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Mobile Virtual Network Enabler

A Mobile Virtual Network Enabler (or MVNE) is a company that provides services to
MVNOs, such as billing, network element provisioning, administration, operations,
support of base station subsystems and operations support systems, and provision of back
end network elements, to enable provision of mobile network services like cellular phone
connectivity.

A MVNE does not have a relationship with end-user customers. Instead, an MVNE
provides infrastructure and services to enable MVNOs to offer services and have a
relationship with end-user customers. MVNEs offer the ability for an MVNO to focus on
their core strengths of brand, customer loyalty and marketing and leave the back-end
enablement to MVNEs. They also have shared risk-reward arrangements with the MVNO
with various kinds of revenue sharing models, usually tied to the number of subscribers
that the MVNO has projected in their business plan.

From a systems standpoint, designing MVNEs is a complex process that includes taking
commercial off-the-shelf applications and converting them to work in a multi-tenancy
model in a seamless fashion.

According to Pyramid Research, there are three main categories of enablers, according to
their MVNO solutions:

Aggregator MVNEs: these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled
all of the back-office network components through alliances. These promote their ability
to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. Companies include Ztar and
TMNG.

Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms: this includes aggregators which have
developed one or more back-office solutions internally, and have complemented them
with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. Companies include
ASPIDER Solutions.

Specialised Enablers: these offer only parts of the back-office network such as
messaging platforms, data platforms and billing solutions. They are not solely focused on
the MVNO market. Companies include ASPIDER Solutions, Tyntec and Convergys.

The voice-centric, operationally "light" MVNOs of today have generally worked with an
aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the
MVNO. The new breed high-end, strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of
the MVNE market. Besides leveraging their own existing assets, they choose to own
more of their platforms, particularly their logistics, distribution and customer care
systems. They still work with MVNEs, but they tend to opt for specialised ones with
best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation.
[edit] References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MVNE

Mobile Virtual Network Enabler


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from MVNE)


Jump to: navigation, search

A Mobile Virtual Network Enabler (or MVNE) is a company that provides services to
MVNOs, such as billing, network element provisioning, administration, operations,
support of base station subsystems and operations support systems, and provision of back
end network elements, to enable provision of mobile network services like cellular phone
connectivity.

A MVNE does not have a relationship with end-user customers. Instead, an MVNE
provides infrastructure and services to enable MVNOs to offer services and have a
relationship with end-user customers. MVNEs offer the ability for an MVNO to focus on
their core strengths of brand, customer loyalty and marketing and leave the back-end
enablement to MVNEs. They also have shared risk-reward arrangements with the MVNO
with various kinds of revenue sharing models, usually tied to the number of subscribers
that the MVNO has projected in their business plan.

From a systems standpoint, designing MVNEs is a complex process that includes taking
commercial off-the-shelf applications and converting them to work in a multi-tenancy
model in a seamless fashion.

According to Pyramid Research, there are three main categories of enablers, according to
their MVNO solutions:

Aggregator MVNEs: these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled
all of the back-office network components through alliances. These promote their ability
to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. Companies include Ztar and
TMNG.

Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms: this includes aggregators which have
developed one or more back-office solutions internally, and have complemented them
with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. Companies include
ASPIDER Solutions.
Specialised Enablers: these offer only parts of the back-office network such as
messaging platforms, data platforms and billing solutions. They are not solely focused on
the MVNO market. Companies include ASPIDER Solutions, Tyntec and Convergys.

The voice-centric, operationally "light" MVNOs of today have generally worked with an
aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the
MVNO. The new breed high-end, strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of
the MVNE market. Besides leveraging their own existing assets, they choose to own
more of their platforms, particularly their logistics, distribution and customer care
systems. They still work with MVNEs, but they tend to opt for specialised ones with
best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation.

[edit] References

Mobile virtual network operator


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Mobile Virtual Network Operator)


Jump to: navigation, search

A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a company that provides mobile phone
service but does not have its own licensed frequency allocation of radio spectrum, nor
does it necessarily have all of the infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone
service.[1] A company that does have frequency allocation(s) and all the required
infrastructure to run an independent mobile network is known simply as a Mobile
Network Operator (MNO). MVNOs are roughly equivalent to the "switchless resellers"
of the traditional landline telephone market. Switchless resellers buy minutes wholesale
from the large long distance companies and retail them to their customers.

MNO that does not have a frequency spectrum allocation in a particular geographical
region may operate as an MVNO in that region. MVNOs can operate using any of the
mobile technologies MNOs use, such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), GSM
and the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).An

The first commercially successful MVNO in the UK was Virgin Mobile UK,[2] launched
in the United Kingdom in 1999 and now has over 4 million customers in the UK. Its
success was replicated in the US, but ventures in Australia have not been so successful,
and failed in Singapore, albeit with a different strategy.

An MVNO's roles and relationship to the MNO vary by market, country and the
individual situations of the MNO and MVNO. In general, an MVNO is an entity or
company that works independently of the mobile network operator and can set its own
pricing structures, subject to the rates agreed with the MNO. Usually, the MVNO does
not own any GSM, CDMA or other core mobile network related infrastructure, such as
Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs), or a radio access network. Some may own their own
Home Location Register, or HLR, which allows more flexibility and ownership of the
subscriber's mobile phone number (MSISDN) - in this case, the MVNO appears as a
roaming partner to other networks abroad, and as a "network" within its own region.
Some MVNOs run their own Billing and Customer Care solutions known as BSS
(Business Support Systems). Many use an MVNE.

There is a distinction between MVNOs and service providers. MVNOs refer to mobile
operators who are not licensed radio frequency holders and lease radio frequency from
MNOs in order to set up their mobile virtual networks. By these virtual networks they act
similar as genuine MNOs in the sense that they can have their own SIM-cards which are
different from the SIM-cards of the MNOs who lease those frequencies and they can also
conclude interconnection agreements with MNOs or MVNOs. Based on their virtual
networks they can either provide wholesale services to their retail arms, or sell wholesale
services to mobile service providers. By contrast, service providers are companies that
purchase wholesale mobile minutes and resell to end-users. Normally they do not have
their own SIM-cards that are provided by their hosting MNOs or MVNOs. The services
provided by service providers depend on the services of the hosting MNOs or MVNOs.
In addition, interconnection of service providers is carried out by their hosting MNOs or
MVNOs.[3]

Contents
[hide]

• 1 MVNOs Classification and Marketing strategies


• 2 MVNOs in the World
• 3 MVNO, MVNE and Beyond
• 4 Legislation
• 5 See also

• 6 References

[edit] MVNOs Classification and Marketing strategies


• Discount MVNOs provide cut-price call rates to market segments.

• Lifestyle MVNOs like Helio focus on specific niche market demographics.

• Advertising-funded MVNOs like Blyk or MOSH Mobile build revenues from


advertising to give a set amount of free voice, text and content to their
subscribers.

There are three primary motivations for mobile operators to allow MVNOs on their
networks. These are generally:
• Segmentation-Driven Strategies – mobile operators often find it difficult to
succeed in all customer segments. MVNOs are a way to implement a more
specific marketing mix, whether alone or with partners and they can help attack
specific, targeted segments.

• Network Utilisation-Driven Strategies – Many mobile operators have capacity,


product and segment needs – especially in new areas like 3G. An MVNO strategy
can generate economies of scale for better network utilisation.

• Product-Driven Strategies – MVNOs can help mobile operators target


customers with specialised service requirements and get to customer niches that
mobile operators cannot get to.

MVNO models mean lower operational costs for mobile operators (billing, sales,
customer service, marketing), help fight churn, grow average revenue per user by
providing new applications and tariff plans and also can help with difficult issues like
how to deal with fixed-mobile convergence by allowing MVNOs to try out more
experimental projects and applications. The opportunity for mobile operators to take
advantage of MVNOs generally outweighs the competitive threat.

[edit] MVNOs in the World


There are currently approximately 360 planned or operational MVNOs world-wide
according to consultancy firm Takashi Mobile. Countries including Algeria,The
Netherlands, France, Denmark, United Kingdom, Finland, Belgium, Australia and United
States have the most MVNOs. In these countries the MVNO marketplace is stabilizing
and there are some well-known MVNO successes. Other countries, such as Portugal,
Spain, Italy, Croatia, the Baltics, India, Chile and Austria are just beginning to launch
MVNO business models. Where there are many MVNOs in a single country, it is difficult
for new entrants as the overall marketplace is highly saturated.

Blycroft Publishing announced that there were roughly 230 active MVNOs, as of June
2006. The MVNOs contained within their MVNO market study vary from consumer-
driven MVNOs to enterprise and data-focused operations. It is a common misconception
that MVNOs only target the consumer markets. Examples of a non-consumer MVNO
being Wireless Maingate and white, M2M data based MVNOs. It is correct that the
majority of MVNOs are consumer-focused and most have a focus on price sensitivity as
their unique selling point. It is now widely thought that the future development of
MVNOs as an industry is within enterprise market developments and M2M markets.

[edit] MVNO, MVNE and Beyond


The industry is going through stages characterized by alphabet soup nomenclature,
including MVNO, rMVNO (roaming virtual networks), and MVNE (so-called Mobile
Virtual Network Enabler). Most industry observers believe that over time, consolidation
will take place on the market, while others will go out of business (examples are Disney
Mobile in the USA or debitel in France).

One specific sector of MVNO operations focuses on international, or roaming Mobile


Virtual Network Operators (rMVNO). These are distinct from domestic MVNO
agreements and are intended to provide transparency of international tariffs.

According to Pyramid Research, there are three main categories of MVNEs, according to
their MVNO solutions:

Aggregator MVNEs: these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled
all of the back-office network components through alliances. These promote their ability
to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. Companies include Ztar and
TMNG.

Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms: this includes aggregators which have
developed one or more back-office solutions internally, and have complemented them
with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. Companies include
ASPIDER Solutions.

Specialised Enablers: these offer only parts of the back-office network such as
messaging platforms, data platforms and billing solutions. They are not solely focused on
the MVNO market. Companies include ASPIDER Solutions, Tyntec and Convergys.

The voice-centric, operationally "light" MVNOs of today have generally worked with an
aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the
MVNO. The new breed high-end, strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of
the MVNE market. Besides leveraging their own existing assets, they choose to own
more of their platforms, particularly their logistics, distribution and customer care
systems. They still work with MVNEs, but they tend to opt for specialised ones with
best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation.

Exploiting the wireless IP networks competing infrastructure bandwidth with low traffic
due to the lack of Mobile Driven Content, such as GPRS, EVDO , along with specific
domain knowledge software applications with specific content, other Global Service or
specialized application based MVNO are also growing.

These companies are pushing their own business model as content driven MVNO. They
usually host their services in one location, and provide access to their content in different
countries via specialized Mobiles and existing IP coverage.

[edit] Legislation
Presently many companies and regulatory bodies are strongly in favour of MVNOs. For
example, in 2003, the European Commission issued a recommendation to national
telecom regulators (NRAs) to examine the competitiveness of the market for wholesale
access and call origination on public mobile telephone networks. The study resulted in
new legislation from NRAs in countries like Ireland and France that forces operators to
open up their network to MVNOs.

[edit] See also

MSISDN
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

MSISDN is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or UMTS mobile


network. Simply put, it is the telephone number to the SIM card in a mobile/cellular
phone. The abbreviation has several interpretations, most common one being "Mobile
Station International Subscriber Directory Number"[1]..

The MSISDN together with IMSI are two important numbers used to identify a mobile
phone. IMSI is often used as a key in the HLR ("subscriber database") and MSISDN is
the number normally dialed to connect a call to the mobile phone.

The MSISDN follows the numbering plan defined in the ITU-T recommendation E.164.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Abbreviation
• 2 MSISDN Format
o 2.1 Example
• 3 See also
• 4 External links

• 5 References

[edit] Abbreviation
Depending on source or standardization body, the abbreviation MSISDN can be written
out in several different ways. These are today the most widespread and common in use.
Organizatio
Meaning Source
n

Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications


3GPP (new)[2]
Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number
ITU ITU-T Rec. Q.1741-4 (10/2005)[3]
OMA Dictionary for OMA Specifications [4]
3GPP GSM 03.03 (old)[5]
Mobile Station International ISDN
ITU Number(s) ITU-T Rec. Q.1741-4 (10/2005)[3]
GSMA Mobile Terms & Acronyms[6]
Mobile Subscriber International Vocabulary of Switching and
ITU
ISDN Number Signalling Terms [7]

[edit] MSISDN Format


MSISDN is maximized to 15 digits, prefixes not included (e.g. 00 prefixes an
international MSISDN when dialling from Sweden).

In GSM and its variant DCS 1800, MSISDN is built up as

MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN
CC = Country Code
NDC = National Destination Code, identifies one or part of a PLMN
SN = Subscriber Number

In the GSM variant PCS 1900, MSISDN is built up as

MSISDN = CC + NPA + SN
CC = Country Code
NPA = Number Planning Area
SN = Subscriber Number

[edit] Example

MSISDN: 467011234567890

CC 46 Sweden
NDC 701 TeliaSonera
SN 1234567890 John Doe
For further information on the MSISDN format, see the ITU-T specification E.164.

[edit] See also


• E.164
• IMSI
• SIM card
• Mobile phone
• IMEI
• GSM
• HLR
• E.214

[edit] External links


• http://www.3gpp.org, GSM 03.03 (see section 3.3)
• http://www.openmobilealliance.org
• http://www.itu.int, E.164, E.212, E.213, E.214
• http://www.gsmworld.com

[edit] References
1. ^ The conclusion ("most common") is drawn from the recent documentation from
3GPP and OMA, please see the Abbreviation section above
2. ^ 3GPP Vocabulary
3. ^ a b ITU-T Q.1741-4
4. ^ OMA Dictionary
5. ^ GSM 03.03
6. ^ GSMA Acronyms
7. ^ ITU Vocabulary

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSISDN"


My understanding is as follows: -

Normal MSISDN is of the format: CC NDC SN


MSISDN for WLL subscribers is of the format: CC LAC SN .

I could see that, E.164 specification explains about the format: CC NDC
SN

But, I could not find any standard which explains about the MSISDN
format i.e.CC LAC SN, for WLL subscribers.
Could you please help?

International Mobile Subscriber Identity


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search


Mobile communication
standards

GSM / UMTS (3GPP) Family

GSM (2G)

• GPRS
• EDGE (EGPRS)
o EDGE Evolution
• CSD

o HSCSD
UMTS (3G)

• HSPA
o HSDPA
o HSUPA
o HSPA+
• UMTS-TDD
o TD-CDMA
o TD-SCDMA

• FOMA
UMTS Rev. 8 (Pre-4G)

• LTE

• HSOPA (Super 3G)

CDMA (3GPP2) Family


cdmaOne (2G)
CDMA2000 (3G)

• EV-DO
UMB (Pre-4G)

AMPS Family
AMPS (1G)

• TACS / ETACS
D-AMPS (2G)

Other Technologies
Pre Cellular

• PTT
• MTS
• IMTS
• AMTS
• OLT
• MTD
• Autotel / PALM

• ARP
1G

• NMT
• Hicap
• CDPD
• Mobitex

• DataTAC
2G

• iDEN
• PDC
• CSD
• PHS

• WiDEN
Pre-4G

• iBurst
• HIPERMAN
• WiMAX
• WiBro

• GAN (UMA)

Channel Access Methods

• FDMA
o OFDMA
• TDMA
• SSMA

o CDMA

Frequency bands

• Cellular
o GSM
o UMTS
o PCS

• SMR

An International Mobile Subscriber Identity or IMSI (IPA: /ˈɪmzi/) is a unique


number associated with all GSM and UMTS network mobile phone users. It is stored in
the SIM inside the phone and is sent by the phone to the network. It is also used to
acquire other details of the mobile in the Home Location Register (HLR) or as locally
copied in the Visitor Location Register. In order to avoid the subscriber being identified
and tracked by eavesdroppers on the radio interface, the IMSI is sent as rarely as possible
and a randomly-generated TMSI is sent instead.

The IMSI is used in any mobile network that interconnects with other networks, in
particular CDMA and EVDO networks as well as GSM networks. This number is
provisioned in the phone directly or in the R-UIM card (a CDMA analogue equivalent to
a SIM card in GSM).

An IMSI is usually 15 digits long, but can be shorter (for example MTN South Africa's
old IMSIs that are still being used in the market are 14 digits). The first 3 digits are the
Mobile Country Code, and is followed by the Mobile Network Code (MNC), either 2
digits (European standard) or 3 digits (North American standard). The remaining digits
are the mobile subscriber identification number (MSIN) within the network's customer
base.

The IMSI conforms to the ITU E.212 numbering standard.


Contents
[hide]

• 1 Examples
• 2 IMSI analysis
o 2.1 Example of outside World Area 1
o 2.2 Example inside World Area 1 (North America)
• 3 Home Network Identity
• 4 See also

• 5 External links

[edit] Examples

IMSI:429011234567890

MCC 429 Nepal


MNC 01 Nepal Telecom
MSIN 1234567890

IMSI: 310150123456789

MCC 310 USA


MNC 150 Cingular (AT&T)
MSIN 123456789

[edit] IMSI analysis


IMSI analysis is the process of examining a subscriber's IMSI to identify which network
the IMSI belongs to and whether subscribers from that network are allowed to use a
given network (if they are not local subscribers, this will require a roaming agreement).

If the subscriber is not from the provider's network, the IMSI must be converted to a
Global Title, which can then be used for accessing the subscriber's data in the remote
HLR. This is mainly important for international mobile roaming. Outside North America
the IMSI is converted to the Mobile Global Title (MGT) format, standard E.214, which is
similar to but different from E.164 number (more or less a telephone number). E.214
provides a method to convert the IMSI into a number that can be used for routing to
international SS7 switches. E.214 can be interpreted as implying that there are two
separate stages of conversion; first determine the MCC and convert to E.164 country
calling code then determine MNC and convert to national network code for the carrier's
network. But this process is not used in practise and the GSM numbering authority has
clearly stated that a one stage process is used [1].

In North America, the IMSI is just directly converted to an E.212 number with no
modification of its value. This can be routed directly on American SS7 networks.

After this conversion, SCCP is used to send the message to its final destination. For
details, see Global Title Translation.

[edit] Example of outside World Area 1

This example shows the actual practise which is not clearly as described in the standards.

Translation rule:

* match numbers starting 28401 (Bulgaria mobile country code + MobilTel


MNC)
* identify this as belonging to MobilTel-Bulgaria network
* remove first five digits (length of MCC+MNC)
* add 35988 (Bulgaria E.164 country code + a Bulgarian local prefix
reaching MobilTel's network)
* mark the number as having E.214 numbering plan.
* route message on Global Title across SCCP network

so we get 284011234567890 becomes 359881234567890 numbering plan E.214.

Translation rule:

* match numbers starting 310150 (America first MCC + Cingular MNC)


* remove first six digits (length of MCC+MNC)
* add 14054 (North America E.164 country code + Network Code for
Cingular)
* mark the number as having E.214 numbering plan.
* route message on Global Title across SCCP network

so we get 310150123456789 becomes 14054123456789 numbering plan E.214.

The result is an E.214 compliant Global Title, (Numbering Plan Indicator is set to 7 in the
SCCP message). This number can now be sent to Global Title Analysis.

[edit] Example inside World Area 1 (North America)

Translation rule:

* match numbers starting 28401 (Bulgaria MCC + MobilTel MNC)


* identify this as belonging to MobilTel-Bulgaria network
* do not alter the digits of the number
* mark the number as having E.212 numbering plan.
* route message on Global Title across SCCP network
so we get 284011234567890 becomes 284011234567890 numbering plan E.212.

This number has to be converted on the ANSI to ITU boundary. For more details please
see Global Title Translation.

[edit] Home Network Identity


The Home Network Identity (HNI) is the combination of the MCC and the MNC. This is
the number which fully identifies a subscriber's home network. The reason to make this
distinction is that in a country with multiple country codes (e.g. USA has codes 310 to
316) there may be two different networks, with the same Mobile Network Code, but only
one of which is the home network. In order to know which network a mobile belongs to
we have to analyse the entire HNI at once.

Because of the unlikeness in the Global Title Translation, it is extremely hard to pin point
the exact location of the American international mobile prefix number.

E.214's recommendation for Global Title Translation does not take into account countries
with more than one mobile country code (MCC) (for example the US, which has 7
MCCs), or shared numbering plans (for example North American Numbering Plan, or the
+1 country code, which applies to the US, Canada, and all the countries in the
Caribbean).

The problem lies in de-translation of the global title back into a mobile network E.212
IMSI. Since E.214 recommends that the country part of the translation be done first, it
presumes that a given E.164 country code only relates to a single E.212 mobile country
code. Unfortunately this is untrue in NANPA member nations, and doubly untrue in the
US. So, a global title with CC of 1 can indicate any of 7 US MCCs, or Canada, or any
Caribbean nation.

This has led to a temporary practice of distributing IMSIs in the US with only MCCs of
310, in an attempt to minimise the ambiguity.

In practice, however, home carriers use a deeper translation process which performs a
lookup based on the entire CC+NC in order to better determine the correct country. In the
case of NANPA, this would be 1+area code, which can uniquely identify a country -- but
there are hundreds of area codes. More of the number then has to be used to determine
the carrier network (in some cases up to 4 digits).

Future possibilities for eliminating the global title ambiguities include upgrading
international switches to accept IMSIs as global titles. This is an especially handy
solution, as non-GSM networks begin to transition to IMSIs for subscriber identification.
However the expense of such an infrastructure upgrade may not be feasible for all
countries any time soon.

• IMSI allocation guidelines for NANP countries


• Response from GSM Numbering Authority

[edit] See also


• IMEI
• MEID
• Electronic Serial Number
• MSISDN

[edit] External links


• "Cellular Networking Perspectives" article in Wireless Telecom Magazine
• IMSI oversight council responsible for allocating IMSI ranges in the USA
• IMSI Lookup Utility

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Mobile_Subscriber_Identity"


Categories: GSM Standard

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International Mobile Equipment


Identity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from IMEI)


Jump to: navigation, search

The International Mobile Equipment Identity or IMEI (pronounced /aɪˈmiː/) is a


number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. It is usually found printed on the
phone underneath the battery.

The IMEI number is used by the GSM network to identify valid devices and therefore
can be used to stop a stolen phone from accessing the network. For example, if a mobile
phone is stolen, the owner can call his or her network provider and instruct them to "ban"
the phone using its IMEI number. This renders the phone useless, regardless of whether
the phone's SIM is changed.

Unlike the Electronic Serial Number or MEID of CDMA and other wireless networks,
the IMEI is only used to identify the device, and has no permanent or semi-permanent
relation to the subscriber. Instead, the subscriber is identified by transmission of an IMSI
number, which is stored on a SIM card which can (in theory) be transferred to any
handset. However, many network and security features are enabled by knowing the
current device being used by a subscriber.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Structure of the IMEI and IMEISV


• 2 Retrieving IMEI information from a GSM device
• 3 IMEI and the law
• 4 Blacklist of stolen devices
• 5 Difficulties
• 6 Computation of the Check Digit
• 7 See also

• 8 External links

[edit] Structure of the IMEI and IMEISV


The IMEI (14 digits plus check digit) or IMEISV (16 digits) includes information on the
origin, model, and serial number of the device. The structure of the IMEI/SV are
specified in 3GPP TS 23.003. The model and origin comprise the initial 8-digit portion of
the IMEI/SV, known as the Type Allocation Code (TAC). The remainder of the IMEI is
manufacturer-defined, with a Luhn check digit at the end (which is never transmitted).

As of 2004, the format of the IMEI is AA-BBBBBB-CCCCCC-D, although it may not


always be displayed this way. The IMEISV drops the Luhn check digit in favour of an
additional 2 digits for the Software Version Number (SVN) in the format AA-BBBBBB-
CCCCCC-EE

AA BBBBBB CCCCCC D EE

Reporting Body The remainder of Serial sequence Luhn check digit Software Version
Identifier, the TAC of the model of the entire Number (SVN).
indicating the number (or zero)
GSMA-
approved group
that allocated the
model TAC
Prior to 2002, the TAC was 6 digits long and followed by a two-digit Final Assembly
Code (FAC), which was a manufacturer-specific code indicating the location of the
device's construction.

For example the IMEI code 35-209900-176148-1 or IMEISV code 35-209900-176148-23


tells us the following:

TAC: 352099 so it was issued by the BABT and has the allocation number 2099
FAC: 00 so it was numbered during the transition phase from the old format to the new format
(described below)
SNR: 176148 - uniquely identifying a unit of this model
CD: 1 so it is a GSM Phase 2 or higher
SVN: 23 - The 'software version number' identifying the revision of the software installed on the
phone. 99 is reserved.

The format changed from April 1, 2004 when the Final Assembly Code ceased to exist
and the Type Approval Code increases to eight digits in length and became known as the
Type Allocation Code. From January 1, 2003 until this time the FAC for all phones was
00.

The Reporting Body Identifier is allocated by the Global Decimal Administrator; the first
two digits must be decimal (ie less than 0xA0) for it to be an IMEI and not an MEID.

The new CDMA Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) uses the same basic format as the
IMEI.

[edit] Retrieving IMEI information from a GSM device


On many devices the IMEI number can be retrieved by entering *#06#. The IMEI
number of a GSM device can be retrieved by sending the command AT+CGSN. For more
information refer the 3GPP TS 27.007, Section 5.4 /2/ standards document.

Retrieving IMEI Information from an older Sony or Sony Ericsson handset can be done
by entering these keys: Right * Left Left * Left * (Other service menu items will be
presented with this key combination).

The IMEI information can be retrieved from most older Nokia mobile phones by pressing
*#92702689# (*#WAR0ANTY#), this opens the warranty menu in which the first item is
the serial number (the IMEI). The warranty menu also shows other information such as
the date the phone was made and the life timer of the phone.

The IMEI can frequently be displayed through phone menus, under a section titled
'System Information', 'Device', 'Phone Info' or similar. Many phones also have the IMEI
listed on a label in the battery compartment.

The IMEI will display on the device page of iTunes for an iPhone after syncing.
On refurbished phones the IMEI may be different for the software and the actual phone
itself. You can check this by looking behind the phone where the battery is placed (phone
IMEI) and by pressing *#06# on your phone (software IMEI)

[edit] IMEI and the law


Many countries have acknowledged the use of the IMEI in reducing the effect of mobile
phone theft, which has increased significantly over the last few years[citation needed]. For
example, in the United Kingdom under the Mobile Telephones (Re-programming) Act,
changing the IMEI of a phone, or possessing equipment that can change it, is considered
an offence under some circumstances.

There is a misunderstanding amongst some regulators that the existence of a formally


allocated IMEI number range to a GSM terminal implies that the terminal is approved or
complies with regulatory requirements. This is not the case. The linkage between
regulatory approval and IMEI allocation was removed in April 2000 with the introduction
of the European R&TTE Directive. Since that date, IMEIs have been allocated by BABT
(acting on behalf of the GSM Association) to legitimate GSM terminal manufacturers
without the need to provide evidence of approval.

Other countries use different approaches when dealing with phone theft. For example,
mobile operators in Singapore are not required by the regulator to implement phone
blocking or tracing systems, IMEI-based or other. The regulator has expressed its doubts
on the real effectiveness of this kind of systems in the context of the mobile market in
Singapore. Instead, mobile operators are encouraged to take measures such as the
immediate suspension of service and the replacement of SIM cards in case of loss or
theft.[1]

[edit] Blacklist of stolen devices


When mobile equipment is stolen or lost, the operator or owner will typically contact the
Central Equipment Identity Register (CEIR) which blacklists the device in all operator
switches so that it will in effect become unusable, making theft of mobile equipment a
useless business.

The IMEI number is not supposed to be easy to change, making the CEIR blacklisting
effective. However this is not always the case: IMEI may be easy to change with special
tools and some operators may even flatly ignore the CEIR blacklist.

[edit] Difficulties
• "New IMEIs can be programmed into stolen handsets and 10% of IMEIs are not
unique." According to a BT-Cellnet spokesman quoted by the BBC. [2]
• Facilities do not exist to unblock numbers listed in error on all networks. This is
possible in the UK, however, where the user who initially blocked the IMEI must
quote a password chosen at the time the block was applied.

[edit] Computation of the Check Digit


The last number of the IMEI is a check digit calculated using the Luhn algorithm.

According to the IMEI Allocation and Approval Guidelines,

The Check Digit is calculated according to Luhn formula (ISO/IEC 7812). See GSM 02.16 /
3GPP 22.016. The Check Digit shall not be transmitted to the network. The Check Digit is a
function of all other digits in the IMEI. The Software Version Number (SVN) of a mobile is not
included in the calculation. The purpose of the Check Digit is to help guard against the possibility
of incorrect entries to the CEIR and EIR equipment. The presentation of Check Digit (CD) both
electronically and in printed form on the label and packaging is very important. Logistics (using
bar-code reader) and EIR/CEIR administration cannot use the CD unless it is printed outside of
the packaging, and on the ME IMEI/Type Accreditation label. The check digit shall always be
transmitted to the network as "0".

The check digit is validated in three steps:

1. Starting from the right, double a digit every 2 digits (e.g. 7 → 14)
2. Sum the digits (e.g. 14 → 1 + 4)
3. Check if the sum is divisible by 10

Conversely, one can calculate the IMEI by choosing the check digit which would give a
sum divisible by 10. For the example IMEI 49015420323751?,

IMEI 4 9 0 1 5 4 2 0 3 2 3 7 5 1 ?

Double
4 18 0 2 5 8 2 0 3 4 3 14 5 2 ?
every other

Sum digits 4 + (1 + 8) + 0 + 2 + 5 + 8 + 2 + 0 + 3 + 4 + 3 + (1 + 4) + 5 + 2 + ? = 52 + ?

To make the sum divisible by 10, we set ? = 8, so the IMEI is 490154203237518.

[edit] See also


• International Mobile Subscriber Identity
• Mobile phone
• NCK
• Unlocking

[edit] External links


• IMEI Number Analysis: By entering a valid IMEI it will tell you all known
information on that phone.
• IMEI Number Application: Manufacturers of GSM900/1800 / 3GPP WCDMA
terminals (and multi-mode terminals) may obtain IMEI allocations through
BABT.
• IMEI Allocation & Approval Guidelines: PDF document explaining IMEI in
detail from GSM Association.
• IMEI Allocation and Approval Guidelines
• IMEI saver

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Mobile_Equipment_Identity"


Categories: GSM Standard
Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced
statements since May 2008

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Electronic Serial Number


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Electronic Serial Numbers (ESNs) were created by the FCC to uniquely identify mobile
devices from the days of AMPS in the United States in the mid-1980s on. The
administrative role was later taken over by the Telecommunications Industry Association
in 1997. ESNs are mainly used with AMPS, TDMA and CDMA phones in the United
States, compared to IMEI numbers used by all GSM phones.[1]

An ESN is 32 bits long. It consists of three fields, including an 8-bit manufacturer code,
an 18-bit unique serial number, and 6 bits that were reserved for later use, although in
practice these 6 bits are combined into a 24-bit serial number field. Manufacturer code
0x80 was reserved and now is used to represent pseudo ESNs (pESN) which are
calculated from an MEID or EUIMID. Pseudo-ESNs are not guaranteed to be unique.

ESN's are often represented as 11 digit decimal numbers or 8 digit hex numbers. The first
three digits are the decimal representation of the first 8 bits (between 001 *and 255
inclusive) and the next 8 are derived from the remaining 24 bits and will be between
00000001 and 16777215 inclusive. The decimal format of pseudo ESN's will therefore
begin with 128.

As ESNs are running out, a new serial number format named Mobile Equipment ID
(MEID) has been created. MEIDs are 56 bits long, which is the same length as with
IMEI. MEID was created to be compatible with IMEI. The first 8 bits of MEID is a
regional code. Numbers above 0xA0 will be assigned to CDMA phones. 0x99 is reserved
for multimode phones and supports GSM and CDMA. The main difference between
MEID and IMEI is that the MEID allows hexadecimal digits while IMEI allows only
decimal digits. Consequently the check digit algorithm for the MEID had to be modified
to a hexadecimal Luhn algorithm instead of a decimal Luhn algorithm.

The last of the virgin (never before used) ESN codes is expected to be allocated in 2008.
Allocation will continue for a short time with reclaimed ESN codes, those previously
assigned to AMPS or TDMA and therefore not present on cdma2000 systems. Reclaimed
codes have been used for UIMID assignments for some time. Codes are assigned
according to industry guidelines.[2]

[edit] References
1. ^ Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN)
2. ^ ESN Assignment Guidelines and Procedures, Version 1.9c. May 2007. [1]

Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN) and


MEID
ESN Migration to MEIDs

Definition: An electronic serial number (ESN) is the unique identification number


embedded or inscribed on the microchip in a wireless phone by the manufacturer. Each
time a call is placed, the ESN is automatically transmitted to the base station so the
wireless carrier's mobile switching office can check the call's validity. The ESN cannot
easily be altered in the field. The ESN differs from the mobile identification number
(MIN), which is the wireless carrier's identifier for a phone in the network. MINs and
ESNs can be electronically checked to help prevent fraud.

How is TIA involved? TIA, which took over the ESN function from the Federal
Communications Commission's (FCC) Wireless Telecommunications Bureau in
September 1997, manages and coordinates manufacturer codes for subscriber equipment
in the cellular service, personal communications services and other wireless services that
conform to the cellular radiotelecommunications intersystem operations family of
standards, TIA/EIA-41; advanced mobile phone service (AMPS), TIA/EIA-553 and
subsequent revisions; narrowband analog mobile phone service (NAMPS), TIA/EIA-691
and subsequent revisions; code division multiple access (CDMA), TIA/EIA-95,
TIA/EIA/IS-2000 and subsequent revisions; and time division multiple access (TDMA),
TIA/EIA-136 and subsequent revisions.

Mobile Equipment IDentifiers (MEID)


Definition: A Mobile Equipment IDentifier (MEID) is a globally unique number for a
physical piece of mobile station equipment. Equipment identifiers are 'burned' into a
device, and should be resistant to modification. An ESN type can be distinguished as a
pseudo ESN (pESN) based on the first 8 bits ("manufacturer" code) as derived from the
MEID using the SHA-1 algorithm to reduce a 56-bit MEID to a 24-bit ESN. The pESN
codes are not unique, but will not match any UIMID or true ESN (tESN) because they
have a unique manufacturer code of 0x80 (decimal 128). The ESN will migrate to the
MEID with assignments anticipated to begin in the 2004 to 2005 timeframe.

How is TIA involved? TIA, which already acts as the ESN Administrator, will act as the
Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA) to assign MEID code prefixes. TIA will also
coordinate with the International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI) Global Decimal
Administrator (GDA), the GSM Association, to administer codes for multi mode
equipment. Support in standards is rapidly being developed. The TIA Committee TR-45
ESN/UIM/MEID Ad Hoc, in cooperation with 3GPP2, is actively working with industry
to assist a smooth transition from ESN to MEID. The following library of MEID
documents is intended to assist the understanding and migration from the finite ESN
numbering resource to MEID:

Category:GSM Standard
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

GSM is a standard for mobile phones. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes
international roaming very common with "roaming agreements" between operators. GSM
differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signalling and speech channels are
digital, which means that it is seen as a second generation (2G) mobile phone system.
GSM is an open standard which is developed by the 3GPP.

GSM has retained backward-compatibility with the original GSM phones. At the same
time, the GSM standard continues to develop and packet data capabilities were added in
the Release '97 version of the standard with GPRS. Higher speed data transmission has
been introduced by providing a new modulation scheme with EDGE.

For more information, refer to the main GSM page.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


GSM Standard

Subcategories
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

• [+] Quad Band GSM phones (0)

• [+] Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (1)

Pages in category "GSM Standard"


The following 60 pages are in this category, out of 60 total. Updates to this list can
occasionally be delayed for a few days.
3 G cont. P

• 3GPP • GSM-R • Personal Unblocking


• GTP' Code
A
H Q
• A5/1
• ARFCN • High-Speed • Quad band
• Alternate line service Circuit-Switched
Data R
B
I • Reporting Body
• Base Station Subsystem Identifier
• IMSI attach • Roaming
C • IMSI detach
• ISIM S
• CIMD • Intelligent network
• Circuit Switched Data • International • SGSM
• Customised Mobile Equipment • SGSN
Applications for Mobile Identity • SIM Serial Number
networks Enhanced • International • SIM cloning
Logic Mobile Subscriber • SMS Banking
Identity • Short message service
D • Short message service
K technical realisation
• Dual band (GSM)
• KASUMI (block • Single Antenna
E cipher) Interference
Cancellation
• Enhanced Data Rates M
for GSM Evolution T
• Enhanced Messaging • MM1
Service • MM3 (MMS) • Tri band
• Evolved EDGE • MM4 • Turbo SIM
• MM5 (MMS) • Type Allocation Code
G • MVPN
• Mobile Allocation U
• GERAN Index Offset
• GSM • Mobile Network • USSD Gateway
• GSM 02.07 Code • Unstructured
• GSM codes for • Mobile switching Supplementary
supplementary services centre server Service Data
• GSM frequency bands • Mobility
• GSM gateway management V
• Multimedia
• GSM localization Messaging Service
• VGCS
• GSM services N
• Visitor Location
• Network switching Register
subsystem