1 l m xo
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

17

Laplace Transform
Function f(t) of time Piecewise continuous and exponential order F ( s ) = f (t )e
0 st

f (t ) < Kebt
+

dt

j 1 F ( s )e st ds L 1[F (s )] = f (t ) = 2j j

0 0- limit is used to capture transients and discontinuities at t=0 s is a complex variable (+j)
There is a need to worry y about regions g of convergence g of the integral g

Units of s are sec-1=Hz


A frequency

If f(t) f( ) is i volts l (amps) ( ) then h F(s) F( ) is i volt-seconds l d (amp-seconds) ( d)


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

18

Laplace transform examples


Step function unit Heavyside Function
After Oliver Heavyside (1850-1925)

F ( s ) = u (t )e
0

st

dt = e
0

st

dt =

st

( + j )t

f t<0 0, for u (t ) = 1, for t 0 1 = if > 0 s

+ j

Exponential function F (s) = e


0 After Oliver Exponential (1176 BC- 1066 BC) ( s + )t e t st ( s + )t

dt = e
0

dt =

s +

1 = if > s +

Delta (impulse) function (t)

F ( s ) = (t )e st dt = 1 for all s
0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

19

Laplace Transform Pair Tables


Signal g impulse step ramp exponential damped ramp sine cosine damped sine damped cosine Waveform

(t )
u (t ) tu (t )
e t u (t )
te t u (t )

Transform 1
1 s 1 s2 1 s + 1

( s + ) 2

sin ( t ) u (t ) cos( t )u (t )
e t sin ( t )u (t ) e t cos( t )u (t )

s2 + 2 s s2 + 2

( s + ) 2 + 2 s + ( s + ) 2 + 2
20

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Laplace Transform Properties


Linearity: (absolutely critical property) L{Af f1 (t ) + Bf f 2 (t )} = AL{ f1 (t )} + BL{ f 2 (t )} = AF1 ( s ) + BF2 ( s ) Integration property: Differentiation property:
t F (s ) L f ( )d = s 0 df (t ) L = sF ( s ) f (0) dt

d 2 f (t ) 2 = s F ( s ) sf (0) f (0) L 2 dt

d m f (t ) m m 1 m2 ( m) L L = s F ( s ) s f ( 0 ) s f ( 0 ) f (0 ) m dt
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

21

Laplace Transform Properties


Translation properties:
s-domain domain translation:

L{e t f (t )} = F ( s + )
as

t-domain translation: L{ f (t a )u (t a )} = e

F ( s ) for a > 0

Initial Value Property:

t 0 +

lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s )
s

Final Value Property:

lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s )
s 0

If all poles of F(s) are in the LHP

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

22

Laplace Transform Properties


Time Scaling: Multiplication by time:
1 s L{ f (at )} = F ( ) a a dF ( s ) L{tf (t )} = ds
t

Convolution: Time product:

L{ f ( ) g (t )d } = F ( s )G ( s )
0

1 + j L{ f (t ) g (t )} = F ( s )G ( s )d j 2j

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

23

Laplace Transform
Exercise: Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform

f (t ) = [2 + 2 sin( 2t ) 2 cos(2t )]u (t )

F (s) =

4(s + 2 ) s (s 2 + 4 )

Exercise: Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform

f (t ) = e u (t ) + 5 sin (4 x )dx
4t 0 40 t d 5 te f (t ) = 5e 40t u (t ) + u (t ) dt

s 3 + 36 s + 80 F (s) = s(s + 4 )(s 2 + 16 ) 10 s + 200 F (s) = (s + 40)2

E Exercise: i Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform

f (t ) = Au (t ) 2 Au (t T ) + Au (t 2T )

F (s) =

A(1 e s

Ts 2

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

24

Laplace transforms
Tim me doma ain (t dom main)

Linear system Differential equation Classical q techniques Response p signal

Complex frequency domain (s domain) Laplace transform L Algebraic equation Algebraic techniques q Inverse Laplace p transform L-1 Response p transform

The diagram commutes


Same answer whichever way you go
25

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Solving LTI ODEs via Laplace Transform


y ( n ) + an 1 y ( n 1) + L + a0 y = bmu ( m ) + bm 1u ( m 1) + L + b0u

Initial Conditions: Recall


s Y ( s) y
n j =0 n 1

y ( n 1) (0 ),K, y (0 ), u ( m 1) (0 ),K, u (0 )

k 1 d k f (t ) k ( k 1 j ) j L = s F ( s ) f ( 0 ) s k dt j =0
( n 1 j ) i 1 m i 1 i i j ( i 1 j ) (0) s + ai s Y ( s ) y (0)s = bi s U ( s ) u ( i 1 j ) (0)s j i =0 j =0 j =0 i =0 j n 1

bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 Y ( s) = n U (s) + s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0

ai y
i =0 j =0

n 1

i 1

( i 1 j )

(0)s bi u (i 1 j ) (0)s j
j i =0 j =0 n 1

i 1

s + an 1s
n

+ L + a1s + a0

For a given rational U(s) we get Y(s)=Q(s)/P(s)


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

26

Laplace Transform
Exercise: Find the Laplace transform V(s)

dv(t ) + 6v(t ) = 4u (t ) dt v(0) = 3

4 3 V (s) = s (s + 6 ) s + 6

Exercise: Find the Laplace transform V(s)

d 2v(t ) dv(t ) 2t 4 3 v ( t ) 5 e + + = dt dt 2 v(0) = 2, v' (0) = 2

5 2 V (s) = (s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3) s + 1

What about v(t) ( )?


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

27

Transfer Functions
y ( n ) + an 1 y ( n 1) + L + a0 y = bm 1u ( m 1) + L + b0u

Assume all Initial Conditions Zero:

(s

+ an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 )Y ( s ) = (bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 )U ( s )


Input

Output

bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 B( s) Y (s) = n U (s) = U (s) n 1 s + an 1s + L + a1s + a0 A( s ) Y (s) bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 H (s) = = n U ( s ) s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

28

Rational Functions
We shall mostly be dealing with LTs which are rational functions ratios of polynomials in s
bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 F (s) = an s n + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )

pi are the poles and zi are the zeros of the function K is the scale factor or (sometimes) gain A proper rational function has nm A strictly proper rational function has n>m An improper rational function has n<m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

29

Residues at simple poles


Functions F i of f a complex l variable i bl with i h isolated, i l d finite order poles have residues at the poles
( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) k1 k2 kn F ( s) = K = + +L+ ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )

(s pi )F ( s) = k1 ( s pi ) + k2 ( s pi ) + L + ki + L + kn ( s pi )
( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )
Residue at a simple pole:

ki = lim ( s pi ) F ( s )
s pi

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

30

Residues at multiple poles


Compute residues at poles of order r: ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) k1 k2 kr = + + L + F (s) = K ( s p1 ) r ( s p1 ) ( s p1 ) 2 ( s p1 ) r r j d 1 ( s p ) r F ( s ) , kj = lim j = 1L r i r j (r j )! s p ds
i

Example:

2 1 3 2 s 2 + 5s = + 3 2 s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1) (s + 1)3
+1)3(2s2 +5s) = d ( s 1 lim 3 ds s 1 (s +1) +1)3(2s2 +5s) = 1 lim d2 ( s 2 3 2!s1ds2 + (s 1)

(s +1)3(2s2 + 5s) = lim 3 3 s3 + (s 1)

2 + 5s 1 2 2 s 1 3 t 1 2 ( ) = L L + = e 2 + t 3 t u (t ) 3 2 3 (s + 1) s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

31

Residues at complex poles


Compute residues at the poles
s a

lim ( s a) F ( s)

Bundle complex conjugate pole pairs into second-order terms if you want but you will need to be careful

( s j )( s + j ) = s 2 2s + 2 + 2

)]

Inverse Laplace Transform is a sum of complex exponentials The answer will be real

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

32

Inverting Laplace Transforms in Practice


We have a table of inverse LTs Write F(s) as a partial fraction expansion
F ( s) = an sn + an 1sn 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L ( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L ( s pn ) = bm sm + bm1sm1 + L + b1s + b0

(s p1 ) (s p2 )

( s p3 )

31

32
2

(s p3 )

33

(s p3 )

+ ... +

(s pq )

Now appeal pp to linearity y to invert via the table Surprise! Nastiness: computing the partial fraction expansion is best d done b by calculating l l i the h residues id
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

33

Example 9-12
Find the inverse LT of 20( s + 3) F ( s) = ( s + 1)( s 2 + 2s + 5)
* k1 k2 k2 F (s) = + + s +1 s +1 j2 s +1+ j2
20( s + 3) k = lim ( s + 1) F ( s ) = = 10 1 s 1 2 s + 2 s + 5 s = 1 20( s + 3) k = lim (s + 1 2 j ) F (s) = 2 s 1 + 2 j ( s + 1)( s + 1 + 2 j ) 5 j = 5 5 j = 5 2e 4

s = 1 + 2 j

5 5 ( 1+ j 2)t + j ( 1 j 2)t j 4 u (t ) 4 + 5 2e f (t ) = 10e t + 5 2e 5 = 10e t + 10 2e t cos(2t + ) u (t ) 4


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

34

Not Strictly Proper Laplace Transforms


Find the inverse LT of s 3 + 6s 2 + 12 s + 8 F ( s) = s 2 + 4s + 3 s+2

Convert to polynomial plus strictly proper rational function


Use polynomial division

F (s) = s + 2 + 2 s + 4s + 3 0.5 0.5 = s+2+ + s +1 s + 3

Invert as normal

d (t ) f (t ) = u (t ) + 2 (t ) + 0.5e t + 0.5e 3t dt

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

35

Block Diagrams
Series:

G1

G2

G = G1G2
G1
G2

Parallel:

+ +

G = G1 + G2

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

36

Block Diagrams
Negative Feedback:

R
R( s)
+

Reference input Error signal Output Feedback signal

E (s)
-

G
H

C (s)

B( s)

E = RB C = GE B = HC

C G C = GR GHC (1 + GH )C = GR = R (1 + GH ) E 1 E = R HGE (1 + GH ) E = R = R (1 + GH )
Rule: Transfer Function=Forward Gain/(1+Loop Gain)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

37

Block Diagrams
Positive Feedback:

R
R( s)
+

Reference input Error signal Output Feedback signal

E (s)
+

G
H

C (s)

B( s)

E = R+B C = GE B = HC

C G C = GR + GHC (1 GH )C = GR = R (1 GH ) E 1 E = R + HGE (1 GH ) E = R = R (1 GH )
Rule: Transfer Function=Forward Gain/(1-Loop Gain)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

38

Block Diagrams
Moving through a branching point:
R( s)

C (s)

R( s)

B( s)

G 1/ G

C (s)

B( s)

Moving through a summing point:


R( s)

+ +

C (s)

R( s)

+ +

C (s)

B( s)

G
B( s)
39

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Block Diagrams
Example:

H1
R( s)
+ -

G1

G2

G3

C (s)

H2

R( s)

G1G2G3 1 + H1G2G3 + H 2G1G2

C (s)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

40

Masons Rule
H4

H6
U (s)
+ +

H1 H5

+ +

H2

+ +

H3 H7

+ +

Y (s)

Signal Flow Graph nodes


1

H4 H6

branches b a c es
3

U (s)

H1 H5

H2

H3 H7

Y (s)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

41

Masons Rule
Path: P th a sequence of f connected t db branches h in i th the direction di ti of f the th signal flow without repetition Loop: a closed path that returns to its starting node Forward path: connects input and output

Y (s) 1 G (s) = = Gi i U (s) i


Gi = gain of the ith forward path = the system determinan t = 1- (all loop gains) + (gain products of all possible two loops that do not touch)

(gain products of all possible three loops that do not touch) +L i = value of for the part of the graph that does not touch the ith forward path
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

42

Masons Rule
H4 H6

U (s)

H1 H5

H2

H3 H7

Y (s)

Y ( s) H1 H 2 H 3 + H 4 H 4 H 2 H 6 = U ( s ) 1 H1 H 5 H 2 H 6 H 3 H 7 H 4 H 7 H 6 H 5 + H1 H 5 H 3 H 7

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

43

Impulse Response
Diracs delta:

0 u( ) (t )d = u(t )

Integration is a limit of a sum u(t) is represented as a sum of impulses


By superposition principle, we only need unit impulse response

h(t )

Response at t to an impulse applied at

System Response:

u (t )

y (t )

y (t ) = u ( )h(t )d
0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

44

Impulse Response
t-domain:

u (t )

y (t )
Impulse response

y (t ) = u ( )h(t )d
0

u (t ) = (t ) y (t ) = h(t )

The system response is obtained by convolving the input with the impulse response of the system.

Convolution: s-domain: U ( s )

L{ u ( )h(t )d } = H ( s )U ( s )
0

Y ( s)
Impulse response

Y ( s ) = H ( s )U ( s )

u (t ) = (t ) U ( s ) = 1 Y ( s ) = H ( s )

The system response is obtained by multiplying the transfer function and the Laplace transform of the input.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

45

Time Response vs. Poles


Real pole:

1 H ( s) = h(t ) = e t s +

Impulse Response
Stable Unstable

>0 <0

Time Constant

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

46

Time Response vs. Poles


Real pole:

H (s) =

s + 1

h(t ) = e t
Time Constant

Impulse Response

1 Y (s) = y (t ) = 1 e t s + s

Step Response

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

47

2 n Complex poles: H ( s ) = 2 2 s + 2 n s + n

Time Response vs. Poles


Impulse I l Response

2 n = (s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 )

n : :

Undamped natural frequency Damping ratio


2 n

H (s) =

(s + + jd )(s + jd )

2 n = (s + )2 + d2

= n , d = n 1 2
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

48

Time Response vs. Poles


Complex poles:
2 n n t H (s) = h ( t ) = e sin (d t ) 2 2 2 2 (s + n ) + n (1 ) 1

Impulse Response

>0 <0

Stable Unstable

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

49

Time Response vs. Poles


Complex poles:
2 n n t H (s) = h ( t ) = e sin (d t ) 2 2 2 2 (s + n ) + n (1 ) 1

Impulse Response

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

50

Time Response vs. Poles


Complex poles: 2 n 1 t ( ) ( ) = + Y (s) = y ( t ) 1 e cos t sin t d d (s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 ) s d Step Response

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

51

Time Response vs. Poles


Complex poles:
2 n H (s) = 2 2 s + 2 n s + n 2 n = 2 (s + n ) + n2 (1 2 )

CASES:
2 = 0 : s 2 + n 2 (1 2 ) < 1 : (s + n )2 + n 2

Undamped p Underdamped

= 1 : (s + n )

> 1 : s + + 2 1 n s + 2 1 n
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

[ (

) ][ (

) ]

Critically damped Overdamped

52

Time Response vs. Poles

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

53

Time Domain Specifications

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

54

Time Domain Specifications


1- The rise time tr is the time it takes the system to reach the vicinity of its new set point 2- The settling time ts is the time it takes the system 2 transients to decay 3- The overshoot Mp is the maximum amount the system t overshoot h t it its fi final l value l di divided id d b by its it final fi l value 4- The peak time tp is the time it takes the system to reach the maximum overshoot point

tp =

n 1

tr ts =

1.8

n
4.6

Mp =e

1 2

n
55

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Time Domain Specifications


Design specification are given in terms of

tr , t p , M p , t s
These specifications p give the p g position of the p poles

n , , d
Example: Find the pole positions that guarantee

tr 0.6 sec, M p < 10%, t s 3 sec

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

56

Effect of Zeros and Additional poles


Additional poles: 1- can be neglected if they are sufficiently to the left of the dominant ones. ones 2- can increase the rise time if the extra pole is within a factor of 4 of the real part of the complex poles. Zeros: 1- a zero near a pole reduces the effect of that pole in th time the ti response. 2- a zero in the LHP will increase the overshoot if the zero is within a factor of 4 of the real part of the complex poles (due to differentiation). 3- a zero in the RHP (nonminimum phase zero) will depress the overshoot and may cause the step response to start out in the wrong direction.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

57

Stability
Y ( s ) bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 = n R( s) s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0

Y (s) ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K R( s) ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) Y (s) k1 k2 kn = + +L+ R ( s ) ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )

Impulse response:
R( s) = 1 Y ( s) = k1 k2 kn + +L+ ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )

y (t ) = k1e p1t + k2e p2t + L + kn e pnt


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

58

Stability
y (t ) = k1e p1t + k2e p2t + L + kn e pnt
We want:

e pit t 0

i = 1K n

Definition: A system is asymptotically stable (a.s.) if

Re{ { pi } < 0

Characteristic polynomial: Characteristic equation:

a ( s ) = s n + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 a( s) = 0
59

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Stability
Necessary condition for asymptotical stability (a.s.):

ai > 0
Use this as the first test!

If any ai<0, <0 the the system is UNSTABLE! Example:


s2 + s 2 = 0 ( s + 2)( s 1) = 0

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

60

Rouths Criterion
Necessary and sufficient condition Do not have to find the roots pi! Rouths Array:
sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 s n4 M s0 an 1 a1 b1 c1 d1 a2 a3 b2 c2 d2 a4 L a5 L b3 c3
b1 =

an

Depends on whether n is even or odd

a1a2 a3 aa a aa a , b2 = 1 4 5 , b3 = 1 6 7 a1 a1 a1 ba ab ba ab c1 = 1 3 1 2 , c2 = 1 5 1 3 , L b1 b1 c b bc cb bc d1 = 1 2 1 2 , d 2 = 1 3 1 3 , L c1 c1 M M

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

61

Rouths Criterion
How to remember this? Rouths Array:

sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 M

m11

m12

m13 L m23 L m33 L m43 L M

m1, j = a2 j 2 , m2, j = a2 j 1 , mi 2,1 mi 2, j +1 mi 1,1 mi 1, j +1 mi 1,1

m21 m22 m31 m32 m41 m42 M M

mi , j =

, i 3

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

62

Rouths Criterion
The criterion: The system is asymptotically stable if and only if all the elements in the first column of the Rouths array are positive The number of roots with positive real parts is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column of the Routh array

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

63

Rouths Criterion - Examples


Example 1: Example 2:

s 2 + a1s + a2 = 0 s 3 + a1s 2 + a2 s + a3 = 0

Example 3: s 6 + 4 s 5 + 3s 4 + 2 s 3 + s 2 + 4 s + 4 = 0 Example 4:

s 3 + 5 s 2 + ( k 6) s + k = 0

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

64

Rouths Criterion - Examples


Example: Determine the range of K over which the system is stable
R( s)

+ -

s +1 s(s 1)(s + 6 )

Y (s)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

65

Rouths Criterion
Special Case I: Zero in the first column We replace the zero with a small positive constant >0 and proceed as before. We then apply the stability criterion by taking the limit as 0 Example:

s 4 + 2 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 8s + 10 = 0

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

66

Rouths Criterion
Special Case II: Entire row is zero This indicates that there are complex conjugate pairs. If the ith row is zero, we form an auxiliary equation from the previous nonzero row:

a1 ( s ) = 1s i +1 + 2 s i 1 + 3 s i 3 + L
Where i are the coefficients of the (i+1)th ) row in the array. We then replace the ith row by the coefficients of the derivative of the auxiliary polynomial. Example:

s 5 + 2 s 4 + 4 s 3 + 8s 2 + 10 s + 20 = 0

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

67

Properties of feedback
Disturbance Rejection: Open loop

w
Ko
+

y
y = K o Ar + w

Closed loop

w
+

+ -

Kc

y
Kc A 1 y= r+ w 1 + Kc A 1 + Kc A
68

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Properties of feedback
Disturbance Rejection: Ch Choose control t l s.t. t for f w=0,y 0 r Open loop:

1 Ko = y = r + w A

Closed loop: K c >>

1 y r + 0w = r A

Feedback allows attenuation of disturbance without h having access to it (without ( h measuring it)!!! )
IMPORTANT: High gain is dangerous for dynamic response!!!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

69

Properties of feedback
Sensitivity to Gain Plant Changes Open loop

w
Ko
+

y
y To = = AK o r o

Closed loop

w
+

+ -

Kc

y
AK c y Tc = = r c 1 + AK c
70

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Properties of feedback
Sensitivity to Gain Plant Changes Let the plant gain be A + A Open loop: Closed loop:

To
To

A
A

Tc

A To 1 = << = Tc A 1 + AK c A To

Feedback reduces sensitivity to plant variations!!! Sensitivity: Example:

dT / T A dT S = = dA / A T dA 1 Tc To SA = , SA =1 1 + AK c
T A
71

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

PID Controller
PID: Proportional Integral Derivative P Controller:
Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) R ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Step Reference:

u (t ) = K p e(t ),

U (s) = K p E (s)

1 1 1 1 R ( s ) = ess = lim sE ( s ) = lim s = s 0 s 0 1 + K G ( s ) s s 1 + K pG (0) p ess = 0 K pG (0)


True when: Proportional gain is high Plant has a pole at the origin

High gain proportional feedback (needed for good tracking) results in underdamped (or even unstable) transients.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

72

PID Controller
P Controller: Example (lecture06_a.m)
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

Kp

U (s)

A s2 + s + 1

Y (s)

K pG ( s) KpA Y ( s) = = 2 R ( s ) 1 + K pG ( s ) s + s + (1 + K p A)
2 n =1+ K p A

2 n =1

1 = = K 0 p 2n 2 1 + K p A

9 Underdamped transient for large proportional gain 9 Steady state error for small proportional gain
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

73

PID Controller
PI Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p +

KI s

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Step Reference:

u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K I e( )d ,
0

KI U (s) = K p + s
1 K 1+ K p + I s

E (s)
=0

1 R ( s ) = ess = lim li sE E ( s ) = lim li s s 0 s 0 s

1 K 1+ K p + I s

G ( s )

1 = lim li s s 0

G ( s )

It does not matter the value of the proportional gain Plant does not need to have a pole at the origin. The controller has it!

Integral control achieves perfect steady state reference tracking!!! Note that this is valid even for Kp=0 as long as Ki0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

74

PID Controller
PI Controller: Example (lecture06_b.m)
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

Kp +

KI s

U (s)

A s2 + s + 1

Y (s)

KI G ( s ) Kp + ( K p s + K I )A Y (s) s = = 3 2 KI R( s) s + s + (1 + K p A) s + K I A 1+ K p + ( ) G s s
DANGER: for large

Ki the characteristic equation has roots in the RHP


Analysis by Rouths Criterion

s 3 + s 2 + (1 + K p A) s + K I A = 0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

75

PID Controller
PI Controller: Example (lecture06_b.m)

s 3 + s 2 + (1 + K p A) s + K I A = 0
Necessary Conditions: This is satisfied because Rouths Conditions:

1 + K p A > 0, K I A > 0

A > 0, K p > 0, K I > 0

s3 1 1+ K p A 2 s 1 KI A s1 1 + K p A K I A

1+ K p A KI A > 0

s0

KI A

1 KI < KP + A
76

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

PID Controller
PD Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p + K D s

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Step Reference:

de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K D , dt

U ( s ) = (K p + K D s )E ( s )

1 1 1 1 = R ( s ) = ess = lim sE ( s ) = lim s s 0 s 0 1 + (K + K s )G ( s ) s s 1 + K p G ( 0) p D ess = 0 K pG (0)


True when: Proportional P ti l gain i i is hi high h Plant has a pole at the origin

PD controller fixes problems with stability and damping by adding anticipative action
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

77

PID Controller
PD Controller: Example (lecture06_c.m)
R( s)
+ -

E (s) C ( s) = K + K s U (s) p D

A s2 + s + 1

Y (s)

( K p + K D s )G ( s ) A(K p + K D s ) Y (s) = = 2 R ( s ) 1 + (K p + K D s )G ( s ) s + (1 + K D A)s + (1 + K p A)


2 n =1+ K p A

2 n = 1+ KD A

1+ KD A 1+ KD A = = 2n 2 1+ K p A

9 The damping can be increased now independently of Kp 9 The steady state error can be minimized by a large Kp
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

78

PID Controller
PD Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p + K D s

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K D , dt
NOTE: cannot apply pp y pure p differentiation. In practice,

U ( s ) = (K p + K D s )E ( s )

KDs
is implemented as

KDs Ds +1
79

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

PID Controller
PID: Proportional Integral Derivative
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

U (s) 1 Kp 1 + + T s Ts D I

G (s)

Y (s)

d Kp 1 de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + e( ) d + TD , K D = K pTD KI = TI 0 d dt TI

U (s) 1 = Kp 1+ + TD s E (s) T s I
PID Controller: Example (lecture06_d.m)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

80

PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning


Empirical method (no proof that it works well but it works well for simple systems) Only for stable plants You do not need a model to apply the method Class of plants:

Y (s) K Ke td s = U ( s ) s + 1

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

81

PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning


METHOD 1: Based on step response, tuning to decay ratio of 0.25. Tuning Table: P: Kp = td t PD : K p = 0.9 , TI = d td 0 .3 PID : K p = 1.2 , TI = 2td , TD = 0.5td td

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

82

PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning


METHOD 2: Based on limit of stability, ultimate sensitivity method.
R( s) E (s)
-

Ku

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Increase the constant gain Ku until the response becomes p purely y oscillatory y (no ( decay y marginally g y stable pure imaginary poles) Measure the period of oscillation Pu

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

83

PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning


METHOD 2: Based on limit of stability, ultimate sensitivity method. Tuning Table:
P: K p = 0 .5 K u Pu PD : K p = 0.45 K u , TI = 1. 2 Pu Pu PID : K p = 0.6 K u , TI = , TD = 2 8

The Tuning Tables are the same if you make: K u = 2 , Pu = 4td td


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

84

PID Controller: Integrator Windup


Actuator Saturates: - valve (fully open) - aircraft rudder (fully deflected)

u
(Input of the plant)

uc
(Output of the controller)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

85

PID Controller: Integrator Windup


R( s)
+ -

E (s)

Kp +

KI s

U c (s)

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

What Wh t happens? h ? - large step input in r - large e - large uc u saturates - eventually e becomes small - uc still large because the integrator is charged - u still at maximum - y overshoots h t f for a long l time ti
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

86

Plant a without ou Anti-Windup: dup

PID Controller: Anti-Windup

Plant with Anti-Windup:

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

87

PID Controller: Anti-Windup


I saturation, In t ti the th plant l t behaves b h as:

For large Ka, this is a system with very low gain and very fast decay rate, i.e., the integration is turned off.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

88

Steady State Tracking


The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

C (s)

U (s)

G(s)

Y (s)

E (s) 1 = R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
Test Inputs:

tk r (t ) = 1(t ) k! 1 R ( s ) = k +1 s

k=0: step (position) k=1: ramp (velocity) k 2: parabola k=2 b l (acceleration) ( l ti )


89

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Steady State Tracking


The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

Type n System

E (s)

C (s)

Go ((ss) U ) sn

G(s)

Y (s)

Go ( s ) 1 1 C ( s )G ( s ) = n , E ( s ) = R ( s ), R ( s ) = k +1 Go ( s ) s s 1+ n s Steady State Error:


Final Fin l Value V l e Theorem

1 sn s nk 1 1 ess = lim e(t ) = lim sE ( s ) = lim s = lim = lim t s 0 s 0 Go ( s ) s k +1 s 0 s n + Go ( s ) s k s 0 s n + Go (0) 1+ n s


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

90

Steady State Tracking


The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

Type yp n System

E (s)

Go ( s ) sn

Y (s)

s nk ess = lim n s 0 s + G ( 0) o
Input (k)

Steady State Error: Type (n) Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step (k=0) Ramp (k=1) Parabola (k=2)

1 1 1 = = 1 + Go (0) 1 + lim C ( s )G ( s ) 1 + K p s 0 1 1 1 = = 0 Go (0) lim sC ( s )G ( s ) K v


s 0

1 1 1 = = Go (0) lim s 2C ( s )G ( s ) K a
s 0

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

91

Steady State Tracking


K p = lim C ( s )G ( s ) K v = lim sC ( s )G ( s )
s 0 s 0 s 0

n=0 n =1

Position Constant Velocity Constant Acceleration Constant

K a = lim s 2C ( s )G ( s ) n = 2

n: Degree of the poles of CG(s) at the origin (the number of


integrators in the loop with unity gain feedback) Applying integral control to a plant with no zeros at the origin makes the system type I All this is true ONLY for unity feedback systems Since in Type I systems ess=0 for any CG(s), we say that the system type is a robust property.

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

92

Steady State Tracking


The Unity Feedback Case
R( s) E (s)
-

tk w(t ) = 1(t ) k! 1 W ( s ) W ( s ) = k +1 s

C (s)

U (s)
+

G(s)

Y (s)

Set r r=0 0. Want Y(s)/W(s)=0.

Y (s) G (s) = = T ( s ) = s nTo ( s ) W ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )


Steady State Error:

e=r-y=-y

Final Value Theorem

ess = yss = lim y (t ) = lim sY ( s ) = lim sT ( s )


t s 0 s 0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

1 s k +1

sn = lim To ( s ) k s 0 s
93

Steady State Tracking


The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

W (s) U (s)
+ +

E (s)

C (s)

G(s)

Y (s)

Steady State Output: Disturbance (k) Type (n) Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step (k=0)
*

Ramp (k=1)
*

Parabola (k=2)
*
0 <*<
94

0 0

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Steady State Tracking


Example:
W (s) R( s)
+ -

E (s)

K Kp + I s

U (s)
+

A s (s + 1)

Y (s)

type 1 to w KI 0 K P 0, K I = 0 type 0 to w

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

95

Root Locus
Controller
R( s) +
-

Plant
U (s) Y (s)

E (s)

C (s)

G(s)

H (s)

Sensor

C ( s ) = KD ( s )

Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) C ( s )G ( s ) = = R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s ) 1 + KL ( s )

Writing the loop gain as KL(s) we are interested in tracking the closed-loop poles as gain K varies

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

96

Root Locus
Characteristic Equation:

1 + KL( s ) = 0
The roots (zeros) of the characteristic equation are the closed-loop poles of the feedback system!!! The closed-loop poles are a function of the gain K Writing the loop gain as

b( s ) s m + b1s m 1 + L + bm 1s + bm L( s ) = = n a ( s ) s + a1s n 1 + L + an 1s + an
The closed loop poles are given indistinctly by the solution of:

1 + KL ( s ) = 0,

1+ K

b( s ) = 0, a(s)

a ( s ) + Kb( s ) = 0,

L( s ) =

1 K
97

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Root Locus
RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to - (negative Root Locus)

1 Magnitude condition 1 L( s ) = K > 0 : L( s ) = K K o Phase condition L s ( ) = 180 1 1 L ( s ) = K < 0 : L( s ) = K K o L s = ( ) 0

Magnitude condition Phase condition

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

98

Root Locus by Characteristic Equation Solution


Example:
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

U (s)

1 (s + 10)(s + 1)

Y (s)

Y (s) K = 2 R ( s ) s + 11s + (10 + K )


Closed-loop Closed loop poles:

1 + L( s ) = 0 s 2 + 11s + (10 + K ) = 0
s = 1,10

K=0
81 4 K 2 4 K 81 2

81 4 K s = 5.5 2

s = 5.5 s = 5.5 s = 5.5 i

81 4K>0 81 4K=0 81 4K<0


99

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Root Locus by Characteristic Equation Solution

We need a systematic approach to plot the closed-loop closed loop poles as function of the gain K ROOT LOCUS
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

100

Root Locus by Phase Condition


Example:
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

U (s)

s +1 s (s + 5)(s 2 + 4 s + 8)

Y (s)

L( s ) =

s +1 s (s + 5)(s 2 + 4 s + 8) s +1 = s (s + 5)(s + 2 + 2i )(s + 2 2i )

so = 1 + 3i
belongs to the locus?

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

101

Root Locus by Phase Condition

45o 36.87
o

90o

108.43o

78.70o

90o 108.43o + 36.87o + 45o + 78.70o 180o so = 1 + 3i belongs to the locus!

Note: Check code lecture09_a.m


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

102

Root Locus by Phase Condition

so = 1 + 3i

We need a systematic approach to plot the closed-loop closed loop poles as function of the gain K ROOT LOCUS
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

103

Root Locus
RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to - (negative Root Locus)

1 + KL( s ) = 0 L( s ) =
Basic Properties:

1 a ( s ) + Kb( s ) = 0 K

Number of branches = number of open-loop poles RL begins at open-loop poles

K = 0 a(s) = 0
RL ends at open-loop open loop zeros e os or o asymptotes as mptotes

b( s ) = 0 K = L( s ) = 0 s (n m > 0)
RL symmetrical about Re-axis
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

104

Root Locus
Rule 1: The n branches of the locus start at the poles of L(s) and m of these branches end on the zeros of L(s). n: order of the denominator of L(s) m: order of the numerator of L(s)

Rule 2: The locus is on the real axis to the left of and odd number of poles and zeros. In other words, an interval on the real axis belongs to the root locus if the total number of poles and zeros to the right is odd. This rule comes from the phase condition!!!

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

105

Root Locus
Rule 3: As K, m of the closed-loop poles approach the open-loop zeros, and n-m of them approach n-m asymptotes with angles

l = (2l + 1)
and centered at

nm

l = 0,1,K, n m 1

b1 a1 poles zeros = = , nm nm

l = 0,1,K, n m 1

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

106

Root Locus
Rule 4: The locus crosses the j axis (looses stability) where the Routh criterion shows a transition from roots in the left half-plane to roots in the right-half plane. Example:

G (s) =

s+5 s ( s 2 + 4 s + 5) K = 20, s = j 5

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

107

Root Locus
Example:

G (s) =

s +1 s 4 + 3s 3 + 7 s 2 + 6 s + 4

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

108

Root Locus
Design dangers revealed by the Root Locus: High relative degree: For n-m n m3 we have closed loop instability due to asymptotes.

s +1 G ( s) = 4 s + 3s 3 + 7 s 2 + 6 s + 4
Nonminimum phase zeros: They attract closed loop poles into the RHP

G ( s) =

s 1 s2 + s + 1

Note: Check code lecture09_b.m


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

109

Root Locus
Vietes formula: When the relative degree n-m n m2, 2 the sum of the closed loop poles is constant

a1 = closed loop poles


b( s ) s m + b1s m 1 + L + bm 1s + bm L( s ) = = n a ( s ) s + a1s n 1 + L + an 1s + an

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

110

Phase and Magnitude of a Transfer Function


bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 G (s) = n s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0

( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) G (s) = K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )

Th factors The f t K, (s-z ( j) and d (s-p ( k) are complex l numbers: b

(s z j ) = r e , ( s pk ) = r e
p p i k k

z z i j j

j = 1K m k = 1L p
z z i m m p inp n

K = Ke

i K

G(s) = K e

i K

r e r e

z z i1z z i2 1 2 p p p i1 p i2 1 2

r e r e Lr e

Lr e

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

111

Phase and Magnitude of a Transfer Function


G (s) = K e
i K

r e r e
K

z z i1z z i2 1 2 p p p i1 p i2 1 2

r e r e Lr e
z 2 p 2

= K e i

r r Lr e (

z 1 p 1

r r Lr e (

Lr e

z z i m m p inp n

z z +L+m z i 1z +2 m p p p p i 1 +2 +L+n n

z z z r1z r2z L rm ) i [ K + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] =K p p e p r1 r2 L rn

Now it is easy to give the phase and magnitude of the o e transfer a s e function: u o
z r1z r2z L rm G ( s) = K p p , p r1 r2 L rn

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( s ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

112

Phase and Magnitude of a Transfer Function


Example:

( s + 6.735) G ( s) = (s + 1)(s + 5)( s + 20)

s = so = 7 + 5i
r3p

r1z

r2p r1p

3p

1z 2p

1p

G ( s ) = 1z (1p + 2p + 3p )

r1z G(s) = p p p r1 r2 r3

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

113

Root Locus- Magnitude and Phase Conditions


RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to - (negative Root Locus)
z K z z ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) r1z r2z L rm ) i [ p + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] = Kp p p e L( s ) = K p p ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) r1 r2 L rn
z r1z r2z L rm 1 L ( s ) K = = p 1 r1p r2p L rnp K K > 0 : L( s ) = K K z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) = 180o L( s ) = p + (1z + 2z + L + m z r1z r2z L rm 1 L s K ( ) = = p p p p 1 r r L r K K < 0 : L( s ) = 1 2 n K K z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) = 0o L( s ) = p + (1z + 2z + L + m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

114

Root Locus
Selecting K for desired closed loop poles on Root Locus: If so belongs to the root locus, locus it must satisfies the characteristic equation for some value of K

1 L( so ) = K
Then we can obtain K as

1 K = L( so ) 1 K= L( so )
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

115

Root Locus
Example:

L( s ) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

so = 3 + i 4 K =

1 = so + 1 so + 5 = 3 + i 4 + 1 3 + i 4 + 5 L( so ) =

( 2)2 + 42 (2)2 + 42 = 20

Using MATLAB:
sys=tf(1,poly([-1 -5])) so=-3+4i [K,POLES]=rlocfind(sys,so)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

116

Root Locus
Example:

L( s ) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

so = 3 + i 4

so = 7 + i5 K= 1 = 42.06 L( so )

so = 7 + i5

When we use the absolute value formula we are assuming that the point belongs to the Root Locus!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

117

Root Locus - Compensators


Example:

L( s ) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

Can we place the closed loop pole at so=-7+i5 only varying K? NO. We need a COMPENSATOR.
L( s) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) = (s + 10 )

(s + 1)(s + 5)

The zero attracts the locus!!!


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

118

Root Locus Phase lead compensator


Pure derivative control is not normally practical because of the amplification of the noise due to the differentiation and must be approximated:

s+z , D( s) = s+ p

p>z

Phase lead COMPENSATOR

When we study frequency response we will understand why we call Phase Lead to this compensator.

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

1 s+z , s + p (s + 1)(s + 5)

p>z

How do we choose z and p to place the closed loop pole at so=-7+i5?

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

119

Root Locus Phase lead compensator


Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s+z 1 , s + p (s + 1)(s + 5)

p<z

Phase lead COMPENSATOR

21.04

111.80o 140.19o

1z ?

L( s ) =

Kp

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) = 180o + (1z + 2z + L + m

1z = 180o + 140.19o + 111.80o + 21.04o = 453.03o = 93.03o z = 6.735


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

120

Root Locus Phase lead compensator


Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s + 6.735 1 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)
Phase lead COMPENSATOR

so = 7 + i5 K = 117

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

121

Root Locus Phase lead compensator


Selecting z and p is a trial an error procedure. In general: The zero is p placed in the neighborhood g of the closedloop natural frequency, as determined by rise-time or settling time requirements. The poles is placed at a distance 5 to 20 times the value of the zero location. The pole is fast enough to avoid modifying the dominant pole behavior. The exact position of the pole p is a compromise between: Noise suppression (we want a small value for p) Compensation effectiveness (we want large value for p)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

122

Root Locus Phase lag compensator


Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s + 6.735 1 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)

K p = lim L( s ) = lim D( s )G ( s ) = lim


s 0 s 0

s + 6.735 1 = 6.735 10 2 s 0 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)

What can we do to increase Kp? Suppose we want Kp=10.

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

1 s + z s + 6.735 , s + p s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5) z 1 = 103 = 148.48 p 6.735

p<z
Phase lag Ph l COMPENSATOR

We choose:

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

123

Root Locus Phase lag compensator


Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s + 0.14848 s + 6.735 1 s + 0.001 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)

so = 6.94 + i5.03 K = 18.31

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

124

Root Locus Phase lag compensator


Selecting z and p is a trial an error procedure. In general: The ratio zero/pole /p is chosen based on the error constant specification. We pick z and p small to avoid affecting the dominant dynamic of the system (to avoid modifying the part of the locus representing the dominant dynamics) Slow transient due to the small p is almost cancelled by an small z. The ratio zero/pole cannot be very big. The exact position of z and p is a compromise between: Steady state error (we want a large value for z/p) The transient response (we want the pole p placed far from the origin)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

125

Root Locus - Compensators


Phase lead compensator:

D( s) = D( s) =

s+z , s+ p s+z , s+ p

z< p z> p

Phase lag compensator:

We will see why we call phase lead and phase lag to these compensators when we study frequency response

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

126

Frequency Response
We now know how to analyze and design systems via s-domain methods which yield dynamical information
The responses are described b by the e exponential ponential modes The modes are determined by the poles of the response Laplace Transform

We next will look at describing cct performance via frequency response methods This guides us in specifying the system pole and zero positions

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

127

Sinusoidal Steady-State Response


Consider C id a stable t bl t transfer f function f ti with ith a sinusoidal input: A u (t ) = A cos(t ) U ( s ) = 2 s + 2
The Laplace Transform of the response has poles Where the natural modes lie These are in the open left half plane Re(s)<0 At the input modes

s=+j and s=-j

Y ( s ) = G ( s )U ( s ) = K

( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) A ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) (s 2 + 2 )

Only the response due to the poles on the imaginary axis remains after a sufficiently long time
This is the sinusoidal steady-state response
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

128

Sinusoidal Steady-State Response


Input
u (t ) = A cos(t + ) = A cos t sin A sin t cos

Transform

U ( s ) = A cos

s + A sin s2 + 2 s2 + 2

Response R Transform T f
k k* k1 k2 kN Y ( s ) = G ( s )U ( s ) = + + + +L+ s j s + j s p1 s p2 s pN

Response Signal

forced response

natural response

jt + k *e jt + k e p1t + k e p2t + L + k e p N t y (t ) = ke 1 4442 1442443 1 44 2444N 44 3 forced response natural response

Sinusoidal Steady State Response

ySS (t ) = ke jt + k *e jt
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

0
129

Sinusoidal Steady-State Response


Calculating the SSS response to
s j s j

u(t ) = Acos(t + )

Residue calculation k = lim li [(s j )Y (s)] = li lim [(s j )G(s)U (s)]


j cos sin s cos sin = ( ) = lim G( s)(s j ) A G j A s j (s j )(s + j ) 2 j 1 1 = AG( j ) e j = A G( j ) e j ( +G ( j )) 2 2

Signal g calculation

k k* + yss (t ) = L s j s + j = k e jK e jt + k e jK e jt
1

= 2 k cos(t + K )
yss (t ) = A G( j ) cos(t + + G( j ))
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

130

Sinusoidal Steady-State Response


Response to is
u (t ) = A cos(t + ) yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))

Output frequency = input frequency Output p amplitude p = input p amplitude p |G(j (j)| Output phase = input phase +G(j) Th The Frequency F Response R of f the h transfer f function f i G(s) G( ) is i given i by its evaluation as a function of a complex variable at s=j
We speak of the amplitude response and of the phase response They cannot independently be varied Bodes relations of analytic function theory

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

131

Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) -

C Compute t the th s-domain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R T s ( ) = Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,

L T ( j ) = tan 1 R

Compute the steady state output


v2 SS (t ) = AR R 2 + (L) 2

cos t + tan 1(L / R )

]
132

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bode Diagrams
Log-log plot of mag(T), log-linear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0

Magn nitude (dB) ) Magnitude M (dB) Phase e Phas se(deg) (deg)

-5 5

-10

-15

-20

-25 0

-45

-90 10
4

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

133

Frequency Response
u (t ) = A cos(t + )

G( s)

yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))
Stable Transfer Function

After a transient, the output settles to a sinusoid with an amplitude magnified by G ( j ) and phase shifted by G ( j ) . Since all signals can be represented by sinusoids (Fourier series and transform), the quantities G ( j ) and G ( j ) are extremely important. important Bode developed methods for quickly finding G ( j ) and G ( j ) for a given G ( s ) and for using them in control design. design
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

134

Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) -

C Compute t the th s-domain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R T s ( ) = Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,

L T ( j ) = tan 1 R

Compute the steady state output


v2 SS (t ) = AR R 2 + (L) 2

cos t + tan 1(L / R )

]
135

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response - Bode Diagrams


Log-log plot of mag(T), log-linear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0

Magn nitude (dB) ) Magnitude (dB) M Phase e (deg) Phas se (deg)

-5 5

-10

-15

-20

-25 0

-45

-90 10
4

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

[ ] = rad / sec, = 2f , [ f ] = Hz
136

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bode Diagrams
( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) G (s) = K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
z z z r1z r2z L rm ) i [ K + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] G (s) = K p p e p r1 r2 L rn

The magnitude and phase of G(s) when s=j is given by: Nonlinear in the magnitudes
z r1z r2z L rm , G ( j ) = K p p p r1 r2 L rn

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( j ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m

Linear in the phases


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

137

Bode Diagrams
Why do we express G ( j ) in decibels?

G ( j ) dB = 20 log G ( j )
z r1z r2z L rm G ( j ) = K p p G ( j ) dB = ? p r1 r2 L rn

By properties of the logarithm we can write:

z z ) (20 log r1p + 20 log r2p + L + 20 log rnp ) 20 log G ( s ) = 20 log K + (20 log r1z + 20 log rm + L + 20 log rm

The magnitude and phase of G(s) when s=j is given by: Linear in the magnitudes (dB)

G ( s ) dB = K dB + r1z

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( s ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m

dB

+ r2z

dB

z + L + rm

dB

) (r

1 dB

+ r2p

dB

+ L + rnp

dB

)
138

Linear in the phases


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bode Diagrams
Why do we use a logarithmic scale? Let Lets s have a look at our example:

R R T ( j ) = = T (s) = 2 2 sL L+R R + (L)


Expressing the magnitude in dB:

1 1+ R L
2

T ( j ) dB

L 2 = 20 log1 20 log 1 + = 10 log 1 + R R L


2

Asymptotic behavior:

: T ( j ) dB 20 log

0 : T ( j ) dB 0

R/L

R ( ) = 20 log / 20 log = R L

L dB

20 log

LINEAR FUNCTION in log!!! We plot G ( j ) dB as a function of log.


Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

139

Bode Diagrams
Decade: Any frequency range whose end points have a 10:1 ratio A cutoff frequency occurs when the gain is reduced from its maximum i passband b d value l b by a f factor t 1/ 2 :

1 20 log T MAX = 20 log T MAX 20 log 2 20 log T MAX 3dB 2


Bandwith: frequency range spanned by the gain passband Lets have a look at our example:

= 0 T ( j ) = 2 = R / L L 1+ R 1

T ( j ) = 1 T ( j ) = 1 / 2

This i Thi is a low-pass l fil filter!!! !!! P Passband b d gain= i 1, C Cutoff ff frequency= f R/L The Bandwith is R/L!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

140

General Transfer Function (Bode Form)


j j G ( j ) = K o ( j ) ( j + 1) + 2 + 1 n n
2

The magnitude (dB) (phase) is the sum of the magnitudes (dB) (phases) of each one of the terms. We learn how to plot each term, we learn how to plot the whole magnitude and phase Bode Plot. Classes of terms:

123 34-

G ( j ) = K o G ( j ) = ( j )
m n q

G ( j ) = ( j + 1)
2

j j G ( j ) = + 2 + 1 n n

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

141

General Transfer Function: DC gain


G ( j ) = K o
Magnitude g and Phase:

G ( j) dB = 20 log K o d 0 G ( j ) =
200 180 160

G (s ) = 10
40 35 30

if K o > 0 if K o < 0

140

Magnitude (dB)

Phas se (deg)

25 20 15 10

120 100 80 60 40

5 0 -1 10
0 1 2

20

10

10

10

0 -1 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

10 10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

142

General Transfer Function: Poles/zeros at origin


G ( j ) = ( j )
Magnitude and Phase:
m

G ( j) dB = m 20 log G ( j ) = m

20

1 m = 1, G (s ) = s

2
0

10

G (1) dB = 0
Pha ase (deg)
1 2

-20

Magn nitude (dB)

-40

-10

-60

-20

-30

dB m 20 dec
10
0

-80

-100

-40 -1 10

10

10

-120 -1 10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

143

General Transfer Function: Real poles/zeros


G( j ) = ( j + 1)
Magnitude and Phase:
n

G ( j) dB = n 10 log( 2 2 + 1) G ( j ) = n tan 1 ( )
Asymptotic behavior:

0 G ( j ) dB <<1 / G ( j ) dB n >>1 / + n 20 log dB

o G ( j ) 0 <<1 / o G ( j ) n 90 >>1 /

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

144

General Transfer Function: Real poles/zeros


10 5 0

n = 1, = 1 / 10
n 3dB dB n 20 dec

Magnitude (d dB)

-5 -10 10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -1 10

G (s ) =

1 s +1 10

G ( j 0) dB = 0dB G ( j1 / ) dB = n 3dB
10
0

10

10

10

G () dB = sgn(n)dB

Frequency q y( (rad/sec) )

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

145

General Transfer Function: Real poles/zeros


10 0 -10 -20

n = 1, = 1 / 10 G (s ) = 1 s +1 10

Phase (deg) P )

-30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -1 10 10


0

n 45o

G ( j 0) = 0o G ( j1 / ) = n 45o
10
1

10

10

G ( j) = n 90o

Frequency (rad/sec)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

146

General Transfer Function: Complex poles/zeros


j j G( j ) = + 2 + 1 n n
2 q

Magnitude and Phase:

Asymptotic behavior:

2 2 2 G( j ) dB = q 10 log 2 1 2 + n n 1 2 / n G( j ) = q tan 1 2 / 2 n

G ( j ) dB 0 <<
n

o G ( j ) 0 <<
n

G ( j ) dB 2q n dB + q 40 log g >>
n

o G ( j ) q 180 >>
n

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

147

General Transfer Function: Complex poles/zeros


20 0 -20 Magnitude ( (dB) -40 40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -1 10
MAX

q 2

q = 1, n = 1, = 0.05
dB

dB q 40 dec

1 G (s ) = 2 s + 0.1s + 1

G ( jn ) dB = q (3dB + G ( j) dB = sgn( (q )dB


10
0

G ( j 0) dB = 0dB

dB

10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

G ( j ) dB = G ( jr ) dB = q 2 1 2
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

dB

= r =

n 1 2
148

General Transfer Function: Complex poles/zeros


20 0 -20 -40

q = 1, n = 1, = 0.05 1 G (s ) = 2 s + 0.1s + 1
G ( j 0) = 0o G ( j1 / ) = q 90o G ( j) = q 180o

Phase (deg) P )

-60 60 -80 -100 -120 -140 -160 -180 -200 -2 10 10


-1

q 90o

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

149

Frequency Response
Example:

2000(s + 0.5) G (s ) = s ( s + 10)( s + 50)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

150

Frequency Response: Poles/Zeros in the RHP


Same G ( j ) . The effect on G ( j ) is opposite than the stable case. An unstable pole behaves like a stable zero pole An unstable zero behaves like a stable p

Example: p

1 G (s ) = s2

This frequency response cannot be found experimentally but can be computed and used for control design.

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

151

First order LOW PASS


K T ( s) = s + K T ( j ) = j +

Gain and Phase:


T ( j ) = K

( ) = K tan t 1 ( / )
0 K = o 180
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

2 + 2

K >0 K <0
152

First order LOW PASS


T ( j ) = K

( ) = K tan 1 ( / )
T ( 0) = K

2 + 2

K T ( 0) T ( j ) = = = c = 2 2 2 2 + K

, T ( ) = 0

Cutoff frequency

T ( j ) <<
T ( j ) >>

= c =

Cutoff frequency

Bandwith
153

B = c
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

First order LOW PASS


T ( j ) = K

( ) = K tan 1 ( / )
(0) = K ( ) = K tan 1 (1) = K 45o

2 + 2

( ) K <<
o ( ) K 90 >>

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

154

First Order HIGH PASS


Ks T ( s) = s + Kj T ( j ) = j +

Gain and Phase:


T ( j ) = K

( ) = K + 90o tan t 1 ( / )
0 K = o 180
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

2 + 2

K >0 K <0
155

First order HIGH PASS


T ( j ) = K

( ) = K + 90o tan 1 ( / )
T (0) = 0, T () = K

2 + 2

K T ( ) = = c = T ( j ) = 2 2 2 2 + T ( j ) K / << T ( j ) K >>
K

Cutoff frequency

= K = c = Cutoff frequency

B=
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bandwith
156

First order HIGH PASS


T ( j ) = K

( ) = K + 90o tan 1 ( / ) (0) = K + 90o ( ) = K + 90o tan 1 (1) = K + 45o


o ( ) K + 90 << o 1 ( ) K + 90 tan ( ) >>

2 + 2

= K

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

157

First Order BANDPASS


K1s K 2 T ( s ) = T1 ( s ) T2 ( s ) = s + s + 1 2 K1 j K 2 T ( j ) = j + j + 1 2

T ( j ) << <<
1 2

K1 K 2

K1 K 2 T ( j ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 1 2
K1 K 2

1 2
K1 K 2

T ( j ) << <<
1 2

1 2
K1 K 2

K1 K 2

= cH = 1

2
K1 K 2

T ( j ) << <<
1 2

K1 K 2

= cL = 2
158

B = cL cH = 2 2 Passband

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

First Order BANDSTOP


K1 K 2 + T ( j ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 1 2 K2 T ( j ) << <<
2 1

T ( j ) K1 << <<
2 1

K2

2
T ( j ) <
2

= K1

K2

K1

K2

T ( j ) <
1

K1

1 K 2
K1

= 1 2
Bandstop
159

B = 1 2

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Second Order BANDPASS

T (s) =

Ks
2 s 2 + 2o s + o

T ( j ) =

Kj 2 2 + 2o j + o

o : :

N t Natural lF Frequency Damping Ratio


160

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Second Order BANDPASS


Kj T ( j ) = T (s) = 2 2 2 2 + 2o j + o s + 2o s + o Ks
K
2 o

T ( j ) = <<
o

= T ( j ) >>
o

2 o

= o

T ( j ) =

K / o K / o T ( j ) = =o MAX 2 o 2 + j o
161

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Second Order BANDPASS


K / o K / o T ( j ) = T ( j ) MAX = =o 2 o 2 + j o

T ( j ) o = 2
o

K / o T ( j ) MAX K / o 2 = T ( j ) = = 2 + j 2 2 2

o The roots of = 2 are the cutoff frequencie s! ! ! o

C1 = o + 1 + 2 C 2
o

( = (+ +

1+ 2

) )

2 o = C1C 2 B = C 2 C1 = 2

Center Frequency Bandwith

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

162

Second Order LOWPASS

T (s) =

K s + 2o s +
2 2 o

T ( j ) =

K
2 2 + 2o j + o

o : :

N t Natural lF Frequency Damping Ratio


163

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Second Order LOWPASS


T (s) = K
2 s 2 + 2o s + o

T ( j ) =

K
2 2 + 2o j + o

T ( j ) <<
o

2 o

= T ( 0)
K

= T ( j ) >>
o

2 o

= o

2
K / o T ( 0) T ( jo ) = = 2 2

T ( j ) MAX =

T ( 0) 2 1 2

= MAX = o 1 2
164

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Second Order HIGHPASS

Ks 2 K K 2 T (s) = 2 T ( j ) = 2 2 s + 2o s + o 2 + 2o j + o

o : :

N t Natural lF Frequency Damping Ratio


165

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Second Order HIGHPASS


K 2 T (s) = 2 T ( j ) = 2 2 s + 2o s + o 2 + 2o j + o Ks 2 K 2

T ( j ) <<
o o

2 o

K 2

T ( j ) = K = T () >>

2 o

= K = o

K T ( ) T ( j o ) = = 2 2 T ( j ) MAX = T ( )
2 1
2

= MAX

o = 1 2
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Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response
u (t ) = A cos(t + )

G( s)

yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))
Stable Transfer Function

G ( j ) = G ( j ) e jG ( j )
G ( j ) = Re{G ( j )} + j Im{G ( j )}

BODE plots NYQUIST plots

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167

Frequency Response
G ( j ) = Re{G ( j )} + j Im{G ( j )} = G ( j ) e jG ( j )
How are the Bode and Nyquist plots related?
They are two way to represent the same information

j Im{G ( j )}

G ( j )

G ( j )
Re{G ( j )}

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168

Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) -

C Compute t the th s-domain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R ( ) = T s Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,

L T ( j ) = tan 1 R

Compute the steady state output


v2 SS (t ) = AR R 2 + (L) 2

cos t + tan 1(L / R )

]
169

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response - Bode Plots


Log-log plot of mag(T), log-linear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0

Magn nitude (dB) ) Magnitude M (dB)

-5 5

-10

-15

10 G ( s) = s + 10 R / L = 10

-20

-25 0

Phase e Phas se(deg) (deg)

-45

-90 10
4

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

[ ] = rad / sec, = 2f , [ f ] = Hz
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Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response Nyquist Plots


R R R jL R 2 jRL = T ( j ) = = 2 R + jL R + jL R jL R + 2 L2

R 2 + (L) R2 Re{T ( j )} = 2 , R + 2 L2

T ( j ) =

, 2

L T ( j ) = tan t 1 R
Im{T ( j )} =

RL R 2 + 2 L2

1- 0 : T ( j ) 1, 1 2- : T ( j ) 0, 34-

T ( j ) 0

T ( j ) = 1

T ( j ) 90o

T ( j ) j

R 0 L

Re{T ( j )} = 0 =

Im{T ( j )} = 0 = 0, =
171

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response - Nyquist Plots


Im{G ( j )} vs. Re{G ( j )}

10 G ( s) = s + 10 R / L = 10

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172

Nyquist Diagrams
General procedure for sketching Nyquist Diagrams: Find G(j0) Find G(j) Find Fi d * such h that h Re{ R {G(j*)}=0; } 0 Im{ I {G(j*)} is i the h intersection with the imaginary axis. Find * such that Im{G(j*)}=0; } 0; Re{G(j*)} is the intersection with the real axis. Connect the points

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173

Frequency Response - Nyquist Plots


Example:

1 G(s) = 2 ( ) s s +1
1
2

G ( j ) =

j ( j + 1)

( j )(1 j )2 = 2 + j ( 2 1) 2 2 2 j ( j + 1) ( j )(1 j ) ( 2 + 1)
1

1- 0 : G ( j ) = 2 j 1
1 j 0 2- : G ( j ) 3

34-

Re{G ( j )} = 0 =

Im{G ( j )} = 0 = 1, =

Re{G ( j1)} =

1 2
174

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response - Nyquist Plots


Example:

1 G(s) = 2 ( ) s s +1

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175

Nyquist Plots based on Bode Plots


1 G(s) = 2 s(s + 1)
20 dB dec

60

dB dec

90o 180o 270o = 90o

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

176

Nyquist Stability Criterion


U (s)
+ -

G(s)

Y (s)

When is this transfer function Stable? NYQUIST: The closed loop is asymptotically stable if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point ( 1+j0) that the Nyquist curve of G(j) is equal to the (-1+ number of poles of G(s) with positive real parts (unstable poles) Corollary: If the open-loop system G(s) is stable, then the closed-loop system is also stable provided G(s) makes no encirclement of the point (-1+j0).

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177

Nyquist Stability Criterion


1 G (s) = 4 s + 2 s 3 + 3s 2 + 3 s + 1

G (s) =

1 s 4 + 5 s 3 + 3 s 2 + 3s + 1

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

178

Nyquist Stability Criterion


U (s)
+ -

G(s)
K

Y (s)

When is this transfer function Stable? NYQUIST: The closed loop is asymptotically stable if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point ( 1/K+j0) that the Nyquist curve of G(j) is equal to the (-1/K+ number of poles of G(s) with positive real parts (unstable poles)

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179

Neutral Stability
U (s)
+ -

KG ( s )

Y (s)

1 G (s) = 2 s(s + 1)

Root locus condition:

KG ( s ) = 1, G ( s ) = 180o
At points of neutral stability RL condition hold for s=j

KG ( j ) = 1, G ( j ) = 180o
Stability: At G ( j ) = 180o
KG ( j ) < 1 If K leads to instability KG ( j ) > 1 If K leads to instability
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180

Stability Margins
The GAIN MARGIN (GM) is the factor by which the gain can be raised before instability results.

GM < 1( GM

dB

< 0)

UNSTABLE SYSTEM

GM is equal to 1 / KG ( j ) KG ( j ) dB where G ( j ) = 180o .

at the frequency

The PHASE MARGIN (PM) is the value by which the phase can be raised before instability results.

PM < 0

UNSTABLE SYSTEM

PM is the amount by which the phase of G ( j ) exceeds -180 when KG ( j ) = 1 KG ( j ) dB = 0

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181

Stability Margins
G(s) = 1 2 s (s + 1)
1/GM

PM

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182

Stability Margins
GM

1 G(s) = 2 s(s + 1)

PM

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183

Specifications in the Frequency Domain


1. The crossover frequency c, which determines bandwith BW, rise time tr and settling time ts. 2. The phase margin PM, which determines the damping coefficient and the overshoot Mp. 3. The low-frequency gain, which determines the steady state error characteristics. steady-state characteristics

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184

Specifications in the Frequency Domain


The phase and the magnitude are NOT independent! Bodes Gain-Phase relationship:

dM G ( jo ) = W (u )du du

M = ln G ( j ) W (u ) = ln (coth u / 2 ) u = ln( / o )

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185

Specifications in the Frequency Domain


The crossover frequency:

c BW 2c

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186

Specifications in the Frequency Domain


The Phase Margin: PM vs. Mp

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187

Specifications in the Frequency Domain


The Phase Margin: PM vs.

PM 100

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188

Frequency Response Phase Lead Compensators


Ts + 1 D( s) = , Ts + 1

<1

1 sin MAX = 1 + sin MAX 1 1 1 log MAX = log + log T 2 T

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189

Frequency Response Phase Lead Compensators


1. Determine the open-loop gain K to satisfy error or bandwidth requirements: - To meet error requirement, pick K to satisfy error constants t t (Kp, Kv, Ka) so that th t ess specification ifi ti i is met. t - To meet bandwidth requirement, pick K so that the open-loop crossover frequency is a factor of two below the desired closed-loop bandwidth. bandwidth 2. Determine the needed phase lead based on the PM specification. 3. Pick MAX to be at the crossover frequency. 4. Determine the zero and pole of the compensator. 5. Draw the compensated frequency response and check PM. 6. Iterate on the design
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190

Frequency Response Phase Lag Compensators


Ts + 1 D( s) = , Ts + 1

>1

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191

Frequency Response Phase Lag Compensators


1. Determine the open-loop gain K that will meet the PM requirement without compensation. 2 D 2. Draw the th Bode B d plot l t of f the th uncompensated t d system t with ith crossover frequency from step 1 and evaluate the lowfrequency gain. 3. Determine to meet the low frequency gain error requirement. 4. Choose the corner frequency =1/T (the zero of the compensator) to be one decade below the new crossover frequency q y c. 5. The other corner frequency (the pole of the compensator) is then =1/ T. 6. Iterate on the design
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192