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DRAFTS IN WIDE CIRCULATION DOCUMENT DESPATCH ADVICE Reference CED 13/T- 101 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: Building Construction Practices

Sectional Committee, CED 13 ADDRESSED TO : 1. All Members of Civil Engineering Division Council, CEDC 2. All Members of CED 13 3. All others interested Dear Sir (s), Please find enclosed the following draft standards: Doc No. CED 13 (7883)WC CED 13 (7884)WC CED 13 (7885)WC CED 13 (7886)WC Title Draft Indian Standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings Part 1: General Methodology For Selection Draft Indian Standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings Part 2: Energy and Light Draft Indian Standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings Part 3: Fire and Loading Draft Indian Standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings Part 4: Safety Related to Human Impact Date 01-03-2013

Kindly examine the drafts and forward your views stating any difficulties which you are likely to experience in your business or profession, if these are finally adopted as National Standards. Last Date for comments : 31 May 2013 Comments if any, may please be made in the format as given overleaf and mailed to the to the undersigned at the above address or emailed to sak@bis.org.in. In case no comments are received or comments received are of editorial nature, you will kindly permit us to presume your approval for the above document as finalized. However, in case of comments of technical in nature are received then it may be finalized either in consultation with the Chairman, Sectional Committee or referred to the Sectional Committee for further necessary action if so desired by the Chairman, Sectional Committee. The document is also hosted on BIS website www.bis.org.in. Thanking you, Yours faithfully,

(D.K. Agrawal) Sc `F & Head (Civil Engg.) Encl: as above


email: ced@bis.org.in

CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

FORMAT FOR SENDING COMMENTS ON THE DOCUMENT


[Please use A4 size sheet of paper and type within fields indicated. Comments on each clause/ subclause/ table/ figure etc, be stated on a fresh row. Information / comments should include reasons for comments, technical references and suggestions for modified wordings of the clause. Please also mention the type of comment (General/ Technical/ Editorial).] Comments through e-mail shall be appreciated. sak.bis@nic.in

Doc. No.:_CED 13 (

)__ BIS Letter Ref: _CED 13/T-101__ Dated: 01.03.2013

Title: Draft Indian Standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings: Part _____________ Name of the Commentator/ Organization: Clause/ SubSl clause/ Para/ Table/ No. Figure No. Commented Comments/ Suggestions/ Modified Wordings Justification of Proposed Change

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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

Draft Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 1: GENERAL METHODOLOGY FOR SELECTION

Doc: CED 13(7883)WC ICS No.: 81.040.20 Building Construction Practices Sectional Committee, CED 13
FOREWORD
Formal clause will be included later Glazing is an important item in building construction and glass, the primary glazing element has to be selected to cater to several requirements. Fixing of glass a specialized operation, when properly done, will avoid the hazards of broken glass. Growing trend in resorting to glazed windows/doors in buildings and structures has considerably increased the importance of glazing and the need for proper workmanship. This standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings is envisaged to address the above and their engineering aspects, and is brought out as various parts namely: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: General Methodology for Selection Energy and Light Fire and Loading Safety Related to Human Impact

Last Date for Comments 31 May 2013

This standard (Part 1) is intended to provide guidance in the selection of appropriate glazing for various types for building construction. Standard specifications of various types of glass are not covered in this standard, for which respective Indian Standards as mentioned/available may be referred to. Correct selection of materials to be used in glazing for buildings depends on many factors. Therefore, provisions in this part of the standard should be used in conjunction with those in other parts. This standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application. Attention may be drawn to the National Building Code of India 2005, SP 7:2005 and the applicable statutory regulations in states/U.T.s including their development control rules and general building requirements that are in force. Use of organic coated films including safety films on glass (say annealed) shall not classify the glass as safety glass as per this standard, and hence users should exercise caution in choosing their options. This standard (along with the other parts) proposes to withdraw the existing standard, IS 3548:1988 Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings (First Revision), in view of the comprehensive provisions proposed herein. However, the contents of the same shall be included in this standard as an informative annex. In the formulation of this standard, inputs were derived from AS 1288:2006 'Glass in Building - Selection and Installation' and 'Use of Glass in Buildings' - CSIR publication. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values (Revised). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be same as that of the specified value in this standard.
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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

Draft Indian Standard (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 1: GENERAL METHODOLOGY FOR SELECTION Doc: CED 13(7883)WC 1 SCOPE This standard covers the selection and application of glass in buildings, different types of glass, their requirements and associated glazing materials. This Standard does not cover the following: Glazing systems including Frameless glazing system Patent glazing 2 REFERENCES The Indian standards listed in Annex A contain provision which through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision and parties to agreement based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated therein. 3 APPLICATION The type of glass chosen shall satisfy the following criteria: Glazing thickness calculation subjected to wind load is calculated in accordance to Part 3 of this standard and shall satisfy requirements for human impact safety as per Part 4 of this standard. Installation of Glass to the building is done in accordance with the provisions available in this standard and in the absence of any specific provisions, as per manufacturer's guidance. For a given application, the type and thickness of glass selected shall be in accordance with the requirements provided herein. Optical, solar, thermal performance of glazing (clear/tinted/coated reflective glass) shall be as per the requirements
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in Part 2 of this standard or as per the provision hereunder. 4 Terminology For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS 14900 and IS 2553 (Part 1) shall be applicable in addition to the following: 4.1 Annealed Glass (see Glass) Also known as "normal" glass, most commonly used for flat glass, i.e., glass not subjected to toughening, lamination and heat strengthening. 4.2 As-cut Finished Sizes Finished panes of flat glass cut from stock/standard sizes. They may be subject to further processing, such as edge working drilling, face decoration, etc. 4.3 Aspect Ratio The ratio of a longer side of glass pane to its shorter side. 4.4 Beads or Glazing Beads A strip of wood, metal or other suitable material attached to the rebate to retain the glass in position in the frame. 4.5 Clear Glass Transparent glass with neutral/near colourless appearance. 4.6 Coated Glass Glass with metallic or metallic oxide coating applied onto the glass surface to provide reduction of solar radiant energy, conductive heat energy and visible light transmission. 4.7 Coefficient of Linear Expansion Expressed as the strain (change in length per unit length) per unit variation of temperature of a material. 4.8 Double Glazing Glazing that incorporates two panes of glass, separated with air or an inert gas space, for the purpose of sound and/or thermal insulation.

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4.9 Facade Front or face of the building which is part of framed or frameless system. 4.10 Faceted Glazing Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other to form a faceted curve. 4.11 Fenestration All area (including frame) in the building envelope that let in light, including window, plastic panels, clerestories, skylight, glass doors that are more than onehalf the floor height, and glass block walls. 4.12 Flat Glass A general term covering sheet glass, float glass and various forms of rolled and plate glass in which shape of the glass is flat. 4.13 Float Glass A type of flat glass produced by floating molten glass on a bath of molten tin to form continuous ribbon of glass. 4.14 Frame An element made of timber/ metal/ aluminum or other durable material/ combinations of materials such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge. 4.15 Frameless Glazing Unframed glazing which maintains the integrity through pointed support structures. 4.16 Front Putty The compound forming a triangular fillet between the surface of the glass and the front edge of the rebate. 4.17 Fully Framed Glazing Glass panels that have all four edges framed. 4.18 Glass An inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. It is typically hard and brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture. It may be colourless or tinted and transparent to opaque. The term Glass refers to monolithic glass unless specified otherwise. 4.19 Glazing The (act of) securing of glass or plastic glazing sheet material into a building in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions. 4.20 Heat Strengthened Glass Glass which has been heated past its softening point and chilled at intermittent speed of annealing and tempering to increase its strength and make it
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thermally safe, but which breaks like annealed glass. 4.21 Hermetically Sealed Completely sealed, (especially against the escape or entry of air) which is impervious to outside interference or influence. 4.22 Infill Balustrades Balustrades in which the supported glass resists an infill pressure and / or point load applied to the glass panel. 4.23 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) An assembly consisting of at least two panes of glass, separated by one or more spaces, hermetically sealed along the periphery, mechanically stable and durable. 4.24 Interlayer The transparent damping material used in laminated glass, usually PVB. 4.25 Laminated Sheet Safety Glass Two or more pieces of glass held together by an interleaving layer or layers of plastic material. 4.26 Maximum Thickness The thickness of a panel of glass at the maximum thickness tolerance. 4.27 Minimum Thickness The thickness of a panel of glass at the minimum thickness tolerance. 4.28 Modulus of Elasticity (Youngs modulus) This modulus expresses the tensile force that would theoretically have to be applied to a glass sample to stretch it by an amount equal to its original length. It is expressed as a force per unit area. For glass, E is about 0.7 x 105 N/mm2 = 70 GPa. 4.29 Monolithic Glass A single sheet of flat glass which could be either annealed, toughened or heat strengthened. 4.30 Nominal Thickness A numeric designation that indicates the approximate thickness of glass. 4.31 Pane Single piece of glass or plastic glazing sheet material in a finished size ready for glazing. 4.32 Patterned Glass Rolled glass having a distinct pattern on one or both surfaces.

CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

4.33 Rebate The part of a surround; the cross section of which forms an angle into which the edge of the glass is received. 4.34 Reflective Silver Coating Faults Faults in the reflective silver layer which will alter the appearance of the silvered glass. They consist of scratches, stains, colour spots and edge deteriorations. 4.35 Sheet Glass Transparent, flat glass having glossy, fire-finished, apparently plane and smooth surfaces, but having a characteristic waviness of surface. 4.36 Skylight A fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60 from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on roof of a building is considered as vertical fenestration. 4.37 Stock/Standard Sizes Panes of flat glass such as coated, mirror, enameled glass, etc, supplied with as-cut edges which are intended for further processing. These are generally corresponded with manufacturers production size. 4.38 Tempered or Toughened Glass When flat glass within which a permanent surface compressive stress has be induced by a controlled heating and cooling (quenching) process in order to give it greatly increased resistance to mechanical and thermal stress and prescribed fragmentation characteristics. 4.39 Through Component/Connection Internal spacer or fixing that either penetrates through the doorset or openable window from one face to another or directly connects the faces one to the other. 4.40 Tinted Glass (also referred as Body Tinted Glass) Normal flat glass to which colorants are added during manufacturing process to achieve tinting and solar radiation absorption properties. 4.41 Toughened Sheet Safety (Tempered) Glass A single piece of specially heattreated or chemically treated glass, with a stress pattern such that the piece when fractured reduces to numerous granular fragments, with no large jagged edges. 4.42 Transom Horizontal crossbar across the top of a window or the top of a glass door.
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4.43 U Value It is the heat transfer coefficient due to temperature differential between outdoor and indoor. It is expressed in watts of energy transferred per square meter per degree Celsius or degree Kelvin. 4.44 Unframed glazing Panels with one or more edges unframed. 4.45 Vertical Fenestration All fenestration other than skylights. Trombe wall assemblies, where glazing is installed within 300 mm of a mass wall are considered walls and not fenestration. 5 SELECTION 5.1 Right from the initial project evaluation stage, a suitable methodology that incorporates the implications of use of glass materials and their influence on performance of the building shall have to be looked into. A typical flowchart outlining such a methodology is provided for the users of this standard. (see Fig. 1) It is assumed that: a) the location of area to be glazed, preliminary size/shape have been decided as part of normal building design process. b) the designer has gained information on glass/and plastic glazing sheet materials used in similar circumstances. c) the designer is cognizant of implications of any innovation in design. 5.2 Design requirement including aesthetic considerations and client specified requirements such as security and maintenance to be considered. 5.3 Effect of design on cost such as initial cost of glazing (specification of glass/plastic sheeting material; glazing method; access for initial glazing; work schedule; protection during construction); effect of glass/plastic sheeting material on capital/running cost related to building heating/cooling, lighting and ventilation; and maintenance cost of glazed areas (access for cleaning and reglazing) should be considered. 5.4 In the selection of glazing, use of expensive glass should be assessed against the

CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

possibility of reduced fuel/power consumption and lower running costs. Also, the comparative cost of glazing materials should be considered together with their life expectancy and probability of need for maintenance. 6 TYPES OF GLASS 6.1 The soda lime silicate glass is classified based on the type of internal stress which determines the strength of the glazing towards breakage, design and installation procedure and based on application. Table 1 gives the typical properties of various types of glass. 6.2 Normal (Annealed) Glass For requirements including tests on nominal thickness of annealed (flat) glass, see Table 1 of IS 2835. Flat transparent sheet glass shall conform to the following classes as specified in IS 2835 namely; A quality or Selected Quality (SQ), B quality or Ordinary Quality (OQ) and C Quality or Greenhouse Quality

(GQ). Transparent float glass shall be as per IS 14900. A transparent flat glass is designated as clear glass when it is not tinted and when its light transmittance after any necessary pretreatments is greater than the value prescribed in Table 2 for the nominal thickness. 6.3 Laminated Glass 6.3.1 Laminated glass made of an interlayer, is a type of safety glass which will crack and break under sufficient impact, but the pieces of glass tend to adhere to the interlayer and do not fly. If a hole is made on them, the edges are likely to be less jagged than would be the case with annealed glass. When laminated glass is broken, fragments tend to adhere to the interlayer [PVB] thereby reducing the risk of injury and helping to resist further damage by weather. For requirements of laminated safety glass, IS 2553 (Part 1) may be referred.

Identify the location of glazed areas - their shape, size, cost, etc

Feedback consideration from past projects and other related information

Detailed review of constraints

Make preliminary selection of glazing system

Design requirements consideration [such as natural lighting (glare, fading, privacy); thermal consideration (solar transmission, thermal insulation, heat absorption); wind loading; safety; security; fire; sound; durability; maintenance] Arrive at a compatible requirement Confirm preliminary selection or perform required modifications before re-reviewing

Finalize the design

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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

FIG. 1 TYPICAL SEQUENCE OF DESIGN EVALUATION FOR GLAZED AREAS TABLE 1 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF GLASS Properties Tensile Strength Thickness Density (approximate) Modulus of Elasticity Coefficient of Linear Expansion Compressive Strength Annealed Glass 40 N/mm2 As per IS 2835 Laminated Glass 40 N/ mm2 3.5 19 mm 2400 - 2550 kg//m3 70 GPa 9 x10 -6 m/m K 1000 N/mm2 Tempered or Toughened Glass 120 to 200 N/ mm2 2 19 mm

TABLE 2 MINIMUM LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE VALUE DESIGNATING A TRANSPARENT GLASS AS CLEAR GLASS Nominal Thickness (mm) Minimum value of light transmittance (%) 2 89 3 88 4 87 5 86 6 8 10 12 79 15 76 19 72 25 67

85 83 81

6.3.2 Laminated glass does not shatter like ordinary glass. It absorbs impact, resists penetration, and remains intact even if broken, holding glass fragments in place and lowering the risk of injury. Laminated glass is capable to stop flying debris and limit or avoid splintering on opposite side of the impact. When exposed to heat from solar radiation resulting in unequal temperature in the pane, laminated glass breaks but stays in place longer. The risk of thermal breakage is avoided only when heat strengthened/ tempered laminated glass is used. 6.4 Toughened or Tempered Glass 6.4.1 Toughened glass is a type of safety glass which is heat treated to a uniform temperature of approximately 650C and rapidly cooled to induce compressive stresses of 770 kg/cm2 to 1462 kg/cm2 on the surfaces and edge compression of the order of 680 kg/cm2. For requirements of toughened safety glass, IS 2553 (Part 1) may be referred. 6.4.2 Toughened glass gains its added strength from the compressed surfaces. However, if a deep scratch or an impact penetrates the surface, the glass will break into a number of small particles. Any attempt to cut, drill, grind or sand blast the glass after toughening may
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result in glass breakage. The heat treatment process does not change the light transmission and solar radiant heat properties of the glass. 6.4.3 Toughened glass provides greater thermal strength. It offers increased resistance to both sudden temperature changes and temperature differentials up to 250C compared with normal glass, which can withstand temperature differentials up to 40C only. Toughened Glass is difficult to break and during breakage it will break into small, relatively harmless fragments. This substantially reduces the likelihood of injury to people, as there are no jagged edges or sharp corners like in normal glass.

NOTES: 1 The process of toughening is used to increase the strength of glass and to produce fracture characteristics that are desirable in many situations. However, the process of toughening can also lead to an increased risk of spontaneous glass fracture (associated with material impurities). Accordingly, the possibility of spontaneous fracture should be taken into account when toughened glass is used. 2 Heat soaking may minimize the risk of nickelsulphide-induced spontaneous fracture in toughened glass. Glass manufacturers may be

CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

consulted for advice relating to anticipated nickel sulphide minimization.

that the coating of metal oxides on the glass can be achieved without adversely affecting the transparency of the glass.

6.5 Heat-Strengthened Glass Heat strengthened glass is a type of tempered glass which has been strengthened thermally by inducing a surface compression of about 422 to 658 kg/cm2 as compared to a range of 770 to 1462 kg/cm2 in case of fully tempered glass. Heat strengthened glass is valued for its mechanical strength, which is twice that of normal annealed glass though half of toughened glass. With the exception of strength and thermal resistance characteristics, heat-strengthened glass retains the normal properties of annealed glass. Heatstrengthened glass provides necessary resistance to thermal stress associated with high performance glazing materials such as tinted glass and reflective glass. It also provides necessary resistance to heat building up when used as spandrel glass. Heatstrengthened glass with its flatter surface also results in the facade having less optical distortions. Heat-strengthened glass shall have a surface compression of 24 69 MPa.
NOTE: Heat strengthening associated with relatively high residual stresses 52.0 MPa can lead to an increased risk of spontaneous glass fracture (associated with material impurities).

6.7 Insulating Glass Unit Insulating glass unit, a prefabricated one having an edge seal that not only binds the individual sheets of glass together to maintain the mechanical strength of the joint but also protects the cavity between the glasses from outside influences. The moisture in the cavity between the two glasses is controlled by desiccants filled in the perforated spacer. The spacer can be aluminum, composites, plastics, etc. The spacer ensures the precise distance between the glass panes. The cavity is normally filled with dry air but can be also filled with gases such as Argon or Krypton for better thermal performance. The low heat conductivity of the enclosed dry gas between the glass panes drastically reduces the thermal heat transmission through the glass to 2.8 W/m2K (12 mm spacer between two 6 mm glass) as compared to 5.73 W/m2K for normal 6 mm glass. It also helps is reducing the direct solar energy specifically when the outer pane is a solar control glass. 6.8 Wired glass The general requirements including thickness, dimensional tolerance and tests for wired glass as specified in IS 5437 are valid. 7 APPLICATIONS Glass can be designed/suited to use in building occupancies such as in residential, assembly and mercantile in elements such as faades, windows, doors, partitions, display units, shop fronts, greenhouses (where plants are grown), atrium. Different types of glass are selected based on requirements. For safety against accidental breakage and strength requirement (mechanical and thermal), toughened glass or laminated glass may be considered over annealed glass. For increased high security requirements, acoustic insulation, sloped glazing and skylights, laminated glass may be considered. 8 ASSOCIATED GLAZING MATERIALS

6.6 Reflective Glass A metallic coating is applied to one side of the glass in order to significantly increase the amount of reflection by the glass of both the visible and infra-red (light and heat) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. This metallic coating can be applied to clear or body tinted glass. The reflective glass imparts an enhanced appearance to the exterior of buildings due to the coating of metal oxides on the glass, they are widely applied as an aesthetic and energy efficient product in buildings for its highly reflective surface and its wide palette of colours. It reduces heat gain and glare from the exterior and allows optimum visible light transmission to the interior. If designed/used properly reflective glass can aid in reducing the air-conditioning load of the buildings. An exceptional property of solar reflective glass is
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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

8.1 Structural sealant The structural sealant could be of silicone type with requirements meeting the design criteria. Structural sealant shall be shelf-stable, naturalcured, elastomeric adhesive exhibiting the desired adhesion to building substrates. The structural sealant may require cleaning and or priming to get good adhesion for structural glazing application. 8.2 Gaskets

Gasket is a mechanical seal that fills the space between two mating surfaces, to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects and will be able to deform while under compression and tightly fills the space it is designed for, including any slight irregularities. 8.3 Preformed tape Typical requirement of Preformed butyl and foam tapes shall be as given in Table 3.

TABLE 3 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF PREFORMED TAPES

Sl No 1 2 3

Properties Low temp flex Weight loss Vehicle Migration

Requirements No cracks at 23 C 2 percent, max 1 paper stained maximum and this stain can be no more than 3.2 mm from edge of sample maximum No transfer of tape compound to the paper 41.4 kPa, min compression index, 122 N/cm2, max. weight gain maximum after boiling, 0.04 g/cm3 Loss of Height, 60 percent max

4 5 6 7 8

Backing Removal Yield Strength Compression/Recovery Water Absorption Flow Test

8.4 Setting blocks, location blocks and distance pieces Setting blocks, location blocks, and distance pieces shall be designed in accordance with Part 3 of this standard which are (a) Resilient, load-bearing, nonabsorbent and rot-proof materials; and (b) Compatible with all other materials that may come in contact with them. 9 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 9.1 Glazing and associated materials used for the proper installation shall satisfy the minimum dimensional and framing requirements in accordance with the procedures given in this standard. The dimensional and thickness tolerance of the glass used in exterior and interior is determined from the provisions given hereunder. 9.2 Dimensional Requirement
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9.2.1 The dimensions for edge clearance, edge cover, and front and back clearance, as defined in Fig. 2, shall be not less than the values given in Table 4. 9.2.2 Front putty width - The front putty width shall be not less than 10 mm for panels up to 1 m2, and not less than 12 mm for panels between 1 m2 and 2 m2. 9.2.3 Dimensions of rebates and grooves (width and depth) - Dimensions of rebates and grooves shall accommodate the requirement of Table 4 and allow for the appropriate setting and location blocks as in figures 10 to 12 of Part 3 of this standard. 9.2.4 Glass dimensional tolerance - The tolerance for dimensions shall be as per the respective specification standards given in Annex A.

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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

FIG. 2 SIZES AND REBATES TABLE 4 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR GLAZING MATERIAL Front & Back Clearance Type Type Type (a) (b) (c) Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 mm mm mm 2 -

Nominal Thickness

mm 3 mm pane area upto 0.1 m2

Edge Clearance mm 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 10 10

Edge Cover mm 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 10 12 15

Rebate Depth mm 6 9 9 8 9 10 10 13 13 15 18 22 15

For pane area > 0.1 m2 2 3 2 1 4 2 4 2 1 5 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 8 3 2 10 3 2 12 3 2 15 5 4 19 5 4 25 5 4 NOTE: 1 Type (a) applies to linseed oil and metal casement putties.
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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013

2 3 4 5 6

Type (b) applies to non-setting glazing compounds, plastic glazing compounds, two-part rubberizing compounds, sealants and preformed strip materials. Type (c) applies to gaskets made from extruded materials such as butyl strip, PVC, neoprene and sanoprene held in position by pressure upon the glass. For non-standard glass thicknesses the nearest values of nominal thickness, shall be used. Timber and PVC frames may not require the specified front and back clearances provided the waterproofing performance requirements are met. The dimensions are the minimum necessary for the structural integrity of glass only but do not apply to Insulating Glass Units.

10 FRAME REQUIREMENTS 10.1 When completely assembled and glazed, the secondary design action effects due to deflection of the frame member supporting the edge of the glass shall be allowed for. 10.2 Deflection limits The following frame deflection limits under serviceability loading shall satisfy the following conditions: Single glazing = Span/125 Double glazing = Span/175 10.3 Panels structure glazed into the building

10.4 Mixed framing Glass supported along the top and bottom edges by one means and along the vertical edges by another means shall be considered to be framed provided each frame member of the assembly complies with the deflection requirements of Clause 10.2. 11 GLASS DIMENSIONS 11.1 The actual thickness for exterior and interior glass use shall be measured using screw caliper (e.g. as per 5.1 of IS 2835). The actual thickness of glass, rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm shall not vary from the nominal thickness by more than the tolerances specified in respective Indian Standard Specifications or provided in this standard (unless Indian Standard Specification are developed). Laminated Glass made of two float glass panes conforming to 5.3 of IS 14900 shall have the thickness tolerance as in Table 5.

A panel glazed directly into a building structure by means of appropriate beads or stops shall be considered to be framed, provided the assembly complies with the deflection requirements of 10.2.

Table 5 Minimum Thickness for laminated glass Laminate Glass Minimum Thickness mm mm 5 5 6 6 8 8 10 9.8 12 11.6 16 15.4 20 19.4 24 23.4

11.2 Length and width are defined with reference to the direction of draw of the flat glass ribbon.

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CED 13(7883)WC February 2013 H- Length B- Width 1- Direction of draw

FIG. 3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH, WIDTH AND DIRECTION OF DRAW

11.3 Jumbo sizes: Glass is available commonly in the following sizes of nominal length, H, 4500 mm to 6000 mm and nominal width, B, 3660 mm or 3210 mm.
NOTE - The usual width is 3660 mm or 3210 mm. Other sizes may be mutually agreed between the manufacturer and user based on their requirement.

11.6 Squareness The nominal dimensions for length H, and width B, be given , the pane shall not be larger than a prescribed rectangle resulting from the nominal dimensions increased by the permissible plus tolerance or smaller than a prescribed rectangle reduced by the permissible minus tolerance. The sides of the prescribed rectangles (Fig. 4) shall be parallel to one another and these rectangles shall have a common centre. For stock/standard sizes the tolerances on nominal dimensions length, H, and width, B, are 5 mm.

11.4 Stock Size: Glass is available commonly in the following sizes nominal length, H, 2250 mm or 2440 mm and nominal width, B, 3660 mm or 3210 mm. 11.5 Split Sizes: Glass is delivered in equal or unequal split sizes from the jumbo or stock size.

FIG. 4 DETERMINATION OF LENGTH, WIDTH AND SQUARENESS FOR STOCK / SQUARENESS

11.7 As-Cut Finished Size The nominal dimension for width and length being given, the finished pane or as-cut finished size shall not be greater than the prescribed rectangle from the nominal dimension increased by the tolerance t or smaller than the prescribed rectangle reduced by the tolerance t. The sides of the prescribed rectangles are parallel to one another and these shall have a common centre in accordance to figure 5. The limits of the squareness are also mentioned. Tolerances are given in table 6.

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FIG. 5 TOLERANCE FOR WIDTH B & LENGTH H TABLE 6 TOLERANCE ON WIDTH B AND LENGTH H Tolerance 't' nominal glass thickness Nominal glass d<=12mm thicknes>12mm +/- 2.5mm +/- 3.0mm +/- 3.0mm +/- 4.0mm +/- 4.0mm +/- 4.0mm

Nomimal dimension < / = 2000 mm 2000 < B or H < / = 3000 mm > 3000 mm

ANNEX A REFERENCE
IS NO. 2553 Part 1 : 1990 2835 : 1987 5437 : 1994 14900 : 2000 TITLE Safety Glass - Specification Part 1 : General Purpose (Third revision) Flat transparent sheet glass (Third revision) Figured rolled and wired glass (First revision) Transparent Float Glass Specification

ANNEX B INFORMATIVE ANNEX


IS 3548:1988 Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings (First Revision) - is proposed to be reproduced here in this Annex during printing and will be withdrawn once this standard is published .

CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

Draft Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 2: ENERGY & LIGHT

Doc: CED 13(7884)WC ICS No.: 81.040.20 Building Construction Practices Sectional Committee, CED 13
FOREWORD

Last Date for Comments 31 May 2013

Formal clause will be included later


Glazing is an important item in building construction and glass, the primary glazing element has to be selected to cater to several requirements. Fixing of glass a specialized operation, when properly done, will avoid the hazards of broken glass. Growing trend in resorting to glazed windows/doors in buildings and structures has considerably increased the importance of glazing and the need for proper workmanship. This standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings is envisaged to address the above and their engineering aspects, and is brought out as various parts namely: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: General Methodology for Selection Energy and Light Fire and Loading Safety Related to Human Impact

This standard (Part 2) is intended to provide guidance on the energy and light aspects while choosing glazing in building construction. Standard specifications of various types of glass are not covered in this standard, for which respective Indian Standards as mentioned in this draft may be referred to. Standard specifications of various types of glass are not covered in this standard, for which respective Indian Standards as mentioned/available may be referred to. Correct selection of materials to be used in glazing for buildings depends on many factors. Therefore, provisions in this part of the standard should be used in conjunction with those in other parts. This standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application. Attention may be drawn to the National Building Code of India 2005, SP 7:2005 and the applicable statutory regulations in states/U.T.s including their development control rules and general building requirements that are in force. Use of organic coated films including safety films on glass (say annealed) shall not classify the glass as safety glass as per this standard, and hence users should exercise caution in choosing their options. This standard (along with the parts) proposes to withdraw the existing standard, IS 3548:1988 Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings (First Revision), in view of the comprehensive provisions

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

proposed herein. However, the contents of the same shall be included in Part 1 of this standard as an informative annex. In the formulation of this standard, inputs were derived from: ISO 9050:2003 Glass in building Determination of light transmittance, solar direct transmittance, total solar energy transmittance, ultraviolet transmittance and related glazing factors ISO 9845 (Part 1): 1992 Solar energy -- Reference solar spectral irradiance at the ground at different receiving conditions Part 1: Direct normal and hemispherical solar irradiance for air mass 1,5 This standard (along with the other parts) proposes to withdraw the existing standard, IS 3548:1988 Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings (First Revision), in view of the comprehensive provisions proposed therein. However, the same will be included in Part 1 of this standard as an informative annex. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values (Revised). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

Draft Indian Standard (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard) CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS PART 2: ENERGY & LIGHT Doc: CED 13(7884)WC

1 SCOPE This standard covers guiding provision for glazing in buildings with respect to their effect on energy, visual (light) and solar environments in the building. This Standard does not cover the following: Glazing systems including Frameless glazing system Patent glazing 2 REFERENCES The Indian standards listed in Annex A contain provision which through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subjected to revision and parties to agreement based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated therein. 3 APPLICATION The characteristic performances expected of glazing in buildings are: spectral transmittance, external and internal spectral reflectance light transmittance, external and internal light reflectance solar direct transmittance and reflectance UV transmittance better U value 4 TERMINOLOGY For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS 14900 and IS 2553 (Part 1) shall be applicable in addition to the following definitions: 4.1 Coupled Glazing (also known as secondary glazing) Two panes of glazing
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spaced apart in an opening, either in the frame or glazed separately, to form an unsealed cavity. 4.2 Double Glazing Glazing that incorporates two panes of glass, separated with an air or inert gas space, for the purpose of sound and/or thermal insulation. 4.3 Edge Deterioration Discoloration of the reflective coating at the edge of the silvered glass. 4.4 Edge Faults Faults that affect the as-cut edge of the glass. They can include entrant/emergent faults, shelling, corners on/off and vents. 4.5 Edge Polished Usually applied to flat glass, the edges of which have been polished after cutting. 4.6 Facade Front or face of the building which is part of framed or frameless glazing system. 4.7 Fenestration All area (including frame) in the building envelope that let in light, including window, plastic panels, clerestories, skylight, glass block walls and glass doors that are more than one-half the floor height. 4.8 Flat Glass A general term covering sheet glass, float glass and various forms of rolled and plate glass in which shape of the glass is flat. 4.9 Float Glass A type of flat glass produced by floating molten glass on a bath of molten tin to form continuous ribbon of glass. 4.10 Glass An inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. It is typically hard and brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture. It may be colourless or tinted and transparent to opaque.

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4.11 Glass Appearance Faults Faults such as spot and/or linear and/or enlarged area faults which alter the visual quality of glass. 4.12 Glazing The (act of) securing of glass or plastic glazing sheet material into a building. in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions. 4.13 Hairline Scratches Very fine circular scratches that can hardly be seen and are associated with glass cleaning techniques. 4.14 Halo Distortion zone around a spot fault. 4.15 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) An assembly consisting of at least two panes of glass, separated by one or more spaces, hermetically sealed along the periphery, mechanically stable and durable. 4.16 Interlayer The transparent damping material used in laminated glass, usually PVB. 4.17 Laminated Sheet Safety Glass Two or more pieces of glass held together by an interleaving layer or layers of plastic material. 4.18 Light Transmission It is the measure of light passing through a transparent or a translucent material. 4.19 Light Transmittance It is the measure of percent of visible light transmitted through glass pane which depends on type of body substrate and coating done on glass. 4.20 Linear Defects Scratches and extended spot faults on the glass. 4.21 Modulus of Elasticity (Youngs Modulus) This modulus expresses the tensile force that would theoretically have to be applied to a glass sample to stretch it by an amount equal to its original length. For glass, E is 0.7 x 105 N/mm2 = 70 GPa. 4.22 Monolithic Glass A single sheet of flat glass which could be either annealed, toughened or heat strengthened. 4.23 Passive Solar Gain Solar radiation in the form of energy and light which is transmitted through the glazing into the
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building and which can be utilized as a source of energy to reduce the need for artificial lighting. 4.24 Protective Coating(s) Faults Faults where the metallic layer is exposed. They can be scratches or loss of adhesion of the protective coating(s). 4.25 Reflective Coated Glass Reflective coated glass uses the principle of increasing the direct reflection to maximize solar energy attenuation. In comparison with clear glass, its absorption of solar energy is also increased.
Note: In comparison with float glass surface, these reflecting coatings (due to their composition) exhibit lower level of emissivity which improves their U value.

4.26 Reflective Silver Coating Faults Faults in the reflective silver layer which will alter the appearance of the silvered glass. They consist of scratches, stains, colour spots and edge deteriorations. 4.27 Shading Coefficient The ratio of the rate of solar heat gain through a specific unit assembly of glass to the solar heat gain through a single light of 3 mm clear glass in the same environment. 4.28 Solar Energy Absorption The percentage of the solar spectrum energy (ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared) from 300 nm to 2500 nm that is absorbed by a glass product. 4.29 Solar Energy Transmittance (Direct) The percentage of energy in the solar spectrum, ultra-violet, visible, and near infrared energy, 300 nm to 2500 nm nanometers, that is directly transmitted through the glass. 4.30 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) Traction of heat from sun that enters through a window; expressed as a numerical value between 0 and 1. This is commonly refereed as Solar Factor. 4.31 Spot Faults Nuclei (solid or gaseous inclusions), deposits, crush marks etc, in the glass. In certain instances spot faults are

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accompanied by a distortion zone called 'halo'. The nucleus of the spot fault is measurable. 4.32 Stain Alteration of the reflective coating characterized by a more or less brownish, yellowish or grayish coloration of zones which can sometimes cover the whole reflective surface. 4.33 Tinted Glass (also referred as Body Tinted Glass) Normal flat glass to which colorants are added during manufacturing process to achieve tinting and solar radiation absorption properties. 4.34 Thermal Transmittance of Glazing, U Value which characterizes the heat transfer through the central part of the glazing, i.e., without edge effects, and states the steady state density of heat transfer rate per temperature difference between the ambient temperature on either side. The U value is given in watts per square meter Kelvin [W/(m2k)]. 4.35 UV Transmittance The percentage of energy in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, from 300 to 380 nanometers, that is directly transmitted through the glass. 5 ENERGY AND PROPERTIES OF GLASS 5.1 General The energy and thermal properties of glass is defined by light transmission, internal and external reflection, solar heat gain coefficient and U value. The performance requirement for glazing shall be suitably selected. Minimum performance requirement is mentioned in the Annex B. Specific methods of calculating light and energy factors for glass in buildings are covered here and their characteristic data can serve as a basis for light, heating and ventilation calculations of rooms and can permit comparison between different types of glazing. It is applicable to all flat glass material. 5.2 Energy 5.2.1 General
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Glazed areas in buildings should be designed so that account is taken of the overall energy balance in relation to the effects on the thermal comfort of occupants and the total annual energy implications of solar gain and energy loss. These should be examined separately, since factors affecting one aspect of performance might have no effect on the other. Energy gain is due to transmission of solar radiant energy through the glass into the building. Solar energy is all at relatively short wavelengths and is controlled by using the glass to absorb or reflect the energy. Energy loss is due to the transfer of energy by conduction, convection and long wavelength radiation and can be influenced by a number of factors, e.g., incorporating air cavities, including gases of low thermal conductivity and/or low emissivity glass. 5.2.2 Thermal comfort Energy transmission through glazing can significantly influence occupier comfort by raising or lowering room air temperatures. For example, hot sunny weather can give rise to excessive energy gains; and energy losses can occur through the glazing during cold weather or at night. Thermal comfort can also be influenced by direct radiation through the glazing and/or by radiation exchange between the glazing and the occupants. 5.2.3 Solar energy gain Factors that can influence the amount of solar gain through the glazing include: a) orientation; b) glazed area; c) shading devices, both internal and external; d) properties of the glazing. 5.2.4 Total solar energy transmittance 5.2.4.1 Total solar energy transmittance is the proportion of solar radiation at normal incidence transferred through the glazing. It is composed of the direct transmittance (short wave component) and the part of the solar absorptance dissipated inwards by long wave

THERMAL

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

radiation and component).

convection

(long

wave

The total solar energy transmission properties of solar control glazings can be described by their shading coefficients. The shading coefficient is derived by comparing the properties of the solar control glazing with a clear float glass having a total solar energy transmittance of 0.87 (i.e., clear glass between 3 mm and 4 mm thick).
NOTE Total solar energy transmittance is also known as g value.

Solar control properties and colour vary with the thickness of the glass. When used in insulating glass units, body tinted glass should be positioned as the outer pane because the energy due to the absorbed radiation is more easily dissipated to the outside. 5.2.4.2.3 Reflective coated glass Reflective coated glass uses the principle of increasing the direct reflection to maximize solar energy attenuation. In comparison with clear glass, its absorption of solar energy is also increased.
NOTE - Compared with a float glass surface, these reflective coatings (owing to their composition) exhibit lower levels of emissivity which improves their U value.

5.2.4.2 Solar control glass 5.2.4.2.1 Solar control glass can be manufactured in several forms. The function of solar control glass is to reduce the total solar energy transmittance, which usually leads to a decrease in the transmission of the visible part of the solar spectrum. However some tints and coatings are able to attenuate preferentially non-visible solar radiation, leaving the transmission of the greater proportion of the visible radiation largely unchanged. The application of ceramic frit fired into the surface of the glass can also be used to modify the energy and light transmission of the glass. The effect can be varied across a pane depending on the screen print pattern. Manufacturers should be consulted for specific details. The relationship between light transmission and total solar energy transmission is expressed as the light/energy ratio.
Note: Some manufacturers use this as a descriptive code, quoting a light transmission figure followed by a total solar energy transmission figure.

The advantages of such glass types are: a) greater performance range than body tinted glass; b) higher performances (greater solar energy attenuation); c) light/energy ratios nearer to the theoretical limit; d) a range of colour appearances in transmission and reflection.
NOTE - Performance data in comparison to clear glass can be had from manufacturers.

The coatings may be placed on to body-tinted glass to extend the range of performances. 5.2.4.2.4 Laminated glass Laminated glass is commonly constructed with clear glass and clear interlayers, but solar control properties can be incorporated into laminated glass by including either solar control glass or tinted interlayers or both. Laminated glass with clear interlayers and solar control glass exhibits similar properties to the solar control glass from which it is made. Laminated glass with a tinted interlayer acts in a similar manner to body tinted glass, by absorbing the solar radiation, but with a different range of colours and performances.

There is no optimum light/energy ratio. The selection of an appropriate product depends on the requirements of the building. Solar gain may be relatively high - for making use of passive solar gains, or low - to reduce air conditioning loads. Light transmission will depend on the extent to which daylight is used to obviate artificial lighting. 5.2.4.2.2 Body tinted glass (for increased absorption)
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NOTE - Performances of a typical range of laminated glass products with clear glass and tinted interlayers can be had from manufacturers.

should be used, since the air cavities provide extra thermal resistance. Increasing the thickness of the glass or plastics glazing sheet material makes little difference to the U value of the glazing. 5.3.2 Methods insulation for improving thermal

5.2.4.2.5 Insulating glass units Insulating glass units, that are used primarily for improved thermal transmittance (U Value), see 5.3, can also improve the total solar energy transmittance. This improvement is a result of the incorporation of a second pane of glass together with the hermetically sealed air space. The second glass pane can be of any glass type. The main glasses used as the inner pane are clear glass, hard coat low emissivity glass or soft coat low emissivity glass.
NOTE 1 Soft coat low emissivity glass can be used as the hermetically sealed airspace protects the coating. NOTE 2 Performances of a typical range of insulating glass units with clear float inner pane or with hard/soft coat low emissivity glass inner pane can be had from manufacturers.

5.3.2.1 Use of low emissivity coatings Low emissivity (low-E) coatings have surface emissivities of less than 0.2. The use of such a coating on glass improves the thermal insulation. They are most efficient when used on the cavity surfaces of insulating glass units. 5.3.2.2 Increasing the width of the air space Enhanced thermal insulation can be achieved by increasing the width of the airspace. However, there is a convection of the gas in the cavity. 5.3.2.3 Using gases of lower thermal conductivity Replacing the air in the cavity with, for example, argon/krypton, can improve the thermal insulation. 5.3.2.4 Inhibiting convection within the air space Filling the cavity with cellular material reduces convection and makes the cavity a more efficient insulator. However, this usually results in loss of vision, since the materials are, at best, translucent. 5.3.2.5 Evacuation of the air space In theory, a vacuum will eliminate energy transfer by conduction and convection. However, a vacuum puts high demands on the glass from the external air pressure.
NOTE Evacuation of the air space is currently considered to be technically impractical.

5.2.4.3 Solar control plastics glazing sheet materials Various coloured plastics glazing sheet materials having ability to reduce the transmission of solar radiation can be used in consultation with the manufacturers. 5.2.4.4 Blinds and louvres The use of blinds or louvres in windows affects the window shading coefficient. This depends upon the solar optical properties of the glazing and the material of the blind, on the coefficients of energy transfer at the window surfaces, on the geometry and location of the blind, and the angular position of the sun. Manufacturers' advice may be consulted for use of these material. 5.3 Energy Loss 5.3.1 General Energy loss is quantified by the thermal transmittance or U value. Glass and thin plastics glazing sheet materials readily conduct energy and so are poor insulators. To improve resistance to energy loss, insulating glass units or coupled glazing
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5.4 Typical U values of Glass Products Tables 1, 2 and 3 give typical U values.
TABLE 1 - THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE

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(U VALUE) OF GLASS PRODUCTS: SINGLE GLAZING

Glass thickness mm 4 6 10 12

U value W/m2K 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5

TABLE 2 - THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U VALUE) OF GLASS PRODUCTS: INSULATING GLASS UNITS

Clear glass thickness and type mm 4+4

Cavity width mm 6 12 16 20 6 12 16 20 6 12 16 20 6 12 16 20 6 12 16 20 6 12 16 20 Air 3.3 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.7 1.9 1.7 1.7 2.5 1.6 1.4 1.4 2.4 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.0 0.9 1.6 1.0 0.8 0.7

U value W/m2K Argon 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.3 1.6 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.3 1.2 1.2 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.7 0.6 0.6

Thermal safety of glass should be assessed considering the amount of radiation incident on the surface and the thermal capabilities of the glass. For example, the solar radiation intensity on the glass surface should be determined along with the air temperature range applicable to the location of the building. These measurements, together with the energy transfer coefficients and the glass absorption allow determination of the appropriate basic temperature difference between the central area of the glass and its edge. The difference is related to the thermal stress and then modified for the type of glazing system, taking account of extraneous effects resulting from curtains, blinds, back-up walls, proximity to heaters, etc., to derive a stress of actual service conditions.
NOTE 1 High air temperatures, low rates of air movement, and the insulation provided by curtains, blinds, back-up walls and multiple glazing tend to reduce the loss of energy and uphold the centre temperature. Low temperatures at the edges are maintained by conduction from the glass through the frame to a cold building structure with a large thermal capacity. NOTE 2 Advice may be sought from the manufacturer of glass as to the methods for assessing the thermal safety of the glass.

4+4 Low E (d = 0.15)

4+4 Low E (d = 0.04)

4+4+4

4 Low E (d = 0.15)+4+4 Low E (d = 0.15) 4 Low E (d = 0.04)+4+4 Low E (d = 0.04)

The resultant service stress should then be compared with the design stress for the glass. If on comparison, the service stress is less than or equal to the design stress, the glass and glazing system may be accepted as thermally safe provided, that the edges of the glass are of adequate quality.
NOTE 3 Where the application of a solar control film is being considered to existing glazing, advice should be sought from the manufacturer on the effect of any additional thermal stress likely to be induced in the glass.

Note 1 U values for argon gas-filled cavity based on 90% argon/10 % air Note 2 d is the declared (normal) emissivity TABLE 3 - THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U VALUE) OF GLASS PRODUCTS: COUPLED GLAZING

Clear glass thickness and type mm 4+4 4 + 4 Low E

Separation

U value W/m2K 2.8 2.8 1.7 1.9

mm 25 75 25 75

The normal mode of thermal breakage of glass is by the action of tensile stress located in and parallel to an edge, and so the breaking stress of the glass is mainly dependent on the extent and position of flaws in the edges. The condition of the glass edge is therefore extremely important. Solar control glasses should not be nipped to size and any panes with shelled or vented edges should not be accepted for glazing in orientations subject to direct sunlight.

Note 1 d is the declared (normal) emissivity

5.5 Thermal Safety of Glass


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Although a wheel-cut edge is the most satisfactory, laminated glasses with worked edges may be used. Where clean-cut edges are not permitted, arrises should be created by a wet process, working parallel to the edge and not across the thickness, and the design implications of such an action should be examined. Where solar control glasses are to be used in sliding doors and windows there is always the possibility that, when opened during sunny periods, the overlapping will function as double glazing with little ventilation in the air space, and it is this condition that should be assumed in assessing the thermal safety of glass. Thermal safety assessment is based on the behavior of glass in good condition and properly glazed. Even if the glass is shown to be thermally safe, this depend on close adherence to the recommend glazing procedures. All necessary precautions should be taken to see that only glass with edges of an acceptable condition is used. The glass should be stored and handled so that no contact with hard bodies can damage the edges and each pane or insulating glass unit should be carefully examine immediately before glazing. Some solar control glasses can be toughened or heat strengthened and gives a means of raising the design stress and ensuring safety from thermal fracture. 5.6 Energy Conservation

Light transmission is defined as the fraction of visible light at normal incidence transmitted through the glazing. For properties of plastic glazing sheet materials, manufacturer's may be consulted. Dirt on glazing reduces the light transmission, often by an appreciable extent before becoming noticeable. To ensure daylighting levels are adequate, an allowance for the reduced light transmission should be made in daylighting calculation by introducing a 'dirt factor' between 0.7 and 1.0. Regular cleaning of glass and plastic glazing sheet materials therefore call their importance. 5.8 Glare 5.8.1 General Glare results from excessive contrast of illumination, or from an excess of illumination in the field of view. Reaction to it is subjective. When correctly designed, natural lighting should not be a glare problem.
NOTE - Contrasts in excess of 10:1 in illumination in different parts of the field of view might give rise to glare in some from.

5.8.2

Disability glare

Reducing the light transmission of glazing from 87% to 60% produces a just perceptible reduction in disability glare caused by direct sunlight. Even when the light transmission of the glazing is as low as 10% some 10,000 lux can still be experienced and glare will almost certainly occur. Glare can be reduced by some form of mechanical shading, e.g., a canopy, an overhanging floor, a balcony or a louvre system. Alternatively, internal screening can be provided by louvres or blinds.
NOTE - Any fixed shading system reduces the amount of nature light entering the building throughout the year, irrespective of whether there is a glare problem at any particular time.

Good window design can, by reducing reliance on artificial lighting, can be one of the largest signal means of saving energy and should be carefully considered. Account should be taken of shape of the room, window orientation, occupancy patterns and task, together with the relationship of windows to surrounding buildings and other obstruction. As with task lighting, possible solar overheating might result and similar precautions should be taken.

5.7 Light Transmission Properties of Window


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It might also be possible to re-orientate the glazing to avoid entry of direct solar radiation. Alternatively, the interior layout can be suitably designed to eliminate glare. 5.8.3 Discomfort glare

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

Glazing products with light transmission lower than 50% can ameliorate discomfort glare. These products decrease the sky luminance components but permanently reduce the admission of daylight. Alternatively, shading devices, internal or external, movable or fixed, may be used. Other methods of reducing the problems of glare should be considered, including: a) installation of windows in more than one wall to raise the general background illumination and, in so doing, to reduce the contrast between a window and its surrounding surfaces; b) use of light coloured matt finishes for the window frames and the surrounding surfaces; c) splayed reveals, to assist in reducing the contrast between the window and its surroundings; d) use of slender glazing bars and transoms of high reflectance; e) lowering window sills to allow increased illumination to enter, which increases the adaptation level and reduces the likelihood of discomfort glare. 5.9 Diffusion and obscuration The nature of some glazing products (e.g., patterned or acid etched glass) can cause the direct incident solar beam to be scattered diffusely. Hence the window might assume an uncomfortable high brightness and become a discomfort glare source in its own right. Diffusing glazing used within the normal field of view should be used with caution. 5.10 Fading

which determines glass selection to minimize fading, not simply the UV transmission. 5.11 Determination Parameters 5.11.1 General of Characteristic

The characteristic parameters are determined for quasi-parallel, almost normal radiation incidence. 5.11.2 Test setup The samples shall be irradiated by a beam whose axis is at an angle not exceeding 10 from the normal to the surface. The angle between the axis and any ray of the illuminating beam shall not exceed 5. The characteristic parameters are as follows: The spectral transmittance (), the spectral external reflectance o() and the spectral internal reflectance i() in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 2500 nm; The light transmittance v, the external light reflectance v,0 and the internal light reflectance v,i for illuminant D65; The solar direct transmittance e and the solar direct reflectance e; The total solar energy transmittance (solar heat gain co efficient SHGC) g; The UV-transmittance UV; When calculating the characteristic parameters of multiple glazing, the spectral data of each glass component is to be used instead of integrating data of the complete unit. 5.11.3 Performance Requirements of Optical Measurements Optical measurements in transmission and reflection require special care to achieve accuracy in transmittance and reflectance of about 0.01. The wavelength calibration and the photometric linearity of commercial spectrophotometers shall be checked periodically using reference materials obtained from metrological laboratories.

Most materials can fade when subjected to either daylight (particularly direct sunlight) or artificial light. Fading is a complex phenomenon involving many chemical reactions, initiated or accelerated by light of different wavelengths. Generally, the better quality dyes and pigments fade relatively slowly and react only to the shorter wavelengths (ultraviolet and the blue end of the visible spectrum). Other materials can fade quickly and might do so under light of much longer wavelengths. It is the combination of wavelength, available light and transmission
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The wavelength calibration shall be performed by measuring glass plates which feature relatively sharp absorption bands at specified wavelengths; the photometric linearity shall be checked using grey filters with a certified transmittance. For reflectance measurements, reference materials having a reflection behaviour (i.e., reflectance level and ratio of diffuse and direct reflectance). Thick samples (e.g. laminated glass or insulating units) can modify the optical path of the instruments beam as compared to the path in air and therefore the sample beam hits an area of the detector having a different responsivity. A similar source of inaccuracy occurs in case of samples with significant wedge angles which deflect the transmitted (and reflected) beams. It is recommended to check the reproducibility by repeating the measurement after rotating the sample.

the spectrometer exhibits a high level of noise for some wavelengths, the values to be considered for those wavelengths should be obtained after a smoothing of the noise. 5.11.4 Light transmittance Light transmittance is the measure of the amount of light passing through the glazing. The visible light lies between the wavelength 380 nm to 780 nm. The light transmission of the glazing depends on the substrate type and coating layer done on the base glass. The light transmittance v of glazing shall be calculated using the following formula:

where, Additionally, in the case of reflectance measurements, glass sheets cause a lateral shear of the beam reflected by the second surface, causing reflectance losses (whose extent is particularly evident in the case of thick and/or wedged samples). This source of inaccuracy shall be taken into account particularly in the case of reflectance measurements through the uncoated side. In order to quantify and correct systematic errors, it is recommended to use calibrated reflectance standards with a thickness similar to the unknown sample. In the case of diffusing samples (or samples with a non-negligible diffusing component or wedged samples), transmittance and reflectance measurements shall be performed using integrating spheres whose openings are sufficiently large to collect the entire diffusely transmitted or reflected beam. The sphere diameter shall be adequate and the internal surface adequately coated with a highly diffusing reflectance material, so that the internal area can provide the necessary multiple reflections. Reference materials with characteristics similar to the unknown sample as specified above shall be used. If the transmittance or reflectance curve recorded by
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D is the relative spectral distribution of illuminant D65, () is the spectral transmittance of glazing; V() is the spectral luminous efficiency for photopic vision defining the standard observer for photometry is the wavelength interval. Table 5 indicates the values for DV() for wavelength intervals of 10 nm. The table has been drawn up in such a way that DV() = 1. In the case of multiple glazing, the spectral transmittance () shall be obtained by calculation from the spectral characteristics of the individual components. Alternatively measurements on non-diffusing multiple units may be performed using an integrating sphere. This may be achieved after reducing the interspaces under conditions that allow the collection of the whole transmitted beam. The calculation of the spectral transmittance () shall be performed using methods such as algebraic manipulation. Any algorithm that

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

can be shown to yield consistently the correct solution is acceptable. For the calculation of () as well as for the calculation of spectral reflectance the following symbols for the spectral transmittance and spectral reflectance of the individual components are used: 1() is the spectral transmittance of the outer (first) pane; 2() is the spectral transmittance of the second pane; n() is the spectral transmittance of the nth (inner) pane (e.g. for triple glazing n = 3); 1() is the spectral reflectance of the outer (first) pane measured in the direction of incident radiation; 1() is the spectral reflectance of the outer (first) pane measured in the opposite direction of incident radiation; 2() is the spectral reflectance of the second pane measured in the direction of incident radiation; 2() is the spectral reflectance of the second pane measured in the opposite direction of incident radiation; n() is the spectral reflectance of the nth (inner) pane measured in the direction of incident radiation; n() is the spectral reflectance of the nth (inner) pane measured in the opposite direction of incident radiation. For the spectral transmittance () as a function of the spectral characteristics of the individual components of the unit, the following formulae are obtained.

expressions are found to calculate () of such glazing from the spectral characteristics of the individual components. As an example for calculating () according to the procedures of this standard, a glazing composed of five components may be treated as follows: first consider the first three components as triple glazing and calculate the spectral characteristics of this combination; next, run the same procedure for the next two components as double glazing; then calculate () for the five component glazing, considering it as double glazing consisting of the preceding triple and double glazing.

The light transmission requirement for the glazing should be selected in accordance with relevant Indian standard specifications. 6 LIGHT REFLECTANCE 6.1. External Light Reflectance of Glazing External light reflectance corresponds to the amount of sunlight reflected by the external glass surface. The amount of light reflection depends on the type of base glass (substrate tint) and the position of coating on the glass surface. The external light reflectance of glazing v,o shall be calculated using the following formula:

where, o() is the spectral external reflectance of glazing, and D, V(), and the integration procedure are defined in 5.11.4. For multiple glazing with more than three components, relationships similar to above
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For multiple glazing, the calculation of the spectral external reflectance o() shall be

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

performed using the same methods as given in 5.11.4 for the calculation of the spectral transmittance (). For the spectral external reflectance o() as a function of the spectral characteristics of the individual components of the unit, the following formulae are applied. a) For double glazing:

For multiple glazing, the calculation of the spectral internal reflectance i() shall be performed using the same methods as given in 5.11.4 for the calculation of the spectral transmittance (). For the spectral internal reflectance i() as a function of the spectral characteristics of the individual components of the unit, the following formulae are applied. a) For double glazing:

b) For triple glazing: For multiple glazing with more than three components, relationships similar to above Equations are found to calculate o() of such glazing from the spectral characteristics of the individual components. As an example for calculating o(), a glazing composed of five components may be treated in the same way as described in 5.11.4 b) For triple glazing:

For multiple glazing with more than three components, relationships similar to above expressions are found to calculate i() of such glazing from the spectral characteristics of the individual components. 7 TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY TRANSMITTANCE (SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT)

6.2. Internal light reflectance of glazing Internal light reflectance corresponds to the amount of light reflected by the inner glass surface. The amount of light reflection depends on the type of base glass (substrate tint) and the position of coating on the glass surface. The internal light reflectance of glazing v,i shall be calculated using the following formula: 7.1 Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) / solar factor (SF) is the measure of amount of heat transfer from outside to inside by direct transmission (Short Wave Radiation) and internal remitted radiation (Long Wave Radiation). The SHGC or SF depends on the tint of the substrate and also the type of coating that is done on the base glass. The amount of solar energy gained through glass is between 0 and 1. Multiplying the SHGC or SF by 100 gives the percentage of solar energy allowed into the building.

where, i() is the spectral internal reflectance of glazing, and D, V(), and the integration procedure are as defined in light transmittance
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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

The relationship characteristics is

between

the

three

The absorbed part ee is subsequently divided into two parts qie and qee, which are energy transferred to the inside and outside respectively:
Fig. 1 SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT

The total solar energy transmittance g is the sum of the solar direct transmittance e and the secondary heat transfer factor qi towards the inside, the latter resulting from heat transfer by convection and longwave IR-radiation of that part of the incident solar radiation which has been absorbed by the glazing: g = e + qi 7.2 Division of Incident Solar Radiation Flux The incident solar radiant flux per unit area e is divided into the following three parts (see figure below): The transmitted part e e; The reflected part e e; The absorbed part ee; where e is the solar direct transmittance e is the solar direct reflectance e is the solar direct absorptance

e=qi+qe where, qi is the secondary heat transfer factor of the glazing towards the inside; qe is the secondary heat transfer factor of the glazing towards the outside. 7.3 Solar Direct Transmittance The solar direct transmittance e of glazing shall be calculated using the following formula:

where, S is the relative spectral distribution of the solar radiation; () is the spectral transmittance of the glazing; and the integration procedure are the same as in 5.11.4 except that the data points shall be chosen at the wavelengths given in Table 6. 7.4. Solar Direct Reflectance The solar direct reflectance e of the glazing shall be calculated using the following formula:

where,
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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

S is the relative spectral distribution of the solar radiation (see 7.3 Solar direct transmittance); o() is the spectral external reflectance of the glazing; and the integration procedure are the same as in light transmittance except that the data points shall be chosen at the wavelengths given in Table 6. In the case of multiple glazing, the spectral external reflectance Po () is calculated in accordance with 6.1. 7.5 Solar Direct Absorptance The solar direct absorptance e shall be calculated from the formula,

where, i is the corrected emissivity of the inside surface [for soda lime glass, i = 0.837 and hi = 8 W/(m2K)]. If other boundary conditions are used to meet special requirements they shall be stated in the test report. Values for i lower than 0.837 (due to surface coatings with higher reflectance in the far infrared) should only to be taken into account if condensation on the coated surface can be excluded. 7.6.2. Single glazing

7.6. Secondary Heat Towards the Inside 7.6.1. Boundary conditions

Transfer

Factor

The secondary heat transfer factor towards the inside, qi, of single glazing shall be calculated using the following formula:

For the calculation of the secondary heat transfer factor towards the inside, qi, the heat transfer coefficients of the glazing towards the outside, he, and towards the inside, hi, are needed. These values mainly depend on the position of the glazing, wind velocity, inside and outside temperatures and, furthermore, on the temperature of the two external glazing surfaces. As the purpose of this section is to provide basic information on the performance of glazing, the following conventional conditions have been stated for simplicity: position of the glazing: vertical; outside surface: wind velocity approximately 4 m/s; corrected emissivity 0.837; inside surface: natural convection; emissivity optional; air spaces are unventilated.

where, e is the solar direct absorptance obtained from the in accordance with 7.2 he, hi are the heat transfer coefficients towards the outside and inside, respectively, in accordance with 7.6.1

7.6.3. Double glazing The secondary heat transfer factor towards the inside, qi, of double glazing shall be calculated using the following formula:

Under these conventional, average conditions, standard values for he and hi are obtained: he = 23 W/(m2K)

where, e1 is the solar direct absorptance of the outer (first) pane within the double glazing; e2 is the solar direct absorptance of the second pane within the double glazing; is the thermal conductance between the outer surface and the innermost surface of the double glazing (see

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

Figure 3), in watts per square metre Kelvin (W/m2.K);

he, hi are the heat transfer coefficients towards the outside and the inside respectively in accordance with 7.6.1

FIGURE 3 ILLUSTRATION OF THE MEANING OF THERMAL CONDUCTANCE

Characteristics e1 and e2 are calculated as follows:

1() is the spectral direct absorptance of the outer pane, measured in the direction of the incident radiation, given by the relationship 1() = 1 1() 1( ) 1() is the spectral direct absorptance of the outer pane, measured in the opposite direction to the incident radiation, given by the relationship 1() = 1 1() 1( )
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2() is the spectral direct absorptance of the second pane, measured in the direction of the incident radiation, given by the relationship 2() = 1 2() 2( ) and the integration procedure are the same as in 5.11.4 except that the data points shall be chosen at the wavelengths given in Table 6.

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

The thermal conductance shall be determined for a temperature difference of T = 15 C across the sample and a mean temperature of the sample of 10 C by the calculation method given in ISO 10292, or by measuring methods using the guarded hot plate method ISO 10291, or the heat flow meter method ISO 10293. If another temperature difference T across the sample and/or another mean temperature of the sample is used for the determination of

the thermal conductance to meet special requirements, this shall be stated in the test report 7.6.4 Multiple components glazing with n > 2

The secondary heat transfer factor towards the inside, qi, of a multiple glazing with more than two components shall be calculated using the following formula:

FIGURE 4 ILLUSTRATION OF THE MEANING OF THE THERMAL CONDUCTANCE 12, 23 (NI1)N

where, e1 is the solar direct absorptance of the outer (first) pane within the n-fold glazing; e2 is the solar direct absorptance of the second pane within the n-fold glazing; en is the solar direct absorptance of the nth (inner) pane of the n-fold glazing; he, hi are the heat transfer coefficients towards the outside and towards the inside respectively in accordance with 7.6.1;
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12 is the thermal conductance between the outer surface of the outer (first) pane and the centre of the second pane (see fig. 4); (n1)n is the thermal conductance between the centre of the (n1)th pane and the outer surface of the nth (inner) pane (see fig. 4); 23 is the thermal conductance between the centre of the second pane and the centre of the third pane (see fig. 4);

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

The thermal conductances 12, 23 (n-1)n shall be determined by iteration of the calculation procedure according to clause 7 of ISO 10292. The calculation of the direct solar absorptances e1, e2, ...... en shall be performed using the methods given in 7.6.3 As an example for the calculation of the direct solar absorptances the following procedure is given which consist of the following (n-1) steps for a glazing consisting of n components. a) First step: calculate the spectral characteristics of a unit consisting of (n-1) components 2,3,....n according to what has been prescribed in 5.11.4 and 6.1. Then combine this unit with the first (outer) pane as a double glazing. b) Second step: calculate the spectral characteristics of a unit consisting of the (n-2) components 3,....n and furthermore, those of a

double glazing consisting of pane 1 and pane 2. These units are then combined as a double glazing. The sum e1 + e2 is then obtained. This procedure is continued up to the last (n1)th step. c) (n-1)th step: combine the (n-1) panes 1,2,... (n-1) and determine the spectral characteristics of this unit. This unit is then combined with the nth (inner) pane as a double glazing. From the second equation in 7.6.3, the sum e1, e2 ... e(n-1) is obtained, i.e., with the known values e1, e2, ... e(n-2) from the previous steps e(n-1) is determined. en is obtanied according to the third equation in 7.6.3. In the case of triple glazing for the solar absorbtances e1, e2 and e3 as a function of the spectral characteristics of the individual components of the unit, the following formulae are obtained:

where, 1(), 2(), 3(), 1(), 1(), 2(), 2(), 3() are as defined in light transmittance; 1(), 1() and 2() are as defined in 7.6.3 double glazing. 2() is the spectral direct absorptance of the second pane, measured in the opposite direction to the incident radiation, given by the relationship 2() = 1 2() 2 ( ) 3() is the spectral direct absorptance of the third pane, measured in the direction of the incident radiation, given by the relationship 3() = 1 3() 3( ) and the integration procedure are the same as in 5.11.4 except that the data points shall be chosen at the wavelengths given in Table 6.
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For a glazing with more than three components, the formulae for the solar absorptances e1, e2, , en as a function of the individual components. 8 TOTAL TRANSMISSION SOLAR ENERGY

The total solar energy transmitted into the room per unit area of glazing ei is given by the relationship ei =e g where, e is the incident solar radiation flux per unit area; g is the total solar energy transmittance of the glazing.

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

values can be obtained from appropriate tables in meteorological literature.

NOTE - The SHGC/SF requirement for the glazing should be selected based on the prescriptive requirements are mentioned in Annex B.

8.1 Additional heat transfer If the room temperature Ti differs from the outside temperature To, an additional heat transfer occurs in addition to ei. This additional heat flow qz can be calculated as follows: qz = U (ToTi) where, U is the U-value (thermal transmittance) of glazing, determined in accordance to ISO 10291, ISO 10292 or ISO 10293. 9 UV-TRANSMITTANCE The UV-transmittance of glazing is the fraction of the incident solar radiation transmitted by the glazing in the 300 nm to 380 nm range (UV-B range from 300 nm to 315 nm and UV-A range from 315 nm to 380 nm). The UV-transmittance UV is calculated as follows:

where, S is the relative spectral distribution of UV-radiation; () is the spectral transmittance of the glazing; and the integration procedure are the same as in light transmittance except that the data points shall be chosen at the wavelength given in Table 7. This average extends over the defined UVportion of the solar spectrum. It may not be correlated with solar radiation damage of materials and skin. 10 U VALUE

Heat transmittance through a surface by conduction, convection, and radiation is expressed by its U-value. U-value is the amount of heat transferred that is lost or gained due to a temperature differential of 1K through 1m2. The rate of heat transfer (Uvalue) is minimized by the use of double glazing, using gas inside cavity or by using low E glass for inside pane of double glazed unit. The U Value requirement for the glazing system should be selected in accordance with the Table 4 and Annex B.

TABLE 4 : THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT SHADING DEVICES

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TABLE 5 NORMALIZED RELATIVE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION DV() nm DV() x 102 nm DV() x 102

380 0 600 5.3542 390 0.0005 610 4.2491 400 0.003 620 3.1502 410 0.0103 630 2.0812 420 0.0352 640 1.381 430 0.0948 650 0.807 440 0.2274 660 0.4612 450 0.4192 670 0.2485 460 0.6663 680 0.1255 470 0.985 690 0.0536 480 1.5189 700 0.0276 490 2.1336 710 0.0146 500 3.3491 720 0.0057 510 5.1393 730 0.0035 520 7.0523 740 0.0021 530 8.799 750 0.0008 540 9.4427 760 0.001 550 9.8077 770 0 560 9.4306 780 0 570 8.6891 580 7.8994 590 6.3306 Normalized relative spectral distribution D of illuminant D65 multiplied by the spectral luminous efficiency V() and by the wavelength interval . The values in this table are calculated according to the trapezoidal rule. TABLE 6 NORMALIZED RELATIVE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION nm 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 335 340 345 350 355 360 365 370 375 380
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S 0 0.000057 0.000236 0.000554 0.000916 0.001309 0.001914 0.002018 0.002189 0.00026 0.002445 0.002555 0.002683 0.00302 0.003359 0.003509 0.0036

nm 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 850 900 950 1000

S 0.012838 0.011788 0.012453 0.012798 0.010589 0.011233 0.012175 0.012181 0.009515 0.010479 0.011381 0.011262 0.026718 0.04824 0.040297 0.021384 0.036097

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013 385 0.003529 1050 0.03411 390 0.003551 1100 0.018861 395 0.004294 1150 0.013228 400 0.007812 1200 0.022551 410 0.011638 1250 0.023376 420 0.011877 1300 0.017756 430 0.011347 1350 0.003743 440 0.013245 1400 0.000741 450 0.015343 1450 0.003792 460 0.016166 1500 0.009693 470 0.016178 1550 0.013693 480 0.016402 1600 0.012203 490 0.015794 1650 0.010615 500 0.015801 1700 0.007255 510 0.015973 1750 0.007183 520 0.015357 1800 0.002157 530 0.015857 1850 0.000395 540 0.015827 1900 0.000082 550 0.015844 1950 0.001087 560 0.01559 2000 0.003024 570 0.015255 2050 0.003988 580 0.014745 2100 0.004229 590 0.01433 2150 0.004142 600 0.014663 2200 0.00369 610 0.01503 2250 0.003592 620 0.014859 2300 0.003436 630 0.014622 2350 0.003163 640 0.014526 2400 0.002233 650 0.014445 2450 0.001202 660 0.014313 2500 0.000475 670 0.014023 Normalized relative spectral distribution of solar radiation (direct+diffuse) S for air mass = 1.5 calculated from the values given in Table 1, column 5 of ISO 9845-1, multiplied by the wavelength interval . The values in this table are calculated according to the trapezoidal

rule.
TABLE 7 NORMALIZED RELATIVE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION

nm 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 335 340 345 350 355 360
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S 0 0.001859 0.007665 0.017961 0.029732 0.042466 0.062108 0.065462 0.07102 0.073326 0.07933 0.082894 0.087039

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

365 370 375 380

0.097963 0.108987 0.113837 0.058351

Normalized relative spectral distribution of the UV part of global solar radiation (direct+diffuse) S for air mass = 1.5 calculated from the values given in Table 1, column 5 of ISO 9845-1, multiplied by the wavelength interval . The values

in this table are calculated according to the trapezoidal rule. Normalized relative spectral distribution of the UV part of global solar radiation (direct + diffused) S for air mass -1.5, calculated from the values in table 2.1, column 5, of ISO 9845-1, multiplied by wavelength interval . The values in this table are calculated according to the trapezoidal rule.

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ANNEX A REFERENCE IS NO. 2553 Part 1 : 1990 14900 : 2000 ISO 9845 Part 1 : 1992 Safety Glass - Specification Part 1 : General Purpose Transparent Float Glass Specification Solar energy Reference solar spectral irradiance at the ground at different receiving conditions Part 1: Direct normal and hemispherical solar irradiance for air mass 1,5 Glass in building Determination of steady-state U values (thermal transmittance) of multiple glazing -- Guarded hot plate method Glass in building Calculation of steady-state U values (thermal transmittance) of multiple glazing Glass in building Determination of steady-state U values (thermal transmittance) of multiple glazing -- Heat flow meter method TITLE

ISO 10291:1994

ISO 10292:1994

ISO 10293:1997

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ANNEX B MINIMUM PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENT OF GLAZING FOR EXTERIORS B-1 The panel size design of the exterior glass for the building is done in accordance with this standard considering the effect due to wind load, other imposed load, seismic design (as per part 3 of this standard). The type of glazing to be installed is determined considering human safety in accordance with part 4 of this standard. In the determination of the energy and thermal performance of the glazing, the three compliance approaches prescriptive in nature, defines the minimum glazing/glazing system requirement to be met.

The prescriptive values are specified with respect to the geographic climatic zone and glazing area of the building. B-2 BUILDING FENESTRATIONS The fenestration shall comply with the maximum glazing area weighted on U-value and solar factor as given in Table 8.

TABLE 8 U VALUE IN W/SQMK REQUIREMENT FOR GLAZING SYSTEM

Sl No. (1) i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Climate

Maximum U -factor W/m2 - C

Maximum SHGC WWR<40% (4) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.51 40% <WWR<60% (5) 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.51

(2) Composite Hot and Dry Warm and Humid Moderate Cold

(3) 3.30 3.30 3.30 6.90 3.30

The Window Wall Ratio (WWR) is defined by the total fenestration area to the total gross area of the building envelope which is limited

to 70%. For fenestration area greater than 70% refer other specialist literatures.

WWR 0 - 0.3 0.31 - 0.4 0.41 - 0.5 0.51 - 0.6 0.61 - 0.7

Minimum Visible Light Transmission 27% 20% 16% 13% 11%

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ANNEX C (Informative) TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR COATED GLASS C-1 The coated glass that is used for the exterior building of commercial and non commercial (residential building) should meet the test requirement listed in this annexure. C-2 MEASUREMENTS PERFORMANCE OF temperature of the reference glass piece of 40C 1.5C. The test cabinet shall be in a room with an ambient temperature of (23 3)C. Care shall be taken to ensure that draughts, dust, moisture and solar radiation do not interfere with the test cabinet. The reference temperature shall be reached within 2 hours of commencing heating. Condensation shall be seen to form on the glass pieces. The test is continued without interruption for the required time. Both the internal reference and the external air temperature shall be regularly checked. C-3.4 Requirements - 550 nm (representative wavelength for light and solar transmittance); - 900 nm (representative wavelength for solar transmittance). For glass claiming to have a low emissivity coating, a measurement of the reflectance shall be made at 8 m using radiation of nearly normal incidence. C-3 CONDENSATION TEST RESISTANCE No defect, greater than 3 mm length Maximum one defect between 2 mm and 3 mm length Maximum five defects between 1 mm and 2 mm length No scratches, staining of the coating or clusters of pinholes greater than 1 mm When compared with the reference test piece, in both reflection and transmission, there shall be no significant colour change. This observation shall be made within 20 seconds. The transmittance measured at 550 nm and 900 nm shall differ by no more than 0.03 from the corresponding measured value on the reference test piece. C-4 ACID RESISTANCE TEST C-4.1 This test consists of subjecting the coated glass to a sulphur dioxide saturated atmosphere at constant temperature. The samples shall have condensation continually forming on them. It is this condensation together with the quantity of sulphur dioxide that may cause surface degradation. Test apparatus should have a provision of four test pieces and the material used for the inner walls shall be corrosion-resistant and shall not affect the test pieces.

The performance factors and spectral details of the coated glass shall be determined using standard accepted spectrophotometer equipment. The actual size shall be dependent on the type of equipment being used for the measurements. The transmittance of the measurement sample shall be measured with radiation of normal incidence at the following wavelengths:

C-3.1 This test consists of subjecting the coated glass to a water saturated atmosphere at constant temperature. The samples have condensation continually forming on them and it is this condensation that may cause surface degradation. C-3.2 Test apparatus should have a provision of four test pieces and the materials used for the inner walls shall be corrosion-resistant and shall not affect the test pieces. C-3.3 Procedure The water tank shall be filled with demineralized water, having conductivity lower than 30 S and a pH higher than 5. The internal temperature of the cabinet shall be controlled by means of the reference thermocouple keeping a
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C-4.2 Procedure The test cabinet contains 2 liters of demineralized water having conductivity lower than 30 S. When the cabinet is closed 0.2 litre of SO2 shall be added and the heating system switched on. The test consists of a repetition of 24 hours cycles.

Each cycle consists of high temperature plus condensation period and an ambient temperature without condensation period. The temperature shall increase to 40C 1.5C in less than 1.5 h. During the next 6.5 hours the test pieces shall be subjected to condensation in the SO2 atmosphere.

where, x time in hours y temperature in C a Maximum time to reach 40C b Cessation of heating the cabinet and ventilation of the cabinet c Solution removal rinsing of cabinet

C-4.3 Requirement The transmittance measured at 550 nm and 900 nm shall differ by no more than 0.03 from the corresponding measured value on the reference test piece. C-5 NEUTRAL SALT SPRAY C-5.1 This test consists of subjecting the coated glass to neutral, water saline atmosphere at constant temperature. It is the water saline spray that may cause surface degradation. Test apparatus should have a provision of four test pieces and the material used for the inner walls shall be corrosion-resistant and shall not affect the test pieces. C-5.2 Procedure The test cabinet shall be prepared and run for a minimum period of 24 h before the test pieces are placed within it. The
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neutral salt solution is made up by dissolving NaCl, in demineralised water having conductivity lower than 30 S, to produce a concentration of 50 g/l 5 g/l at 25C 2C. The compressed air supplied to the spray nozzle shall be passed through a filter to remove all traces of oil or solid matter and shall be at an absolute pressure of 70 kPa to 170 kPa through a saturator at 40C 1.5C. The spray nozzle shall be made of inert material, with baffles to prevent direct impact of spray on the test pieces. C-5.3 Requirements No defect, greater than 3 mm length Maximum one defect between 2 mm and 3 mm length Maximum five defects between 1mm and 2 mm length No scratches, staining of the coating or clusters of pinholes greater than 1 mm

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CED 13(7884)WC February 2013

When compared with the reference test piece, in both reflection and transmission, there shall be no significant colour change. This observation shall be made within 20 seconds The transmittance measured at 550 nm and 900 nm shall differ by no more than 0.03 from the corresponding measured value on the reference test piece. C-6 ABRASION RESISTANCE TEST C-6.1 This test consists of subjecting the coated surface of the coated glass to rubbing with a felt pad in dry conditions. It is the type of pad, the loading on it and the number of strokes that may cause surface degradation. C-6.2 Procedure The metal finger shall be approximately 15 mm to 20 mm in diameter and shall be driven so as to produce a frequency of 60 strokes/min + 6 strokes/min alternating forwards and backwards. The stroke length shall be 120 mm + 5mm. The strokes shall be parallel and ensure a constant pressure over the zone to be tested. A circle shape with a diameter of 14.5 mm 0.5 mm. The test sequence shall commence within 30 minutes of the sample being cleaned. The metal finger containing the felt pad shall be lowered on to the glass surface and a load of 4 N applied perpendicular to the glass surface via the felt pad. C-6.3 Requirements Ensure that the abraded area is uniform. The transmittance measured at 550 nm and 900 nm shall differ by no more than 0.03 from the corresponding measured value on the reference test piece. C-7 DURATION OF TESTS The duration of tests shall be as per the following: Test Duration for Class

A B S Condensation 21 4 14 resistance days days days Acid 5 1 5 Resistance cycles cycle cycle Neutral Salt 21 10 Spray days days Abrasion 500 50 500 resistance stokes stokes stokes Class A: The coated surface of the glass can be positioned on the outer or the inner face of the building. Class B: The coated glass can be used as monolithic glazing but the coated surface shall be on the inner face of the building. Class S: The coated surface of the glass can be positioned on the outer or the inner face of the building but these types of coated glasses can only be used in specifically defined applications.

Test

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41

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

Draft Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 3: FIRE AND LOADING

Doc: CED 13(7885)WC ICS No.: 81.040.20 Building Construction Practices Sectional Committee, CED 13
FOREWORD

Last Date for Comments 31 May 2013

Formal clause will be included later Glazing is an important item in building construction and glass, the primary glazing element has to be selected to cater to several requirements. Fixing of glass a specialized operation, when properly done, will avoid the hazards of broken glass. Growing trend in resorting to glazed windows/doors in buildings and structures has considerably increased the importance of glazing and the need for proper workmanship. This standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings is envisaged to address the above and their engineering aspects, and is brought out as various parts namely: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: General Methodology for Selection Energy and Light Fire and Loading Safety Related to Human Impact

This standard (Part 3) is intended to determine the appropriate thickness of glass used in building glazing. Standard specifications of various types of glass are not covered in this standard, for which published Indian Standards such as mentioned/available may be referred to. Correct selection of materials to be used in glazing for buildings depends on many factors. Therefore, provisions in this part of the standard should be used in conjunction with those in other parts. This standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application. Attention may be drawn to the National Building Code of India 2005, SP 7:2005 and the applicable statutory regulations in states/U.T.s including their development control rules and general building requirements that are in force. Use of organic coated films including safety films on glass (say annealed) shall not classify the glass as safety glass as per this standard, and hence users should exercise caution in choosing their options. In the formulation of this standard the following publications have been consulted:

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

Fire-resistance tests -- Elements of building construction -- Part 2: Guidance on measuring uniformity of furnace exposure on test samples AS 1288 : 2006 Glass in Building - Selection and Installation Use Of Glass In Buildings Published and edited by CBRI (CSIR) This standard (along with the parts) proposes to withdraw the existing standard, IS 3548:1988 Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings (First Revision), in view of the comprehensive provisions proposed herein. However, the contents of the same shall be included in Part 1 of this standard as an informative annex. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values (Revised). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be same as that of the specified value in this standard.

ISO/TR 834_2:2009

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

Draft Indian Standard


(Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 3: FIRE AND LOADING

Doc: CED 13(7885)WC 1 SCOPE 4 TERMINOLOGY This standard covers the selection of glass in buildings, subject to wind loading, seismic loading and special considerations for fire rated glass and related materials. This Standard does not cover the following: Glazing system including Frameless glazing system Patent glazing 2 REFERENCES The Indian standards listed in Annex A contain provision which through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subjected to revision and parties to agreement based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated therein. 3 APPLICATION While selecting the glass for application, the thickness and type of glass required shall satisfy the following criteria: Thickness of glazing is calculated subjected to wind load as per the provisions of this standard. For criteria on safety with respect to human impact, Part 4 of this standard shall be referred. For criteria on optical, solar and thermal performance, Part 2 of this standard shall be referred. For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS 14900 and IS 2553 (Part 1) shall be applicable in addition to the following definitions: 4.1 Annealed Fire resistant Glass A single piece of fire resistant glass that is tested for fire resistance for the required duration. These types of glasses can be used only in areas where human impact safety is not an issue, typically in areas like vision panels of doors. 4.2 Balustrade A low wall forming a parapet to a stair, ramp, balcony, raised level or a change in level. 4.3 Beads or Glazing Beads A strip of wood, metal or other suitable material attached to the rebate to retain the glass in position in the frame. 4.4 Bite The width of sealant used to bond the fin or frame member to the edge of the glass panel. 4.5 Block (Setting Block) A small piece of wood, plastic, rubber or other suitable material used between the edges of the glass (generally the bottom edge only) to centralize the glass in the frame (frequently called a setting block). 4.6 Clear Glass Transparent glass with neutral/near colourless appearance. 4.7 Combustible Material The material which when burnt adds heat to a fire when tested for combustibility in accordance with the IS 3808.

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

4.8 Curtain Wall Non load bearing structure / partition of glass attached to the building frame, usually on the exterior face. 4.9 Distance Piece A small piece of wood, lead or other suitable material used to locate the glass between the bead and the back of the rebate to prevent lateral movement. 4.10 Door or Shutter Assembly Doorset (For Fire safety) Pedestrian doorset or industrial type doorset including any frame or guide, door leaf or leaves, rolling or folding curtain, etc., which is provided to give a fire resisting capability when used as the closing of permanent openings in fire resisting separating elements, which include any side panel(s), vision panel(s), flush over panel(s) and/or transom panel(s) together with the building hardware and any seals (whether provided for the purpose of fire resistance or smoke control or for other purposes such as draught or acoustics) which form the assembly. 4.11 Double Glazing Glazing that incorporates two panes of glass, separated with an air or inert gas space, for the purpose of sound and/or thermal insulation. 4.12 Double Glazed Fire Resistant Glass: Fire resistant glass that is used as a double glazed unit. 4.13 Edge Faults Faults that affect the as-cut edge of the glass. They can include entrant/emergent faults, shelling, corners on/off and vents. 4.14 Edge Polished Usually applied to flat glass, the edges of which have been polished after cutting. 4.15 Edging Grinding the edge of flat glass, to a desired shape or size. 4.16 Exposed Edge A glass panes' edge that is not covered.
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4.17 Facade Front or face of the building which is part of framed or frameless system. 4.18 Faceted Glazing Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other to form a faceted curve. 4.19 Fire Door Assembly Any combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the door opening. 4.20 Fire Resistance The ability of the material of an assembly to withstand (for a defined time) without failure in the event of fire. 4.21 Fire Separation It means the distance in meter measured from any other building on the site or from another site or from the opposite side of a street or other public space to the building. 4.22 Flat Glass A general term covering sheet glass, float glass and various forms of rolled and plate glass in which shape of the glass is flat. 4.23 Float Glass A type of flat glass produced by floating molten glass on a bath of molten tin to form continuous ribbon of glass. 4.24 Flush Over Panel Panel which is incorporated within a doorset or openable window and fitted above the leaf or leaves within the frame head and the jambs and with no transom. 4.25 Frame A structure manufactured from timber/ metal/ aluminum or other durable material/ combinations of materials such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge.

45

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

4.26 Frameless Glazing Unframed glazing which maintains the integrity through pointed support structures . 4.27 Front Putty The compound forming a triangular fillet between the surface of the glass and the front edge of the rebate. 4.28 Fully framed glazing Glass panels that have all four edges framed. 4.29 Gap Clearance between two adjacent surfaces and/or edges e.g. between the edge of the leaf and the reveal of the frame or between the face of the leaf and the frame stop. 4.30 Glass - An inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. It is typically hard and brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture. It may be colourless or tinted and transparent to opaque. 4.31 Glazing The (act of) securing of glass or plastic glazing sheet material into prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions of a building. 4.32 Heat Soaking Heat Soaking is done on toughened/tempered glass by reheating to a temperature of 290oC and keeping it at this temperature for eight hours and cooling it gradually. The glass can break spontaneously and without provocation due to possible impurity of Nickel Sulphide in basic glass used for toughening/tempering. This risk of spontaneous breakage can be minimized by heat soaking process by forcing such glasses to break during the test itself. 4.33 Hermetically sealed Completely sealed, (especially against the escape or entry of air) which is impervious to outside interference or influence. 4.34 Infill balustrades Balustrades in which the supported glass resists an infill
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pressure and / or point load applied to the glass panel. 4.35 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) An assembly consisting of at least two panes of glass, separated by one or more spaces, hermetically sealed along the periphery, mechanically stable and durable. 4.36 Insulation (I) It is the ability of a material to withstand fire exposure on one side without the transmission of fire to the unexposed side by limiting heat transfer due to conduction, convection and radiation. 4.37 Integrity (E) It is the ability of glass, framing and mate made as a system to withstand fire exposure on one side without the transmission of fire as a result of the passage of flames or hot gases. An integrity barrier acts in effect to physically stop fire movement. 4.38 Interlayer The transparent damping material used in laminated glass, usually PVB. 4.39 Laminated Sheet Safety Glass Two or more pieces of glass held together by an interleaving layer or layers of plastic material. 4.40 Non-combustible Material A material not liable to burn to add heat to a fire when tested for combustibility in accordance with IS 3808. 4.41 Radiation (W) It is the ability of the element of construction to withstand fire exposure on one side so as to reduce the probability of transmission of fire and injury to individuals as a result of significant radiated heat either through the element or from its unexposed surface. An element which satisfies the insulation criteria (I) should also satisfy the defined radiation criterion (W) for the same period.

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

4.42 Rebate The part of a surround; the cross section of which forms an angle into which the edge of the glass is received. 4.43 Tempered fire resistant glass A single piece of specially heat-treated or chemically treated that is tested for fire resistance for the required duration and which has a stress pattern such that the piece when fractured reduces to numerous granular fragments, with no large jagged edges. 4.44 Wired Glass It is a type of glass into which a wire mesh is embedded during production. Wired glass has an impact resistance similar to that of normal glass, but in case of breakage, the mesh retains the pieces of glass. 5 DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATE GLASS THICKNESS 5.1 General This standard gives provisions to determine the minimum glass thickness to be used to resist the ultimate limit state design wind pressures. However, the location of the glass within the building require additional considerations, such as safety with respect to human impact in accordance to Part 4 of this standard, which may impose either a minimum glass thickness above the basic calculation of this Part or a provision for a specific glass type or both. In addition to the provisions herein, the design requirements such as wind loads determined in accordance with Part 3 of IS 875 and the serviceability deflection requirement limit given in this standard shall have to be complied. The provisions of this standard are applicable provided the following parameters are satisfied: (a) Ultimate limit state wind pressure shall not be greater than 10.0 kPa.
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(b) For laminated glass, the two sheets are of equal thickness and the interlayer material is either polyvinyl butyral or an equivalent type of interlayer with a modulus of elasticity of about 24 MPa and a Poissons ratio of 0.50 at 20C. (c) Design flexural tensile strength of glass depends upon the design strength obtained after applying a factor of safety of 2.5. The minimum design strength of normal glass for thickness upto 6 mm is 16.7 N/mm2 and for thickness above 6 mm is 15.2 N/mm2. 5.2 Design Considerations The following design considerations shall be considered in determination of appropriate thickness of glass: The maximum area of glass panel is restricted to 15 m2. The maximum span of window is restricted to 4 m. Aspect ratio of the glass panel should be greater than 1.5. If it is less than 1.5, next higher available thickness should be selected. The factor of safety used is 2.5 considering the variability in strength of glass. Applicable to normal, reflective, laminated, tempered and insulating glass. Applicable to rectangular panels properly secured. Design minimum thickness of laminated glass the glass will be the maximum value of thickness in accordance with the Table 5 of Part 1 of this standard. 5.3 Empirical Relationship Empirical relation between the wind pressure, area of the glass panel and the required glass thickness can be used: Pnet * A = 200 * Tk (for T< 6 mm) Pnet * A = 200 * Tk + 1900 (for T > 6 mm) 47

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

where, Pnet = Net design wind pressure (N/m2) as per 5.4 A = Area of glass panel (m )
2

T = Standard Nominal Thickness (SNT) of glass (mm) from Table 1, k = Constant from the table 1.

TABLE 1 K VALUE FOR THE CORRESPONDING STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS T k 3 mm 1.683 4 mm 1.732 5 mm 1.753 6 mm 1.765 8 mm 1.57 10 mm 1.578 12 mm 1.583 15 mm 1.579 19 mm 1.569 25 mm 1.569

Glass Supported on two opposite sides Normal and laminated glass panels supported on two opposite sides can be designed using following empirical relations: For T 6mm b= 4.39 x T (Pnet / Pf) For T 6mm b= 4.22 x T (Pnet / Pf) Tempered/toughened panel on two opposite sides can be designed using following empirical relations: For T 6mm b= 3.2688 x T (Pnet / Pf) For T 6mm b= 2.9069 x T (Pnet / Pf) where, b = span, in m Pf = strength factors as in table 2 For insulated glass, thickness of only one glass pane shall be considered. If the glass panes are of different thickness, the
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minimum of the two thicknesses shall be considered. For laminated glass, the thickness of PVB has not been considered. The value to be used is; T = standard nominal thickness thickness of PVB. 5.4 Determination of Design Wind Pressure Net design wind pressure (Pnet) is an important parameter governing the thickness of glass to be used in the window panels. It depends on several factors. Location of the building (wind zone), Construction patterns around buildings (terrain category), Topography of site, Building plan and height, etc. Net design wind pressure (Pnet), may be defined using the following equation: Pnet = pz x Cp where, Cp = Net pressure coefficient as per IS 875 (Part 3) pz = Design wind pressure (N/m2) as per IS 875 (Part 3). pz = 0.6 Vz2 Vz = Vb.k1.k2.k3 48

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

where, Vb Basic Wind Speed based on Location [as per Fig. 1 of IS 875 (part 3)] k1 Risk Co-efficient factor k2 Terrain Factor k3 Topography Factor Vz Design Wind Speed (m/s)

Laminated/ Tempered/ Insulating Glass To determine the thickness of laminated/ tempered/ insulating glass, the design wind pressure Pnet is modified by dividing it with the strength or pressure factor Pf, dependent on the type of glass. The values of the Pf are given in table 2. Using the modified values of Pnet, the thickness of other glass types can be obtained in accordance with 5.3.

TABLE 2 STRENGTH FACTOR Pf S. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Glass type Normal (Annealed) Laminated Tempered Insulated Heat Strengthened Wired glass Pf 1.00 0.80 2.50 1.50 1.60 0.50 will be valid up to a limiting aspect ratio ARmax. The value of ARmax for different thickness (T) of glass is given in table 3.

5.5 Aspect Ratio (ARmax) The design of the thickness using empirical relation in accordance with 5.3

TABLE 3 THICKNESS AND CORRESPONDING ARmax VALUES T (mm) ARmax (in m2) 5.6 Seismic Design 5.6.1 Seismic Load (EQ) The design for seismic forces shall be performed in steps to establish upper and lower bound force and movement response parameters. In addition, the response of the structure sensitive to certain parameters such as the damping and the stiffness of the support points may be evaluated. The principal design criteria for the seismic design are:
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3 7.3

4 6.8

5 6.5

6 6.3

8 5.9

10 4.9

12 4.3

15 3.8

19 3.3

25 2.9

The structure will remain elastic during the design seismic event. The hangers will stiffen the cantilever tree structure. The hangers will not go slack. 5.6.2 Non Structural Elements Depending on response sensitivity, nonstructural elements can be classified as deformation sensitive, acceleration sensitive, or both deformation and acceleration sensitive. Table 4 classifies

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

non-structural elements according to their

response sensitivity

TABLE 4 RESPONSE SENSITIVITY OF ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENT Component Exterior Skin Adhered Veneer Anchored Veneer Glass Blocks Prefabricated panel Glazing system Partitions Heavy Light Interior Veneers Stone, including marble Ceramic tile Parapets and appendages Canopies and marquees Stairs Sensitivity Acc Def S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P P P P P P

Note: Acc = Acceleration sensitive; Def = Deformation sensitive; P = Primary response; S = Secondary response

5.6.3 Design seismic force

Design seismic force, Fp, on the nonstructural element shall be calculated using the following expression as in IS 1893 (Part 1):

Ip is importance factor of the nonstructural element given in Table 4 of IS 1893 (Part 1) Wp is weight of the non-structural element. 5.6.4 Seismic relative displacement For two connection points on the same structure A, one at a height hx, and other at a height hy, seismic relative displacement shall be determined as:

p 0.10W where, Z is zone factor x is height of point of attachment of the non-structural element above the foundation
h is height of the structure ap is component amplification factor given in Tables 2 and 3 of IS 1893 (Part 1) Rp is the component response modification factor given in Tables 2 and 3 of IS 1893 (Part 1)

Dp is not required to be taken as greater than

where, xA = deflection at building level x of structure A due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis, and multiplied by response reduction factor (R) of 50

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

the building as per Table 7 of IS 1893 (Part 1) yA = deflection at building level y of structure A due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis, and multiplied by response reduction factor (R) of the building as per Table 7 of IS 1893 (Part 1) hx = height of level x to which upper connection point is attached hy = height of level y to which lower connection point is attached aA = allowable storey drift for structure A calculated as per 7.11.1 of IS 1893 (Part 1) hsx = storey height below level x.

The uniform distributed load and point load is to be considered based on application and is to be selected in accordance to Part 2 of IS 875. Appropriate uniform distributed load (UDL) and concentrated load are selected in accordance to IS 875 (Part 2) based on nature of building (e.g., residential, institutional, industrial building, etc.) and nature of activity under each building type. 5.8. Load Contribution 5.8.1 Wind load The wind load is the effect of wind pressure which is dependent on the location, building height, topography and ground roughness factor. The wind speed is taken from Part 3 of IS 875 for the geographic location. 5.8.2 Dead Load

For two connection points on separate structures A and B, or separate structural systems, one at height, hx , and the other at a height, hy , Dp shall be determined as:

Dp is not required to be taken as greater than

In case of inclined sloped glazing the dead weight of the glazing should be considered. In case of component of sloped glazing, the corresponding component of the total glazing may be used. The point load shall be applied as a uniformly distributed load over a circular area of 0.01 m2. For a glazed panel supported on all edges, the point loading shall be applied at the centre. For free glazing edges, the point load shall be applied adjacent to the centre of the free edge. The ultimate limit state design wind pressure shall not be greater than 1.2 kPa. For greater design wind pressures, the glass shall be separately designed to withstand wind loading in accordance with 5.4.

where, yB = deflection at building level y of structure B due to design seismic load determined by elastic analysis, and multiplied by response reduction factor, R, of the building as per Table 7 of IS 1893 (Part 1) aB = allowable storey drift for structure B calculated as per 7.11.1 of IS 1893 (Part 1) 5.7 Imposed Loads
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5.9 Reference Chart Relating Wind Load, Maximum Allowable Area For A 51

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

Thickness Of Glass with respect to Terrain Category The following tables (numbered 5 to 13) and figures (numbered 1 to 9) provide

relation between design wind pressure and maximum allowable area for a thickness of glass with respect to specific terrain category. User may select the type of glass depending on the support conditions.

TABLE 5 MAXIMUM AREAS (M 2) FOR NORMAL (ANNEALED) GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3 2.54 2.31 2.12 1.95 1.82 1.69 1.59 1.49 1.41 1.34 1.27 1.21 1.16 1.1 1.06 1.02 0.98 0.94 0.91 0.88 0.85 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 4 4.41 4.01 3.68 3.4 3.15 2.94 2.76 2.6 2.45 2.32 2.21 2.1 2.01 1.92 1.84 1.77 1.7 1.63 1.58 1.52 1.47 1.42 1.38 1.34 1.3 1.26 1.23 1.19 1.16 1.13 1.1 1.08 5 6.72 6.11 5.6 5.17 4.8 4.48 4.2 3.95 3.73 3.54 3.36 3.2 3.05 2.92 2.8 2.69 2.58 2.49 2.4 2.32 2.24 2.17 2.1 2.04 1.98 1.92 1.87 1.82 1.77 1.72 1.68 1.64 6 9.45 8.59 7.88 7.27 6.75 6.3 5.91 5.56 5.25 4.97 4.73 4.5 4.3 4.11 3.94 3.78 3.64 3.5 3.38 3.26 3.15 3.05 2.95 2.86 2.78 2.7 2.63 2.55 2.49 2.42 2.36 2.31 8 14.27 12.97 11.89 10.98 10.19 9.51 8.92 8.39 7.93 7.51 7.13 6.79 6.49 6.2 5.95 5.71 5.49 5.28 5.1 4.92 4.76 4.6 4.46 4.32 4.2 4.08 3.96 3.86 3.76 3.66 3.57 3.48 10 15 15 15 14.57 13.53 12.63 11.84 11.14 10.52 9.97 9.47 9.02 8.61 8.23 7.89 7.58 7.28 7.01 6.76 6.53 6.31 6.11 5.92 5.74 5.57 5.41 5.26 5.12 4.98 4.86 4.73 4.62 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.26 13.46 12.76 12.12 11.54 11.02 10.54 10.1 9.69 9.32 8.98 8.66 8.36 8.08 7.82 7.57 7.34 7.13 6.92 6.73 6.55 6.38 6.21 6.06 5.91 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.81 14.17 13.58 13.03 12.53 12.07 11.64 11.23 10.86 10.51 10.18 9.87 9.58 9.31 9.05 8.81 8.57 8.35 8.15 7.95 19 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.8 14.32 13.87 13.45 13.06 12.68 12.33 12 11.68 11.38 11.1 10.83 25 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

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52

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 1.05 1.03 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.8 0.79 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54 1.6 1.56 1.53 1.49 1.46 1.43 1.4 1.37 1.34 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.24 1.22 1.2 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 1.1 1.08 1.07 1.05 1.03 1.02 1 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 2.25 2.2 2.15 2.1 2.05 2.01 1.97 1.93 1.89 1.85 1.82 1.78 1.75 1.72 1.69 1.66 1.63 1.6 1.58 1.55 1.52 1.5 1.48 1.45 1.43 1.41 1.39 1.37 1.35 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.21 1.2 1.18 1.17 1.15 3.4 3.32 3.24 3.17 3.1 3.04 2.97 2.91 2.85 2.8 2.74 2.69 2.64 2.59 2.55 2.5 2.46 2.42 2.38 2.34 2.3 2.26 2.23 2.2 2.16 2.13 2.1 2.07 2.04 2.01 1.98 1.95 1.93 1.9 1.88 1.85 1.83 1.81 1.78 1.76 1.74 4.51 4.4 4.3 4.21 4.12 4.03 3.95 3.86 3.79 3.71 3.64 3.57 3.51 3.44 3.38 3.32 3.27 3.21 3.16 3.1 3.05 3.01 2.96 2.91 2.87 2.83 2.78 2.74 2.71 2.67 2.63 2.59 2.56 2.53 2.49 2.46 2.43 2.4 2.37 2.34 2.31 5.77 5.64 5.51 5.39 5.27 5.16 5.05 4.95 4.85 4.75 4.66 4.57 4.49 4.41 4.33 4.25 4.18 4.11 4.04 3.97 3.91 3.85 3.79 3.73 3.67 3.62 3.56 3.51 3.46 3.41 3.37 3.32 3.28 3.23 3.19 3.15 3.11 3.07 3.03 2.99 2.96 7.76 7.58 7.4 7.24 7.08 6.93 6.79 6.65 6.52 6.39 6.27 6.15 6.03 5.92 5.82 5.72 5.62 5.52 5.43 5.34 5.26 5.17 5.09 5.01 4.94 4.86 4.79 4.72 4.65 4.59 4.53 4.46 4.4 4.34 4.29 4.23 4.18 4.12 4.07 4.02 3.97 10.57 10.32 10.09 9.86 9.65 9.44 9.25 9.06 8.88 8.7 8.54 8.38 8.22 8.07 7.93 7.79 7.65 7.52 7.4 7.28 7.16 7.05 6.94 6.83 6.73 6.63 6.53 6.43 6.34 6.25 6.17 6.08 6 5.92 5.84 5.76 5.69 5.62 5.55 5.48 5.41 15 15 15 14.72 14.4 14.09 13.8 13.52 13.25 12.99 12.74 12.5 12.27 12.04 11.83 11.62 11.42 11.23 11.04 10.86 10.68 10.51 10.35 10.19 10.04 9.89 9.74 9.6 9.46 9.33 9.2 9.07 8.95 8.83 8.72 8.6 8.49 8.38 8.28 8.18 8.08

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 Maximum Aspect Ratio 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.67 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.1 1.09 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.95 1.72 1.7 1.68 1.66 1.64 1.62 1.6 1.59 1.57 1.55 1.53 1.52 1.5 1.49 1.47 1.46 1.44 1.43 2.28 2.25 2.23 2.2 2.18 2.15 2.13 2.1 2.08 2.06 2.04 2.01 1.99 1.97 1.95 1.93 1.91 1.89 2.92 2.89 2.85 2.82 2.79 2.75 2.72 2.69 2.66 2.63 2.61 2.58 2.55 2.52 2.5 2.47 2.45 2.42 3.93 3.88 3.83 3.79 3.74 3.7 3.66 3.62 3.58 3.54 3.5 3.47 3.43 3.39 3.36 3.32 3.29 3.26 5.35 5.28 5.22 5.16 5.1 5.04 4.99 4.93 4.88 4.83 4.77 4.72 4.67 4.62 4.58 4.53 4.48 4.44 7.98 7.89 7.79 7.7 7.61 7.53 7.44 7.36 7.28 7.2 7.12 7.05 6.97 6.9 6.83 6.76 6.69 6.62

7.3

6.8

6.5

6.3

5.9

4.9

4.3

3.8

3.3

2.9

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 1 NORMAL (ANNEALED) GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES

TABLE 6 MAXIMUM AREAS (M2) FOR LAMINATED GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES
DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050
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STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 5.38 5.38 4.89 4.48 4.14 3.84 3.58 3.36 3.16 2.99 2.83 2.69 2.56 6.38 7.56 6.87 6.3 5.82 5.4 5.04 4.73 4.45 4.2 3.98 3.78 3.6 8.38 11.42 10.38 9.51 8.78 8.15 7.61 7.13 6.71 6.34 6.01 5.71 5.44 10.38 15 13.77 12.63 11.65 10.82 10.1 9.47 8.91 8.42 7.97 7.58 7.21 12.38 15 15 15 14.91 13.85 12.93 12.12 11.41 10.77 10.2 9.69 9.23 16.38 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.48 13.72 13.03 12.41

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100
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2.44 2.34 2.24 2.15 2.07 1.99 1.92 1.85 1.79 1.73 1.68 1.63 1.58 1.54 1.49 1.45 1.41 1.38 1.34 1.31 1.28 1.25 1.22 1.19 1.17 1.14 1.12 1.1 1.08 1.05 1.03 1.01 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.91 0.9 0.88 0.87

3.44 3.29 3.15 3.02 2.91 2.8 2.7 2.61 2.52 2.44 2.36 2.29 2.22 2.16 2.1 2.04 1.99 1.94 1.89 1.84 1.8 1.76 1.72 1.68 1.64 1.61 1.58 1.54 1.51 1.48 1.45 1.43 1.4 1.37 1.35 1.33 1.3 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.22

5.19 4.96 4.76 4.57 4.39 4.23 4.08 3.94 3.81 3.68 3.57 3.46 3.36 3.26 3.17 3.09 3 2.93 2.85 2.78 2.72 2.65 2.59 2.54 2.48 2.43 2.38 2.33 2.28 2.24 2.2 2.15 2.11 2.08 2.04 2 1.97 1.93 1.9 1.87 1.84

6.89 6.59 6.31 6.06 5.83 5.61 5.41 5.22 5.05 4.89 4.73 4.59 4.46 4.33 4.21 4.09 3.99 3.88 3.79 3.7 3.61 3.52 3.44 3.37 3.29 3.22 3.16 3.09 3.03 2.97 2.91 2.86 2.81 2.75 2.71 2.66 2.61 2.57 2.53 2.48 2.44

8.81 8.43 8.08 7.76 7.46 7.18 6.92 6.69 6.46 6.25 6.06 5.88 5.7 5.54 5.39 5.24 5.1 4.97 4.85 4.73 4.62 4.51 4.41 4.31 4.22 4.13 4.04 3.96 3.88 3.8 3.73 3.66 3.59 3.53 3.46 3.4 3.34 3.29 3.23 3.18 3.13

11.85 11.33 10.86 10.43 10.02 9.65 9.31 8.99 8.69 8.41 8.15 7.9 7.67 7.45 7.24 7.04 6.86 6.68 6.52 6.36 6.21 6.06 5.92 5.79 5.67 5.55 5.43 5.32 5.21 5.11 5.01 4.92 4.83 4.74 4.65 4.57 4.49 4.42 4.34 4.27 4.2

56

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 Maximum Aspect Ratio
DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

0.85 0.84 0.83 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54

1.2 1.18 1.16 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.1 1.08 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.02 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.8 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.76

1.81 1.78 1.76 1.73 1.7 1.68 1.65 1.63 1.61 1.59 1.56 1.54 1.52 1.5 1.48 1.46 1.44 1.43 1.41 1.39 1.38 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.31 1.3 1.28 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.15 1.14

2.4 2.37 2.33 2.3 2.26 2.23 2.2 2.16 2.13 2.1 2.08 2.05 2.02 1.99 1.97 1.94 1.92 1.89 1.87 1.85 1.83 1.8 1.78 1.76 1.74 1.72 1.7 1.68 1.66 1.65 1.63 1.61 1.59 1.58 1.56 1.55 1.53 1.52

3.08 3.03 2.98 2.94 2.89 2.85 2.81 2.77 2.73 2.69 2.66 2.62 2.59 2.55 2.52 2.49 2.45 2.42 2.39 2.36 2.34 2.31 2.28 2.25 2.23 2.2 2.18 2.15 2.13 2.11 2.08 2.06 2.04 2.02 2 1.98 1.96 1.94

4.14 4.07 4.01 3.95 3.89 3.83 3.78 3.72 3.67 3.62 3.57 3.52 3.48 3.43 3.39 3.34 3.3 3.26 3.22 3.18 3.14 3.1 3.07 3.03 3 2.96 2.93 2.9 2.86 2.83 2.8 2.77 2.74 2.72 2.69 2.66 2.63 2.61

6.5

6.2

5.7

4.8

4.3

3.6

57

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 2 LAMINATED GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES

TABLE 7 MAXIMUM AREAS (M 2) FOR TEMPERED GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300

STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3 6.35 5.78 5.29 4.89 4.54 4.24 3.97 3.74 3.53 3.34 3.18 3.03 2.89 2.76 2.65 2.54 2.44 4 11.03 10.03 9.2 8.49 7.88 7.36 6.9 6.49 6.13 5.81 5.52 5.25 5.02 4.8 4.6 4.41 4.24 5 15 15 14 12.92 12 11.2 10.5 9.88 9.33 8.84 8.4 8 7.64 7.3 7 6.72 6.46 6 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.77 13.9 13.13 12.44 11.81 11.25 10.74 10.27 9.85 9.45 9.09 8 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.86 14.27 13.72 10 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 19 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 25 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

58

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 2.35 2.27 2.19 2.12 2.05 1.99 1.93 1.87 1.82 1.76 1.72 1.67 1.63 1.59 1.55 1.51 1.48 1.44 1.41 1.38 1.35 1.32 1.3 1.27 1.25 1.22 1.2 1.18 1.16 1.13 1.11 1.1 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95 4.09 3.94 3.81 3.68 3.56 3.45 3.34 3.25 3.15 3.07 2.98 2.9 2.83 2.76 2.69 2.63 2.57 2.51 2.45 2.4 2.35 2.3 2.25 2.21 2.16 2.12 2.08 2.04 2.01 1.97 1.94 1.9 1.87 1.84 1.81 1.78 1.75 1.72 1.7 1.67 1.65 6.22 6 5.79 5.6 5.42 5.25 5.09 4.94 4.8 4.67 4.54 4.42 4.31 4.2 4.1 4 3.91 3.82 3.73 3.65 3.57 3.5 3.43 3.36 3.29 3.23 3.17 3.11 3.05 3 2.95 2.9 2.85 2.8 2.75 2.71 2.67 2.62 2.58 2.55 2.51 8.75 8.44 8.15 7.88 7.62 7.38 7.16 6.95 6.75 6.56 6.39 6.22 6.06 5.91 5.76 5.63 5.5 5.37 5.25 5.14 5.03 4.92 4.82 4.73 4.63 4.54 4.46 4.38 4.3 4.22 4.15 4.07 4 3.94 3.87 3.81 3.75 3.69 3.64 3.58 3.53 13.21 12.74 12.3 11.89 11.51 11.15 10.81 10.49 10.19 9.91 9.64 9.39 9.15 8.92 8.7 8.49 8.3 8.11 7.93 7.75 7.59 7.43 7.28 7.13 6.99 6.86 6.73 6.61 6.49 6.37 6.26 6.15 6.05 5.95 5.85 5.75 5.66 5.57 5.49 5.4 5.32 15 15 15 15 15 14.8 14.35 13.92 13.53 13.15 12.8 12.46 12.14 11.84 11.55 11.27 11.01 10.76 10.52 10.29 10.07 9.86 9.66 9.47 9.28 9.1 8.93 8.77 8.61 8.45 8.31 8.16 8.02 7.89 7.76 7.64 7.51 7.4 7.28 7.17 7.07 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.78 14.43 14.09 13.77 13.46 13.17 12.89 12.62 12.37 12.12 11.88 11.65 11.43 11.22 11.02 10.82 10.63 10.45 10.27 10.1 9.93 9.77 9.62 9.47 9.32 9.18 9.04 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.81 14.55 14.29 14.04 13.81 13.58 13.35 13.14 12.93 12.73 12.53 12.34 12.16 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

59

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 Maximum Aspect Ratio 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.64 1.62 1.6 1.58 1.55 1.53 1.51 1.49 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.41 1.4 1.38 1.36 1.35 1.33 1.31 1.3 1.28 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.1 2.47 2.43 2.4 2.37 2.33 2.3 2.27 2.24 2.21 2.18 2.15 2.13 2.1 2.07 2.05 2.02 2 1.98 1.95 1.93 1.91 1.89 1.87 1.85 1.83 1.81 1.79 1.77 1.75 1.73 1.71 1.7 1.68 3.47 3.42 3.38 3.33 3.28 3.24 3.19 3.15 3.11 3.07 3.03 2.99 2.95 2.92 2.88 2.85 2.81 2.78 2.75 2.72 2.69 2.65 2.63 2.6 2.57 2.54 2.51 2.49 2.46 2.44 2.41 2.39 2.36 5.25 5.17 5.1 5.02 4.95 4.89 4.82 4.76 4.69 4.63 4.57 4.52 4.46 4.4 4.35 4.3 4.25 4.2 4.15 4.1 4.05 4.01 3.96 3.92 3.88 3.84 3.79 3.76 3.72 3.68 3.64 3.6 3.57 6.96 6.86 6.76 6.67 6.58 6.49 6.4 6.31 6.23 6.15 6.07 5.99 5.92 5.84 5.77 5.7 5.64 5.57 5.51 5.44 5.38 5.32 5.26 5.2 5.15 5.09 5.04 4.98 4.93 4.88 4.83 4.78 4.73 8.91 8.78 8.66 8.53 8.42 8.3 8.19 8.08 7.97 7.87 7.77 7.67 7.57 7.48 7.39 7.3 7.21 7.13 7.05 6.96 6.89 6.81 6.73 6.66 6.59 6.52 6.45 6.38 6.31 6.25 6.18 6.12 6.06 11.98 11.8 11.64 11.47 11.31 11.16 11.01 10.86 10.72 10.58 10.44 10.31 10.18 10.06 9.93 9.81 9.7 9.58 9.47 9.36 9.26 9.15 9.05 8.95 8.85 8.76 8.67 8.57 8.48 8.4 8.31 8.23 8.15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.8 14.6 14.41 14.23 14.05 13.87 13.7 13.53 13.37 13.21 13.06 12.9 12.76 12.61 12.47 12.33 12.2 12.06 11.93 11.81 11.68 11.56 11.44 11.32 11.21 11.1 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

7.3

6.8

6.5

6.3

5.9

4.9

4.3

3.8

3.3

2.9

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

60

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 3 TEMPERED GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES. TABLE 8 MAXIMUM AREAS (M 2) FOR INSULATING GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450

STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3+3 3.81 3.47 3.18 2.93 2.72 2.54 2.38 2.24 2.12 2.01 1.91 1.82 1.73 1.66 1.59 1.52 1.47 1.41 1.36 1.31 4+4 6.62 6.02 5.52 5.09 4.73 4.41 4.14 3.89 3.68 3.48 3.31 3.15 3.01 2.88 2.76 2.65 2.55 2.45 2.36 2.28 5+5 10.08 9.16 8.4 7.75 7.2 6.72 6.3 5.93 5.6 5.31 5.04 4.8 4.58 4.38 4.2 4.03 3.88 3.73 3.6 3.48 6+6 14.18 12.89 11.81 10.91 10.13 9.45 8.86 8.34 7.88 7.46 7.09 6.75 6.44 6.16 5.91 5.67 5.45 5.25 5.06 4.89 8+8 15 15 15 15 15 14.27 13.38 12.59 11.89 11.27 10.7 10.19 9.73 9.31 8.92 8.56 8.23 7.93 7.64 7.38 10+10 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.95 14.2 13.53 12.91 12.35 11.84 11.36 10.93 10.52 10.15 9.8 12+12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.54 13.98 13.46 12.98 12.54

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

61

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 1.27 1.23 1.19 1.16 1.12 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.76 0.75 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 2.21 2.14 2.07 2.01 1.95 1.89 1.84 1.79 1.74 1.7 1.66 1.61 1.58 1.54 1.5 1.47 1.44 1.41 1.38 1.35 1.32 1.3 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.2 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 1.1 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.03 1.02 1 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 3.36 3.25 3.15 3.05 2.96 2.88 2.8 2.72 2.65 2.58 2.52 2.46 2.4 2.34 2.29 2.24 2.19 2.14 2.1 2.06 2.02 1.98 1.94 1.9 1.87 1.83 1.8 1.77 1.74 1.71 1.68 1.65 1.63 1.6 1.57 1.55 1.53 1.5 1.48 1.46 1.44 4.73 4.57 4.43 4.3 4.17 4.05 3.94 3.83 3.73 3.64 3.54 3.46 3.38 3.3 3.22 3.15 3.08 3.02 2.95 2.89 2.84 2.78 2.73 2.67 2.63 2.58 2.53 2.49 2.44 2.4 2.36 2.32 2.29 2.25 2.22 2.18 2.15 2.12 2.08 2.05 2.03 7.13 6.9 6.69 6.49 6.3 6.12 5.95 5.78 5.63 5.49 5.35 5.22 5.1 4.98 4.86 4.76 4.65 4.55 4.46 4.37 4.28 4.2 4.12 4.04 3.96 3.89 3.82 3.76 3.69 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.45 3.4 3.34 3.29 3.24 3.19 3.15 3.1 3.06 9.47 9.16 8.88 8.61 8.35 8.12 7.89 7.68 7.48 7.28 7.1 6.93 6.76 6.61 6.46 6.31 6.18 6.04 5.92 5.8 5.68 5.57 5.46 5.36 5.26 5.16 5.07 4.98 4.9 4.81 4.73 4.66 4.58 4.51 4.44 4.37 4.3 4.24 4.18 4.12 4.06 12.12 11.73 11.36 11.02 10.69 10.39 10.1 9.83 9.57 9.32 9.09 8.87 8.66 8.45 8.26 8.08 7.9 7.74 7.57 7.42 7.27 7.13 6.99 6.86 6.73 6.61 6.49 6.38 6.27 6.16 6.06 5.96 5.86 5.77 5.68 5.59 5.51 5.43 5.35 5.27 5.19

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

62

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 Maximum Aspect Ratio 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.66 1.42 1.4 1.38 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.15 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.1 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 2 1.97 1.94 1.92 1.89 1.87 1.84 1.82 1.79 1.77 1.75 1.73 1.71 1.69 1.67 1.65 1.63 1.61 1.59 1.58 1.56 1.54 1.52 1.51 1.49 1.48 1.46 1.45 1.43 1.42 3.01 2.97 2.93 2.89 2.85 2.82 2.78 2.74 2.71 2.68 2.64 2.61 2.58 2.55 2.52 2.49 2.46 2.43 2.4 2.38 2.35 2.33 2.3 2.28 2.25 2.23 2.21 2.18 2.16 2.14 4 3.95 3.89 3.84 3.79 3.74 3.69 3.64 3.6 3.55 3.51 3.46 3.42 3.38 3.34 3.3 3.27 3.23 3.19 3.16 3.12 3.09 3.05 3.02 2.99 2.96 2.93 2.9 2.87 2.84 5.12 5.05 4.98 4.91 4.85 4.78 4.72 4.66 4.6 4.54 4.49 4.43 4.38 4.33 4.28 4.23 4.18 4.13 4.08 4.04 4 3.95 3.91 3.87 3.83 3.79 3.75 3.71 3.67 3.64

7.3

6.8

6.5

6.3

5.9

4.9

4.3

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

63

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 4 INSULATING GLASS FIXED ON ALL FOUR SIDES

TABLE 9 MAXIMUM AREA (M2) FOR HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS FIXED ON FOUR SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3 4.07 3.7 3.39 3.13 2.9 2.71 2.54 2.39 2.26 2.14 2.03 1.94 1.85 1.77 1.69 1.63 1.56 1.51 1.45 4 7.06 6.42 5.89 5.43 5.04 4.71 4.41 4.15 3.92 3.72 3.53 3.36 3.21 3.07 2.94 2.82 2.72 2.62 2.52 5 10.75 9.77 8.96 8.27 7.68 7.17 6.72 6.32 5.97 5.66 5.38 5.12 4.89 4.67 4.48 4.3 4.14 3.98 3.84 6 15 13.75 12.6 11.63 10.8 10.08 9.45 8.9 8.4 7.96 7.56 7.2 6.87 6.57 6.3 6.05 5.82 5.6 5.4 8 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.27 13.43 12.68 12.02 11.42 10.87 10.38 9.93 9.51 9.13 8.78 8.46 8.15 10 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.43 13.77 13.17 12.63 12.12 11.65 11.22 10.82 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.91 14.36 13.85 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 19 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 25 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

64

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 1.4 1.36 1.31 1.27 1.23 1.2 1.16 1.13 1.1 1.07 1.04 1.02 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.8 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.59 2.44 2.35 2.28 2.21 2.14 2.08 2.02 1.96 1.91 1.86 1.81 1.77 1.72 1.68 1.64 1.61 1.57 1.54 1.5 1.47 1.44 1.41 1.38 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.22 1.2 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 1.1 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.02 3.71 3.58 3.47 3.36 3.26 3.16 3.07 2.99 2.91 2.83 2.76 2.69 2.62 2.56 2.5 2.44 2.39 2.34 2.29 2.24 2.19 2.15 2.11 2.07 2.03 1.99 1.95 1.92 1.89 1.85 1.82 1.79 1.76 1.73 1.71 1.68 1.65 1.63 1.6 1.58 1.56 5.21 5.04 4.88 4.73 4.58 4.45 4.32 4.2 4.09 3.98 3.88 3.78 3.69 3.6 3.52 3.44 3.36 3.29 3.22 3.15 3.09 3.02 2.97 2.91 2.85 2.8 2.75 2.7 2.65 2.61 2.56 2.52 2.48 2.44 2.4 2.36 2.33 2.29 2.26 2.22 2.19 7.87 7.61 7.36 7.13 6.92 6.71 6.52 6.34 6.17 6.01 5.85 5.71 5.57 5.44 5.31 5.19 5.07 4.96 4.86 4.76 4.66 4.57 4.48 4.39 4.31 4.23 4.15 4.08 4.01 3.94 3.87 3.81 3.74 3.68 3.62 3.57 3.51 3.46 3.41 3.36 3.31 10.45 10.1 9.77 9.47 9.18 8.91 8.66 8.42 8.19 7.97 7.77 7.58 7.39 7.21 7.05 6.89 6.73 6.59 6.45 6.31 6.18 6.06 5.94 5.83 5.72 5.61 5.51 5.41 5.32 5.22 5.14 5.05 4.97 4.89 4.81 4.73 4.66 4.59 4.52 4.46 4.39 13.37 12.93 12.51 12.12 11.75 11.41 11.08 10.77 10.48 10.2 9.94 9.69 9.46 9.23 9.02 8.81 8.62 8.43 8.25 8.08 7.91 7.76 7.6 7.46 7.32 7.18 7.05 6.92 6.8 6.69 6.57 6.46 6.36 6.25 6.16 6.06 5.97 5.88 5.79 5.7 5.62 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.89 14.48 14.09 13.72 13.37 13.03 12.71 12.41 12.12 11.85 11.58 11.33 11.09 10.86 10.64 10.43 10.22 10.02 9.84 9.65 9.48 9.31 9.15 8.99 8.84 8.69 8.55 8.41 8.27 8.15 8.02 7.9 7.78 7.67 7.56 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14.8 14.49 14.2 13.93 13.66 13.4 13.15 12.91 12.68 12.46 12.25 12.04 11.84 11.64 11.46 11.27 11.1 10.93 10.76 10.6 10.44 10.29 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

65

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 Maximum Aspect Ratio 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 7.3 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.71 6.8 1.54 1.51 1.49 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.41 1.4 1.38 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.31 1.3 1.28 1.26 1.25 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.1 1.09 1.08 6.5 2.16 2.13 2.1 2.07 2.04 2.02 1.99 1.96 1.94 1.91 1.89 1.87 1.84 1.82 1.8 1.78 1.76 1.74 1.72 1.7 1.68 1.66 1.64 1.63 1.61 1.59 1.58 1.56 1.54 1.53 1.51 6.3 3.26 3.22 3.17 3.13 3.09 3.04 3 2.97 2.93 2.89 2.85 2.82 2.78 2.75 2.72 2.69 2.65 2.62 2.59 2.57 2.54 2.51 2.48 2.45 2.43 2.4 2.38 2.35 2.33 2.31 2.28 5.9 4.33 4.27 4.21 4.15 4.09 4.04 3.99 3.94 3.88 3.84 3.79 3.74 3.7 3.65 3.61 3.56 3.52 3.48 3.44 3.4 3.37 3.33 3.29 3.26 3.22 3.19 3.16 3.12 3.09 3.06 3.03 4.9 5.54 5.46 5.39 5.31 5.24 5.17 5.1 5.04 4.97 4.91 4.85 4.79 4.73 4.67 4.62 4.56 4.51 4.46 4.41 4.36 4.31 4.26 4.22 4.17 4.13 4.08 4.04 4 3.96 3.92 3.88 4.3 7.45 7.34 7.24 7.14 7.04 6.95 6.86 6.77 6.68 6.6 6.52 6.44 6.36 6.28 6.21 6.13 6.06 5.99 5.92 5.86 5.79 5.73 5.67 5.61 5.55 5.49 5.43 5.37 5.32 5.27 5.21 3.8 10.15 10 9.86 9.73 9.6 9.47 9.35 9.22 9.11 8.99 8.88 8.77 8.66 8.56 8.46 8.36 8.26 8.16 8.07 7.98 7.89 7.8 7.72 7.64 7.56 7.48 7.4 7.32 7.25 7.17 7.1 3.3 15 14.93 14.72 14.52 14.32 14.13 13.94 13.76 13.59 13.41 13.25 13.08 12.92 12.77 12.62 12.47 12.32 12.18 12.04 11.91 11.78 11.65 11.52 11.4 11.27 11.16 11.04 10.93 10.81 10.7 10.6 2.9

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

66

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 5 HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS FIXED ON FOUR SIDES

TABLE 10 MAXIMUM SPAN (M) FOR NORMAL(ANNEALED) GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.4 0.39 0.38 4 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.6 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.51 5 0.98 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.83 0.8 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.66 0.65 0.63 6 1.18 1.12 1.07 1.03 0.99 0.96 0.93 0.9 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.76 8 1.51 1.44 1.38 1.32 1.28 1.23 1.19 1.16 1.13 1.1 1.07 1.04 1.02 1 0.97 10 1.89 1.8 1.72 1.66 1.6 1.54 1.49 1.45 1.41 1.37 1.33 1.3 1.27 1.24 1.22 12 2.26 2.16 2.07 1.99 1.91 1.85 1.79 1.74 1.69 1.64 1.6 1.56 1.53 1.49 1.46 15 2.83 2.7 2.58 2.48 2.39 2.31 2.24 2.17 2.11 2.05 2 1.95 1.91 1.87 1.83 19 3.59 3.42 3.27 3.14 3.03 2.93 2.83 2.75 2.67 2.6 2.54 2.47 2.42 2.36 2.31 25 4 4 4 4 3.99 3.85 3.73 3.62 3.52 3.42 3.34 3.26 3.18 3.11 3.05

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

67

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.95 0.94 0.92 0.9 0.89 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.8 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 1.19 1.17 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.02 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.8 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.74 1.43 1.4 1.38 1.35 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.21 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.15 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.9 0.89 1.79 1.76 1.72 1.69 1.66 1.63 1.61 1.58 1.56 1.54 1.51 1.49 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.42 1.4 1.38 1.37 1.35 1.33 1.32 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.11 2.27 2.22 2.18 2.14 2.11 2.07 2.04 2 1.97 1.94 1.92 1.89 1.86 1.84 1.82 1.79 1.77 1.75 1.73 1.71 1.69 1.67 1.65 1.64 1.62 1.6 1.59 1.57 1.56 1.54 1.53 1.52 1.5 1.49 1.48 1.46 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.41 2.98 2.93 2.87 2.82 2.77 2.72 2.68 2.64 2.6 2.56 2.52 2.49 2.45 2.42 2.39 2.36 2.33 2.3 2.28 2.25 2.22 2.2 2.18 2.15 2.13 2.11 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03 2.01 1.99 1.98 1.96 1.94 1.93 1.91 1.89 1.88 1.86 1.85

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

68

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.7 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.8 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.72 1.1 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.35 1.34 1.33 1.32 1.31 1.3 1.29 1.28 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.25 1.24 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.22 1.21 1.2 1.2 1.19 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.15 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.84 1.82 1.81 1.8 1.78 1.77 1.76 1.75 1.73 1.72 1.71 1.7 1.69 1.68 1.67 1.66 1.65 1.64 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.6 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.56 1.56 1.55 1.54 1.53 1.52 1.51 1.51 1.5 1.49

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

69

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 6 NORMAL(ANNEALED) GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES

TABLE 11 MAXIMUM SPAN (M) FOR LAMINATED GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350
DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 5.38 0.88 0.84 0.8 0.77 0.74 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 6.38 1.05 1 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.66 0.65 0.64 8.38 1.35 1.29 1.23 1.18 1.14 1.1 1.07 1.04 1.01 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.82 10.38 1.69 1.61 1.54 1.48 1.43 1.38 1.33 1.29 1.26 1.22 1.19 1.16 1.14 1.11 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.03 12.38 2.03 1.93 1.85 1.78 1.71 1.65 1.6 1.55 1.51 1.47 1.43 1.4 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.28 1.26 1.23 16.38 2.53 2.41 2.31 2.22 2.14 2.07 2 1.94 1.89 1.84 1.79 1.75 1.71 1.67 1.63 1.6 1.57 1.54

70

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400
DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

0.52 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34

0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4

0.81 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52

1.01 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.8 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65

1.21 1.19 1.17 1.15 1.13 1.12 1.1 1.08 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78

1.51 1.49 1.46 1.44 1.42 1.39 1.37 1.35 1.33 1.32 1.3 1.28 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.1 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97

71

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.7 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 0.9 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.86 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.8

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

72

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 7 LAMINATED GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES

TABLE 12 MAXIMUM SPAN (M) FOR TEMPERED GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 4 0.92 0.88 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.58 0.57 5 1.16 1.1 1.05 1.01 0.98 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.8 0.78 0.76 0.75 0.73 0.72 6 1.39 1.32 1.27 1.22 1.17 1.13 1.1 1.06 1.03 1.01 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.91 0.9 0.88 0.86 8 1.84 1.75 1.68 1.61 1.55 1.5 1.45 1.41 1.37 1.33 1.3 1.27 1.24 1.21 1.19 1.16 1.14 10 2.3 2.19 2.1 2.02 1.94 1.88 1.82 1.76 1.71 1.67 1.63 1.59 1.55 1.52 1.48 1.45 1.43 12 2.76 2.63 2.52 2.42 2.33 2.25 2.18 2.12 2.06 2 1.95 1.9 1.86 1.82 1.78 1.74 1.71 15 3.45 3.29 3.15 3.02 2.91 2.81 2.73 2.64 2.57 2.5 2.44 2.38 2.32 2.27 2.23 2.18 2.14 19 4 4 3.99 3.83 3.69 3.57 3.45 3.35 3.25 3.17 3.09 3.01 2.94 2.88 2.82 2.76 2.71 25 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.96 3.87 3.79 3.71 3.63 3.56

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

73

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.84 0.83 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54 1.12 1.1 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.03 1.01 1 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 1.4 1.37 1.35 1.33 1.31 1.28 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.21 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.15 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.1 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.89 0.89 1.68 1.65 1.62 1.59 1.57 1.54 1.52 1.5 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.41 1.4 1.38 1.36 1.35 1.33 1.31 1.3 1.29 1.27 1.26 1.25 1.23 1.22 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.1 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.07 2.1 2.06 2.02 1.99 1.96 1.93 1.9 1.87 1.84 1.82 1.79 1.77 1.75 1.72 1.7 1.68 1.66 1.64 1.63 1.61 1.59 1.57 1.56 1.54 1.53 1.51 1.5 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.41 1.4 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.35 1.34 1.33 2.66 2.61 2.56 2.52 2.48 2.44 2.4 2.37 2.33 2.3 2.27 2.24 2.21 2.18 2.16 2.13 2.11 2.08 2.06 2.04 2.01 1.99 1.97 1.95 1.93 1.91 1.9 1.88 1.86 1.85 1.83 1.81 1.8 1.78 1.77 1.75 1.74 1.73 1.71 1.7 1.69 3.5 3.43 3.37 3.32 3.26 3.21 3.16 3.12 3.07 3.03 2.99 2.95 2.91 2.87 2.84 2.8 2.77 2.74 2.71 2.68 2.65 2.62 2.6 2.57 2.54 2.52 2.5 2.47 2.45 2.43 2.41 2.39 2.37 2.35 2.33 2.31 2.29 2.27 2.25 2.24 2.22

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY

74

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.8 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.73 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 0.9 0.9 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.87 1.32 1.31 1.3 1.29 1.28 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.23 1.22 1.21 1.2 1.2 1.19 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.12 1.11 1.11 1.1 1.1 1.09 1.67 1.66 1.65 1.64 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.56 1.55 1.54 1.53 1.52 1.52 1.51 1.5 1.49 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.46 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.42 1.41 1.4 1.39 1.39 1.38 2.2 2.19 2.17 2.16 2.14 2.13 2.11 2.1 2.08 2.07 2.06 2.04 2.03 2.02 2.01 1.99 1.98 1.97 1.96 1.95 1.94 1.93 1.92 1.9 1.89 1.88 1.87 1.86 1.85 1.84 1.84 1.83 1.82

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FIG.8 TEMPERED GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES

TABLE 13 MAXIMUM SPAN (M) FOR HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES DESIGN WIND PRESSURE in N/Sqm 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS OF GLASS T in mm 3 0.74 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.51 0.5 0.49 0.48 4 0.99 0.94 0.9 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.7 0.68 0.67 0.65 0.64 5 1.24 1.18 1.13 1.09 1.05 1.01 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.8 6 1.49 1.42 1.36 1.3 1.26 1.21 1.18 1.14 1.11 1.08 1.05 1.03 1 0.98 0.96 8 1.91 1.82 1.74 1.67 1.61 1.56 1.51 1.46 1.42 1.39 1.35 1.32 1.29 1.26 1.23 10 2.39 2.28 2.18 2.09 2.02 1.95 1.89 1.83 1.78 1.73 1.69 1.65 1.61 1.57 1.54 12 2.86 2.73 2.62 2.51 2.42 2.34 2.26 2.2 2.14 2.08 2.03 1.98 1.93 1.89 1.85 15 3.58 3.41 3.27 3.14 3.03 2.92 2.83 2.75 2.67 2.6 2.53 2.47 2.41 2.36 2.31 19 4.54 4.32 4.14 3.98 3.83 3.7 3.59 3.48 3.38 3.29 3.21 3.13 3.06 2.99 2.93 25 5.97 5.69 5.45 5.23 5.04 4.87 4.72 4.58 4.45 4.33 4.22 4.12 4.02 3.94 3.85

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.29 0.29 0.63 0.61 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.7 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.94 0.92 0.9 0.89 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.59 0.58 1.21 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 1.1 1.08 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.02 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.75 1.51 1.48 1.45 1.43 1.4 1.38 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.1 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 1.81 1.78 1.74 1.71 1.68 1.65 1.63 1.6 1.58 1.55 1.53 1.51 1.49 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.41 1.4 1.38 1.37 1.35 1.34 1.32 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.12 2.26 2.22 2.18 2.14 2.1 2.07 2.03 2 1.97 1.94 1.91 1.89 1.86 1.84 1.81 1.79 1.77 1.75 1.73 1.71 1.69 1.67 1.65 1.63 1.62 1.6 1.59 1.57 1.56 1.54 1.53 1.51 1.5 1.49 1.47 1.46 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.4 2.87 2.81 2.76 2.71 2.66 2.62 2.58 2.54 2.5 2.46 2.42 2.39 2.36 2.33 2.3 2.27 2.24 2.21 2.19 2.16 2.14 2.11 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03 2.01 1.99 1.97 1.95 1.93 1.92 1.9 1.88 1.87 1.85 1.84 1.82 1.81 1.79 1.78 3.77 3.7 3.63 3.57 3.5 3.45 3.39 3.34 3.29 3.24 3.19 3.15 3.1 3.06 3.02 2.98 2.95 2.91 2.88 2.85 2.81 2.78 2.75 2.72 2.7 2.67 2.64 2.62 2.59 2.57 2.54 2.52 2.5 2.48 2.46 2.44 2.42 2.4 2.38 2.36 2.34

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77

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.7 0.7 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.6 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.9 0.9 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.76 0.75 1.12 1.11 1.1 1.09 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01 1 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.35 1.34 1.33 1.33 1.32 1.31 1.3 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.27 1.26 1.25 1.24 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.21 1.21 1.2 1.19 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.14 1.13 1.77 1.75 1.74 1.73 1.71 1.7 1.69 1.68 1.67 1.66 1.65 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.6 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.56 1.56 1.55 1.54 1.53 1.52 1.51 1.5 1.5 1.49 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.46 1.45 1.44 1.43 2.32 2.31 2.29 2.27 2.26 2.24 2.22 2.21 2.19 2.18 2.16 2.15 2.14 2.12 2.11 2.1 2.08 2.07 2.06 2.05 2.04 2.02 2.01 2 1.99 1.98 1.97 1.96 1.95 1.94 1.93 1.92 1.91 1.9 1.89

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FIG. 9 HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS FIXED ON TWO OPPOSITE SIDES

The deflection at the centre of glass pane can be calculated using the formula in accordance to Annex B. Typical model calculation to calculate and determine wind load and deflection at the centre of the glazing, is given at Annex C. 6 INSTALLATION 6.1 Basic installation requirements and materials used for glass are given hereunder.
NOTES The provisions under this item does not include the use of other methods or systems for glazing, provided the alternate method or system can be demonstrated to satisfy the requirements for correctly supporting the glass within the frame, or glazing system.

Patent and other proprietary systems are not described/covered under this standard. Installation technique for frameless glazing system is not covered in this standard.

6.2 Site Working and Glass Machining Operation 6.2.1 Heat-strengthened and toughened glass shall not be cut or worked after heat treatment. All necessary cutting, drilling, notching, and edge-working shall be carried out to correct dimensions prior to value addition to the glass such as toughening/ tempering/ heat strengthening. The edges and surfaces of all glass types shall not be damaged during fixing. 6.3 Dimensional Requirement

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The dimensions for edge clearance, edge cover, front and back clearance, rebate depth is selected in accordance with the requirements in 9.2 of part 1 of this standard. 6.4 Glazing Materials 6.4.1 Compatibility of materials A glazing material shall be used only when compatible with contiguous materials, including the rebate surface finish, setting or location blocks, distance pieces and glass type are available. 6.4.2 Application of materials The application of glazing materials shall be in accordance with relevant/available Indian standard or manufacturer's recommendations. 6.4.3 Life expectancy of materials A glazing material shall only be used where its life expectancy (durability) has been established. The manufacturers advice/guarantee should be sought for information regarding life expectancy. 6.5 Setting Blocks The number and location of setting blocks shall be as shown in figures 10 and 12. Generally, setting blocks shall be positioned at quarter points or not less than 30 mm from the corner, whichever is lesser; the minimum width of each setting block shall be not less than the glass thickness; and

the minimum thickness of the setting block for drained glazing systems shall be 6 mm. Setting blocks shall be located to equally support all panes of glass, and shall be fixed to prevent displacement during installation and service. The minimum length of each setting block (or two blocks side by side) shall be 25 mm in length for every square meter of glass area, with a minimum length of 50 mm. When wood is used as the material for setting blocks, only the seasoned ones should be used as green wood may shrink laterally, (in the process of attaining equilibrium moisture content over a period of time) and result in loosened installations. For example, a 3.0 m2 glass area, 3.0 25 mm = 75 mm long, i.e., 75 mm is the length of each setting block. Setting blocks shall be of resilient, loadbearing, non-absorbent, rot-proof, and material that is compatible with all other glazing materials conforming to available standards (if any) that may come into contact with the blocks.
NOTES: 1. Setting blocks are used between the bottom edge of the unit and the frame to centralize and equally support both panes of glass. 2. Setting block width and location should not restrict water drainage. 3. Extruded rubber material with 8090 shore-A hardness is recommended 4. Shaped setting blocks will be required for a glazing platform.

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FIG. 10 POSITION OF SETTING BLOCK

6.6 Location Blocks The number and position of location blocks shall be as shown in figures 11 and 12. Location blocks shall be

sufficiently resilient to accommodate movement within the frame, without imposing stress on the glass, and of resilient, non-absorbent material.
NOTES:

1. Location blocks are used between the

of minimum of 25 mm in length; at least as wide as the glass thickness; positively located to prevent displacement in service; and

edges of the glass and the frame to prevent movement of the glass within the frame by thermal expansion or when the window or door is opened or closed. They are required to prevent the weight of the glass from causing the frame to become out of square. 2. Extruded rubber material with 5565 shore-A hardness is recommended

FIG. 11 POSITION OF LOCATION BLOCK

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FIG. 12 RECOMMENDED POSITIONS OF SETTING AND LOCATION BLOCKS FOR THE SITE GLAZING OF SOME TYPES OF DOORS AND WINDOWS

6.7. Distance Pieces Distance pieces, as shown in Figure 13, used where required, shall be of resilient, non-absorbent material; 25 mm long and of a height to suit the depth of the rebate and the method of glazing; and spaced opposite each other, approximately 50 mm from each
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corner at intervals of not more than 300 mm. The thickness shall be equal to the front and back clearance, to retain the glass firmly in the frame.
NOTES

1. Distance pieces are required to prevent displacement of glazing compounds or sealant by external loading, such as wind pressure.

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2.

Extruded rubber material with 5565

shore-A hardness is required.

FIG. 13 POSITION OF DISTANCE PIECES

6.8 Rebates Installation

And

Grooves

For

Rebates, grooves and beads shall be cleaned and free from grease, moisture and other contaminants. All sealant surfaces shall be primed or sealed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the glazing material. The number and location of setting blocks and location blocks shall be as shown in figures 10, 11 and 12, wherever necessary to maintain the requisite edge clearance. Each block shall support the full thickness of the glass. 6.9 Glazing Beads Where used, glazing beads shall be capable of restraining the glass under all design forces. 6.10 Structural Sealants Structural silicone shall be installed such that a full adhesive bond to the substrate is achieved. Application of structural silicone may require prior cleaning and or priming of the substrate. Applied structural silicones shall not be installed adjacent to other materials that may be chemically incompatible with the structural sealant and cause a loss of
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adhesion or adverse chemical changes within the structural silicone that could lead to a loss of strength in the structural silicone. For guidance on the installation of structural silicone, reference to available standards/literatures may be made. 7 DESIGN CRITERIA 7.1 Frame Support Condition 7.1.1 Maximum area of glass panels subjected to wind loading The maximum span for a given standard nominal thickness of ordinary annealed, laminated, heat-strengthened and toughened glass for a given panel size shall be determined in accordance with 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 as applicable for the relevant support conditions. For heat strengthened laminated and toughened laminated glass, maximum allowable span shall be determined in accordance with 7.5. For 3 mm monolithic annealed glass, the maximum area shall not exceed 0.85 m2. The minimum thickness of the nominal glass size shall be as given in the respective specification standards in Annex A.

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

For laminated glass composites, the combined minimum thickness of the glass sheets shall be used excluding the interlayer thickness. 7.2 Rectangular Glass Supported On All Four Edges For rectangular glass supported on all four edges, the maximum area for the design wind pressure shall be determined either graphically from figures 1 to 5 or using the corresponding tables provided above the figure for each type of glass. Linear interpolation may be used for any value in between those given therein while maintaining the aspect ratio. 7.3 Rectangles of Glass Supported On Two Opposite Edges For rectangles of glass supported on two opposite edges, the maximum glass area for the design wind pressure shall be determined from figures 6 to 9 for ordinary annealed, laminated, heat-strengthened and toughened glass respectively. 7.4 Rectangles of Glass Supported on Three Edges For rectangles of glass supported on three edges, the maximum glass area shall be determined as for two-edge support spanning along the unsupported edge. Alternatively, basic engineering principles in accordance with 9 and 10 shall be adopted in determining the glass thickness for all applications where only three edges of the panel are supported.

NOTE - Butt glazing of adjacent panels in the same plane should not be considered as a support when using figures 1 to 9.

7.5 Heat-Strengthened Laminated And Toughened Laminated Glass For heat-strengthened laminated and toughened laminated glass, the maximum span for a given standard nominal thickness for a given panel size shall be determined from figures 5 and 9 and figures 2 and 7 respectively with the design wind pressure being divided by the appropriate glass type factor, Pf (see Table 2), as applicable for the relevant support conditions. 7.6 Serviceability checks 7.6.1 Glass complying to figures 1 to 9 are deemed to meet, the serviceability deflection limits specified (in the absence of any other specified values) or the following values may be had for guidance. 7.6.2 Maximum allowable deflection: Single Glazing = Span/125 Double glazing = Span/175 7.7 Ultimate Stresses The ultimate stresses for various types of glass are given in Table 14.

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TABLE 14 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE DESIGN STRESSES FOR GLASS SUBJECTED TO WIND LOADING Standard Nominal Thickness T mm 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 19 25 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 19 25 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 Ultimate Limit state design stress at given location Away from edge (MPa) 41.00 38.99 37.45 36.2 34.33 32.8 31.57 30.15 28.72 26.96 97.47 93.61 90.49 85.82 82.01 78.91 75.37 71.81 67.41 65.6 62.38 59.91 57.91 54.92 52.48 50.51 37.73 36.43 34.41 32.87 31.62 29.75 28.23 26.99 At Edge (MPa) 32.8 31.19 29.96 28.96 27.46 26.24 25.25 24.12 22.98 21.57 77.97 74.97 72.39 68.65 65.61 63.13 60.3 57.45 53.93 52.48 49.9 47.93 46.33 43.94 41.99 40.4 30.18 29.14 27.53 26.3 25.3 23.8 22.58 21.59

Glass Type

Annealed

Toughened

Heat Strengthened

Annealed Laminated

7.8 Insulating Glass Units 7.8.1 Determining Thickness of Structural Silicone The structural bite requirement is directly proportional to the wind load and the dimension of glass. Higher the wind load
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and larger the dimensions of the glass are, the greater the amount of structural bite required. The controlling variables which affect the structural bite requirement are the maximum short span dimension of glass and the design wind load that the structural glazing system must be designed to accommodate. 85

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

FIG. 14 TYPICAL STRUCTURAL GLAZING DETAIL

7.8.1.1 Structural bite calculation for wind load and glass dimension Minimum Structural Bite = (Glass Short Span Dimension * Wind Load * 0.5) / Maximum allowable design stress Glass' Short Span Dimension (SSD) is the shorter of the two dimensions (in metre) of the rectangular glass panel. Wind load is the maximum wind pressure in Pascal for a return period of 10 years based on local regulations. The maximum allowable design Stress for type of the structural sealant is selected. 7.8.1.2 Structural bite calculation for dead load gTA Min. Bite (m) = Ps = 2500 kg/m is the specific mass of flat glass corresponding to approximately of specific weight. g = 9.81 m/ s2
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s = Allowable Design Stress for Dead load (DL) for selected sealant considered for design, Pa. P = perimeter (if the horizontal frame members will not be supporting the glass or will deflect under the dead load of the glass, consider 2 x Height only) A = area of glass panel (m2) 7.8.2 Maximum Allowable Span for Glass and Type Maximum allowable span is dependent on the thickness of the glass selected and type of glass used (e.g., annealed, toughened or heat strengthened glass). The maximum span is calculated in accordance with 5.9. 7.9 Safety During Installation Glass and the coating layer (if any) should not be, exposed to/in direct contact, with aggressive materials such as acid, solvent, cement mortar, etc. 86

CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

The fixing system of the panel should, in no case, cause shear stresses in the panel, and particularly the bonding interface between the glass sheet and the frame, either under the effect of external forces or due to differential expansion of components. The protection of glass panel by means of a polyethylene sheet is recommended and must provide ventilation for the glass in order to prevent thermal breakage. 7.10 Handling and Transportation 7.10.1 Transportation During the transportation of the flat glass (clear, tinted), coated glass (solar control and mirror), lacquered or painted glass the following methods (if other standard packaging specifications are not available) of storage, packing and interleaving shall be followed: flat glass shall be transported vertically; the glass panes should not come into direct contact with each other by using appropriate interleaving such as powder or foam or paper. The lacquer opacified / enamel coated / screen printed glasses shall be separated by paper or foam; and The packing and packing material shall be protected from water and if the glass is wrapped and sealed, the seal should remain closed until the product is used and precautions must be taken not to damage the packing while handling with a hoisting apparatus. 7.10.2 Handling During the handling of the flat glass (clear, tinted), coated glass (solar control and mirror), lacquered or painted glass, the following guidelines shall be followed:
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glass shall be handled with dry, clean gloves, specifically after washing to prevent stain marks on them. care shall be taken to avoid contact or friction of the coating or the opacified / enamel / screen printed side with any rough surface or hard objects. a better practice is to handle glass with vacuum cups, and ensure that the vacuum cups and the glass are clean; and it is recommended to keep it clean if glass sheets are stored again before their processing or installation in the facade. 7.11 Storage at Site To prevent staining, the storage area at site shall be: a dry, well ventilated location at a sufficiently constant temperature; protected from rain and running water; protected from wide changes in temperature or humidity; protected from alkaline material; protected from direct contact of aggressive products such as corrosive vapors, acids, etc; and glass panes are stored vertically on a soft surface such as wooden boards/battens. 7.12 Storage after cutting 7.12.1 While stacking of coated glass/ mirror in the unpacked condition, the glass surface shall be facing towards the front (paint/coating backing towards the back). 7.12.2 Direct stacking of the mirror/coated glass one above the other should be prevented and suitable interleaving

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CED 13(7885)WC February 2013

material as mentioned in 7.9 should be used between two glass panes.

7.12.3 The support material for glass storage should not have affinity towards moisture absorption. other Indian standards exceed the requirements of this section, in such cases the higher requirements shall become applicable. 8.2 Glass for Fire Resistance 8.2.1 Glazing material shall be constructed, treated, or combined with other materials so as to reduce loss of life or property during an event of fire, in comparison with ordinary sheet or flat glass, thereby preventing the passage of flame, hot gases, smoke and / or providing radiation control and/or insulation. 8.2.2 The following are the products in the scope of this section that may be used for fire resistance in glazing provided they meet the relevant available standards: a) Wired Glass b) Annealed Fire Resistant glass (AFG) c) Tempered Fire Resistant Glass (TFG) d) Gel Laminated Fire Resistant Glass (LFG) e) Double Glazed Fire Resistant Glass (DFG) 8.2.2.1 Wired Glass (Not recommended in doors except as vision panel and for window sizes not greater than in table 15)

8 FIRE SAFETY 8.1 This section covers the requirement and selection of fire safety glass for buildings. General fire safety provisions for buildings can be had from Part 4 of SP 7 (National Building Code of India, NBC 2005). It is important for any fire rated glass to provide sufficient amount of human impact safety feature even during fire or in general situations. The level of human impact safety of glass in buildings shall be in accordance with Part 4 of this standard. It is necessary that the fire rated system will withstand the standard timetemperature curve during a fire test and will give adequate time to the occupants for safe evacuation. This section does not deal with the safety and security of people or goods in relation to risks of: a) vandalism, riots, burglary or break in protection, b) protection from explosion (terrorist attack), c) natural disasters like Earthquakes, cyclone, etc, d) plastic glazing, safety and security glazing, etc. The requirements given in this section are minimum fire resistance requirements. In circumstances wherein the requirements of

TABLE 15 LIMITING SIZE OF WIRED GLASS PANEL

Opening Fire protection rating 60 to 90 min 45 min 20min Fire window assembly

Maximum area m2 0.0645 0.836 Not limited 0.836

Maximum height m 0.838 1.372 Not limited 1.372

Maximum width m 0.254 1.372 Not limited 1.372

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It is a type of glass into which a wire mesh is embedded during production. Wired glass has an impact resistance similar to that of normal glass, but in case of breakage, the mesh retains the pieces of glass. Value addition such as tempering and lamination is not possible using wired glass. 8.2.2.2 Annealed Fire Resistant Glass: A single piece of fire resistant glass that is tested for fire resistance for the required duration. These types of glasses can be used only in areas where human impact safety is not an issue, typically in areas like vision panels of doors. 8.2.2.3 Tempered Fire Resistant Glass : A single piece of specially heat-treated or chemically treated glass that is tested for fire resistance for the required duration and which has a stress pattern such that the piece when fractured reduces to numerous granular fragments, with no large jagged edges. Additionally these glasses should have a impact resistance of highest classification. 8.2.2.4 Gel Laminated Fire Resistant Glass: Two or more pieces of fire resistant glass held together by an interleaving layer or layers of materials and that as a complete system is tested for fire resistance. The laminated glass will crack and break during the fire or under sufficient impact, but the pieces of glass tend to adhere to the interlayered material and do not allow the fire to penetrate the last layer of glass. 8.2.2.5 Double Glazed Fire Resistant Glass: Fire resistant glass that is used as a double glazed unit has to be tested as a complete Double Glazed Unit (DGU) or other multiple glazed units as the case may be. Fire resistant glass cannot be combined with another glass and used as a DGU unless the combined double glazed or multiple glazed unit is also tested. Both the panes of the double glazed unit will need
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to satisfy the required impact safety as mentioned in part 4 of this standard (safety related to human impact).
Note: It may be noted that use of any fire rated glass has to be used in conjunction with a tested system. Fire rated glass alone cannot provide the desired fire resistance since the fire resistance of a partition or a door assembly or any glazed building element is a function of the glass, frames, hardware, gaskets and fixings which forms the glazed system.

8.2.3 Testing Procedures Any fire rated glazed building element needs to be tested as per IS 3614 and IS 3809. The standard tests any building element shall have to withstand against a fixed time temperature curve is defined as: T = 345 log10(8t +1) + 20 where, T is the average furnace temperature in deg Celsius at time 't' in minutes Different standards have different pressure standards which have to be maintained as per the standard during the testing. The fire rating criteria of any building element is determined as per the following: 1) Integrity : Prevention of passage of flames, hot gases and smoke from the fire side to the non fire side, denoted by the letter (E). 2) Radiation Control : The radiation performance category is defined at a qualifying maximum total heat flux of 15Kw/Sqm. Values are determined based on measurements at standard distance of 1 meter from the glazed element at the end of standard fire test time period. This criterion can be achieved by the use of fully insulating fire resistant glass or by using 89

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integrity only glass types with additional radiation reducing property. Providing integrity along with keeping the radiated heat through the building element below 15 kw/m2 when measured at a distance of 1 meter from the building element, denoted by the letters (EW). 3) Insulation : Providing Integrity along with keeping the average temperatures as measured by all the thermocouples on the non fire side below 140 C from the initial temperature considering that no thermocouple records a temperature more than 180 C from the initial temperature at any point of time during the test, denoted by the letters (EI). 8.2.4 Identification of Glass Used for Fire Resistance All glass used for resisting fire shall preferably be certified against available Indian standards (if any) or shall conform to available ISO standards. Since a fire resistant glass is not easily distinguishable from normal types of glass, it is imperative that every fire rated glass panel should preferably have an indelible mark on all the panels of fire resistant glass showing the name of the manufacturer and the name of the product. Rating of the glass panel may also be provided, although the rating of glazing system is of primary concern.

8.3.2 Fire test certificate report conducted for one application shall not be substituted for any other application. For example, a report for a partition shall not be used for a door application although the glass used and the fire ratings are the same. Approval in vertical orientation cannot be considered for acceptance in horizontal or inclined orientation.

8.3.3 The maximum glass size as mentioned in the test report should not be exceeded in practice with respect to the bigger linear dimension or area, unless otherwise validated by an assessment report issued by the testing lab. The aspect ratio may be modified provided that none of the linear sides has a dimension greater than that of the largest dimension of originally tested glass. 8.3.4 The dimensions of the profile need to be the same as that tested. 8.3.5 In case of any change in hardware they should be replaced following the guidelines laid down in the standard against which the test was conducted. 8.3.6 Factors like edge cover, types of gaskets and type of fixtures also play a very vital role in achieving the fire performance of the building element. These have to be used and installed as per the test report/available standards. 8.4 Application/Installation It is to be noted that the use of application of fire safety glass in building shall be in concurrence with the requirement of available Indian Standards/ SP 7/ other regulations in force. SP 7 suggests the use of fire rated building elements in the following areas for high 90

8.3 Precautions 8.3.1 Fire resistant glass alone will not be enough to protect occupants from fire. Glass is only one component of the complete system.
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rise building (15m high and above) fire protection requirements (in its Part 4, ANNEX C) and as such any glass used in these areas need to conform to the fire rating as stipulated in SP 7. The list of applications mentioned below are indicative of the critical locations from the fire safety of view and is not the exhaustive list of all applications requiring fire resistance requirements. 8.4.1 Horizontal exit shall be equipped with at-least one fire/ smoke door of minimum one hour fire resistance of self closing type. Further, it is required to have direct connectivity to the fire escape staircase for evacuation. 8.4.2. Exit Doorways Every exit doorway shall open into an enclosed stairway or a horizontal exit of a corridor or passageway providing continuous and protected means of egress. The exit doorway should have a minimum dimension of 1000 x 2000 mm. 8.4.3 Lift Walls of lift shaft enclosures shall have a fire rating of 2 hours. 8.4.4 Lift shafts shall have a vent at the top, of area not less than 0.2 m2;lift motor room shall be located preferably at the top of the shaft and separated from the shaft by the floor of the room. 8.4.5 Landing doors in lift enclosures shall have fire resistance of not less than 1h. A wall of 2 hours rating shall separate individual shafts in a bank.

8.4.6 Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating of half an hour. Collapsible gates shall not be permitted for lifts. They shall have solid doors with fire resistance of at least 1 hours. 8.4.7 Exit from the lift lobby if located in the core of the building , shall be through a self-closing smoke stop door of half an hour fire resistance. 8.4.8 Basement - the staircase of basements shall be of enclosed type having fire resistance of not less than 2 hours and shall be situated at the periphery of the basement to be entered at ground level only from the open air and in such positions that smoke from any fire in the basement shall not obstruct any exit serving the ground and upper storey of the building. It shall communicate with basement through a lobby provided with fire resisting self closing doors of one hour resistance. Glazing if used in staircase shall have fire resistance rating of minimum 2 hours. 8.4.9 Separation wall - All floors shall be compartmented with area not exceeding 750 m2 by a separation wall with 2 hours fire rating. For floors with sprinklers the area may be increased by 50 percent. In long building, the fire separation walls shall be at distances not exceeding 40 m. For departmental stores, shopping centers and basements, the area may be reduced to 500 m2 for compartmentation.

TABLE 16 FIRE RESISTANCE RATING OF STRUCTURAL AND NON STRUCTURAL ELEMENT Structural Element
Type of construction Type 1 h 1 Type 2 h 2 1 2 Type 3 h 2 1 2 Type 4 h 1 1 1

No

Exterior wall a) Fire separation less than 3.7 m b) Fire separation of 3.7m or more but less than 9m

i) Bearing ii) Non bearing i) Bearing

4 2 4

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2 1 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2

Fire resisting wall Fire separation assemblies(like fire check doors)

fire enclosure of exitways,hallways and staircase shaft other than exitways elevators and hoist ways exitway access corridor vertical separation of tenant space Dwelling unit separation non-load bearing partitions

5 6 7

2 1 1

2 1 1

2 1 1

2 1 1

- at least half an hour -

Interior bearing walls, bearing partitions, columns, grinders, trusses (other than roof trusses) and framing

i)supporting more one floor

ii) supporting one floor only iii)supporting roof only


10

Structural members support walls Floor construction including walls

11

i) 5m or less in height to lowest member

12

roof construction

ii)more than 5mm but less than 6.7mm in height to lowest member

iii) 6.7m or more in height to lowest member

Note: Types of construction according to fire resistance is categorized into 4 sections [Type 1,2,3 and 4], where type 1 has the highest order of fire resistance as per National Building Code
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8.5 Installation Glazing System

Of

Fire

Resistant

Installation is just as important as correct selection of the system. Any number of test and assessment conducted on the system are completely undermined if the installation is sub standard. Decisions concerning changes to the specified fire resistant glazing system must never be made on site. Specific instructions given by manufacturers must be noted and strictly followed, and this applies in particular to labels indicating glazing orientation and direction. Glazing Specific The following must be checked during installation: Thermal expansion elements (which may be glass type specific ) Application and location of setting blocks Glazing seal as specified in test certificate Application of correct type of bead with secure fixing Edge cover in view of its importance. Amount of edge cover on glass in its frame can be a critical dimension for the following reasons

The performance of tempered fire resistant glass is critically dependent on the edge cover and edge clearance. For some types of glass, the edge cover is not as per the test certificate. Then it is quite possible that the glass may fail due to slumping. Before installing the glass, the work area shall be checked for dimensions, plumb and any obstructions like running cables, etc. Frames shall be securely installed to the supporting structure by means of suitable systems such as expanding metal bolts, screws, etc. The design guidelines/test reports' specification/values need to be adhered to while fixing the glazing. 8.6 Critical Location Parts of a building that are most likely to be used for exit or movement in the event of a fire, are the critical locations from fire safety point of view. 8.6.1 Classification - Any glazing within the above critical location area requiring fire resistance, shall necessarily comply with both the fire resistance requirement and impact safety requirement, as per Table 1 of Part 4 Fire and Life Safety of SP 7.

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ANNEX A REFERENCE IS No. 875 (Part 2): 1987 875 (Part 3): 1987 1893 (Part 1) :2002 2553 (Part 1) : 1990 3614 (Part 1) : 1966 3614 (Part 2) : 1992 3808:1979 3809:1979 14900:2000 SP 7:2005 Title Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) For Buildings And Structures: Part 2 Imposed Loads Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures - Part 3 : Wind Loads Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 1 : General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth revision) Specification for safety glass Part 1 General purpose (Third revision) Fire-check Doors - Part I : Plate, Metal Covered and Rolling Type Fire-check Doors - Part 2 : Metallic and non-metallic fire check doors - Resistance test and performance criteria Method of test for non-combustibility of building materials (First revision) Fire resistance test for structures (First revision) Specification for transparent float glass National Building Code of India 2005

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ANNEX B (Informative)
PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING THE APPROXIMATE DEFLECTION AT CENTER OF GLASS

Maximum glass deflection as a function of plate geometry and load may be calculated using the following: Deflection (w) = t*exp(r0 + r1*X + r2.X2) X = Ln (Ln(q(a*b) /Et )) r0 = 0.553 - 3.83(a/b) +1.11(a/b)2 0.069(a/b)3 r1 = - 2.29 + 5.53(a/b)2.17(a/b)2+0.2067(a/b)3 r2 =1.485 1.908(a/b) +0.815(a/b)2 - 0.0822(a/b)3 where, E = youngs modulus of glass q = net pressure on the pane (N/sq.m) a = longer dimension (mm) b = shorter dimension (mm) t = thickness of the glass pane calculated. Example : Lateral Deflection Calculation in SI Units Using Method X2 Determine the maximum lateral deflection (w) of a vertical 1200- by 1500- by 6-mm rectangular glass plate subjected to a uniform lateral load of 1.80 kPa. The actual thickness of the glass is 5.60 mm as determined through direct measurement. a = 1500 ; b = 1200 r0 = 2.689 r1 = 2.011 r2 = 0.213 q = 1.80
2 4

E = 71.73 x 106 t = 5.60 x = 1.490 Therefore the maximum deflection at the center of glass is: w = 5.6 x exp(2.689 + 2.111 x 1.490 + 0.213 x 1.4902) w = 12.2 mm Lateral Deflection Calculation in InchPound Units Using Method X 1 Determine the maximum lateral deflection (w) associated with a 50- by 60- by 14-in. rectangular glass plate subjected to a uniform lateral load of 38 psf. The actual thickness of the glass is 0.220 in. as determined through direct measurement. a = 60 ; b =50 r0 = 2.612 r1 = 1.938 r2 = 0.227 q = 38 E = 10.4 3 106 t = 0.220 x = 1.527 Therefore the maximum center of glass deflection is: w = 0.220 exp (2.612 + 1.938 x 1.527 + 0.227 x 1.5272) w = 0.53 in.

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ANNEX C MODEL CALCULATION OF GLASS THICKNESS Vz - Design Wind Speed C-1: Model Calculation P Design Wind Pressure N/m2 at Height
z

C-1.1 Glass Panel dimension width 1200mm and height 1800mm for location Chennai for annealed glass type General Checks has to be done for safety Performance: The maximum area of glass panel is restricted to 15 m2. The maximum span of window is restricted to 4 m. Applicable to normal, reflective, laminated, tempered and insulating glass. Applicable to rectangular panels properly fixed.

H Design wind Speed for Chennai location (basic wind speed -50m/s taken from IS 875-Part 3) = 1750 N/sq.m Step 3 Strength factor Based on the types of glass (Laminated/Tempered/Insulating Glass) pressure factor is calculated. To determine the thickness of laminated / tempered / insulating glass, the design wind pressure Pnet is modified as below: Pnet = Pz/Pf where, Pf is the pressure factor dependent on the type of glass. The values of the pressure factor Pf can be taken from Table 2. For Annealed Units, Pf = 1.0 P net = 1750/1.0 = 1750 N/m2 At this Stage the glass thickness value been calculated from the table and then the deflection and Stress check been done Deflection Calculation The deflection of the glass can be determined using the figure 2.1 to 1.9 or calculated using the formula in Annex B. Actual deflection for the pane: Deflection (w) = t*exp(r0+r1*X+r2.X2) X = Ln (Ln(q(a*b)^2/Et^4)) r0 = 0.553-3.83(a/b) +1.11(a/b) ^20.069(a/b) ^3 r1 = - 2.29 +5.53(a/b)-2.17(a/b) ^2+0.2067(a/b) ^3

Step 1 Calculate Aspect Ratio (AR Table 3.


max)

from

Aspect ratio( AR max) = Longer side / shorter side of glass Aspect ratio = 1800/1200 = 1.5 Step 2 Wind Load Calculation Pz = 0.6 Vz2 Vz = Vb.K1.K2.K3 Where, Vb Basic Wind Speed based on Location (Table 1) - IS 875 Part 3 K1 -- Risk Co-efficient factor taken as per IS 875 Part 3 K2 Terrain Factor (Table 2) - IS 875 Part 3 K3 Topography Factor( Table 3) - IS 875 Part 3
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r2 =1.485 1.908(a/b) +0.815(a/b) ^2-0.0822(a/b) ^3 where, E= youngs modulus ( 71.7E6 kpa or N/sq.mm) Q = net pressure on the pane (N/sq.m) A= longer dimension (mm) B= shorter dimension (mm) T = thickness of the glass pane calculated. The Actual Deflection is, 4mm < 11mm maximum allowable

Result: 1800/175 = 10.3 mm maximum allowable deflection. Hence the glass thickness calculated is safe against deflection. Glass thickness Calculation Pnet * A = 200.0 * Tk (let T 6 mm) Pnet = 1750 A = 2.16 m2 K = 1.765 T = 5.28 mm, therefore choose the thickness of glass as 6mm

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ANNEX D (Informative)

INSTALLATION OF MIRRORS D-1 This annexure provides general guidelines, which is to be followed during the installation of mirror. Mirrors (Piece of glass silvered on one side, with a protective paint coating) are used in shops, gymnasiums, etc., where it is predominantly used as wall cladding. The mirror panels in such application use large panel size and it is recommended to follow the installation procedure in accordance to this section. D-1.1 The mirror should always be mounted on a perfectly flat, clean and dry surface free from acids and aggressive substances such as acid, solvent and cement mortar. D-1.2 The mirror shall be mounted on wall or plywood and care is taken that the mirror is never stuck over unstable support (painted paper, paint or old plaster). It is recommended that the mirror installation is not done directly the mirrors supporting in order to have good ventilation, following is recommended space depending on the height of the mirror panel. A space of 5 mm for a mirror less than 1 m height. A space of 10 mm for a mirror greater than 1 m height.

During the installation of mirror panels at several levels i.e., one above the other, it recommended to provide a space of 10 mm at the top and at the bottom for circulation of air. The side of the mirror is designed with a minimum 1 or 2 mm of interleaving space. When mirror is fixed in a profile (frame), care is to be taken to maintain perfectly dry and clean frame. It is recommended that mirror is supported on hard non metallic/plastic wedges of at least 3 mm, to raise the mirror and thus avoid contact with the condensed water which could accumulate in the profile. If the mirror is screwed on, the screws of a suitable dimension is designed, with the interleaving and washers made of plastic to avoid any direct glass-metal contact. To minimize the risk of breakage, cracks and splinters during screw-mounting the mirror, it is recommended to use synthetic protective collars

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adhesive or the adhesive tapes must always be fixed vertically.

D-1.3 The adhesive used to mount mirrors, care should be taken to ensure that the adhesive is compatible with the protective coatings on the mirror. It is recommended to use only neutral binding agents such as Alkoxy silicone, Oxime silicone, etc. Avoid use of acid silicones, such as Acetoxy silicones which contain acetic acid or water/rubber/polyurethanebased glues.

D-1.4 In the high humidity areas (e.g. bathrooms), it is recommended to seal the edges with neutral silicone to protect the backing paint from damage due to moisture and enhanced protection from moisture. It is recommended to use double sided adhesive tapes to fix the mirror on the mounting surface. The adhesive tapes used for installation must be certified to be compatible with the mirror and the
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BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


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Draft Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 4: SAFETY RELATED TO HUMAN IMPACT

Doc: CED 13(7886)WC ICS No.: 81.040.20 Building Construction Practices Sectional Committee, CED 13
FOREWORD

Last Date for Comments 31 May 2013

Formal clause will be included later


Glazing is an important item in building construction and glass, the primary glazing element has to be selected to cater to several requirements. Fixing of glass a specialized operation, when properly done, will avoid the hazards of broken glass. Growing trend in resorting to glazed windows/doors in buildings and structures has considerably increased the importance of glazing and the need for proper workmanship. This standard Code of Practice for Use of Glass in Buildings is envisaged to address the above and their engineering aspects, and is brought out as various parts namely: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: General Methodology for Selection Energy and Light Fire and Loading Safety Related to Human Impact

This standard (Part 4) is intended to provide guidance with respect to human impact safety while using glazing in buildings. Standard specifications of various types of glass are not covered in this standard, for which respective Indian Standards as mentioned/available may be referred to. Correct selection of materials to be used in glazing for buildings depends on many factors. Therefore, provisions in this part of the standard should be used in conjunction with those in other parts. This standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application. Attention may be drawn to the National Building Code of India 2005, SP 7:2005 and the applicable statutory regulations in states/U.T.s including their development control rules and general building requirements that are in force. Use of organic coated films including safety films on glass (say annealed) shall not classify the glass as safety glass as per this standard, and hence users should exercise caution in choosing their options. This standard (along with the other parts) proposes to withdraw the existing standard, IS 3548:1988 Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings (First Revision), in view of the comprehensive provisions proposed herein. However, the contents of the same shall be included in Part 1 of this standard as an informative annex. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values (Revised). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

CED 13(7886)WC February 2013

Draft Indian Standard


(Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS


PART 4: SAFETY RELATED TO HUMAN IMPACT

Doc: CED 13(7886)WC


1 SCOPE This standard covers provisions for the selection, manifestation of glass in buildings, subject to safety with respect to human impact of the occupants. This standard does not cover the following: Glazing system including Frameless glazing system Patent glazing accordance with the requirements of Part 1 of this standard. 4 TERMINOLOGY For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS 14900 and IS 2553 (Part 1) shall be applicable in addition to the following definitions: 4.1 Annealed Glass (see Glass) Also known as "normal" glass, most commonly used for flat glass, i.e., glass not subjected to toughening, lamination and heat strengthening. 4.2 Aspect Ratio The ratio of a longer side of glass pane to its shorter side. 4.3 Balustrade A low wall forming a parapet to a stair, ramp, balcony, raised level or a change in level. 4.4 Chair Rail A fixed glazing bar or rigid push bar that provides protection from human impact. 4.5 Clear Glass Transparent glass with neutral/near colourless appearance. 4.6 Corridor A common passage or circulation space including a common hall. 4.7 Curtain Wall Non load bearing structure / partition of glass attached to the building frame, usually on the exterior face. 4.8 Double Glazing Glazing that incorporates two panels of glass, separated with an air or inert gas space, for the purpose of sound and/or thermal insulation. 4.9 Facade Front or face of the building which is part of framed or frameless system. 4.10 Faceted Glazing Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other to form a faceted curve.

2 REFERENCES The following Indian standards contain provision which through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subjected to revision and parties to agreement based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated herein. IS No. 2553 (Part 1990 Title Specification for safety glass 1): Part 1 General purpose (Third revision) Specification transparent float glass for

14900:2000

3 APPLICATION While selecting the glass depending on the application, the structural performance and required glass thickness shall satisfy the following criteria: Glazing thickness calculation subjected to wind load is calculated in accordance to Part 3 of this standard. For a given application, the type and thickness of glass selected shall be in
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4.11 Fin A piece of glass positioned and fastened to provide lateral support. 4.12 Flat Glass A general term covering sheet glass, float glass and various forms of rolled and plate glass in which shape of the glass is flat. 4.13 Float Glass A type of flat glass produced by floating molten glass on a bath of molten tin to form continuous ribbon of glass. 4.14 Frame A structure manufactured from timber, metal, aluminum or other durable material or combinations of materials such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge. 4.15 Frameless Glazing Unframed glazing which maintains the integrity through pointed support structures. 4.16 Fully Framed Glazing Panels that have all four edges framed. 4.17 Glass An inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. It is typically hard and brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture. It may be colourless or tinted and transparent to opaque. 4.18 Glazing The (act of) securing of glass into a building in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions. 4.19 Guarding Physical barricade used to prevent people falling wherever there is a change in floor level by means of a permanent barrier such as guard rail. 4.20 Heat Soaking Heat Soaking is done on toughened/tempered glass by reheating to a temperature of 290oC and keeping it at this temperature for eight hours and cooling it gradually. The glass can break spontaneously and without provocation due to possible impurity of Nickel Sulphide in basic glass used for toughening/tempering. This risk of spontaneous breakage can be minimized by heat soaking process by forcing such glasses to break during the test itself. 4.21 Heat Strengthened Glass Glass which has been heated past its softening point and chilled at intermittent speed of annealing and tempering to increase its strength and make it
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thermally safe, but which breaks like annealed glass. 4.22 Hermetically Sealed Completely sealed, (especially against the escape or entry of air which is impervious to outside interference or influence.) 4.23 High Activity Area Area where multiple and major human activity takes place. 4.24 High Risk Area Area prone to human injury and causality. 4.25 Infill Balustrades Balustrades in which the supported glass resists an infill pressure and / or point load applied to the glass panel. 4.26 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) An assembly consisting of at least two panes of glass, separated by one or more spaces, hermetically sealed along the periphery, mechanically stable and durable. 4.27 Interlayer The transparent damping material used in laminated glass, usually PVB. 4.28 Internal Partition An interior dividing wall or such portion of an interior dividing wall that is not a door, side panel, shop front or atrium wall. 4.29 Laminated Sheet Safety Glass Two or more pieces of glass held together by an interleaving layer or layers of plastic materials. 4.30 Manifestation Any technique for enhancing a person's awareness of the presence of transparent glass. 4.31 Maximum Thickness The thickness of a panel of glass at the maximum thickness tolerance. 4.32 Minimum Thickness The thickness of a panel of glass at the minimum thickness tolerance. 4.33 Monolithic Glass A single sheet of flat glass which could be either annealed, toughened or heat strengthened. 4.34 Nominal Thickness A numeric designation used for reference purposes that indicates the approximate thickness of glass.

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CED 13(7886)WC February 2013

4.35 Pane Single piece of glass or plastic glazing sheet material in a finished size ready for glazing. 4.36 Panel An assembly containing one or more panes of glass. 4.37 Partition It means an interior non-load bearing divider, one storey in height or part. 4.38 Partly Framed or Unframed Glazing Panels that have one or more edges unframed. 4.39 Residual Protection It is the protection provided to avoid the human impact to glass. It is provided on the side of glass where there are chances of human impact. It can be achieved by providing a sill structure or a grill inside. 4.40 Skylight A fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60 from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on roof of a building is considered as vertical fenestration. 4.41 Sloped Overhead Glazing Glazing that is inclined at less than 75 degrees to the horizontal and located, wholly or partially, directly above an area that may be used by people. 4.42 Spandrel Non vision portion of the exterior wall of a building. 4.43 Toughened Sheet Safety (Tempered) Glass A single piece of specially heattreated or chemically treated glass, with a stress pattern such that the piece when fractured reduces to numerous granular fragments, with no large jagged edges. 4.44 Vertical Fenestration All fenestration other than skylights. Trombe wall assemblies, where glazing is installed within 300 mm (12 in) of a mass wall, are considered walls and not fenestration. 5 CRITERIA FOR HUMAN IMPACT SAFETY 5.1 General

outside of human impact are not covered under the scope of this standard. This standard does not assume that the glass used in accordance to this standard will not be broken under all human impact conditions, rather: a) it will not be broken under most likely forms of human impact and, b) even if it breaks the likelihood of cutting or piercing injuries will be minimized by virtue of the protection given to the glass, or by the limited size or increased thickness, or by the fracture characteristics of the glass. Further, this standard does not deal with the safety and security of people or goods in relation to risks of: a) vandalism, riots, burglary or break in protection, b) fire arm protection, c) protection from explosion (terrorist attack), d) natural disasters like earthquakes, cyclone, fire, etc, e) plastic glazing material, safety and security glazing, etc. In circumstances wherein the requirements of any referred standard(s) exceeds the requirements of this standard, in such cases the higher requirement shall become applicable. The use of this standard must also be in conformity with all other relevant standards on fire safety, structural stability, natural disasters, safety and security, etc., in force. 5.2 Safety Glass

Glazing material that are constructed, treated, or combined with other materials so as to reduce, in comparison with ordinary sheet/ float/ plate glass, the likelihood of injury to persons by objects from exterior sources or by these safety glasses when they may be cracked or broken. The following are the products in the scope of this standard that may be used in safety glazing provided they meet the conformity requirements in IS 2553 (Part 1) to them.

The provisions herein are limited to the behaviour of glass when subjected to various kinds of human impact, precautions against risk of fall and falling glass. Conditions
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Safety glass according to this standard shall be of two types as below: a) Toughened Sheet Safety (Tempered) Glass (TS) b) Laminated Sheet Safety Glass (LS) 5.2.1 Precautions

more vulnerable to human impact than others. Some of such critical locations are shown in Figure 1, where necessary precautions have to be followed: a) In-and-around doors, low windows, b) Door Side Panels c) Panels mistaken for a doorway or opening, d) Panels at low levels in walls and partitions, e) Bathrooms, f) Building associated with special activities, e.g., gymnasia, enclosed swimming pools, etc, g) Schools and child care facilities, h) Nursing homes and care facilities for the aged and infirmed. Suitable precautions should be taken to reduce the injuries that can result from glass breakage by: a) selecting glass of a suitable type, thickness and size, b) enhancing a persons awareness of presence of glass by making glass visible (manifestation of glass), c) minimizing manual handling of large pieces of glass during installation. Based on the above, a comprehensive table (Table 1 is provided for information.

All heat-treated glasses are not safety glasses and all laminated, toughened, coated glasses are not safety glasses. Heat strengthened glasses and annealed glasses are not classified as safety glasses unless laminated to meet the requirement of tests specified for safety glass. 5.3 Critical Location

Where any glazing is within 1.5 meter above the floor level of a building, it is considered likely to be subjected to human impact and hence, shall comply with the human impact safety requirements of this section. Safety glazing should also be used: a) where there is danger of falling infill glass material(s) from overhead glazing, b) the danger of falling due to a change in floor level, c) in case of balustrades, stairs and floors. Based on typical accidents in glazed buildings, certain locations in buildings are found to be

FIG. 1 CRITICAL LOCATIONS


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CED 13(7886)WC February 2013 TABLE 1 CRITICAL LOCATIONS IN BUILDINGS REQUIRING SAFETY GLASS CASE 1 Vertical walls with residual protection # or Hs 0.75 (not likely to be subjected to human impact) CASE 2 vertical walls Hs<0.75m & Hf1.5m (human impact but no risk of fall) CASE 3 Vertical walls Hs<0.75m & Hf1.5m (Human impact and risk of fall) CASE 4 Horizontal or sloped glazing Glass (risk of fall) CASE 5 Glass acting as a balustrade/ railing (Human impact and risk of fall)

Fig 1

Fig 4

Glass Shelter Fig 6

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 5

Fig 7

Fig 8

Type Glass

of

Any Glass* Please refer to note 4 residual protection is the safeguard provided to avoid the impact of human

Safety Glass Doors Side Panels Curtain walls Glazed area

Safety Glass ** Curtain walls Faade Spandrels High activity area

Laminated Safety Glass Roof (Skylights) Ceilings Bus Shelters Floors

Laminated Safety Glass Balustrades Balcony Railings

Examples

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CED 13(7886)WC February 2013 being on glass. It is provided on the side of the glass where there are chances of human impact. It can be achieved by providing protection in the form of a sill structure or transom, chair rail or grill work inside. Doors in Bathroom a) Fully framed b) Partially framed c) Frameless Faade windows Internal partitions & doors External faade & doors on ground floor, above floor with terrace outside. High risk area To avoid risk Stairs Sloped Faade

* Safety glass is not mandatory ** laminated Float glass is preferred

NOTES TO TABLE 1

Note 1: Hf' corresponds to height of fall of human being or glass in case of change in level and Hs corresponds to the sill height with reference to floor height. Note 2: In case of mirror glazing, it should conform to the requirements of other safety glasses unless it is fully backed by a solid material. Note 3: In case 2 and 3, if the smaller dimension of the pane is 250 mm or less and its area is 0.5 sqm or less, glass other than safety glass may be used, provided that its nominal thickness is not less than 6mm. (applicable to vertical glazing). Note 4: Toughened or laminated safety glass should meet respective test requirements as given in Table 3. Note 5: The effective toughened safety glass thickness and/or laminated safety glass configuration shall be determined case by case with regard to: - other solicitations (wind load, snow load, dead load, and human load) - the overall dimension (length, width, of surface) - the aspect ratio of the glass - the glazing fixing type (framing, bolted system, structural system, etc) Note 6: Precautions against chances of injuries due to broken glass falling on people: (a) Broken annealed glass falling on people can cause grievous or even fatal injuries; hence it is recommended to use safety glass in locations other than defined in case 1 where the risk of people getting hurt by falling glass is high.
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(b) Toughened sheet safety (tempered) glass has a safe breakage pattern, as it breaks and disintegrates into small and relatively harmless particles. However thick toughened glass particles may stay interlocked, and fall as lumps of these multiple particles and can cause a minor or medium injury mainly due to the weight of the cluster. (c) Laminated sheet safety glass will generally not fall out of fixing. However, where laminated glass with both glasses toughened, used for horizontal or sloped glazing is used, in case of failure of both toughened glasses, it may crumble as a blanket and fall out of fixing. This factor needs to be considered while designing horizontal and sloped glazing. (d) Any broken glass in any glazing should be removed immediately on breakage. (e) Strength of the glazing system should be such that it has the ability to hold glass in place and prevent it from falling out as a whole. Note 7: In case of external laminated glass facades, openable portions have to be left at regular distances for fire fighting and smoke exhaust. Note 8: If Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) is used in situations mentioned in this standard, then one of the following will apply: i) If IGU is installed in areas subjected to human impact on either side, then both the panes of the unit shall meet the requirements of this standard. ii) In situations where access is restricted to one side of the unit, then only the accessible side should meet the requirements of this standard.

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5.4

Manifestation (making glass visible)

5.4.1 Presence of glass in a door, side panel or a panel capable of being mistaken for a doorway or opening, which is not made apparent by transoms, colonial bars, door frames, large door handles, stall or other components of glazing system, should be made apparent by some form of manifestation. Decorative treatment, such as being opaque, or patterned are the other common manifestation options. The manifestation employed should be of a sufficient size to make it immediately obvious. The manifestation should preferably be permanent e.g., etching of the glazing; alternatively, if applied materials are used, they should be durable and not easily removed. 5.4.2 Marking shall be in the form of an opaque band not less than 20 mm in height and located so that the vertical distance from the floor level to the position of manifestation, o not less than 700 mm from the upper edge of the band; and o not more than 1200 mm to the lower edge of the band. The band shall be such that it is readily apparent and it can be achieved by contrasting the band with background or by increasing height of band. Safety glazing cannot be substituted by making the glass visible by marking. 5.4.3 A band or marking is not required where any one of the following applies: a) Height of the glass is not greater than 1000 mm at any part, b) The width of the glass is not greater than 500 mm at any part (this applies to overall panel assembly not individual glass pieces as in faceted glazing), c) Within 750 mm of the floor there is no glass. 5.5

d) The glass is provided with at least one fixed glazing bar, firmly attached to the styles to locate and protect each face of the glass. At least one transom (glazing bar) shall be located with its upper edge not less than 500 mm and its bottom edge not more than 1000 mm above the floor level. The glazing bar shall have a face width not less than 40 mm 3 mm. e) Alternatively patterns may be used as an acceptable form of marking provided it meets the other criteria in this standard. Identification

All Safety glasses shall be procured from certified manufacturers and the product shall conform to relevant standards. Either a label that cannot be removed and reused or a permanent (indelible) mark on the glass surface shall mark all the panels of safety glass.
Note: Preferably, safety glass certified by BIS with ISI mark, bearing CM/L number and other requirements of BIS certification, may be used. Manufacturers name, registered trademark or code of the manufacturer or supplier, type of safety glass, the standard number against which the safety glass has been tested and the grade of test classification are other commonly marked information.

5.6 Test Requirements 5.6.1 Fragmentation Test The fragmentation test shall be done in accordance with 5.2.3 of IS 2553 (Part 1). 5.6.2 Mechanical Strength The required mechanical strength values (see Table 2) apply to quasi-static loading over a short time like wind loading relate to 5% probability of breakage at the lower limit and 95% confidence intervals.

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TABLE 2 MINIMUM MECHANICAL STRENGTH REQUIRED FOR FULLY TOUGHENED FLAT GLASS

Mechanical Strength Type Of Glass N/Sq mm Flat ( Clear / Tinted / Coated / Mirror ) Enameled Flat (Based on enameled surface in tension) Patterned Glass 120

75 90

If the glass satisfy the relevant impact test performance requirements (or fragmentation test for toughened glass), in addition to all other appropriate tests mentioned in available Indian Standards or as listed in table 3 below, these materials can be classified as safety glass.

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TABLE 3 TEST REQUIREMENT

Requirements aginst Impact / Resistance to shock Fragmentation Test Warp Test Boil Test Fracture and Adhesion test Light Stability Test

Laminated Safety Glass YES YES YES

Toughened Safety Glass YES YES YES

Test requirement as per

IS 2553 Part 1 -

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