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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Computer graphics may be defined as the process of creation, storage and

manipulation of drawings and pictures with the aid of a computer. It is an extremely

effective medium for communication between users and computers.

There are two types of computer graphics.

1. Passive computer graphics.

2. Interactive computer graphics.

v In passive computer graphics, the user has no control over the images occurred

in display device. Just we can watch the graphic images.

v In interactive computer graphics (ICG), the user may interact with the graphics

and with the program generating them. The user can create, edit, and modify

the images according to his needs. The images created by using computer can

be modified, enlarged, reduced in size, moved to another location on the

screen, rotated and transformed. The concept of interactive computer graphics

is shown in fig. 1.1.

The user can communicate the data with computer through a keyboard and computer

can communicate with user through CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) i.e., monitor of

computer.

The following are the functions of the IGC.

(i) Modeling:

It is the process of creating an object in computer by using basic primitives like

points, lines, arc, circle, edges, areas, surfaces and volumes.

(ii) Storage:

It means that he process of storing the created data i.e., model in the memory of the

computer.

(iii) Manipulation:

It is used in the construction of model from basic primitives in combination with

Boolean algebra.

(iv) Viewing:

It means that the looking of the model in various angles, zooming, orthographic and

isometric views.

2.0 CREATION OF GRAPHIC PREMITIES OR MATHEMATICAL

FORMULATION FOR GRAPHICS

v The various primitives used in a typical CAD package are point, line, circle,

ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, arc, polygon, rectangle, and spline.

v Primitives can be described mathematically by non-parametric or parametric

equations. Parametric representation of primitives contains many advantages

over non-parametric representation.

Creation of various such primitives are explained below.

Creation of a point:

v In parametric form, each point on a curve is expressed as a function of a

parameter u. The parameter acts as a local co-ordinate for points on the curve.

v A point is represented in two dimensions by its X and Y co-ordinates (i.e.,

Cartesian co-ordinate system). It is expressed as

v Straight line form the basis for the display of all types of shapes in computer

graphics. Suppose a straight line is to be drawn from point P (x1, yl) to point P

(x2, Y2).

v For drawing continuous line, the computer must be able to pick up a number

of other pixels that should be illuminated in addition to the two end pixels.

v A popular method uses an algorithm known as the “Symmetric digital

differential analyzer” (DDA). The DDA generates lines from their differential

equations. In DDA the equation of a line is expressed as a pair parametric

equation.

v For a like segment joining two points P1 & P2 a parametric representation is

Since P(u) is a position vector, each of the components of P(u) has a parametric

representation x(u) and y(u) between P1 and P2 Therefore,

v Where the parameter u varies from 0 to1. If u is incremented by, say 0.2, then

the DDA will generate 4 points in between the two ends of the line.

v A pixel however can have only integer co-ordinates. Therefore, hardware is

unusually provided that converts each fractional co-ordinate into the nearest

integer. Thus 9.7 is rounded up to 10, and 9.2 is rounded down to 9.

v Once the address of all the pixels is determined these are stored in a frame

buffer.

v The display driver reads the array of addresses and illuminates the

corresponding pixels. In order to look a line continuous manner, it is necessary

to increment the parameter u according to the resolution of the display device.

If too large increment is selected, the line may appear to be discontinuous.

Problem 1: Explain DDA algorithm for drawing a straight line connecting two points

(4,9) and (18,15).

Creation of a Circle:

v Circle is another important entity in computer graphics. An origin centred

circle of radius r can be parametrically represented by

increment in 0 value produced excellent visual output as in case of St.line, it

required repeated calculation of Fig. 1.3. Parametric representation of a

trigonometric functions. This process is tedious.

v Another method of generation of a circle is to represent it as a polygon

inscribed within the desired circle. Hence the fixed numbers of uniformly

spaced points on the circumference are calculated. The parameter & increment

between points is a constant.

v The Cartesian co-ordinates of any point on an origin-centred circle are then

Fig.1.4 Parametric representation non-origin centred circle.

The various display control facilities in graphics are

(i) Vector generation,

(ii) Windowing and viewing transformation

(iii) Clipping transformation

(iv) Reflection transformation

(v) Zooming

(vi) Panning

(vii) Transmitting information on a network and

(viii) Graphics libraries.

(i) Vector generation:

v The aim of a vector display of a curve is to use sufficient display lines for the

curve to appear smooth.

v The number needed is controlled by the display tolerance, which is the

maximum derivation of the vector representation from the true curve shape as

shown in fig. 1.5.

v In practice, lines are drawn between points on the normal curve shape, and

therefore the permissible deviation is inside the curve.

Fig 1.5. Display tolerence

v Sometimes it is necessary to view only a portion of the drawing in the full

screen if the drawing is very large and too crowded in the screen.

v Different part of the drawing can thus be selected for viewing by placing the

windows.

v The window is an imaginary rectangular frame or boundary through which the

user looks onto the model. Portions inside the window can be enlarged,

reduced or edited depending upon the requirements.

v The viewpoint is the area on the screen in which the contents of the window

are to be displayed as an image. Fig. 1.6. shows a window and a view port.

(iii) Clipping transformation:

v Clipping is the process of determining the visible portion of a drawing lying

within a window and discarding the rest.

v In clipping each graphic element of the display is examined whether or not it

is completely inside the window, completely outside the window or crosses a

window boundary. Portions outside the boundary are not drawn. If the element

of a drawing crosses the boundary, the point of intersection is determined and

only portions which lie inside are drawn.

v Many algorithms have been developed for clipping various graphical

elements. A famous algorithm is developed by Dan Cohen and Ivan

Sutherland.

Fig 1.7. Clipping transformation

(iv) Reflection transformation:

Reflection or mirror transformation is useful in constructing symmetric models.

It allows a copy of the object to be displayed while the object is reflected about a line

or a plane. Fig.1.8 shows typical examples, where

Fig.1.8 Reflection

(v) Zooming:

v Zooming transformation is useful for getting magnified view or enlarged view

of particular part of the drawing.

v Zooming = Scaling + translation + Clipping

Fig.1.9 Zooming

(iv) Panning:

The panning transformation is used to move the screen across the work page. i.e. it is

used to shift a drawing across the screen as if it were moving window.

(vii) Transmitting information on a network:

It is used to transfer the data from one device to another. For this purpose the data

must be encoded using a protocol. Protocol is a set of rules that control the exchange

of data between the communicating devices.

(viii) Graphics libraries:

These graphic libraries are used to avoid unnecessary repeated programs when

programming the operation described above.

INFORMATION IN 3D:

v The 3D transformation process is generally more complex than the 2D

process.

v The display devices are only 2D, therefore, it makes 3D viewing process as a

complex one. The following are some of the visualization aid for the CAD

system user to interpret static 2D projections of 3D objects.

(i) Perspective transformation.

(ii) Brightness modulation

(iii) Hidden line removal

(iv) Hidden surface removal

(v) Shading

(vi) Movement

v Perspective projection is often used for pictorial projection of large objects.

This enhances the realism of displayed image by providing the viewer with a

sense of depth.

v Perspective projection is used to represent an object that is so large. In

perspective projection the projections converge to the eye. Therefore it may be

generated by first transforming points to the eye co-ordinate system using a

parallel viewing transformation.

v The projecting each point onto the plane of the display screen by a projector

passing through the eye co-ordinate system origin. Projected points may then

be connected with lines to generate a vector display.

(ii) Brightness modulation:

v Generally parts of the picture near to the observer are bright while those far

away are dim. During construction of drawing, the maximum and minimum z

co-ordinates are noted.

v The z region is the divided into n number of regions. There are n numbers of

visible brightness levels available in the display system.

v The picture is displayed with the appropriate intensity of brightness along z-

axis.

(iii) Hidden line removal:

(iv) Hidden surface removal:

v It is also called visible surface determination.

v It is more generally an image space process. In this process, an image of an

object is generated at a particular resolution by manipulating pixels on a raster

display, exploding the ability of raster devices to display shaded areas.

v A wide variety of algorithms exists. They include the z-buffer algorithm,

Watkin’ s algorithm, Wamock’ s algorithm and Painter’ s algorithm.

(v) Shading:

v This technique is used to display the images in a natural way. It is based on the

recognition of distance and shape as a function of illumination.

v The surface of the solid model is divided into patches. In regions of large

curvature, the patches are reduced in size.

v Then each patch is tested for visibility and the required degree of shading. The

hidden lines must be removed before shading.

(vi) Movement:

v This leads to better recognition of displayed objects. When an object rotated or

translated, ambiguities that arise due to the superposition of points are

eliminated and clear picture are revealed.

4.1 Transformation:

v During modeling of an object, many times it becomes necessary to transform

the geometry.

v The transformation actually converts the geometry from one co-ordinate

system to the other.

v The main types of 2D transformation which are often come across are as

follows.

• Translation

• Scaling

• Reflection

• Rotation

• Shearing

(i) Translation:

v It is one of the most important and easily understood transformations

in CAD.

v Translation is the movement of an object from one position to another.

This is accomplished by adding to the co ordinates of each corner point

the distance through which the drawing is to be moved.

v Fig. 1.10. shows a square object in fig. (a) being moved to a new

position fig. (b). Let us now consider a point on the object, represented

by P which is translated along X and Y-axes by added dX and dY to a

new position P’ .

v The new co-ordinate after transformation is given by the following

equation.

Fig.1.10 Translation

(ii) Scaling:

v Scaling is the transformation applied to change the scale of an entity.

v This is done by increasing the distance between the points of the drawing.

That means, this can be done by multiplying the co-ordinates of the drawing

by an enlargement or reduction factor called scaling factor.

v The size of the entity altered by the application of scaling factor is shown in

fig. 1.11.

Fig.1.11 Scaling

Example:

(iv) Rotation:

v Rotation is another important geometric transformation. Here the drawing is

rotated about a pivot point.

v The final position and orientation of geometry is decided by the angle of

rotation and the base point about which the rotation is to be done.

v Fig. 1.13. shows a rotation transformation of an object about origin 0. To

develop the transformation matrix, consider a point P as the object in XY

plane, being rotated in anticlockwise direction to the new position P’ by an

angle 0.

v The new position P’ is given by

Fig 1.13 Rotation

4.2 Concatenation or Combination Transformation:

v Many times it becomes necessary to combine the aforementioned

transformations in order to achieve the required results.

v In such cases the combined transformation matrix can be obtained by

multiplying the respective transformation matrices. Sequence of

transformations can be combined into a single transformation using the

concatenation process.

v For example, a line AB shown in fig. 1.16 is to be rotated through 45° in

clockwise direction about point A.

v This process can be achieved by the following three process.

(i) Inverse translation of AB to A1B1

(ii) A is then rotated through an angle of 45° to A2B2

(iii) The line A2B2 is then translated to A3B3

The respective transformation matrices are

4.3 Homogeneous Representation:

v In previous cases, except translation, can be represented as a row vector X, Y

and a 2x2 matrix.

v For uniform representation of all transformations, these can be represented as

a product of a 1 x3 row vector and an appropriate 3 x3 matrix.

v The conversion of a 2D co-ordinate pair (X, Y) into a 3D vector can be

achieved by representing point a [ X,Y, 1]. After multiplying this vector by a 3

x3 matrix another homogeneous row vector is obtained [ X,Y, 1].

v This three dimensional representation of a two dimensional plane is called

homogeneous representation and the transformation using the homogeneous

representation is called homogeneous transformation.

v The matrix representation of four basic transformations is given below.

4.4 Three Dimensional (3d) Transformations:

It is often necessary to display objects in 3D on the graphics screen. The 2D

transformations as explained in earlier sections can be extended into 3D by adding the

Z-axis parameter. The transformation matrix will now be 4x4. This section deals with

the simple cases of 3D transformations.

5.1 CLIPPING

Cohen sutherlan clipping algorithm:

v In this method all the lines are classified to see if they are in, out or partially

inside the window by doing an edge test.

v The four digits binary code is used to identity the end points of the line with

reference to the window.

v The code is known as TBRL.

v The code is identified as follows.

If the point is above top of window T = 1 otherwise T= 0

If the point is above below of window B = 1 otherwise B = 0

If the point is above right of window R = 1 otherwise R = 0

If the point is above left of window L = 1 otherwise L = 0

Where, T= Top, B = Bottom, R = Right and L = Left.

For example consider the object shown in fig. 1.17 within the window. The full 4 digit

codes of the line end points with reference to the window are shown in fig. 1.17.

Fig.1.17

v After assigned the 4digit code, the system first examine whether the line is

fully in or out of the window by the following conditions.

v The line is inside the window if both the end points are equal to “0000”.

v The line is outside the window if both the end points are not equal to “0000”.

v For those lines which are partly inside the window, they are split at the

window edge and discard the line segment outside the window.

5.2 HIDDEN LINE ELIMINATION

v Since the early development of computer graphics, there is always a demand

for clear and more realistic images by removing the hidden lines and surfaces.

v The determination of hidden edges and surfaces is considered one of the most

challenging problems in computer graphics.

v The development of hidden line removal algorithm is influenced by the types

of graphic display devices they support and by the type of data structure they

operate on.

v The hidden line elimination can be stated as, “For a given three dimensional

scene, a given viewing point and a given direction, eliminate from an

appropriate two dimensional projection of the edges and faces which the

observer can not see”.

v The generic steps that can implement for a hidden line elimination process is

shown in fig.1.18

v Three-dimensional data is a set of three-dimensional objects. Each object is

defined by its geometry and topology.

Example: Solid model of objects. These models have to be modified to be able to

identify faces and the order of their edges.

v The second step is to apply proper geometric transformations to the 3D data to

obtain the two dimensional image data. At this stage, the image contains all

visible and invisible edges.

v Sorting is an operation that orders a given set of records according to the

selected criterion. Various sorting techniques are available.

v The visibility technique normally checks for overlapping of pairs of polygons

in the viewing plane. If overlapping occurs, depth comparisons are used to

determine if part or all of one polygon is hidden by another. The following

techniques are available.

Ø Minimax test

Ø Containment test

Ø Surface test

Ø Edge intersections

Ø Segment comparisons

Ø Homogeneity test

The surface test to eliminate the back faces is usually sufficient to solve hidden line if

the image has no holes.

Otherwise, a combination of techniques is required. In order to apply the visibility

technique to the image data, the sorting of this data is required.

v With the completions of the sorting according to the visibility criteria set by

the visibility techniques, the hidden edges have been identified and removed

from the image data. The final step in this algorithm is to display the final

images.

v Fig. 1.19 shows an object with hidden lines and shows the same object after

elimination of hidden lines.

The wide varieties of hidden line elimination algorithms exist.

These algorithm are based on one of the following three approaches

(i) Edge-oriented approach

(ii) Silhouette (contour) originated approach or

(iii) Area-Oriented approach.

If the point is above top of window T= 1 otherwise T= 0

The various algorithms that utilize one or more of visibility techniques and follow one

of the three approaches are as follows:

(i) Priority algorithm

(ii) Plane-sweep paradigm

(iii) Algorithm for scenes of high complexities

(iv) Algorithms for finite element models of planar elements.

(v) Area-oriented algorithms.

(vi) Overlay algorithm for surfaces defined by u-v grids.

(vii) Algorithm for projected grid surfaces.

6.0 CURVE GENERATION TECHNIQUES

v Three dimensional curves play an important role in the engineering, design

and manufacture of a diverse range of products,

v Example, automobiles, ship hulls, aircraft fuselages and wings, propeller

blades, shoes etc. they also play an important role in the description and

interpretation of physical phenomena,

v Example in geology, physics and medical science. These products and science

requires free form, or synthetic curves and surfaces. The need of synthetic

curves in design arises on the following occasions.

(i) When a curve is represented by a collection of measured data points and

(ii) When an existing curve must change to meet new design requirements.

v In the second case, the designer would need a curve representation that is

directly related to the data points and is flexible enough to bend, twist or

change the curve shape by changing one or more data points.

v The synthetic or free form curves are required to pass through given data

points. Therefore polynomials are the typical form of these curves.

v Various continuity requirements can be specified at the data points to impose

various degrees of smoothness of the resulting curve.

v The order of continuity becomes important when a complex curve is modeled

by joining several curve segments. Zero order continuity (C° ) yields a position

continuous curve.

v First (C and second (C order continuities imply slope and curvature

continuous curves respectively.

Two approaches are available for modeling of synthetic curves

(i) Interpolation

(ii) Approximation.

v The interpolation essentially tries to pass a curve on a surface called

interpolent through all these points.

v Approximation tries to fit a smoother curve on surface which may be close to

thee points but may not actually pass through each of them.

v One of the popular methods of interpolation is to use Lagrangian polynomial

which is the unique polynomial of degree n passing through n+l points. But it

is unsuitable in modeling of curves because they tend to oscillate about control

points, are computationally inconvenient, and are uneconomical of storing

curve in the computer.

v A cubic polynomial is the minimum-order polynomial that can guarantee the

generation of these curves. In addition, the cubic polynomial is the lowest-

degree polynomial that permits inflection within a curve segment and that

allows representation of nonlinear three-dimensional curves in space.

v The various forms of synthetic curves are explained in detail in the following

sections.

6.1 Cubic Spline:

v Splines are functions that are used for fitting a curve through a number of data

points.

v In general, the mathematical spline is a piecewise polynomial of degree K

with continuity of derivates of order K-1 at the common joints between

segments.

v The cubic spline has second order or C continuity at the joints. The cubic

spline curve connects two data points and utilizes a cubic equation.

v Therefore, four conditions are required to determine the coefficients of the

equation.

v The equation for a single parametric cubic spline segment is given by

v Equation (3) is for a single cubic spline segment which passes through the end

points u = 0 and u = 1. It also shows that the curve’ s shape can be controlled

by changing its end points or its tangent vectors.

v The equation (3) can be generalized for any two adjacent spline segments of a

spline curve that are to fit a given number of data points.

6.2 Bezier Curves:

v Curves developed by this techniques pass through the number of given points.

v There is an another alternative for creating the free-form curves which utilizes

approximation technique.

v Curves resulting from approximation techniques do not pass through the given

data points. Instead, these points are used to control the shape of the resulting

curves.

v In the most of the cases approximation techniques are preferred over

interpolant techniques curve design due to added flexibility and additional

intuitive feed provided by this technique, Bezier and B-spline curves are

examples for approximation technique.

v Bezier curves, developed by P.Bezier of the French can company “Regrault”

and used them in his software system called UNISURE to define the surface

panel or outer panels of the cars.

v Bezier used a control polygon for curves, in place of points and tangent

vectors as in case of cubic splines.

v The Bezier curve is defined in terms of the locations of n+l points. These

points are called control points. They form vertices of control polygon which

uniquely defines the curves shape.

v Fig.1.20. shows a Bezier curve which has tour control points. Only first and

last control points or vertices of the polygon actually lie on the curve.

v The other two vertices define the order derivates and shape of the curve. The

curve is always tangent to first and last polygon segments.

v Several four point Bazier polygon and the resulting cubic curves are shown in

fig. 1.21.

Fig 1.21. Cubic bezier curve

1. The curve interpolates the first and last control points. i.e. it passes through B and B

if we substitute u = 0 and 1 in equation (7).

2. The curve is tangent to the first and last segments of the characteristic polygon.

3. The curve is symmetric with respect to u and (1—u ). Therefore, the sequence of

control points defining the curve can be reversed without change of the curve shape.

4. Each control point is weighted by its blending function for each u value.

5. The curve shape can be modified by either changing one or more vertices of its

polygon or by keeping the polygon fixed and specifying multiple coincident points at

a vertex.

6. A closed Bezier curve can simply be generated by closing its characteristic polygon

or choosing B0 and Bn to be coincident.

6.3 B-spline curve:

The Bezier curve developed on the basis of Bernstein basis has the following

limitations:

1. The number of specified polygon vertices fixes the order of the resulting

polynomial which defines the curve. The only way to reduce the degree of the curve is

to reduce the number of vertices and vice versa.

2. A change in one vertex is felt throughout the entire curve because of the global

nature of the Berntein basis. This means that the value of blending function is nonzero

for all parameter values over the entire curve.

v B-Spline curves provide another effective method of generating curves

defined by polygons.

v In fact B-spline (Basis spline) curves are the proper and powerful generation

of Bezier curves. B spline contains the Bernstein basis as a special case. B-

spline basis is generally non global.

v The non global behaviour of B-spline curves is due to the fact that each vertex

B is associated with a unique basis function.

v The B-spline basis allows the order of the basis function and hence the degree

of the resulting curve to be changed without changing the number of defining

polygon vertices.

v B-spline curves have the ability to interpolate or approximate a set of given

data points.

v Let P(u) be the position vectors along the curve as a function of the parameter

u then a B Spline curve is given by

Where the B, are the position vectors of the n+l defining polygon vertices and the N

are the normalized B-spline basis functions.

6.3 Characteristics of the B-spline curves:

1. The local control of the curve can be achieved by changing the position of a control

point or using multiple control points by placing several points at the same location.

2. The B-spline curves do not pass through the first and last control points except

when linear blending functions are used.

3. A non-periodic B-spline curve pass through the first and last control points and is

tangent to the first and last segments of the control polygon.

4. A second-degree curve (k = 3) is always tangent to the midpoints of all the internal

polygon segments as shown in fig. 1.23

5. If K equals the number of control points (n+l), then the resulting B-spline curve

becomes a Bezier curve as shown in fig.1.24.

6. Multiple control points induce regions of high curvature of a B-spline curve. Fig.

1.25 shows this property of the curve.

Fig 1.25. Multiple control point B-spline curve

v Rational curves were first introduced in to the computer graphics by coons.

v Rational curve is defined by the algebric ratio of two polynomials while a non-

rational curve is defined by one polynomial. Rational Bezier curves; rational

B-spline and 3-sp1ine curves, rational conic sections and rational cubics have

been formulated.

v The most widely used rational curves are non-uniform rational B-splines

(NT.JRBS). NURBS is capable of representing in a single form non-rational B

splines and Bezier curves as well as linear and quadratic analytic curves.

v Rational B-splines provide a single precise mathematical form capable of

representing the common analytical shapes like lines, planes, conic curves

including circles, free form curves, quadric and sculptured surfaces etc.

7.0 MODEL STORAGE AND DATA STRUCTURE

Data:

v Data is a collection of numerical values, names, alphanumeric characters,

codes, instructions etc.

v The data are stored in the computer memory in the form of binary digits i.e. 0

and 1.

Database:

v Database can be defined as a collection of data in a single location designed to

be used by different programmers for a variety of applications.

v The term database denotes a common base of data collection designed to be

used by different programmers.

v More specifically, it is a collection of logically related data stored together in a

set of files intended to serve on or more applications in an optimal fashion.

v The amount of information in a database can vary from a handful to billions of

entries.

v A database must have a predetermined structure and organization suitable for

access, interpretation or processing either manually or automatically.

Data structure:

v Data structure is defined as a set of data items or elements that are related to

each other by a set of relations.

v It is a diagrammatic representation of the database.

v From CAD point of view, a data structure is a scheme, logic or a sequence of

steps developed to achieve a certain graphics.

v The data structures are used in the interactive modeling purpose in the

following way:

1. It allows interactive manipulation such as addition, modification and deletion of

data.

2. It supports multiple types of data element like geometric, textual, dimensions,

labels, tool paths, finite elements and so on.

3. It allows the property such as pen number, line style, colour and so on to be

associated with geometric elements.

4. It provides facilities for the retrieval of parts of the data structural released by

deletion or other modifications.

5. It should be compact to minimize disc storage and main memory requirements.

6. It allows models of various sizes and comprising various combinations of entities,

to be defined.

7. It provides as efficient an access to the data as possible.

The Advantage of having centralised control of database is as follows:

1. Eliminate redundancy.

2. Enforce standards that mean with central control of the database, both national and

international standards are followed. Standards are most important for data

interchange between systems.

3. Access to sensitive data and projects can be checked and controlled by assigning

each used the proper access code to various parts of the database.

4. Maintain integrity which ensures its accuracy. Integrity proceeds consistency.

5. Balance conflicting requirements.

Database Management System (DBMS):

DBMS is defined as the software that allows access to use or modify data stored in a

database. It consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access

that data. It acts as a intermediate source between database and the user of this

database as shown in fig. 1.26.

The database management involves in the following activities:

Organize a database

v Add new data to the database

v Sort the data in some meaningful order

v Search the database for types of information

v Print the data into formatted reports

v Edit the data and delete the data

Model Storage:

v There are many ways in which the models called be stored.

v Data structure is used to store the model in the CAD system.

v Data structures are one in which the model creation and manipulation

algorithms act.

Simple Data Structure:

v A simple data structure consists of a list or table of entities with cross

references (or pointers) from this list to separate arrays of floating point,

integer and other data specific to the entities.

v This is shown in fig. 1.27 In this figure we can see an entity table, a real data

table for floating point data and an integer data table.

v In the entity table, a series of slots are present. Each of these slots containing a

number of elements of the array used for the table, are assigned one per entity.

v It also contains pointers to connect the data with other data in the table. These

are used to in such a way that data may be arbitrarily added, deleted and

moved in the list.

General entity data table:

v As already explained, the entity table has a series of slots, one for each entity.

v These slots containing general data applicable to most entities.

8.0 CONCEPTS OF DATA PROCESSING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS

v In many places, the term ‘ data’ and ‘ information’ are often used

interchangeably because their meanings are so closely related for most

practical purposes.

v If we define these two terms more precisely, ‘data’ usually means raw,

unevaluated facts and figures and ‘ information’ refers to data that have been

evaluated and recognized in more meaningful way.

v The data are raw facts, may or may not be information but from which

information is created. Information is data which provides meaning and

relevance to some problem.

v The information is useful for decision-making. Without information the

system cannot survive.

v Information flows are very much essential for any system as blood flow in

human body. It applies to large system as well as small ones.

v Fig. 1.28 shows information flow in a manufacturing company for different

departments along with functional area.

v This figure shows that the common information flow can be functionally

divided into two types.

(i) Geometry oriented data flow.

(ii) Management or administration oriented dataflow.

The control parameter for both data flows is exchanged between functional

components of the company as shown in fig1.28. by dashed lines.

v Data processing should consist of a set of procedures (i.e. recording,

classification and storing, storage and retrieval, summarization and analysis)

used to process data to produce information for managers.

v For understanding of management information system, a careful study of the

nature of the data, the storage, processing and retrieval of data, the

characteristics of information and communication is essential.

9.0 BANK CONCEPT

v An important element for managing a situation is knowledge information

about the grade and objectives, resources, operations and environment.

v An individual personal knowledge is only what can be acquired and stored in

his memory and then retrieved and manipulated as necessary.

v However, many managers insist on operating with only the information stored

in personal memory.

v Now-a-days, it is necessary to store the information in other storage media.

Books, magazines, journals, forms, records, data CD’ s and a wide variety of

other media assist in storing information until it is needed.

v However, now-a-days, due to complex managerial environment, it is necessary

to use computers for storing, processing and retrieving information.

v In developing an information system to serve the variety of needs of today,

modem environment knowledge and information can be stored in the memory

of the computer.

v This knowledge can be described and called as a databank. Fig. 1.29 shows the

transfer of information from human memory and other media to the memory

of a computer.

10 A BANK INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL

The data bank has the following two primary advantages over the manual system.

1. The accumulation of information in an information center where “One set of

books” is maintained avoids the maintenance of separate record files.

2. It tends to integrate the separate functions and departments of the

company/industry.

v The databank or the central database is constructed to store and retrieve the

information used in common by the various subsystems of the company.

v By using recent trends in information processing techniques, a high speed,

random access, mass storage device is used to store large volumes of data.

v All relevant information about the company’ s operation is contained in one

readily accessible file, arranged so that duplication and redundancy are

avoided.

v If we maintain one set of records, it will be easier to maintain their accuracy.

v Fig. 1.30 shows the concept of data bank. It describes how a typical

manufacturing firm’ s information files can be integrated into the central

database.

v In general data base system, the following major information sub systems are

required to run the business.

General accounting files

Inventory file

Customer and sales file

Vendor file

Personnel file

v The database should satisfy the requirements of the user, otherwise he will

continue to maintain his own system.

v The purpose of the central data base system may not be useful. The key

element in this concept is that each subsystem utilizes the same database in the

satisfaction of its information needs. This will yield an advantage of

integration of departments and functions.

v Each department/sections of an organization is integrated into a whole through

its access and interface with central database of the organization and thereby,

gains a greater understanding and application of how its actions and plans

affect others throughout the organization.

Important problems surrounding database are:

1. There is possibility of invalid input information by a unit wishing to maintain

information security.

2. If anybody enters the ‘ error’ data, it affects other departments immediately and

produces “multiplier effect”.

3. The interdepartmental agreement required concerning the degree of detail to be

included in data elements of the database.

v If there is no common ground for agreement and solution of these problems,

organisational units tend to maintain their own system for their peculiar needs.

This will also defeats the purpose of central database.

v A good data base system should have the following features:

Ø Satisfy current and future application needs.

Ø Utilized in the best possible way according to the user requirement.

Ø Validate data before storage.

Ø Be easy to modify with changes.

Ø Be expandable with the growth and changes.

Ø Allows access for the data only to authorized persons.

11.0 DATA LIFE CYCLE

Data within a system have their own life cycle. Fig. 1.31 shows three aspects of this

life cycle which are particularly important in development, design and operation of

systems.

The three aspects are:

(i) We need to know how data are generated i.e. how they are born.

(ii) We need to know what manipulation or processing of data is carned out.

(iii)We need to know how certain types of information processing are carried out,

particularly the transmission of data and communication of information and

storing/retrieving of data. The reproduction of data may occur at various stages in the

life cycle.

Fig. 1.31. Data Life Cycle

The integrated data processing (IDP) has two fundamental objectives.

1. The recording of data at its point of origin in a machine communicable language in

the form of punched tape, punched cards or optical characters.

2. The retrieved of data from which it is recorded for performing all subsequent

processing.

v The first objectives is met by adopting conventional devices such as adding

machines, accounting machines, cash registers and typewriters so that they

create punched tapes or cards as a by-product of a basic recording operation.

v The second objective is met by carefully planning subsequent steps in the data

processing cycle and using equipment that can accept or produce a language

medium that has compatibility with other machines.

v The concept of IDP is not new since it was demonstrated in the conference of

American Management Association (AMA) in Feb.’ 1954 by U.S.

Corporation. In that system, fire channel punched tape was the common

language used.

v Originally, integrated data processing involved the preparation of common

language medium such as paper tape as a part of manual recording operation.

However, the scope of IDP has been broadened by the development in source

data automation such as optical character recognition and magnetic ink

character recognition.

v In addition, translating device such as tape-to-card converters has extended the

range of IDP to include any machine that can use the output of another

machine.

v Effective integrated data processing represents a blending of the best

techniques of systems analysis and design and data processing with those in

the field of communications.

v The broad objective is the treatment of data processing activities as a

continuous integrated whole, rather than a variety of individual operations.

13.0 INFORMATION SYSTEM

Model of general information system:

v Fig. 1.31 shows a model of general information system.

v The organization and its environment generate data which serves as input to

data processing.

v The function of data processing is to collect, transforms and stores the data

and produces strategic, tactical and operational information’ s which are

transferred to corresponding decision maker.

v The various decision makers produces output according to the data which are

received. These outcomes then stimulate organizational and environmental

responses which forms the basis for new data.

13.1 Characteristics needed for good information system:

1. It must serve and support the managerial activities in the organization.

2. It should have components serving both the general direction of the organization

and its internal regulation and control.

3. It should undertake the various activities of acquisition, processing, retention,

transmission and reporting of information.

4. It should be designed to follow the pattern and structure of management at all levels

of the organization.

5. It should be flexible enough to meet the changing need of the management.

6. It should not restrict the informal passage of information throughout the

organization.

13.2 Operation of an information system:

The following major steps which are applicable to all information systems.

(i) Determination of information needs:

First of all, an information system should determine the objectives of the system, such

as what kind of information will be needed, when and in what form.

(ii) Data collection:

The data used for various activities is collected to provide the raw material (i.e.

information) for the function of data processing. Data collection involves the element

of sensing and recording.

14.0 ENGINEERING DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EDMS)

v In large companies, hundreds of thousands of model files, drawing files and

other CAD data files are stored.

v It will be continuously reused for over a period of many years. They therefore

need systems to index and manage these large data in a sort of electronic

drawing vault.

v These systems are used by the designers to enquire what data is available for

particular project, where it is stored, when models were constructed and by

whom so on.

v Engineering data management system (EDMS) is a system to assist a design

team in the indexing, browsing and searching of their design data. EDMS also

provides the following facilities.

1. Data is available and easily accessible to all users who need access, but at the same

time, it should be accessible only by authorized person for providing data security.

2. It checks that particular data items are unique i.e., for a given reference, only one

data item may exist in the system.

3. Version control system that log changes and issues of drawings and other files.

15.0 DATA STRUCTURE ORGANISATION

There are three ways in which data can be organized

(i) Hierarchical

(ii) Network and

(iii) Relational

Hierarchical Data Structure:

v Fig. 1.31 shows a typical hierarchical data structure. In hierarchical data

structure data files are arranged in a tree like structure.

v At the top of the data tree the broadest possible description of the contents of

the database is places.

v As one moves downwards, the description become more specific. In fig. 1.31,

the nodes in level 2 are the children of node at level 1. the nodes at level 2 in

turn become parents of nodes in level 3 and so on.

v This type of data structure avoids repetition of the information and thus saves

storage memory.

v The search for specific information can be carried out by moving from top to

bottom of the data tree.

v A good example of such an organization might be a parts list, in which each

product is composed of assemblies which are in turn composed of sub

assemblies.

v Fig. 1.33. shows an example of hierarchical data structure for the parts list of

lathe assembly.

v A major limitation of this model is the rigidity of the database structure.

v It is very difficult to incorporate modification into the database; especially in

cases where the new record involve substantial changes in the field data.

16.0 NETWORK DATA STRUCTURE:

v The network data structure is a combination of several hierarchies in which

child files can have more than one parent file, thereby establishing a many-to-

many relationship among data.

v Fig. 2.52 shows a network data structure.

v As the network data structure is more compact than the hierarchical data

structure, it is more efficient than previous one.

v The difficulty associated with the modification of existing structure is just as

great as compared to the hierarchical data structure.

17.0 RELATIONAL DATA STRUCTURE:

v Relational data structure is simplest of all three types.

v Relational data are stored in the form of table, where each row representing a

record.

v Each of these records consists of field under each column.

v Table represents a bill of materials for a lathe in the form of a relational data

structure.

1. Each cell in the table holds only one field.

2. No two rows or records can be identical. In an atleast one of the columns there

must be atleast one entry that is unique.

3. Records or rows need not be in any particular order. The user may add a new

record at the bottom of the table or can insert in between two selected rows.

4. Since no two records are identical and fields are related by columns, the user may

delete or modify any row without having to adjust any other part of the data structure.

v The simplicity in the structure of this model made it very popular among the

business people and there are number of commercial data base management

systems are available.

v The major limitation of this structure is the difficulty in searching and retrieval

of particular data from the structure.

v Any search has to be carried out sequentially in row-by-row manner until the

desired information is located.

18.0 DATA STORAGE AND SEARCH METHODS

The graphic data can be stored in a system by two forms

(i) Sequential form and

(ii) Random form

v The major disadvantage in sequential form is that whenever we required to

access certain data, it is not simple and one may not be retrieving the data in a

sequential form.

v From the graphical manipulation point of view, this method of storing the data

is inefficient.

v Random form alone can not provides better results in graphical manipulation

due to inherent limitation within it.

v The actual graphics systems use a combination of random and sequential form

to get the best result out of both the forms.

v In general, there are two data search methods exist. They are

(i) Sequential search

(ii) Binary search

Fig. 1.35 (a) and (b) show these two methods.

v In sequential search, the data is retrieved by reading each record sequentially.

v In binary search, the first search is made in the middle of the file and then

subsequent searches are made. Therefore it provides quicker retrieved than

sequential search.

TWO MARK QUESTIONS

2. What are the different types of computer graphics?

3. What are the functions of IGC?

4. What is meant by the term modeling?

5. What are the various primitives used in CAD package?

6. How is a point represented in two —dimensions?

7. Determine the parametric representation of the line segment between

two points (4,5)

8. and (7,8). Also determine the slope of the line segment

9. Write the basic parametric equation of a non —origin —centered

circle.\

10. Write the basic parametric equation of a origin —centered ellipse.

11. Define a parabola.

12. Describe the hyperbola.

13. How can be the speed of input devices improved?

14. What is meant by viewpoint?

15. What is viewing transformation and windowing transformation?

16. What is meant by clipping?

17. State the use of reflection transformation.

18. How information is transmitted on a network?

19. Mention the use of graphic libraries.

20. List the some of visualization aids for the CAD system user to interpret

static 2D projections of 3D objects.

21. Perspective projection enhances ______________________

22. Hidden surface removal is also called as _________________

23. What are the main types of 2 D transformations?

24. State hidden line elimination.

25. What are the various visibility techniques used for checking

overlapping of pairs?

26. Name the various approaches used in hidden line elimination algorithm

27. At what situation synthetic curves are needed?

28. Give any four characteristics of Bezier curves.

29. Write any two differences between Bezier curve and Cubic spline

curve

30. What are the limitations of B-spline curve on the basis of Bernstein ?

31. Give any two properties of B-spline

32. Define rational curve.

33. What is data?

34. Define database.

35. How can we define data structure?

36. Mention the various ways using data structure in interactive modeling.

37. Give any four advantages of centralized data structure

38. Define DBMS.

39. State the various activities of data base management

40. Mention any four characteristics of an effective data processing system

41. What are the elements of information system?

42. What are the advantages of data bank?

43. Give any problems surrounding database.

44. What are the special features for a good data base system?

45. What are the characteristics needed for a good information system?

46. List out the major steps involved in information system.

47. List the procedures involved in implementation of an information

system.

48. What is network data structure?

49. What are the characteristics of relational data structure?

50. What are the two modes of data storage?

51. What are the types of data search methods?

PART-B questions

1. Explain briefly the creation of graphic primitives both in 2D and 3D.

2. Determine the parametric representation of the line segment between

two points (10.5) and (2,9). Determine the slope of the segment and

explain DDA algorithm

3. Write short notes on the following terms:

i. Pointing

ii. Clipping transformation

iii. Transmitting information

iv. Perspective projection

v. Hidden surface removal

4. What is meant by concatenation? Explain.

5. Describe clearly hidden line elimination.

6. Explain curve generation techniques.

7. Differentiate Bezier curve and cubic spline curve

8. Write sort notes on “rational curves, model storage and data structure”.

9. Explain database management system, data bank information storage

and data life cycle.

10. Describe information system.

11. Explain engineering data management system.

12. Explain the various types of data structure organization.

13. What are the 2 —D transformation? Explain each.

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