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CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH RESULT

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the discussion is focusing on the case study result. The case study result includes
the personal information of the students, the pre test and post test result, students’ response on
the subject matter, observation on students’ behavior and opinion base on the degree of agree
using Likert Scale on certain statement given pertaining to the use of songs to enhance the
learning of verbs and nouns.

4.2 Profile of the respondents

The case study has been conducted in one of the school in Kuching rural area. Twenty student
age 13 from Form 1B class are involved in this case study. They are coming from different races.
This class is consists of eleven females and nine males students. The biggest population in the
class are the Bidayuh students (10) followed by the Chinese (8) and Iban (2). The students are
coming from different background. Seven are working as a farmer, six as a driver, and two
businessmen while the rest are doing other jobs. 90% of their mothers are housewives, a cook
and one Librarian. As far as the academic is concerned, their performance in the Upper Primary
School public Examination (Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah – UPSR) is very encouraging.
None of the failed the English test. There are three students getting Grade A, fourteen are having
grade B and another three students with grade C. the student are streamed according to their
UPSR result in 2007. They are placed in a good class and their proficiency level is at the
intermediate level. Refer to the summary profile of the respondent’s shows in Table 1 below.

Table 1 showing Personal Information of Form 1 B


UPSR English Father’s Mother’s
No Name Gender Race
Grade Occupation Occupation
1 A F Bidayuh B Farmer Cooks
2 B M Chinese A Driver Housewives
3 C M Bidayuh C Farmer Housewives
4 D M Bidayuh B Farmer Housewives
5 E M Bidayuh B Driver Housewives
6 F F Chinese B Farmer Housewives
7 G M Bidayuh B Businessman Housewives
8 H M Chinese B Supervisor Housewives
9 I F Chinese B Driver Housewives
10 J F Bidayuh B Driver Housewives
11 K M Bidayuh B Designer Librarian
12 L F Chinese C Welder Housewives
13 M F Iban A G.Manager Housewives
14 N F Chinese B Farmer Housewives
15 O M Bidayuh B Farmer Housewives
16 P F Chinese B Carpenter Housewives
17 Q F Chinese B Businessman Housewives
18 R F Iban B Driver Housewives
19 S M Bidayuh A Driver Housewives
20 T F Chinese C Farmer Housewives

4.3 Research Findings


4.3.1 The Lesson Conducted

The lessons were conducted for two consecutive weeks. Four lessons were done within the two
weeks. On the first week, Lesson 1 and Lesson 2 were successfully implemented. The first lesson
was conducted using the traditional method whereby the teacher did not use the song to teach. In
this lesson, the teacher used a passage to teach the nouns and verbs. Exercises were given to the
students to be done individually. The students did not response toward the teaching method very
well. It seems that the students response were not as encouraging as it was when songs were used
as the teaching aids.

The second lesson was conducted using song. Prior to the exercise given, students learned the
lyric, listened and sing the song. The activities were done in groups. The activities emphasized
the learning of verbs in the present tense and past tense form. Besides enjoying themselves
singing the song, they were showing a very good co-operation among themselves especially
when they were given group activities. Every group was able to work together to list down verbs
found in the lyric of the songs. They were able to construct the sentences correctly in their group
work. Another group work was given to them whereby they change the verbs in the present to
past tense and vice versa. The activity was done very well. They were also able to work in
groups, rewriting the sentences by changing the verbs in the present and past tense.

Two lessons, Lessons 3 and Lessons 4 were conducted on the second week. The topic taught in
Lesson 3 was the same as in Lesson 2. However the language focus in this lesson was on nouns
(singular and plural). The song used was You Promised Me by Grid. The students’ actively
involved. Based on the written exercises given, they have shown positive improvement. They
were able to tackle the task given in the groups successfully. The correct answers for all the
activities given were almost 100%. The students were able to change the nouns in a singular
from to the plural from and vice versa. Besides that they were able to construct the sentences
using the nouns correctly. Participation in song also get better compares to the previous lesson.
They really enjoyed singing the song. Based on the observation made, the students’ attitude
towards the teaching and learning of nouns seemed to be very good. They seemed to be more
confident when they sing the song. As a whole, the respond in the teaching and learning of the
language using song was very encouraging. The objectives stated in the lesson plan were
achieved.
The forth lesson were conducted on the 28th February 2008. In this 80 minutes lesson, the teacher
used the CD to play a new song entitled My Heart by Irwansyah. The language focus is on the
learning of verb and noun. Even though the song is mixed in Bahasa Melayu and English, they
really enjoyed learning the song. This is due to the popularity of the song in a movie. On top of
that, the song is actually suitable to the youngsters. The chorus of the song is in English and the
activities given were based on that particular chorus. Even though the song used was sentimental,
they really enjoyed singing. The written activities given were done successfully. There were
divided into eight groups of five students in each group. The activities were done in group and
individually. The interesting part about the group work is that they were able to show their full
co-operation. Apart from that, the students were able to learn more from each other and from the
other groups during their presentation. Both the group and individual activities were successfully
done by them. The activities were focusing on listing the verbs and nouns and filling in the
blanks. The objectives of the lessons were achieved. The students also enjoy the learning
processed. Indirectly the used of song was able to enhance the learning of verbs and nouns
among the students.

Therefore it is undeniable that the used of songs in the learning of verbs and nouns were able to
show encouraging motivation. Hence the lessons were very lively and the students gave a very
positive feedback in their participation. Based on the observation done by the teacher throughout
the four lessons, there were some differences in term of their involvement in tackling the task
given and the performance in their group and individual work. As traditional method of teaching
and learning were used in the first lesson. In contrast to the three lessons, student were more
motivated and show their preferable attitude in using songs in the processed of learning English
verbs and nouns.

4.3.2 Pre Test and Post Test Findings

The pre-test and the post test were carried out at one of the schools the rural schools in Kuching
area. The tests were given to twenty Form 1B students. The pre-test was done on the 15 th
February 2008. In the pre-test students were asked to fill their personal information questionnaire
to seek details of the students regarding the subject matter and another test was given to test their
understanding of verbs by filling in the blanks which consist of twenty-five questions.
Meanwhile, the post test was conducted on 28th February that was after they were taught for four
times with the normal lessons. The post test was divided into three sections. The first post test
was to seek how closely the students agree or disagree with the attitude expressed in each
statement as it concerns them. The second post test was the Semi- structured Interview Questions
whereby the students respond to the questions by answering Yes or No. The third post test was
given to test their understanding on the verbs and nouns by underlining the correct answers. The
result for the pre-test and the post tests is tabulated in Table 2 below.

No. Name Pre-Test (%) Post Test (%)


1 Andy Chong 96 100
2 Andrea 100 100
3 Azri ak Sailor 24 70
4 Baran 68 70
5 Charlesvyner 96 100
6 Chong Lee Yee 100 100
7 Chris Martin 84 70
8 Chung Chen Tat 64 90
9 Fam Li Phin 60 100
10 Florence 76 90
11 Gryffin Jay’s 56 70
12 Ho Xiang Xiang 72 90
13 Ivvy Valarie 92 100
14 Jap Lee Sian 60 90
15 Lawrence 68 100
16 Liew Jing Xian 100 100
17 Liew Tan Jun 88 90
18 Marcella Ann 76 90
19 Marshall 76 100
20 Ng Xin Wei 64 100

Table 2 showing marks scored in the Pre-test and the Post Test

The finding of the results was discussed in the form of descriptive analysis. Table 3 below shows
the result analysis using the descriptive statistics.

Table 3: Description Statistics


Pre-Test Post Test Increase
Mean 76 91 15
Mode 100 100 0
Minimum 24 70 46
Maximum 200 100 0
Sum 1520 1820 300

In the descriptive analysis statistic, the application using mean, mode and sum were used. Mean
refers to the total values (sum) divided by the number of values (number of students). Mode
refers to the most number of the same marks scored in a particular data. Minimum means the
lowest marks scored while the maximum means the highest marks scored. The sum means the
total marks scored in that particular test.

Based on the above analysis, the sum of the pre-test was 1520 marks from 20 students with mean
of 76 and mode scored of 100 marks. The minimum mark scored was 24 and the maximum score
was 100. After they have undergone the three lessons using songs in the learning of verbs and
nouns, students show quite a good sign of improvement in their post test. The sum of the post
test is 1820 marks with an increased of 300 marks from the 1520 marks scored in the pre-test. A
difference of 46 marks scored from the post test with 70 minimum marks compared to minimum
of 24 marks scored in the pre-test. The increase was quite remarkable. However, there was no
difference between the pre-test and the post test in terms of mode and maximum marks.
Nevertheless, in the pre-test, there were three students scoring 100 marks where else ten students
were able to score 100 marks in the post test. There was an increased of seven students who
scored the highest in the post test.

The overall result in the pre-test shows that there were eight students who scored less than 70
marks. Meanwhile all the students had scored not less than 70 marks in the post test. It seems
that there was a great improvement in terms of high score in the post test compared to the pre-
test.

As a whole as far as the pre-test and the post test are concerned, every difference in the analyzed
data brings some impact to the students' attitude towards the learning of verbs and nouns using
songs. Even though they have a short time being treated with the songs in their learning of verbs
and nouns, the results shows an improvement. As a conclusion, songs are able to enhance the
learning of verbs and nouns among the students.

4.3.3 Semi-structured Interview Questions Findings

The semi-structured interview questions were given twice to the students. The first part was
conducted on the 15th February 2008 which concerned the students' response regarding the
subject matter. The second part of the interview questions were conducted on 28th February 2008
that was after the post lest given to them. The questions are to seek the students' response toward
the subject matter too.

Table 4 below shows the summary of the data analysis of the students' response regarding the
subject matter which was given during the pre-test. Based on the result shown, more than half of
the class says that they love to sing English song and 7 out of 20 say songs are boring.
Nevertheless, fifteen of them find out that English songs are not easy to understand and they
have difficulties in interpreting and understanding the English songs. Even though 16 out of 20
are saying that English songs are interesting and fun activities, only 3 students can respond
actively during English song's lesson. Meanwhile, based on the analysis shown, three fifths of
the students score more than 50% in their English examination.

Table 4 showing the summary of the data analysis of the students’ response regarding the subject
matter in the Pre-test
Number of students say
No. Question
Yes No
1 Do you love to sing English song? 11 9
Are English songs interesting and fun
2 16 4
activities?
3 Are English songs boring? 7 13
Do you always feel uneasy when
4 5 15
singing English songs?
Do you response actively during
5 3 17
English song’s lesson?
English songs allow me to discuss
6 6 14
and give positive ideas actively
English songs are not easy to
7 15 5
understand.
8 English songs are easy to understand. 14 6
I have difficulties in interpreting and
9 15 5
understand English songs
I always score more than 50% for my
10 12 8
English during the examination.

Base on the data that had been analyzed in the semi-structured interview questions given, during
the post test as shown in Table 5 below, there is a great increased in the number of students who
enjoyed singing in the process of learning the nouns and the verbs using English songs compared
to the pre-test. Moreover 75% of them agree that songs' materials help them a lot in learning the
nouns and verbs because the teacher assigned them to use as such. Most of them agree that the
instruction in the songs' materials is user friendly, interesting and fun to learn. The outcome
shows 80% of the students learn more vocabularies in songs and feel happy when the teacher
uses songs to teach them.

Table 5 showing the Analysis Data For Post Test in Section A


No. Of Students
No. Question Strongly Strongly
Disagree (D) Agree (A)
Disagree (SD) Agree (SA)
1 I like to sing English songs. 1 2 11 6
1 like to use English songs 1 3 12 4
2 to learn English nouns and
verbs
Songs' materials help me a 2 3 11 4
3 lot on learning English
nouns and verbs
The teacher assigns me to 2 3 5 10
use English songs'
4 materials when learning
English nouns and verbs
The instructions on the 1 6 12 1
5 English songs materials are
user friendly to me.
I often use songs' material 2 12 5 1
6 in learning English nouns
and verbs
Songs in English is 1 1 11 7
7 interesting and fun to learn.
I feel happy if my English 1 11 10 8
teacher uses songs to teach
8 the English verbs and
nouns.
I learn more vocabularies 7 8 2 3
9 like nouns and verbs in
songs.
I feel boring learning 14 14 3 6
10 English using songs.
Another section of the post test is the semi-structured interview questions which were given to
the students to seek their responses on the subject matter. Based on the data collected as shown
in Table 6, again more than 70% of the Students say that the songs are interesting enough to
learn verbs and nouns. Half of them say that the songs materials are dearly organized in term or
level of difliculty.13 out of 20 students say that they respond actively during the songs lesson.
Besides that there are 17 out of 20 of them feel happy when the teacher uses songs to teach them
because they felt songs are interesting and fun to learn.

NO. Question Number of students say


yes no
In your opinion, are English songs 14 6
1 interesting enough for you to learn English
nouns and verbs?
Are songs materials clearly organized in 10 10
2
term of level of difficulty?
Do you respond actively during English 13 8
3
song's lesson?
Do you like to use songs as an option to 14 6
4
learn verbs and nouns?
Do you find it easier to learn verbs and 10 10
5
nouns in songs?
I often use songs' material in learning 7 13
6
English nouns and verbs.
Songs in English is interesting and fun to 17 3
7
learn.
I feel happy if my English teacher uses 17 3
8
songs to teach the English verbs and nouns.
I learn more vocabularies like nouns and 17 3
9
verbs in songs.
10 I feel boring learning English using songs. 18 2

Besides giving the students to answer the semi-structured questions, observation has been done

throughout the teaching and learning process. Table 7(Appendix 3D) below shows the sample of

observation that had been done for behavioral /attitude of students towards the Teaching &

Learning using songs. Based on the observation done, as a whole all the items listed shows that

they have shown a pro-learning behavior.


Observation for Behavioral / Attitude of Student towards the Teaching & Learning using songs.
(To be filled by the teacher in-charge of the case study and the English Teacher (Mentor))

Put a tick ( / ) in the appropriate column corresponding to the items given.

Pro- Neutral Anti-


Items
Learning Learning Learning
Teacher In-charge of Case Study’s Record
Observed behavior before the lesson starts
Observed behavior when the lesson start
Observed behavior during questions & answers session
Observed behavior when activities are carried out
Observed behavior when students are given homework
Observed behavior when the lesson ends
English Teacher’s Record
Observed behavior before the lesson starts
Observed behavior when the lesson starts
Observed behavior during question & answers sessions
Observed behavior when activities are carried out
Observed behavior when students are given homework
Observed behavior when the lessons ends
__________________________ ____________________

( ) ( )

Teacher In-Charge of Case Study English Teacher (Mentor)

4.4 Summary

The result obtained especially after the treatment given to the students has shown some
improvement towards the subject. These improvements can clearly be seen from the series of the
post test and semi-structured interviews conducted. The results also showed that students
enjoyed the song activities. On top of that, songs were able to enhance their learning of verbs and
nouns. This can be proven by the reported data that had been analyzed earlier on in this chapter.
Therefore after the treatment was administered that showed the improvement, eventually the
research questions are answered which was put forth in the first chapter.
CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter is focused on the conclusions and implications of the study that has been conducted

to the Form 1 students in one of the rural secondary schools in Kuching. There are a few lists of

contents mentioned in this chapter. Among them are the summary of the study, discussion on the

findings, implication of the study findings, conclusion of the study findings recommendations for

further study and also the summary that summarizes the whole report of this case study.

5.2 Summary of the Research


Chapter 1 of this study dealt with the effectiveness of using songs to enhance the learning of

verbs and nouns among the form one students. It determined the used of songs to improve the

learning of verbs and nouns preferred over traditional method and also improved attitude and

motivation towards learning.

Chapter 2 dealt with the literature review related to the use of songs to enhance the learning of
verbs and nouns to Form One. It revealed the past and the present study pertaining to the topic
that has been done in foreign countries besides the local research.

In chapter 3, discussion is focusing on the research methodology used in this study. Other
aspects include the design or the study, the instruments used and the procedures for the data
collection and data analysis. It also revealed the population of the samples involved in this study.

Chapter 4 dealt with the research result. It includes the profile of lire respondents and the
research findings. The research findings revealed the result obtained from the pre-test and post
lest. Other results are also obtained from the semi-structured interview and the observation
throughout the teaching and learning processes.

The last chapter of this study dealt with the conclusions and the implications of the
study that has been done. Here we looked at discussion findings and what are
recommendations for further research.

5.3 Discussions or the Findings

Discussions of the finding focused La answer the research questions that have
been put forth in Chapter 1.
Research Question 1:

What are the preferred methods of learning English grammar?


The after effects of using songs in the learning of English grammar have shown as a starting
point to enhance acquisition among passive students. Teacher should not be too obsessed with
one or two teaching methods. According to Brumfit (1990. p.l 17), ESL students are often shy
away and not able to express what they want to say. This may happened due to the lack of
practice. By introducing songs, students may feel more motivated and interested in what they do.
The time they spent working on the songs may actually be slightly longer than when other
techniques are used. However, the score received suggested that the fun and relaxing atmosphere
accompanying the activities had facilitated the students in a better way of learning. Almost all
pupils in the experimental group responded positively toward songs. They managed to solve the
songs' activities through pair work and group work. This was proven in their post test results.
Students did not realize that they are learning through discussion, solving and locating details to
complete the tasks together. Unconsciously they were making used of all the skills involved
namely listening, rending, speaking and writing.

Research Question 2:
To what extent can songs improve Students' attitude and motivation toward learning English
grammar?

Songs really encouraged and motivated the students to work in group to share ideas and

completing the tasks given. Students always looked forward to the next lesson and this proved

that students are really motivated and had h.igh expectation on the next lesson. Actually there

was a very positive interaction when students participated in the songs and even the passive

pupils tend to overcome their shyness and interact with their peers. Besides that, these students

have shown full co-operation in every activity that has been given to them. According to Hansen

1994 (p.118), songs are highly motivating and entertaining, and they-can give shy students more

opportunity to express their opinions and feeling. The songs also enable learners to acquire new

experience within foreign language.

Research Question 3:
Can songs be used to emphasize the teaching and learning of some particular language items?
According to Gairns and Redman (1996, p.27), songs are either used as 'starter' or 'warmer' at the
beginning of the lesson which are to draw students attention and interest toward learning. Almost
all the students who had undergone the learning of verbs and nouns using songs have shown
some positive improvement. Thus songs' activities have been shown to have advantages and
effectiveness in learning vocabulary, in particular nouns and verbs in various ways. It cannot be
denied therefore, that using songs to enhance students learning is one of the effective and
interesting ways that can be applied in the classroom.

Research Question 4:

How do songs enhance the students' learning of English grammar?

Songs were able to enhance the students who had undergone the learning of English grammar
especially that focused on verbs and nouns. Based on the data analysis collected from the pre-test
and the post test, students have achieved a better result and show great improvement. They were
able to answer all the task given to them.

5.4 Implications or Research Findings.

Basically, teachers can make use of the songs method in presenting and teaching vocabulary
other than teaching verbs and nouns to the students. It is how best the teacher can manipulate and
improvise to suits to the student’s level of learning. Many teachers often overlooked at the fact
that in a relaxing manner, real learning can lakes place and students used the language that they
have been exposed to and have practiced earlier.

As mentioned earlier songs benefit the teachers in such a way that it encourages, entertaining,
leaching prompt and promote fluency. All the four basic skills namely listening, speaking,
reading and writing can be implemented in the song method. Teachers should not adhere to
traditional attitude that work cannot be done at the same time while playing. It is time for the
teachers to reconsider the situation and make learning and leaching more fun, enjoyable and
meaningful to the students. Besides that, teachers should be aware that learning and teaching
must be responsive and able to cater every individual needs and should be creative in the lessons
planning.

However, there is no single method which is effective for every teacher, thus, to enhance
learning in the classroom the teacher should avoid passiveness among pupils. Teachers can
incorporate songs method in the leaching method. This can be done either as a warmer or starter
in other way during pre-lesson, the while lesson and also during the post lesson. Songs should be
planed and well selected to suit the standard and level of difficulty of the students. Thus, songs
should be recommended and incorporated in any lesson of tile language.

5.5 Conclusion of the Research Findings.

Most would agree that language learning is a hard and challenging task which can sometimes be
frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target
language. Fundamentally, effort is required in the language learning at every moment and must
be maintained over a long period of time.

According to Lee (1995), it is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same
time. One of the best ways of doing so is through songs. Lee (1995) discovered that by using
songs in language teaching have several advantages over traditional method. Basically songs can
contribute to the supplementary materials which lead to the encouragement and motivation of the
students.

5.6 Recommendations for Further Research.

In relation to this study, further study can be carried out to find out the use of songs on other
grammatical aspects of the language. This is based on the fact that songs had resulted in the
enhancement of learning the English verbs and nouns among from one student. A research on
whether using songs is successful in helping students to improve their pronunciation and
proficiency in English also can be carried out. This is duo to the facts that most students are
lacking in mastering and proficient in English because of little practice and also other factors
involved. Thus, the data from the finding can be used to find out the effectiveness of using songs
in helping the students to improve their proficiency level.

Apart from that, a research on whether students ' preference on group works or individual work
should be carried out in implementing various programmes at schools especially on school work
and assignments. Information on attitudes and motivation of the students, data from the finding
can also be used to find out the preference mode.

5.7 Summary

In relation 10 the implication of the study teachers can make full use of songs as it motivate and
can enhance the students in learning verbs and nouns in an English lesson. Moreover in the
English saying, All work, no play makes Jack a dull boy, should be taken into consideration.
Teachers should be creative in setting up and preparing the lesson involving the choosing of
songs. Thus, it is recommended that teachers should incorporate songs in their leaching method
besides using other approaches to achieve the objectives that arc being set Consequently such
continuous study in relation to this field should be further look into for the betterment of the
future education in our country.
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