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Kinetic Theory

Kinetic Theory of Molecules : number of particles in box Change in momentum when the particle hits the wall: = = ( 0 )= = ( ) = 2 Newtons Second Law

When a particle hits the wall, it gives an average force of = 2 (1)

on the wall. For many collisions, can be taken as the time it takes the particle to travel away from the wall and back. = 2 = (2) 2 = 2
2

= Substitute (2) into (1):

If there are particles of equal mass , =


2 2 2 2 2 2 1 + 2 + 2 ( 1 + 2 + ) But =

2 2 2

2
2

In 3 D, = =

So 2 = 3 =

(since 2 = + + )

2 = 3

2 3

where = area of the wall

Volume of the wall, = 2 3

2 3

But the gas laws state = or = , where is the number of moles is the universal gas constant = = 2 3 is Boltzmanns constant, 1.38 1023 J/K is the number of molecules
2

= 3

3 = 2

3 1 = 2 = KE ( in Kelvins) 2 2

Conclusion: For ideal gases, KE , where the temperature is measured in Kelvins*. *0C = 273.15 K; at 0 K = 273.15C, particles stop moving Example: Calculate the average kinetic energy of each gas molecule at a) 20C: KE = 1.5 = 1.5(1.38 1023 J/K)(20 + 273 K) = 6.07 1021 J b) 25C: KE = 1.5 = 1.5(1.38 1023 J/K)(25 + 273 K) = 6.17 1021 J Gas Laws = where = number of moles = universal gas constant, 8.315 J/(mol K)

It has been shown that for an ideal gas we get the following relationships: 1. Charles Law: At a constant pressure, .

0 At a specific pressure ,

(K)

1 2 3 = = = constant A 1 2 3

(slope)

2. Boyles Law: At a constant temperature, 1 .

At a specific temperature , 1 1 = 2 2 = 3 3 = constant B 3. Gay-Lussacs Law: At a constant volume, .

0 At a specific volume ,

(K)

1 2 3 = = = constant C 1 2 3 Now, when we use all three relationships,

(slope)

constant A constant B constant C = 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 = = 1 1 1 2 so

(constant)

1 1 = = another constant 1 2 2 2

The same can be done with 2 , 2 , and 2 , giving =

In general,

1 1 2 2 3 3 = = = constant () = (constant) 1 2 3 = (IDEAL GAS LAW) or =

So =

1 mol 8.315 J/mol K = 1.38 1023 J/K = ( ) = 6.02 1023

Example: A car tire is filled to a gauge pressure of 200 kPa at 10C. After driving, the new temperature is 40C. What is the gauge pressure within the tire now? What assumption did you make? Assuming constant , 1 2 = 1 2 where 1 and 2 are the absolute, gauge pressures. (200 + 101.3)kPa 2 = (10 + 273.15)K (40 + 273.15)K

Atmospheric Pressure is 101.3 kPa:

2 =

(301.3 kPa)(313.15 K) = 333.2 kPa 283.15 K

(this is the absolute pressure ie. this includes atmospheric pressure) Gauge Pressure: 333.2 kPa 101.3 kPa 230 kPa (Note: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2)