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Dr./ Mohammad Mustafa , Thamar University Lecture , Grammar II, Freshman Level The Passive Sentences Called also passive voice Dynamic and Static Sentences : * Not all sentences can be put into passive * A sentence that to put into passive include a subject , verb and an object. It is dynamic whereas the sentence that you can not change into passive is static e.g.
- ACTIVE (DYNAMIC): The children broke the glass of my car. - PASSIVE : The glass of my car was broken by the children. -ACTIVE (STATIC) : Sam will be coming now from the hall.

* Some sentences are not preferred to be put into passive although they have objects.
e.g. ACTIVE (favored usage) Sam studies Chemistry. PASSIVE (disfavored usage) Chemistry is studied by Sam.

Here , because Sam is the agent which we speak about , not chemistry * If the object is preceded by a preposition use active voice, e.g.
CORRECT: The teacher is going to the class INCORRECT: The class is being gone to by the teacher.

* If the doer agent is a pronoun , you dont need to re-mention it , e,g: COMMON: He often beats Sam in chess UNCOMMON: Sam is often beaten in chess by him Omit by him

THE VERB THAT MAKES THE SENTENCES PASSIVE TAKES PAST PARTICIPLE FORMS

Change of Tenses :
1. Simple Present :

The parliament passes new laws


New laws are passed by the parliament. A new law is passed by the parliament 2. Simple past :

The parliament passed new laws


New laws were passed by the parliament.

2 A new law was passed by the parliament. 3. Simple future:

The parliament will pass new laws


New laws / A new law > will be passed by the parliament. 4- Perfect present :

The parliament has passed new laws .


New laws have been passed by the parliament. A new law has been passed by the parliament. 5. Perfect past

The parliament had passed new laws before any further discussion.
New laws had been passed by the parliament before any further discussion. 6. Perfect future

The parliament will have passed new laws


New laws/ a new law > will have been passed by the parliament. 7. Continuous present:

The parliament is passing new laws .


New Laws are being passed by the parliament . A new law is being passed by the parliament. 8. Continuous past :

The parliament was passing new laws when the workers began strike.
New Laws were being passed by the parliament when workers began strike. A new law was being passed by the parliament when workers began strike. 9. Continuous future:

The parliament will be passing new laws


New laws / A new law > will be passed by the parliament . 10. Perfect continuous present :

The parliament has been passing new laws.


New laws have been / A new law has been passed by the parliament. 11. Perfect continuous past :

The parliament had been passing new laws before workers began strike
New laws had been passed by the parliament before workers began strike. A new law had been passed by the parliament before workers began strike. 12. Perfect continuous future

The parliament will have been passing new laws before workers began strike
New laws will have been passed by the parliament

When do we use Passive ?


1- When the doer is unknown : (without by)
My car was stolen. The flat I want has been rented. The books you are asking about are borrowed now .

2- When the doer is axiomatic , and there is no need to mention it. (without

by)
I was born in Saudia. He was sentenced five years of imprisonment. You cant find any meat sold here in the afternoon.

3- when the speaker wants to make a short sentence without mentioning the doer: (without by)
Prices have been doubled. I have been advised to have surgery . He was disappointed. The same mistake is repeated.

4- When we want to emphasize the object before mentioning the doer (with

by)
Some NGOs will be donated by the EU. Three Palestinians were shot dead by the Israeli force Cloned Dolly was produced by a Scott research institute .

5- When we express some scientific and historical facts (with by)


Oil is carried by ships . Malaria is caused by mosquitoes. Tea and rubber are produced mainly by Asian countries. World War II was started on by Germany . Bacteria infections are treated mainly by antibiotics.

6. When we express scientific facts (without by)


Water is composed of oxygen and Hydrogen. Most of tube babies are born female. Avian influenza (bird flu) is expected to spread widely. Tires are made of rubber.

7. When the creation or the act is known more than the initiator: (with by)
America was discovered by Columbus Television was invented by John Logy Paird. Yemen is democratically ruled by the GPC party.

Monaliza was painted by Davinci.


Tom and Jerry animation was first produced by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera in 1940

Passive with modals


A new internet system will be launched soon. He may/ might be arrested. AIDS can be easily detected but cannot be treated This street must be widened . They should be punished .

Tow- Object sentence (Indirect object) Harvard University has sent Sam an application form
Sam has been sent an application form from Harvard University . OR An application form has been sent to Sam by Harvard University OR An application form has been send by Harvard University to Sam .

Gerund Passive
I dont like my ex-wife rear my child.
I dont like my child being reared by my ex- wife.

Sam doesnt want his neighbors disturb him by their Hi-Fi stereo.
Sam doesnt want being disturbed by the Hi-Fi stereo of his neighbors.

I wish that my daughter score the highest mark in the school.


I wish that the highest mark in the school being scored by my daughter.

The manager must not allow employees use computers for their personal affairs.
The manager must not allow computers being used by employees for their personal affairs .

Most of the children like their grandmothers tell them fairy tales.
- Most of the children like being told fairy tales by their grandmothers. - Most of the children like fairy tales being told by their grandmothers.