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ISSN: 2249-8389

Journal of Positive Philosophy

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)
Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128

Volume III, No. 02 (Sept., 2013)
Desh Raj Sirswal

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is an online bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the
Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS). The name Lokyata can be
traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga,
Samkhya and Lokyata. Lokyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in
general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to
encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of
humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong
emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in
general and mans life in particular. The Centre publishes two issues of the journal every year.
Each regular issue of the journal contains full-length papers, discussions and comments, book
reviews, information on new books and other relevant academic information. Each issue
contains about 100 Pages.
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal (P.G. Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh)
Associate Editors:
Dr. Merina Islam, Dr. Sandhya Gupta
Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong)
Prof.Sohan Raj Tater (Former Vice-Chancellor, Singhania University, Rajasthan)
Dr. Anamika Girdhar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Dr.Ranjan Kumar Behera (Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland)
Fr. V. John Peter (St. Josephs Philosophical College, Nilgiris, T.N.)
Dr. Aayam Gupta (Kurukshetra, Haryana)
Dr. Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi)
Dr. Vaishali Dev (Mahamakut Buddhist University, Thailand)
Dr. Narinder Singh (GHSC-10, Chandigarh)
Dr. Vijay Pal Bhatnagar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Mr. Praveen Kumar Anshuman ( Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi)

Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the
individual authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief-Editor.

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In this issue..
Author & Title of the Paper Page No.
Jitendra R. Ranka:NATURE OF PHILOSOPHY 12-24
Devartha Morang & Prabhu Venkataraman: PRINCIPLES OF
Preet Kumari, Gargi Sharma, Swami Pyari, Umang Verma: CONSCIOUSNESS

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Argument Formation: Internal Structure of an Argument
Sandhya Gupta


Argument formation is a topic related to western logic. Every argument in logic has a
structure & to know any argument it is mandatory to understand the structure of that
argument. A student of philosophy or western logic should have an ability to differentiate an
argument from other sentences which are not arguments & which is possible only by
knowing the structure of an argument.

In common parlance, the term argument refers to discussion, dialogue or debate between two
persons of different points of view.

Technically, arguments are the basic logical units. The term argument refers to any group
of propositions of which one is claimed to follow from the other/s and which are regarded as
providing support for the truth of that one. Any argument should have at least two or more
propositions and these propositions should have logical relationship between each other in
such a way that one proposition provides support for accepting the truth of another
proposition. (Copi & Cohen, 2003)

Example: The following argument has two premises and one conclusion and both premises
together provide support for accepting the truth of the conclusion.

- All islands are surrounded by water.
- Tonga is an island.
- Therefore, Tonga is surrounded by water.

To qualify as an argument it must have at least one premise and one conclusion. Every
argument has this basic structure, a proposition and an inference. While every argument is a
structured cluster of propositions, not every structured cluster of propositions is an argument.
To qualify as an argument they must have a structure. (Copi & Cohen, 2003)

Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.04-11
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The figure given below illustrates the structure of an argument.

- A simple Argument has one premise and one conclusion.
- A complex argument may have many premises and one or many conclusions.
- Premise and conclusion may come together in one sentence or in different sentences.

The most general number and sequence of premise and conclusion in an argument is as follows:

- Premise, Premise, Premise, Conclusion i.e. Premises are followed by a conclusion.
- Conclusion, Premise, Premise, Premise i.e. Conclusion is followed by premises.
(Martz & Robinson, 2007)

Sometimes conclusion comes first and sometimes it comes in the last in an argument. Even
sometimes the conclusion of an argument becomes the premise of other argument or premise and
conclusion may come in one statement. So, the number and sequence of premise and conclusion
varies in all the arguments.

Arguments are different from questions, commands, emotional discourses, requests,
exclamations, explanations etc. Sometimes in a given text we find so many sentences but they
form no argument (Copi & Cohen, 2003). To know an argument and to differentiate it from other
sentences (which are not arguments), we must have a good understanding of its internal

Proposition: A proposition is a building block of an argument. A proposition is always a
declarative sentence i.e. acceptance or denial is one of the essential feature of a sentence to
qualify as a proposition. A proposition should either be true or false but never both. If a sentence
is neither true nor false then it is not a proposition and is not able to make any argument. (Copi &
Cohen, 2003)
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Both premise and conclusion are propositions. Sometimes premise and conclusion are clearly
indicated by their indicators but at times they are hidden in the paragraph as these indicators are
not always present so it becomes hard to identify them.

Premise: The proposition which gives support for accepting the truth of conclusion or which
provides reason for accepting the other proposition as conclusion is called as a premise. Some of
the premise indicators, which help to find the premise in the passage, are as follows: (Martz &
Robinson, 2007)
After all
As a result of
As follows from
As shown by
Derived from
Due to
Given that
In light of the fact
In view of
May be inferred

Conclusion: The proposition which is concluded from that (premise) is called conclusion. A
conclusion is a very important structure of an argument. It would be easy to find out the premise,
after knowing the conclusion. A conclusion is the proposition which is affirmed, concluded or
accepted on the basis of the premise. Some conclusions indicators are as follows: (Copi &
Cohen, 2003)

- Accordingly
- As a result of
- Because of this reason
- Clearly
- Consequently
- Demonstrates that Hence
- Implies that
- Indicates that
- It proves that
- So
- Suggests that
- Therefore
- Thus
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Inference: Inference is the process of reasoning or psychological process by which we reach the
conclusion from given premise. This process helps us to know the logical relation between its
premise and conclusion.

Recognising Arguments:
All statements are not arguments. As discussed earlier a proposition is a declarative sentence.
Statements that do not qualify as propositions may be in the form of:

Commands or orders which are given or ordered and are not declarative in nature.
Requests made or humbly asked for doing something.
Questions which are asked and are not declarative in nature.
Greetings and wishes which do not have truth value.
Explanations as they do not declare anything but explains why something
Happened or occurred i.e. which provide causal relation rather than logical
Conditional Statements (If, Then etc.)

Two main types of Arguments are deductive and inductive.

Deductive argument is an argument whose premise supports its conclusion with absolute
necessity i.e. no additional information has power to change the conclusion drawn from given
premises. (Copi & Cohen, 2003)

All men are mortal.
Akshay is a man.
Therefore, Akshay is mortal.

Note: Here no additional information can change the conclusion.

Inductive argument is an argument in which conclusion is not supported by its premises with
absolute necessity or certainty but with a probability i.e. any degree of additional information has
the power to change the conclusion. (Copi & Cohen, 2003)
All teachers go to the college to teach every day.
Raman is a teacher.
Therefore Raman goes to the college every day.

Note: Now the additional information that Raman retired last month from the college will change
the conclusion drawn that now Raman is not going to the college.

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Validity and Invalidity of Arguments:

As the terms true and false are related with propositions, the terms validity and invalidity are
related with deductive arguments only. They are not related with inductive arguments because
there is always a possibility of changing the conclusion drawn with some additional information.
Therefore any information may strengthen or weaken the argument. In an argument a claim is
made by its premises for the truth of its conclusion drawn. If this claim is correct then argument
is valid otherwise it is invalid.
An argument with true premise, correct reasoning and true conclusion is called a sound
Figure: Eight possible combinations of deductive argument with regard to validity or
invalidity: ( Kemerling, 2011)

Premise Inference/Reasoning Conclusion Argument

True Correct True Valid (Sound)
True Correct - No deductive
argument with true
premise and correct
inference has false
False Correct True Valid (Unsound)
False Correct False Valid (Unsound)
True Incorrect True Invalid
True Incorrect False Invalid
False Incorrect True Invalid
False Incorrect False Invalid

Analysis of an Argument

It is easy to know premise and conclusion in a simple argument but in a complex argument they
are hard to find. An easy way to analyse a complex argument in order to find a premise and a
conclusion is by using the popular techniques of diagramming and paraphrasing.


It simply means to rewrite a statement in a simple or lucid language for the sake of clarity. The
steps to be followed in this process are as follows:

Step-1. List all the components of a statement in an easy and clear way.
Step-2. Find the conclusion first.
Step-3. List the premise which is supporting the conclusion.
Step-4. Check if there is more than one argument in a passage. If yes, list their premise and
conclusion separately and find their relation with each other.
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Step-5. Verify if the reasoning is correct or incorrect.
Step-6. On this basis, check if argument is valid or invalid.


This technique was first developed by a distinguished logician Monore C. Beardsley in 1950 in
Practical Logic (Prentice Hall, 1950). Later it was perfected by many other logicians (Stephen N.
Thomas, 1973; Michael Scriven 1976 etc). (Copi & Cohen, 2003)

With the understanding of diagramming or mapping, one can easily identify the components of
an argument and make diagrams accordingly. In order to map an argument, first of all, we give
numbers to premise and conclusion in a particular order and later encircle them. Then draw an
arrow pointing from premise to conclusion as shown in the examples below:

Example-1: When there is a straight forward simple argument with one premise leading to
1. Yesterday was the last day of the month of August (Premise).
2. Therefore, Today is the first day of September (Conclusion).

Example-2: When two or more premises are required together to reach the conclusion.
1. All the judges of Supreme Court work very hard (Premise).
2. Justice Ali is the Judge of Supreme Court (Premise).
3. Therefore, Justice Ali works very hard (Conclusion).



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Example-3: When two or more premises are supporting the conclusion independently.
1. Apple is a fruit, which is sweet (Premise).
2. Water-melon is a fruit, which is sweet (Premise).
3. Pineapple is a fruit, which is sweet (Premise).
4. There is at least one fruit, which is sweet (Conclusion).

Example-4: When two or more premises together support two different conclusions.
Raman is a scholar (Premise).
All the scholars are intelligent and hard-working (Premise).
Raman is intelligent (Conclusion).
Raman is hard-working (Conclusion).


Example-5: When a conclusion of an argument becomes the premise of another argument.
1. Bulo has some urgent work at home (Premise).
2. Therefore, Bulo is not going to her work (Conclusion of 1 and Premise of 3)
3. So, Bulo will not be paid because anybody not going to work will not be paid for that day

2 3
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Example-6: When there are many propositions with one conclusion and other premises, every
premise gives support for the conclusion in different ways i.e.
1. Desert mountaintops make good sites for astronomy (Conclusion).
2. Being high, they sit above a portion of the atmosphere, enabling a stars light to reach a
telescope without having to swim through the entire depth of the atmosphere (Premise
supporting the conclusion independently).
3. Being dry, the desert is also relatively cloud-free (Premise).
4. The merest veil of haze or cloud can render a sky useless for many astronomical
measures (Premise) .(Copi & Cohen, 2003)
Note: Here premise 3 and 4 support the conclusion together


The term argument refers to any group of propositions of which one is claimed to follow from
the other/s and which are regarded as providing support for the truth of that one.
Argument formation is a topic related to western logic. Arguments are the basic logical units.
Any argument should have at least two or more propositions. Without knowing arguments, we
cannot study Logic. Every argument comprises of a proposition and inference. The proposition
further comprises of a premise and conclusion. Arguments are of many types. The two main
types which are important for the study of Logic are deductive and inductive arguments. The
techniques for analysing arguments are diagramming/mapping and paraphrasing.

- Adam, R.,& Martz, G. (2007). The Princeton review-Cracking the GMAT. New York:
Random House Inc.
- Cohen, C., & Copi, M. I. (2003). Introduction to logic . United Kingdom: Pearson
Education Limited.
- Jacquette, D. (2011). Enhancing the diagramming method in informal logic .Argument,
12, 327360. Retrieved on October 5, 2013 from http://argumentwp.vipserv.org/wp-
- Kemerling, G. (2011). Arguments and inference. Philosophy Pages, Britannica.
Retrieved on Oct 5 2013 from http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e01.htm

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Jitendra R. Ranka
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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.12-24
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14 | P a g e
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=.=.= '|'= =..+ =.=. =. =.=. .= = ===. =+ -.=.--='++ =.|= =. |= =. = n |.'+ r =.
-.= '=. =.| =r. (-.= = '=. ='++ =r. r. ==+.) =. = == =.. |='+ =. ..++. |=. = '||= =.
r. +|-.= r.. r |.'.= = .=. = '|.. (=-+) | = '. r . = .=. =. =r..| |=...= = ..
15 | P a g e
=. ;='=| |=...= -.= =. r. -.= '|-.= =.=. -. = |=.. '|-.= =. r. |r -.= r.. +. =.=.=. = ==
'|-.= =. |.-+ = .|'=.. =. ||. =. =.. .. .=. = .. r. +| -.= r =+ = |+.==|. =. r.
|r |-+ +=.., '=== =.== = = |-+| -.+ r. =.+. r, '=== ;==. = ===. .== == =r. ===. =.
=== =..== = |+.==|. =. .-+. =. r. |. =r.

.== =+ = =. .-+. =. =.=+. r |r = =.=.

=. =r. =.=+. ='=. = =.. = ==-| =. '=. . =|=.. .-r.= .. |=| -.= =. =.=., '=== =||
-.= r. ==+. r | | ;+= = =-+ = r| .-r.= .++ |.+ =. |= =. |.+ .. =.. =|| '|-.= r.=
| r. |=| '|-.= =.| r |= |.. =. -.= .=. =. r. ==+. r, '===. =. |.. =. -.= r =. =. |..
=. -.= .=. =. r. ==+. r, '===. |= |.. =. -.= r =.. |= |.. = -|=| = = |... =. -|=| '=..
r =. = |... =. -|=| |= |.. = -|=| = ===| r. r ;= |=. ='=. = +| -.= = '|'|. -|=|.
=. =|= ===.-+|. . ===|. = ==.'| '=.
=...+ '++||= +|-.= |.+ == = |..= =. r. .= =r+ r, '=== .. ==-+ |-+=. =. =..+ -.=
|.+ r. ==+. r |r. +|-.= r
.= =. -|=|
.= = -|=| = . =+ |='=+ : |r=. |.=. =+ =. =. ..+. =+
|.=. =+
=+. = |.'.= . = ==. = '=| r =|. |.+.|. =. |.='+= =..=. = =.. =|= =-. =. =-+==
=.| .= = = '=| r ==. .. '= |r .== |'|+=..= r-.== |. =. ==== =. |= =+. =.. =
;=. |=. = r-...= = |= =. .= =r. =.+. .. =.. = .= |.+. ..'+= |.. = r. ='-.+ ..
=..+ |r ..'+= ==. = |... = == +| =. ..= = r. -+ r+. .. .= =. =. ... =. '|=.=
=.'=-. = =.. r=. ;= =.. =. ' .n =+ | .+=. =r. .. '=+=. '= =|= r. '|=. =. -|..| |
=.'=-.= = .. .n =+ =. ==-.=. | '|.. = =r. '. == +. r =. +. = ==+. r ;.' |=.
= |=. =. r. .-r.= .'== ..+= | .., '=-+ =. = .= = ;= ='+= -|=| =. |= +.'|= =.|. '.
=. ='-.'= = |= |-.'== +.. +.'== ..+= =. = ===. .= =. |.== ..|+ =. =.|. |-+=. =
... -|=| =. -.= r .= = ;'+r.= = =||.= =. = r. =...= (appearance) =. =.. (reality)
= =-+ -..'|+ '=. =. = '. ='-.'= = ===. .= |r '|-.= r =. |= +| = ... -|=| =.
=.= =+. r ;== ==.|. .-r.= =r. '= =.= ..- r. = ..- r.= = =.+ |.-+| = .= first
philosophy r

=.= =. =-+ r '= +|-.= '==. |-+ =. -.= =r., |= -.= =. r. -.= r r |r -.= r, '=== =.. | .
=. .|'+, '|=.= =. |.=. | '|=. '=. =.+. r == =. r = = .. ;| =. =.. =. -|.=. '=. r
=., ==, =.=, =.;=.= =.' = == =. ..'+= (physics) .= =. r. =r||. = r '|=.= .=
=. '|-.= =. == '|=.= =.=+ .
=. = ===. .= =-.= (congnition) =. || '|-.= .==. ==...
r (Philosophy is the sciences and criticism of cognition) ;== ='+'++ |= =..'== =+ =
===. '== +=. |.|. =r+ r .= ..- =. =.= =|= |-.'== '|..=. =. '|=.. || -|.=. r
16 | P a g e
;= =-+ =. -|.=. =r. '=. =. ==+. '= .= =. =. =|= =+.. =. .+= = .r '==.== =. .-+.
'.=.=. r, ==. '= '|-.;= = =.=. r '= ;==. =. = +. '|=.. =. -| =+. r =. = r. .... =. =r.
|r. +.=. r .= === |-+=. = ='-.+ r '= .. ' |= r. . = .= =. = '|..+.=. =.
='.++ ==. r +. |.== =. ..'+ ;= ' (vision) =r=. .'=+ r.. '==. .. .= = =- = |= '
=. r.=. =.|= r =. '==. ' | .= =. =|=. '|'. -|=| =...'+ r=. =+. r .= =. '|..+.
r, ||. =. =' = =-++= =. . ===., +.'= |-+=. =. '=. === =. =. =. '|-++ '=.. '==
;= .+ =. =| r. -|.=. '=. =.+. r. r .= =. =. r + +|. =. '=.|. ==. =. = = =.
'|-.;= += =.. ..'== =|==|= '=.. = r. |'+ r.+ r r ;== '=. =.; .. =.=|.
'|=.... =. =; '.. =r. |.+. |= =.= =.. '|=.. = ;'+r.= | =|=. =.| =r. =. =.+. = .+
r .= =. =. =. ;== =.. r. =.. | -.=.== |'|. =. == =. .= ==-|
|.== = '=.. r
'= r == r '= .= +=..- =. ..'+ '==. |= r. .+ =. '='=+ =| = =r. . |.+. | r=. | =.='==
'=.. = |'|+= =. === = =.= r
r. r '.=.= =. |= '=. . r '= .==.'+=, =.=.'== ||
|'++= |'+. = =| '==. |=. .= =. -|=| '=. =+. r. r =+ ;= =... | -| =| = =r. =.
==+. r '= .= =. =.; |= =|=.- |'.... =r. . =. ==+. ;='=| r= =r ==+ r '= .= =.|= =
==.|. =. ==== || .== =.=.== = =.|= =. '.. '=..'+ == =. |= r
..+. =+
..+|. =. ...'== |''-.'+, ;==. =.'+..+.. ==|., .= =... ==. =. =.'.+, === |=. =. |.='+=
=., r. '= .|=.= .'=, === || ====. +.. =-|. ..= |... =. -|-| r. |'>= = |.+ =.. =
'== =.=. =.' ..+|. =. '|.. |''-.'+ = r. = r= |.=. =. ==.' =.= = ..-+ =. .. =. ..
r ;-r. =... = =. =|=. ==-+ =.='== .'++. =. =.|= +.. '|| =. r= =. .==. r; ==-.=. =.,
= = r- =., == = . =.|.=. =. .+. =., |. .'++ =. +.. =..'== +|. =. ==== =. =-.'=.
=. ==== = =. == r. =.. r '= ..+.. =. |= =. ==.'== +.. =..'== ..|. = |'|. r

..+. .= = =. =.. ..'== =|.. = =.r | =.'-+= r. . =.'-+=, =||. -|=| =|.. =.|.
..'+=|.. =.|. =.|.. =.|.= =. =.= =.. |.'+ =. =|= ..'== '=-+= = =.-| = =r. =.+. r
'.-= ..'== =|.. = =.|= = == = =.. = '=| '.-='.-= .. =. |. '=. r == == .= =
=|- = |.'+, .= .= = '=|.. =. .|='., =. .= = =||, . . = = ==.'., -. |.'.= =
'=..'='=, =.=.=. = =|- +.. |.-+ = -.= = =.'.+ '=. =.+. r .=..'== =|. = =.. |.'+ r+
'=='== =..=. =. =.= '=. =.+. r | |=. =| = . ... = '|.++ '=| | r .. 'r .'= = =..=
=. =+ .'= = =..= .+.|'=. =..= ''|. . r =. ==. ==, .'++ =. -.= . =. =r=.+. r
'=-r = =| = |.-+ ..'==. = =|=.. r
=r'. |.+='= .. |'.+ =. . =. =.. ..'==. = '=| ===.. +.. .+ r. r -. .= =.
=. = ='+'++ >|., ===, '='=.== +.. =.= =...=. ;= =..= =+ =. -|.=. =+. r =+
|.-+. =.' =.=. .= .|'=.. = |'.+ 'r +.. =-+ .'= = =. =. =|=.+ r =+ |.'-+. =
-.= . =. =. =.. |.'+ = =..= = =| = -|.=. '=. r ==. .=.== = .'++ =. =. =|=.. r ==
.= ''|. =..= +.. == -.=, == =', == .= +.. |=..= = '==.-+ =. =|=.+ r .=
17 | P a g e
..'==, |-...=, ==.'., =+. =. =, =.'= =., |=..= | ...= =.' =. =.. |.'+ = =..= = =|
= -|.=. =+ r
|.=. '|=.=. = =r. .= =. . -.=.== -+ | = =. ='.'+ ==. +.. r |r. ..+.. = ;=
+|-.= =.= '. r =..=. = |.+ +|-.= = =... | ..+.. = =.. =. =.==. =. =+=== = .. =
..+ = .= =. == =. -.= |.+ == = '=| =r. |= =.|= = == . =. |.'+ = '=| '=. =.+.

..+. .= =. |=. ....|
..+. .=. =. . .| || '|=.= === =|. = r=. r, '=== =... | .==. |.=. '=. =.+. r |.=.=
=.-+.==. ..+. .= =. . ... = .. . r =.'-+= || =.'-+= ;= '|..== = . =... r |= |
=. =. ;| =. |. =. |=.. '= = .+ r | =.'-+= .= =.= =.+ r =..+ |. =. |.=.'.=+. =
'||.= == |.=. =.'-+= +.. |. =. |.=.'.=+. = '||.= = = .==. '=-. == |.=. =.'-+= .= =r=.+.
r ;='=| =r. . r '= =.'-+=. |'=-= r -| r '= | ..+ =. =.' =.'r r =. .==.
'|=.... = ===.|= =. |..'|+ '=. r ;= |=. | =. |.=.'.=+. =. =.== |.= -., |.'.=, =. , .,
=.=.=. +.. |.-+ =. =.'-+= .= =r. . r ;-r .=.'== =|. .. =r+ r |. =. | =.'.=+. =r.
=.== = =.. =.|.=, == | .= .= =.'-+= . = =r=.| |+=.= =-. = =.'-+= =. =. ;||.. =.
=.'-+= =. =. ==.||.. r, '=-+ |.=.= =+.==. =.'-+= =. =. |.=.. +.. =.'-+= =. =. | '|...
.= ..- =. |=. ....|
-.= =. '|-.= =. ' = .=..- =. =.|..= . =.=.- '|-.= =r ==+ r =+ =- '|-.=. =. ..'+
;==. ==== ....| =r. r =|= '||== =. ='|.. = '=| '|'.-= ==-.=. = =... | .= =.'r =.
'|..== '.-='.-= |. = '=. . '==. '|.. |=. =. ==-.=. = ==...= = = '=-+= = |= '|.. =.=
'. . r |== = '.-= =r. |+ |-| == r =+ ;-r .= = =|| =.|. ....| =r=. r.
=+ r .= =. = ....| '=='='.+ r
. +|=.=.=.
z. -.==.=.=.
+. =-=.=.=.
. +|=.=.=. .= =. '== .... = =.. = ='-+| =. .= = =-. = ==+ |=. =. =.=.=. =.|.
|.=.'.= = =. '||== '=. =.+. r, .= +| =.=.=. . ==. = Meta physics =r. =.+. r =.=.=. =.
=. r.+. r |'-.+'|=.. = r.+. r +| =.=.=. = '|| = == +| =. ===-..= '=. =.+. r == +|
=. |= =.. . |.=.'.= =.. =r. . r .= |= . |.=.'.= =.. =. -|=| +. r, .==. =. +. r
=.' +| =.=.=. = | =. |= r n.., n, ;| +.. == =.=. =.' +| =.=.=.== =..| r, '===
=... | +| =.=.=. =. =.=|.+. =. |.'+ r.+. r, =. =.= |.+. |.'+ =.=| =. =r.. ==.|-.'== |..
18 | P a g e
r ;==. =-+. = '|=.=. =. |=.=- r.+. r r. +| =.=.=. =. ==.|-.'== =... r =. +| =.=.=. =.
-.= |=. -.= r '=== =... | |r -| |= +| = =.+. r =..+ n'| n=| .|'+

+|=.=.=. =
=-++ +.= .|....| =.+. r +.'= ;= +.=. .|....=. = r. == =.. ==.'r+ r, =.. r. +.=. r. =.. =.
== .. r
. ;|=.=.=.
;| =.=.=. =. ==. = Theology =r+ r Theology . =. .|'+ . .. = r; r Theos
=god ;| +.. logia = study or sciences =.=.=. = r; r ;| =.=.=. =. |. |. . =..
= r.+. r
.;| =. .'== . ..'== '||==
z.'==. ..'== ||. = =-++ ;| = -|=| +.. =+ = =-. = ==
;| =. .'== '||== = .== ='-.+ |=. = ==...= =. =. r= ;| =.=.=. = =+ r =.. r. ;|
=. ='-+| r . =r., .== ='-+| = +. |=.. r, | =.. +..='.+ '++ =+ r . =r. ;| =. -|=| +.
r, ' ;| r +. .==. '++ =. '|| = +. =-. r, ;| =-.. =+=. +. r ;== =.==.= = =..
r ;.' |=. =. .. .. = =. |.= '=. =.+. r
.z =+=.=.=.
.= =. |r .... '=== '|| =. .|'+ =. ==. = ='-.+ ==-.=. =. '|.. =| = '||==. =. =.+. r
.= '||'|-.=, =+=.=.=. . Cosmology =r. =.+. r cosmos =. =. r '|| =+ '|| =. .|'+,
'|||'=. =. -|=|, '= =. =.= +.. .==. =-. =.' =+=.=.=. = == =. ==-.| r +|
=.=.=. = ;==. '.-=+. r r '= +| =.=.=. = r= =.. =+ = == +| = '|. = |= =+ r , '=-+
=+ =.=.=. = '|| =. '|'.-= .=.=. =. =='+ .. .. =+ = =.=.- -|=|, .|'+ | '|=.= =.'
=. ===.= =. = . =+ r ' +| =.=.=. = r= |= +| = -.= =. |.'+ r.+. r +. =+=.=.=. = r
'.=.= =. |.= '=. =.+. r '= ;= |= +| = ;= =+ =. =' . '|=.= '== |=. =.| r
+.'|= ' = =. .= = |= +|. =. =-|=. =. ; r |=. =. |='+ =r. =. ;= . |= +|. =
'|. = '||== =+. r |r. r .. -| =+. r '= ;= |= +|. = =... | ;= =+ =. '|=.= == r=.
=+ =. .. == = '=| .=.=. =. =.. =. =-|=. ==. |. ;= ..'+= =+ =. =.r = =.=.
=.| =.|. =r., ='== ;==. .. =.|= r. =.+. r '-|=.=. = |= |= '=. =. |= +| =.=+ r|
;= =+ =. .. =.
.+ =.=.=.=.=.
=.= .= .=. '==. =.-|'== =.=. =. .= =r. =.= .= . =.==.=.=. =. =. r -| . =, = .=
. = =. -|=| =|= . = =. ==.; r .==. =-|..=== ..= r |= |=. '|.. r, '=== =r. =..=
=|= ..+ =.. =. '=. = . = ='= -|...| |.=. |'- ==.'+. =. .= =+ r| ;'-.+.+ '=,
19 | P a g e
..-|+, .| |= = =. =...=. = =+. r =. ;= .|== = =|= == | | '|=.. = =r= r. ==.. |.
=+. r =.=| =. '=-.= == =.= +| =. =.== = '=| '=-+ |.= =+. r +.'= =.=. -.= =. r.
=|> -.= =. =-. . ; r =.=. =. n =. -|=| =.=. . r =+ = .=.=. = =r. r '= n =
='-=. =.|. n| =.| =..+ n r. |= =. = r =. =.=. n =. r. =| r =.=. =. n = +
=r. r ;='=| =.= -.= r. n -.= r =|= =.| =. =.=. ;= |.+ = =.= +| =. =.== =. |.. '==+.
r =. =.= =...=. = = +. r |r n = =.. +...=. = ='++ |.+. r =.=. = =-. = |r.=
.|'=. = =r. . r '=
|. = |. '= |..|.=+
|.- |.=.. |. =|.|'.+ + +
z. -.==.=.=.
-.==.=.=. =. ..'= =. r Epistemology -.= = -|=|, .== |=., .|'+, =.=., -.+. +.. - =
=-., -.= |.+ =r. = r.+. r, ;==. .= . . .| +. r : +. ;'-. = .. -.= |.+ r.+. r =.|. +=
'= = .. . ;'-. =. += '= .=. = .. . =+ |-. = ..: +. =.=| == =-| '= =.| = '=|
=+ , n =. =.=. == '|.. =. '='=+ +.. |.-+'|= -.= =.| r ' r. +. =.=|. -.= =. =.=. +. r :
-.= =. | ..| =.==. r, '=== r= -.= =. |.'+ r.+. r ;.' |=. =. ..=. +.. .==. ==...= =. =.'
'|. =. .= =. '== .... = == '=. =.+. r .= -.==.=.=. =r+ r
=.| = -.==.=.=. -.= =. ==... r =..+ -.= = ='-.+ ==-+ '=-.=.=. =. .'== +.'== '|=..
-.==.=.=. =r=.+. r =....+. -.= =. .'n |-+=. =. -.= =.= '=. =.+. r '|| = r= |.= '++ '||
= r.= |.= =.|..'== '==. =. -.= === =+ r |-+, .= = . = -.= |= '|'. '-.'+ = ++ r.+. r
|.=. ..'== -.= =. '= =. '|. =.=+ r +. == ..'== -.= =. ==.| | =...'+ =.=+ r ..+.
.= = -.= ='.=..+ |= +| = =| = =.=. =.+. r, '== =.=. .. r. '=. =.+. r ;= =.=.=. =
=-++ |= .|.... =.+. r '== +=..- =r+ r
z. +=..-
+= ..- |r ..- r, '=== -. =+ '|=.. =. '==. =. .. .'+ == '=. =.+. r =..+ +=|.
'|=. Law of Reasonig = '==. = == =. Logic . +=..- =r+ r += ..- '|. '=. r
'=. =. ='.'++ |.+. = r.+. r ;= |=. += ..- r=. '=. |.+. =. '|=.. == .==. =+. =.
==+. =. -..'|+ =+. r '==. '=. =. =+. = '=| |.-+'|= =... =. =|.. r=. =+. r +.. |.-+'|=
=... = = '=. +.. |.+ r. ==+. r = '=. |.+ == =. '|'. =.|. |..=. = r. =.=| =.'. r
+. == | == = .|=. r=. r === =. '=-+= == r. '==. = =. -|.=.=. r. .==. =-==.+ -|..| r
;='=| '==. '==, .'+ . '=. =. =.== |.=, '= = +.= = +.== +.. '= =. .;. = +|.| =.=, +=
=. ==.. | === =. '++. = r... =. =. =.= = . r. =. +. r =+ += ..- = += =.
'|'.-= | ..'=., ;==. ='+=='+, ;==. =+. | ==+. =.' = =-. = '||== '=. =.+. r
20 | P a g e
+. =-=.=.=.
=.=| = ==-+ |.= =.r | |'++ r. =.|. =.=.'== . .. =.|. =-+.. . =.'.= =.|. .==.'+=
r. '==. = '==. ;'=+ |-+ =. |.'+ = '=| r=. =+ r |r ;'=+ |-+ =. |.'+ =|= ;='=| =.r+. r '=
|r .== '=| =-|.= r =-|.= ;='=| =. .==. |.'+ = r= =-+.. r.+. r =- =.=.=. = =- =-..
+.'|= +.. =.=.- |=. | '|=. '=. =.+. r |'+r.'== ' = =- =.=.=. = |.'.= = = . =
||. = '|..+ '=>= . |= |=... = | = =. ='-.'= = ;| =-.. '|=.. = '==+ r
=..'== = =. = -.==.=.=. =. =-=.=.=. =. =++ == =. |.= '=. =-. =. =-|=. =. ==
=..'== '|=.=. = '|.. '=. r, +.'= .== ===. =-=.=.=. .= =. .-.=|= =. =. = =.+. r |
= +. r. += =r. '= =- '=.= r

;= =.=.=. =. +.= = .|....| r
.=.'+ ..-
z.=.- ..-
+.|==- ..- . =....-
=.'+..- = ='+= =+=., ..=.., ===, =.'+==.'+, == =.. =. .. =. =.+. r |r. =.-
=.=.=. = =.-=.'+ . =- =. ==- = . =. '=+ =.=., =.- =. -|=| +. r, ;== +.+.
=.. r, =.- =. ==.'+ '== |=. r.+. r +.. ;= ==.'+ =. =- |=. =. ==.'+. = '== |=. =.
=-. r=. =+. r ;.' |=. =. .. =. =.+. r =.. r. |= =- ..- = =.=| = |= =- | =.. =.
'|=.. '=. =.+. r == |= =+= |... r ;='=| |r =|= =.|= = '|'.-= =. || .. =. |.'+ =
'=| =. =+. r |-+, r=. =.|= =. |= = +. r: =.' ;= ==-.=. =. == . '|=.. |= =-
..- = '=. =.+. r
..'== =|.
'|=.... =. ..'== =|. |= r. =r. r +.'= ..'== =|. +.. =+. r = .== =-++ |==..
= ='-.+ +|=.=.=., -.==.=.=. | = -=.=.=. ==-.=. =. =='=+ +.'== '|=.. '=. . r. =+
|= ..'== =|. =. =|=.=|=. +|=.=.=., -.==.=.=. | =-=.=.=. r.+. r =.. r. ;== |-| ..
=.| ='+ r.=. ='=|. r =r. +. ;= ..'== =|. =r. =r. =. ==+.
;=. = ===| ===.== ..+. | |.=. ..'== =|. '|='=+ r| ..+. ..'== =|.. = =.
.=, . .=, -. .=, |.'.= .=, =.=.=. .=, |.-+ .=, == .=, .= .= | =.|.= . = =.'
|=. r ;== = |.= =r =. ='='=+ =| = .=..'== =|. . =.'-+= .= .. =r. =.+. r |r. ='-+=
+.= =. =.'-+= .= =r. =.+. r =.'-+= .= |. =. |=.'.=+. = '||.= =+ r ='= =.'-+= .= |
'|... r | | |. =. |=.'.=+. = '||.= =r. =+ =..+ =.'-+=. |'=-= =.'-+= =. =.'-+= .. =.
|. |== =. = r.+. r =.'-+= .= =r. =.+. r =. ;| = =.-.. .+. r +.. =.'-+= .= =r. =.+.
r =. ;| =. '=. . =+. r ;= +r =.'-+= | =.'-+= =. =. ;||.. =. ==.||.. r .|r.'= =|
21 | P a g e
= =.'-+= | =.'-+= . =. |. ;=. =. = r.+. r ='==, ..'== '|=....=. = =.'-+= | =.'-+= .
=. |. ;= =. = =r. r=. r ' ..+. .= = =.'-+= | =.'-+= . =. |. ;= =. (.|r.'= =|)
= r.+. +. =. | =.=.=. .= =. =.'-+= .= =. >.. = .. =.+. r.=.'= =. | =.=.=. .=
==.||.. .= r ='==, '= .. |. =. |=.'.=+. = '||.= =+ r
' r= =.'-+= .=. = =.|=. =-. | '|=. =+ r +. r= |.+ r '= -. =. |.'.=, =. =. .,
=.=.=. =. |.-+ =++ =|. r -. =. |.'.= .= '=== |= =|. .= =. '==.. =+ r |=
;== '== ==.'-+= . r '= .. .=. =.=. | |=.=. = =-. = ==.= =+ .+ r ;='=| .=. =.
=++ =| = -.|.'.= =|. =r. =.+. r =. =. . . = .. |=. =. | ='+ = ==.= '==.-+ =.
-|.=. =+ r ;= =.. .=. =. ==== =. . = =| = r.+. r -.|.'.= | =.. =. '|=.=
-|+ =| = r=. r ;='=| ;= .=. | |.. =| |. =. |..| |. r
;== '||'+ =.=.=. =. |.-+ .= =. |'= =-='+ =. = =.=. . r | .+ |. | =...'+ r | =
|.= =, ===. | =.=.=. =...'+ r | = '+. =, -.==. | |.-+ =...'+ r .=. r. . =. =
|. =. ='.'++ r.+. r ;=. =.. .=. =. =..=.. |= r. =.= =.=.=. = =.'.+ '=. =.+. r. r
|.-+ =.=.=. = '.-=+. ..= = '=| =.=.=. .= =. || =.=..=. =.|. == =.=.=. =. =.= '. . |r.
=.=.=. .= = '.-=+. ..= = '=| |.-+ .= =. .. =.=.=. | -.= =.=.=. =r. . -.= =.=.=. -.= =.
'|=. =+. r ='= == =.=.=. == =. '|=. =+. r
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=|. r |.=. .= =. '|=.= |= = = |=.+ r.+. r. |r. |= .= = = r.= = . = =.
'|=.= r=. ==.+ = . =. =. =.== r=. =. = .= = . '-|=.=. =. .= '|='=+ r=. '-|=.=.
=. .= =. =. ='=. =. == =. |.= r == =. .= =.= =. ='=. =. == =. |.= =r.
=.+. r |r. ..+ = =.. .=. =. '|=.= |= =.. =r. r=. ..+. .= = =.'-+= =|.. =. '|=.= =
=.'r = .. r=. |.=.= =.= = '=.= =. |'|.. =r. .. ..'== '|=.. =. ='.=..+ =.'.= =| = r.
=.=. =.+. .. ==== == =+. . |=|= .'== ==-.=. =. ='.+ =| =. = =.= '=. . ;=
|=. .= = |.+. = = =.'r =. ==. =. -. .= =. -.= .+= = -. = =, |.'.= =. -.= =..
= |.'.= = =, =. =. -.= ='|= = =. = =, . =. -.= |+='= = . = =, =.=.=. =. -.=
='='= = =.=.=. = = +.. |.-+ =. -.= |... = n = = |.+ r.+. r = = =-+ r. ='.+, =
| =.'.+ r.= = =.. =.... '++. =. === = | . =+ ;==. .. = '=| .=.=. =. =.|=+.
r; ;= |=. r+ = .=.=.. =. |...| r=. -. = | |.-.= =., |.'.= = | |.-+|. =., =.
= | '|-.= '.. =., . = | . =. +.. |.-+ = | =+ = .=.=. = .. |.=.= | |'== r
..+. .= =. |=. '|..+.|
. ..+. .=. = |. . |.. =| = =.=. | |=.=. =. =.. =. -|.=. '=. . r
z. =-.= . ='|=. =. -.= =.=. . +.. +| -.= =. =.. =.=. .
+. =.. =. =.|= =. =|.= =, |= |=... -|.=. '=. .
22 | P a g e
+. == = '==.-+ = '||.= +.. |==-= || =-==-=.-+|. =. -|.=. '=. . r
s. ;= =.= = =..=.. =+.'-, |=.= =. =.. =. -|.=. '=. . r ='| =.|.= .= =||. r
e. .= =. +.'== . .'== '|=.. =. = =.==, =.|= =. |='+ = =| = -|.=. '=. . r
z. =..'== .-='+ +.. ='+= .-='+ =. =r.. =. -|.=. '=. . r
. ..+. .= =, .= =. .=, .= || =.'+ =. =.==- '==+. r
+. =.. ..+. .=. (.= ..'== =|.) =. =- | r =.'-+= .= .. |. = '|.. . .= = =| =
'|='=+ r| r =+ | '==. = '==. =| = =.. ..+. .=. = =- r r
c. ..+. .= =+ =. ...+. || =+. =. -|.=. =+. r r. += '= =+ |.-+ = .. = += n
==.'+ = r. =.| =+ =. '=. | ==+ =r. =r. . r
. ..+. .= = =.=== || ;'-'=r =. =r.. =. -|.=. '=. . r ='==, r. ;'- '=r, ;'-.
= == = =| = =r. , |= ;'- '=. | =-+== = =| = |++ r=. r
z. ..+. ..'== ', ==-|.== || ==. -=. r. r, '=== '= ...'= || =.='==, ..'+= ||
=..'==, =.'== || |.=.'==, ' || ==', '++ || ==.=, '==.-+ || |r., '= || ..|=., -.=,
== || .'++ =.' =.. = |= ==-|.== ' =|=.= =. |.= '=. . r
== =.. =. =.|'. r '= .= .|r.'= =r. r |.-+| = ;= ..'-+ =. = =.. .= +.. .|r.'= =.|=
=. .= = = ==== = =.. r '|| = |. ==-+ ..'==. =. r. '|=. r '= . = =. ===+. ;= .+ =
r '= |r =.|= = '=| =r.= r. =. |r. ..'== === r =. =|= .= =. =.|= = .+. == == =.. =.
=.|. r '= . = = |= =.='== ..= r, .==. =.|= = =.; =.. =r. r ;= '|. = |.. =. = =|=. =+
'. r '= ' .= =|= =.='== ..= r +. ;== r =.. =| r.+. r '= == =. ..= r. =.+. r =.
== = -|.- = '=| =.|= r, == =. -|-. .=. =.|= .. r =. ;= =. = .= =...= r

|-++ .'== '=-+= = '= =. '... r.+. r =. '=|. ..| = '++||= =.== =. =.= r. =.+. r r=.
='.=.. =+. -|..|., == '=+ +.. ==+ = =.== = =.. r.+. r =+ ..'==, .==.'+=, =.=.'==
=.|. =.'.= |=. = ==...= = ' ..'== '=.. =. =|=.. =.| +. |+=.= =. r+ == =+.|
=.=.=. = ==.+ r. ==+. r .= =|= =.|= =. =+ = |=. =. ==...= == |.=. r. =r. ='|+ r
r=. =.|= =. |r., r=. ='+=, =.=.'==, .=='+=, ..'== || r=.. ||'+. || '||.=. =. |... =+.
r =. r= =. +=.+. r '== | === '++ =|=. +.. =|= ==.= =. =-.. = ==+. r

23 | P a g e
..+. .=

=.'-+= .= =.'-+= .=

...'== =|. | '=-= =|.

-. |.'.= =. . =.=.=. |.-+ =.|.= == .=

=.'== '|=.. = .|-= |'= '|=.. = .|-=

===. | =...'+ -.==. | =...'+

=.=.=. .= |.-+ .=

24 | P a g e
1. =.'== =.'=. . |+.==|. .-+.+. |=.= r z+
2. .= =. ==...| .. === '=r '=> =|. 'r-. -. ==.=., ..|.= ++z | =. +
3. Paulsen: Introduction to Metaphysics (1930 Edn.) Page No. 23.
4. '.|, ..'== =.'==, ==|. +e+ | = . z
5. |.== =. =. How I See Philosophy ? |.=.| .. =|.'+ =.'=== |.'=''|= = ='r+
| =. +z++zz
6. ..'==, ==.; +e = .. .= ==.r =. =.
7. .=. '=> ..+. .= .. |. 'r-. =-..= (++c) | =. ++
8. Six Systems of India. Page No. 370
9. =.='|=. |.'..'.= =.. .= . (.==== |=..=) | =. +c +.. e
10. C.E.M. Joad: Return to philosophy page No. 141.

25 | P a g e

Mane Pradeepkumar Pandurang

Like other philosophers Swami Vivekananda talks about the nature, function and aims of
philosophy. Throughout The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda his ideas regarding
conception of philosophy are found.
Here in this paper I am systematizing these ideas in order
to present it. Vivekananda considers himself as a follower of path of religion than of theoretical
With exception of some, many philosophers from western tradition were
academicians (means they taught philosophy in school or universities) but Vivekananda did not
teach philosophy in this way. Through his lectures and discussions we found his thoughts on
philosophy. When we talk of Indian philosophy in general and Vivekananda in particular it
becomes important to make distinction between the western and Indian conceptions of
philosophy. Indian philosophy is known as Darsana which literally means vision or
realization. It is a way of life rather than theorization of life.
Theorization has its role but what
it aims is realization of this theory or to live this theory. So the concept of Darsana is not
intellectual analysis only but going beyond this it is a realization of truth, knowledge and reality.
While in western philosophy the meaning of philosophy is very diverse. In the paper I am going
to consider Indian and western conceptions of philosophy and in that light I am going to evaluate
Vivekanandas conception of philosophy. So for this purpose paper is divided into three sections
i.e. general conception of philosophy, Vivekanandas conception of philosophy and evaluation of
his conception of philosophy.

General Conception of Philosophy:

About the conception of philosophy there are various definitions given.
No any certain,
particular, universal definition can be given. Every philosopher in order to define it gives new
definition. Some philosophers give importance to reason while some to emotions, some to
objective analysis while some to subjective analysis; some to individuals while some to society
etc. Philosophy in this way is subjective venture.Philosophers have their own perceptions and
conceptions and they look things through these conceptions and perceptions. The same World is
matter for materialists while it is illusion for idealists. For some ultimate reality is dynamic in
nature while for others it is static in nature. So it is a subjective way of thinking. Even though
metaphysics, epistemology, ethics are chief braches of philosophy analytic philosophy reject
metaphysics. For some philosophers ethics is only philosophy.So philosophy becomes way of
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Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.25-30
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The word philosophy is originated from the Greek word philossophia. Its etymological
meaning is love of wisdom (Philo means love and Sophia means wisdom). Pythagoras
calls it as the knowledge based on contemplation. Plato says that it is search for ultimate reality.
Aristotle studied physical sciences and tried to know nature empirically still he went beyond
these fields and proposed that natural science cannot give us knowledge of ultimate reality which
only philosophy can give. For David Hume philosophy is the first science which studies human
nature. Every other branch of knowledge is based on human mind and philosophy studies human
mind so it becomes first science. Bertrand Russell calls philosophy as a study of unsolved
controversial problems.Isaiah Berlin claims that philosophy is important exercise because it
studies the basic assumptions on which beliefs are based. Philosophers make analysis of these
beliefs so these beliefs are can be accepted, rejected or modified. In this way philosophy expands
our intellectual capacities. Considering all these definitions we can say that philosophy is a
conceptual and critical analysis of ideas, values and life.

Indian conception of philosophy is different from western conception of philosophy. There is no
any particular synonymous word for philosophy in Indian philosophical literature.Anviskhiki,
Tarkvidya, Tattavajnana are the words which can be related with it. But while talking about
Indian philosophy the word Darsana should be considered. The reason is that the meaning of
Indian philosophy is different from western conception which can only be expressed in the word
Darsana. This word is used many times in Indian context. The meaning of Darsana is
realization. Indian philosophy aims at realization of life. Life should be realized in its spiritual
form and content is the motto of Indian philosophy. It is not only intellectual analysis of things
but its a way of life. Its not a criticism of thought only but to live that thought. In a way it is a
process where thought is converted into practice, ideas become reality and in this aim of the life
achieved.i.e Moksha. It may be logically developed Nyaya or metaphysically sophisticated
Vedanta the aim of these schools is not to get logical or metaphysical analysis but to go beyond it
and realize lifes spiritual potential. Though Indian philosophy talks about ethics, logic and
epistemology but it goes beyond it and desires spiritual realization. Max Muller has very aptly
explained it.
Our (means western) idea of a system of philosophy is different from the Indian
conception of a Darsana. In its original meaning philosophy, as a love of wisdom,
comes nearest to the Sanskrit (Gignasa), a desire to know, if not a desire to be wise.
If we take philosophy in the sense of an examination of our means of knowledge
(Epistemology), or with Kant an inquiry into the limits of human knowledge, there
would be nothing corresponding to it in India. Even the Vedanta, so far as it is based,
not on independent reasoning but on the authority of the Sruti, would lose with us its
claim to be the title of philosophy.

So we can realize the difference between Indian and western conceptions of philosophy. While
studying Vivekandas conception of philosophy we should be aware of this distinction.
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Vivekanda throughout his literature used the word philosophy than Darsana. When he talks
about philosophy he is using western or general conception of philosophy. For Indian philosophy
he generally uses the word Darsana. But we should be note that he is aware of the difference
between Darsana and philosophy.

Vivekanandas Conception of Philosophy:

Swami Vivekananda was a man of religious world. If we see his life and thought we realize that
all of his life he struggled for propagation of thought that the aim of human being is to realize the
spiritual potential. Everything that helps for realizing this potential should be accepted as proper
way of life. He is not orthodox minded person who rejects things without looking its worth.
view is that one should be liberal minded and tolerant enough to respect others. This is the
uniqueness of Vivekanandas thought. And this is reflected in his conception of philosophy. For
him philosophy is intellectual analysis of things. He calls it as intellectual gymnastics. He
thinks that intellectual analysis can refine our thought or ideas not spiritual potential. Philosophy
uses the way of reasoning to do the things. Reasoning he thinks should be used but through it we
cannot arrive at the truth which is spiritual in nature. Reason according to him works in the area
of intellect. And the capacity of intellect is limited because it bound by categories of time, space
and causation. Like Kant he proposes that the spiritual world cannot be grasped by faculties of
empirical world. So what is required to transcend these faculties so one can realize ultimate truth.

When Vivekananda talks about western philosophy he argues that philosophical reasoning is
bound by ways of induction and deduction which are logical operators.Logical analysis cannot
get even little glimpse of reality.Vivekananda while talking about ways of knowledge consider
instinct, reason and inspiration as three categories/modes of knowledge.Instinct through innate
capacities while reason through thinking gives us knowledge but these two kinds of knowledge
cannot be called as real/true knowledge. The real knowledge can only be experienced (not
understood) by inspiration/experience. Only inspiration/experience can grasp the ultimate. So the
way of realization is way of inspiration or experience. When he talks about western philosophy
he is critical about it but this is not there in case of Indian philosophy which has a very different
conception than western philosophy. For him Indian philosophy means concept of Darsana only.
So he explains that in Indian culture there is not isolation between religion and philosophy. Both
are intertwined in a way that there separation is not possible.

In Indian context he calls philosophy as essence of religion. While discussing about religion he
says that every religion is combination of three parts i.e. philosophy, mythology and rituals.
Philosophy is core/essence of religion. And this essence is expressed in mythology through
stories and examples. And at last ritual is kind of behavior which is essential for realization of
aim of religion. He calls ritual as concretization of philosophy. He is the follower of Darsana
tradition so he criticizes western conception of philosophy. He calls this kind of philosophical
28 | P a g e
exercise as guesswork of mind. All this is work of argument, logical analysis, and conceptual
analysis. This may be essential for refinement of thought but refinement of thought is totally
different from refinement of spiritual condition. This refinement can only occur through
Sadhana. So he argues that philosophy is different from religion like the plan of building is
different form building. Plan only can signify building but if we see plan we cannot perceive
building. For doing that we should walk to see building. Here he signifies that theory helps us to
understand but it has no value in action except guiding compass to it. He while explaining this
argues that mere intellectual/philosophical assent or dissent cannot make us religious. One
should experience the reality which is spiritual in nature. One more interesting thing is that he
says that every philosophy has three stages- concrete, generalized and abstract.As philosophy
passes though these stages it becomes more systematic, rigorous and refined.So in this way while
talking about philosophy he discusses about limitations of philosophical methods but still
propose it. But beyond this he proposes that one should go beyond this intellectual exercise and
try to realize and experience realization. He gives emphasis on realization of life not knowing its
meaning. He is seeker of true knowledge which is spirituality not the knowledge of empirical
world. If we take philosophy as an exercise to satisfy our intellectual thirst Vivekananda is not
against it since he proposes that human should always try to achieve knowledge but philosophy
for him is not highest exercise. For him realization of ultimate truth is the aim of life. And this is
possible not by intellectual exercise but is only possible through Sadhana.

While philosophy in general sense, is theoretical analysis of concepts which discusses truth,
reality and knowledge. Since he studied history of philosophy he is aware of western
conceptions. It is very interesting to know about his conception because it can be compared with
many of the western philosophers. Like Aristotle Vivekananda was interested in ultimate which
in Indian context can be called as Atman/Brahman.But Vivekanandas way is more religious and
spiritual than Aristotle. With Kant he has similarities because there are some common threads
which bind both schools of Kant and Vedanta. Like Wittgenstein he proposes that language has

Evaluation of Vivekanandas Conception of Philosophy:

If we study Vivekanandas conception of philosophy we can say that his conception of
philosophy is not unique contribution but definitely it gave new and modern kind of
interpretation to it. Like Indian schools of philosophy he follows the model of Darsana. For him
intellectual analysis is important because many times he mentioned it worth. Human is thinking
being and to be alive means he should think, contemplate because thinking makes man active
intellectually and guides our life. But thinking has limitations. It can go up to certain stage
beyond it cannot go. So this leap into area of light is required and this is possible through
Sadhana. One thing is that for Vivekananda life enrichment is the primary task. Though material
enrichment is also essential component of human enrichment still he proposes that material
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enrichment cannot make human being satisfy. Since spiritual satisfaction is the only thing which
explore his true nature so rather than propagating thoughts of Vedanta he focused on practical
aspect of Vedanta because life realization is primary aim of human beings not life theorization.
Thats why we can say he carries Indian tradition of Darsana which can be called as practical
philosophy. I think his thoughts regarding philosophy are relevant today for world of intellectual
and life also. Though intellectually speaking his thoughts on conception of philosophy are not
new but they are refined than earlier thoughts.

The tradition of Darsana is more systematically presented through his conception of philosophy
so we can say that he was protecting and proposing side of Indian philosophy i.e. Darsana.
Considering his thoughts on philosophy related to life we can say that the way of Darsana can be
also one of the ways to realize meaning of life. The meaning of life can be realized not by
thinking on it but acting on it. Reasoning is great tool of thinking but verification is also that
much important as reasoning. Only speculation, analysis and critical study are not going to help
us always. It may be possible that some things are beyond our human capacities but then what is
left for human endeavor? Human is not only thinking animal but he is also feeling animal. In
order to universalize knowledge we have ignored emotional/experiential aspect of human life
because it is conceived that it is subjective part of human world. But we should not forget that
emotion/experience is also that much important as reason. Here my claim is that when we will be
focusing on this emotional aspect of life we may know many things which are hidden for us. We
always want to be rational so we use thinking methods. But we should also feel/ experience in
respect to understand. Religion talks about spiritual aspect but at the same time it also talks about
psychological aspect of life. We are not aware about religions power to change humans spiritual
potential but today it is proven that Sadhana like meditation brings some inner and basic changes
in human mind and nature. In this way we can realize that religious transformation bring
psychological transformation which makes human being happy. So through scientific study and
experience we should test psychological theories so we can check religions claim that it tries to
make human life happy.

So, theory and practice, ideas and realities, reason and experience all are required for human.
Here one can change or modify other i.e. like if particular theory is accepted as invalid because it
doesnt gives result but may be after restudying it with the help of new data or new devices or
new way it gives right results then it changes our perception about that theory. So here, if we
consider philosophy as a way of critical analysis of concepts it can help us to check claims of
various sciences as well as religions. Here philosophy can work as guide to any branch of
knowledge by criticizing its ways of study, its methods and of course its results also. So
proposing that one is more important than other or only one is important doesnt seems to be
proper. Here Vivekananda can guide us through the conception of philosophy.

30 | P a g e
1. But unlike other philosophers who have explained the conception of philosophy
systematically his ideas are found to be scattered throughout the collected works.
2. Vivekananda thinks that thinking is essential part of human life. Even many times he
feels proud that man is thinking being and this thinking capacity should be used to
improve his intellectual and practical life. But he is firm about the limitations of thinking.
Thought can grasp empirical world only. Beyond it, it cannot go. It is very interesting
that today also some group of scientists and philosophers propose that human brain has
limited capacities. Godels incompleteness theorem, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
neurobiological limitation of brain evolution, limitation of human senses- these entire
issues support claim that human thinking capacity is limited. Vivekananda says that
beyond the sphere of reason lies the sphere of religion.
3. Intellect ends where religion begins. The Collected Works of Swami Vivekananda .vol
7 page 91 (Digital version).
4. For details see Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Paul Edwards, ed 1967 .
5. Throughout The Collected Works of Swami Vivekananda we see that Vivekandass
thought are liberal in nature. Though he is strict proponent of Advaita Vedanta still he is
ready to accept others views. Even he proposes that variety is the sign of life. Variety of
thoughts is not damaging because he propose that due to variation through debate and
discussion thought refinement takes place. He can be called as intellectual democrat. He
proposes that difference in thought is not a problem but every thought should be studied
6. See Science probes spirituality. Scientific American Mind (www.sciammind.com), Feb-
March 2006, pp 40-43. Here in this article psychological effects of meditations are given.
It shows that meditation has positive effects on human mind, brain and behavior. So we
can claim that religion has psychological potentional to change human behavior. Some
years ago the claims of religion were considered as fake claims but today they are proven.
So definitely we can say that only reason cannot give us true picture of the world. Our
experiential/inner world can also guide us to rethink on our rational claims. Here
Vivekanandas position on philosophy can help us because he considers that philosophy
as a theory that guides our practice.

Reference Readings:
- Burke, Marie (2000). Swami Vivekanda in the West- New Discoveries, vols 6.Calcutta:
Advaita Ashrama.
- Dasgupta, Surndanath (2010). A History of Indian Philosophy, vol 1.Delhi: Motilal
Banarasidas Publishers.
- Hiriyana, M. (2009).Outlines of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas
- Magee, Bryan (1986).Men of Ideas, New York: Oxford University Press
- Max Muller (1919). Six systems of Indian Philosophy, London: Longmans Green and
- Swami, Vivekananda (1989). The Collected Works of Swami Vivekananda. 9 vols.
Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.
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Devartha Morang & Prabhu Venkataraman
Environmental pragmatism is an emerging school of thought in environmental ethics. Andrew Light and
Eric Katz mentioned three central tenets of environmental pragmatism as moral pluralism, decreasing
theoretical debate between theories and engaging in public policy making in social and political sector for
resolving environmental crisis. (Light & Katz, 1996). In the central tenets mentioned by Light and Katz,
there is no explicit mention of sustainability as one of the tenet of environmental pragmatism. Andrew
Light and Eric Katz did not mention it as a central aspect in the introduction of their edited book entitled
Environmental Pragmatism. (Light & Katz, 1996). Environmental pragmatism usually tends to the
anthropocentric (not necessarily) position and inevitably indicates to the sustainability issue. We claim
that this sustainability issue can be considered as another important principle of the environmental
pragmatism along with the other three. We argue for our claim by citing works of key pragmatist thinkers
like Bryan G. Norton.
Key Words: Moral pluralism, intrinsic value, anthropocentric, sustainability, environmental pragmatism.

Environmental pragmatism is an emerging school of thought in environmental ethics. Within the
environmental ethics anthropocentric and the non-anthropocentric approaches are two main
perspectives of human relationship to the nature. Anthropocentric approach usually insists on the
instrumental benefit of the natural objects to the human beings. On the other hand, non-
anthropocentric approach insists on the intrinsic value of the natural objects, including the
nonhuman beings and does not support for mere instrumental benefit to the human beings. In
some specific environmental cases, such as preservation of forest or mountain or natural species
ideological clash among different groups of people arise time and again in the form of natural
resource management. Environmental pragmatism tries to reconcile between anthropocentric and
the non-anthropocentric approaches to address the environmental problems and want to work
beyond the ideological conflicts. Thus it emerged in 1990s as a new kind of thought to work
among various ideologies for the smooth conduct of the environmental issues. (Hull 2009).
It is quite difficult to consider pragmatist school of thought as a homogeneous one. Nevertheless,
attempts were made by writers to see the similarities among the different philosophers who
subscribe to environmental pragmatism. Andrew Light and Eric Katz in their edited book
Environmental Pragmatism mentioned three central tenets of environmental pragmatist school of
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.31-37
32 | P a g e
thought as moral pluralism, decreasing theoretical debate between theories and engaging in
public policy making in social and political sector for resolving environmental crisis. (Light &
Katz, 1996). They indicate these three main aspects as central to the environmental pragmatist
school of thought.
the call for moral pluralism, the decreasing implication of theoretical debates and the
placing of practical issues of policy consensus in the foreground of concern, are central
aspects of our conception of environmental pragmatism (Light and Katz, 1996, p.5).
Moral pluralism implies that there are many values in nature and each value has its own worth.
Light and Katz claim that environmental pragmatism strongly supports moral pluralism. There
are various values and these values can be valued under different moral theories such as
utilitarian, deontology, virtue ethics etc. Value actually leads to different philosophical moral
theories. For example, happiness is the ultimate value for utilitarian and reason or end is the
ultimate value for the deontology. Again happiness or pleasure may be defined in various ways
such as mans pleasure and animal pleasure etc. But these are the degrees of values and these
values give us the moral theories. As there are different kinds of values, so there are different
grounds or principles under which those values can be measured. As J. B. Callicott says that
values are embedded in different philosophical moral theories and they can play as a ground or
basis of values under its purview. (Callicott, 1984). Where there is value, there is a moral
principle. Rosenthal et al observes, Different moral theories are possible depending upon which
values or principles are included (Buchholz & Rosenthal, 1996, p. 265).
Pragmatists believe that human experiences are very complex and are in ongoing process with
nature. Out of these various experiences different values emerge. So values emerge as a result of
contact between subject and object which are ontologically real in experiences. From this
perspective values can neither be wholly subjective nor objective. Thus, for pragmatists,
acknowledging the possibility of different values is the starting point for deliberation on
environmental issues.
The pluralism proposed here is motivated by methodological considerations and need not
be understood as a doctrine about ultimate values. It is part of broader experimental
strategy that seeks first to express diverse values in multiple and perhaps
incommensurable ways, and then seeks ways to organize and present those diverse goals
as a starting point for a more holistic analysis. (Norton, 2003, p. 517).
Acknowledgement of different values may lead to conflicting viewpoints and ideological
differences. While the pragmatists accept moral pluralism, they try to reduce the conflicts that
may arise because of moral pluralism. Thus, another important aspect of the environmental
pragmatism emerging out of pluralism is the possibility of consensus among various groups
through a democratic process to resolve the environmental crisis. For example Andrew Light
(Light, 1996) talks about the compatibility between social and political ecology to address the
33 | P a g e
environmental problems, while Bryan G. Norton talks about the convergence hypothesis among
different stripes of environmental groups. In this way environmental pragmatism proposes for a
Collaborative Adaptive Management (CAM) to address the environmental crisis in a mutual
way. (Norton, 1991) .
Light and Katz maintain that pragmatists attempt at reducing the theoretical debates in spite of
pluralism in values. On the other hand, by not engaging in theoretical debates, environmental
pragmatists focus on policy formation on environmental issues. Thus, policy formulation for
amicable settlement of a particular disputed environmental situation is another important feature
of the environmental pragmatism. Based on the pluralistic liberal attitude, pragmatism at least
tries to give a good form of policy decision for the environmental problems. As Robert James
Scott says, The intent of environmental pragmatism is to make environmental philosophy
relevant to environmental policy. (Robert, 2000, p. 196). Environmental philosophers want to
contribute in environmental policy making process. They usually want to influence in three
heads- agenda settings, evaluation of the setting policies and making alternative ways for the
policy to save and conserve the wild species. (Kingdon, 2003). Environmental policy can be
formulated from various perspectives, such as anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric to take
care of threatened and endangered species and other flora and fauna. Usually when policies on
these issues are formulated debates tend to arise from anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric
positions. Environmental pragmatism insists on the reconciliation of both of these two
approaches while making policy for the environment. In critical situation regarding the
environmental decision, environmental pragmatists prefer for a convergence of various
ideologies for the smooth solution of the problem. But, how do this convergence happen and on
what basis? We claim that the pragmatists attempt at reconciliation and convergence is based on
the principle of sustainability. Hence, we argue that sustainability should be considered as
another core principle of environmental pragmatism. Thus, apart from the three central aspects of
environmental pragmatism, we want to bring the sustainability issue as another core principle of
pragmatist school of thought.
Apart from Lights understanding of the core principles of environmental pragmatism, Parker
includes two other principles as essential to environmental pragmatists. (Parker, 1996)
Environmental pragmatism usually (not necessarily) tends to the anthropocentric position. As
mentioned earlier, anthropocentrism is the view which measures the value of natural objects
from the human perspective. In other words, all the natural entities and beings are treated as
resources for the human kind. Human being is the only locus of valuation and natural things can
be used for the welfare and benefit of the people in various ways. So, anthropocentric view
insists that human being can only values things and also use those things as resources. The issue
here resource utilizations is for the present generation or for future generations as well?
Environmental pragmatists from the anthropocentric position subscribes to the view that resource
utilization should also include future generations. So, there is a need to preserve the current
resources so that future generations can use them as well.
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Though environmental pragmatism insists on the anthropocentric and tries to measure all values
from the human point of view, still environmental pragmatists are more inclined to the
sustainability of the nature. It is to be noted that all the pragmatists are not wholly
anthropocentric, because, some pragmatists insist on the intrinsic value for the environmental
pragmatism. For example, Ben A. Minteer calls for such intrinsic value for the pragmatism.
(Minteer, 2001). From an ecocentric position, sustainability is taken care of as ecocentric
position talks of intrinsic value of entire ecosystem. Through this perspective, it takes care of
preserving the ecosystem for the present and future as well.
From an anthropocentric position, the environmental pragmatists accept the instrumental value of
nature and its objects, but the issue is whether use of nature and its objects are to be governed by
the concerns of the present generations alone or along with future generations? This line of
discussion takes us to view anthropocentric position from different viewpoints. Michel Stenmark
finds two type of anthropocentric attitude. These are - traditional and intergenerational
anthropocentrism. Traditional view is that all the natural things are for the use and benefit of
now-living people. And the view that all natural things are for the use and benefit of the present
and future generation of the people is called as intergenerational anthropocentrism. (Stenmark,
2009, p. 83). In the similar way B. G. Norton also talks of two kinds of anthropocentric -weak
and strong. B. G. Norton argues for the weak anthropocentric position that suggests use of
natural resources for the present and future generations by adopting different approaches in our
Kelly Parker finds that pragmatic cut the Gordian Knot between the intrinsic and instrumental
values. (Parker, 1996, p. 34). His point is that these two concepts are not exclusive in the sense
that any natural object has both these qualities. When it is used in human purpose then it
becomes instrumental value and still it possesses intrinsic value. Thus it is seen that nature can
be seen from anthropocentric or non-anthropocentric, instrumental or intrinsic, or individualistic
or holistic etc. It is also seen that whatever may be the perspectives of valuation of nature, its
main intention is to preserve some amount of natural resources for the future generation for the
fulfillment of their needs. Thus environmental pragmatism also tries to preserve the natural
resources as much as possible by reconciling debate between anthropocentric and non-
anthropocentric environmental dispute. This way it leads to the sustainability approach in
relation to the natural resource management.
As a matter of fact, Light acknowledges that Antony Weston and Bryan G. Norton were the
writers whose works carry such pragmatic ideology in the field of environmental ethics (Light,
2010). Between these two philosophers, B. G. Nortons works talks about the intergenerational
ethics for resource distribution and resource management for the future generation. In spite of
such evidence, why dont Light and Katz include sustainability as an important issue of
environmental pragmatism? Andrew Light and Katz did not mention sustainability as a central
tenet in their book Environmental Pragmatism. Though they did not mention about the
sustainability issue directly, yet there are reasons to consider sustainability as another important
35 | P a g e
essential aspect of environmental pragmatism. Sustainability implies fulfilling the needs of the
present generations demand without hampering the future generations wants and need.
Sustainability development is a development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland, 1987, p.
43) Sustainability, that is, the concern for future generations is a common principle between
anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric viewpoints. So, sustainability forms the basis of
reconciliation attempt for the pragmatists. Thus it is seen that though sustainability is not directly
discussed in the pragmatic school of thought, still it was implicit from the very beginning of
environmental pragmatism. For example, as mentioned, one of the founders of the environmental
pragmatism school of thought, B. G. Norton takes the weak or long-sighted anthropocentric
attitude which implicitly indicates the sustainability approach of the natural resource usages
(Norton, 1984). Interpreting the definition of the Brundtlands report, Norton sees sustainability
from the two inter-temporal perspectives human needs and human productive capacity.
(Norton, 2003, p. 169). These two concepts are inter-temporal in the sense that human needs
resources to live and at the same time human tries to fill up through its creative skills the
shortfall from other sources. In this sense, sustainability is a concept of both the needs and
creative skills of human action in time of resource shortages.
It is important to note that long-sighted anthropocentrism which talks about the future generation
was explicitly presented by Bryan G. Norton in 1984 before the sustainability report came out
through an article. In this article Norton in fact discusses strong and weak anthropocentric
attitude to the natural resources along with two preferences-felt preference and considered
preference. (Norton, 1984). Strong anthropocentric is the view which insists on the use of natural
resources as a felt preference of human and resources can be used as much as possible as
demanded by the felt preference. In this sense natural resources are basically used for the present
generation and felt preference is related to the present people and that is why it is strong
anthropocentric in nature. However, Norton prefers the other kind of weak anthropocentric
approach to the natural resources. Though human feels number of wants and desire, still all cant
be fulfilled. Norton says that resources use should be aligned with the considered preference and
not on the felt preference. This attitude to the nature implies that resources are not meant for the
present people only, rather future generations should also be kept in mind while using natural
resource. This way it is sustainable in nature. (Hickman, 2009). As B. G. Nortons weak
anthropocentric approach insists on the considered preference while using the object, and not on
the felt preference, it indicates the sustainability approach to the natural objects.
Norton indicates of such intergenerational ethics and appeal for the conservation of natural
resources on the basis of considered preference. (Norton, 1984). Norton takes the sustainability
as the bridge among disciplines to come up with a comprehensive ecosystem management
framework. Different disciplines see the environment from different viewpoints; still Norton
thinks that despite such differences, all the perspectives tend to work for the prosperity of the
future generation as well as for sustainability. This sustainability is the ground for the policy
36 | P a g e
implication of various disciplines in a consensus way for the practical environmental policy goal.
Looking at the situation from the viewpoint of policy and practice and recognizing the need
for a unifying concept to anchor normative theories of environmental protection, it seemed to me
that the most promising candidate was the idea of sustainability (Norton, 2003, p. 3).
It is seen from the above discussion that sustainability can be considered as one of the key
principles of the pragmatist school of thought. The pragmatists attempt at reconciliation,
engaging in democratic process and reducing the debates all rest on the principle of
sustainability. Though environmental pragmatists cannot be made into one homogeneous whole,
nevertheless, attempts are made to see the similarities that exist among all the pragmatic thinkers.
Light and Katz contributed by identifying some key principles of environmental pragmatist
school of thought. In line with that aim, we include sustainability as another core tenet of
environmental pragmatism.
Brundtland, G. H. (1987). World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common
Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Buchholz, R. A., & Rosenthal, S. B. (1996). Toward a New Understanding of Moral Pluralism.
Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol.6, No.3 , 263-275.
Callicott, J. B. (1984). Non-anthropocentric Value Theory and Environmental Ethics. American
Philosophica Quarterly, Vol.21,No.4 , 299-309.
Callicott, J. B. (1994). Non-anthropocentric value theory and Environmental Ethics. American
Philosophical Quarterly,Vol.21, No.4 , 299-309.
Hickman, L. A. (2009). Pragmatism. In J. B. Callicott, & R. Frodeman, Encyclopedia of
Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, Vol.2 (pp. 171-177). New York: Gale Cengage Learning.
Hull, R. B. (2009). Convergence Hypothesis. In B. J. Callicott, & R. Frodeman, The
Encyclopaedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy (pp. 185-187). Macmillan Publishers.
Kingdon, J. W. (2003). Agenda, Alternatives and Public Policies. New York: Longman.
Light, A. (1996). Compatibilism in Political Ecology. In E. katz, & A. Light, Environmental
Pragmatism (pp. 161-184). New York: Routledge.
Light, A. (2010). Methodological Pragmatism, Pluralism and Environmental Ethics. In D. R.
Keller, Environmental Ethics: The Big Question (pp. 318-326). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
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Light, A., & Katz, E. (1996). Introduction: Environmental Pragmatism and Environmental Ethics
as Contested Terrain. In A. Light, & E. Katz, Environmental Pragmatism (pp. 1-18). New York:
Minteer, B. A. (2001). Intrinsic Value for Pragmatists? Environmental Ethics , 57-75.
Norton, B. G. (1984). Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism. Environmental Ethics,
Vol.6, No. , 131-148.
Norton, B. G. (2003). Searching for Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Norton, B. G. (1991). Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. New York: Oxford University
Parker, K. A. (1996). Pragmatism and Environmental Thought. In A. Light, & E. Katz,
Environmental Pragmatism (pp. 21-37). New York: Routledge.
Robert, J. S. (2000). Wild Ontology: Elaborating Environmental Pragmatism. Ethics and the
Environment, Vol.5, No.2 , 191-209.
Stenmark, M. (2009). The Relevance of Environmental Ethical theories for Policy Making. In B.
A. Minteer, Nature in Common? (pp. 81-93). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

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Kaizar Rahaman
This paper examines issues of capital punishment from a religious perspective. Capital punishment is the
severe form of punishment. It is the punishment which is to be the awarded for the most heinous, grievous
and detestable crimes against humanity. Capital punishment is literally a life death issue. Sometimes
called the death penalty, it is the execution people he who have been found guilty of offences considered
to be capital crimes. The implication of capital punishment has always been the death sentence. By
common usage in jurisprudence, criminology and penology, capital sentence means a sentence of death.
The paper highlights the punishment of offender as a peculiarity unsettling and dismaying aspect of social
life. The paper also discusses the philosophical context of religious view about capital punishment - These
issues have discussed at length in the major religious context in Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Jainism
and Buddhism. Whatever the law may be, however, the issues are more complex if one takes an ethical,
rather than a legal, view. The state clearly has no right to put its subjects to death although, of course,
almost all countries do so in some form or other but necessarily in the conventional form of capital
punishment. Though we know Capital punishment is the most controversial issue in the every aspect of
social life because some is in for and other is against.
Keywords: Capital Punishment, Prevailing Theories, Justification of punishment, Islam, Hinduism,
Christianity Jainism and Buddhism.

This paper shows the various religious positions on the basis of crime and punishment. Most
major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment.
Religions are often based on a body of teachings and scripture that can be interpreted as either
favouring or repudiating the death penalty. Some, such as Judaism and the Roman Catholic
Church, teach that while the death penalty is hypothetically permissible in certain circumstances,
it should be abolished in the modern world. In the past, some religions sentenced men to death
either for failing to convert to their religion or for converting to another. According to Islamic
religious law, a Muslim can be sentenced to death for conversion to Christianity. The
relationship between religion and the death penalty is further complicated by the fact that it is
common for the followers of a religion to disagree with its official teachings on the subject.
Capital punishment is the lawful infliction of death as a punishment and since ancient times, it
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.38-46
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has been used for a wide variety of offences. The Bible prescribes death for murder and many
other crimes including kidnapping and witchcraft. And also the followers of Judaism and
Christianity, for example, have claimed to find justification for capital punishment in the Old
Testament passage Whosoever sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed. Yet
capital punishment has been prescribed for many crimes not involving loss of life, including
adultery and blasphemy. The ancient legal principle Lex talionis (talion)an eye-for-an-eye, a
tooth-for-a-tooth, a life-for-a-lifewhich appears in the Babylonian code of Hammurabi, was
invoked in some societies to ensure that capital punishment was not disproportionately applied.
Every religious and moral reformer tells us that the world is full of evil, misery and suffering.

Evil is to be recognized and every one should follow a path of righteousness and rectitude to
over come the evil. That was why Buddha said that the truth of the world was suffering and that
nirvana was release from suffering. Evil is to be recognized and every one should follow a path
of righteousness and rectitude to overcome the evil. There are so many types of evil(A)
Natural evil (b) intellectual evil (c) Moral evil and so on. It also has been sanctioned at one time
or another by most of the world's major religions. From the religious point of view, the death
penalty is in large measure controversial. Followers of Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism,
Hinduism and Muslim countries also own way to give punishment in their community members
who are offender for their crimes. The history of Capital Punishment is as old as that of mankind.
In the Western world the first instance seems to be "The Law of Moses", inflicting death for
blasphemy. By 1179 B.C. murder was a capital crime among Egyptians and Greeks. In India, the
Indian Epics namely, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana also contain references about the
offender being punished with vadha-danda which means amputation bit by bit. Fourteen such
modes of amputating the criminals to death are known to have existed. This illustrates that in
every country in the world Capital Punishment existed since times immemorial. Capital
Punishment was prescribed for offences against the property and human body. Now, in the
modern world, capital offences further covered drug-trafficking, hijacking the airplanes, bribery
etc., Some Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia even want to add "artificial insemination" also to
the list of capital offences. So many people who say like scriptural point of views Capital
Punishment is inhuman and barbaric. Man is a wonderful creation of God. One cannot destroy it
in the name of punishment. The physical pain caused by the action of killing a human being
cannot be qualified. Nor can the psychological suffering caused by for knowledge of death at the
hands of the State. Whether a death sentence is carried out six minutes after a summary trial, six
weeks after a mass trial or sixteen years after a lengthy legal proceeding, the person executed is
subjected to uniquely cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment. It denies the
value of human life. A great reverence to human life is worth more than a thousand executions
in prevention of murder: and is, in fact, the great security of human life. The law of Capital
Punishment While pretending to support the reverence does in fact tend to destroy it. It is against
the spirit of humanity. It brutalizes the human intellect. Now we try to discuss one by one the
various religious views on capital punishment:
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Christianity: In Christianity the execution of Christ is the center point of most Christian
cosmology. This particular story of capital punishment has been heavily invested with meaning
by Christians over the centuries. Most Christian denominations have held that Christ's execution
was a unique event metaphysically. Moreover, the suffering of Christ on the cross became an
iconic image, depicted over and over again in Christian artwork. This has undoubtedly colored
the Christian perception of capital punishment. Some argue that Jesus spoke against capital
punishment with his statement "Let he who is without sin cast the first stone". Some Christians
consider this argument to be badly flawed, because Jesus was speaking to a mob, not a
government. They suggest that individuals, alone or grouped as a mob, were admonished
because they did not have authority from God to administer capital punishment. Jesus never
spoke against capital punishment administered by governments. During his own trial He
acknowledged that the government had power over Him, given to it by God the Father. Jesus
never questioned the jurisdiction of the court, or its authority to impose capital punishment. He
could have removed Himself from jeopardy with mere thought, but He never did. The Bible
states that Jesus Christ will enforce capital punishment when He returns as King and sole
government of the earth. He will execute all those who stand with the Anti-Christ in opposition
to the King of Kings. What ever the above view, among Christian denominations there is
disagreement as to whether or not it is permissible. Furthermore, not all Christians follow the
official teaching of their church on the matter. Christians in countries that practice the death
penalty are more likely to support its use than those in countries in which it has been abolished,
so that, for example, capital punishment has far greater support among Christians in the United
States than in Europe.
Those in favour of capital punishment often point to passages in the Old Testament of the Bible
that advocate the death penalty such as Genesis 9 which states, "Whoever sheds the blood of
man, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made man." Those against
tend to select passages from the New Testament that advocate love, forgiveness, and mercy. In
the Antithesis of the Law, Jesus says:
You have heard that it was said, 'Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.' But I tell you, Do not
resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other
also You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I
tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be sons
of your Father in heaven.
Capital punishment is a subject which arouses in men the strongest emotions and one on which
there are divergent views, some of them at variance with one point or another of Catholic
teaching. There are, for example, those who deny openly that the State has any right to inflict the
death penalty, at least in times of peace. Others affirm categorically that the death penalty is
something which no Christian can tolerate. Furthermore, some of those who are not Catholics
look upon the teaching of the Church on this question as out-dated and old-fashioned, while
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others, inside the Church, will say that capital punishment is a matter about which Catholics
must make up their own minds. In view of this variety of opinions, Catholics need some
guidance if they are not to be misled by such utterances, if they are to know in what sense, and to
what extent, they are free to form their own opinions on this question.
The Right of the State to inflict Capital Punishment
The first point to note is that the Catholic Church has always defended the view that the right,
and therefore the power, of inflicting capital punishment on those who have been found guilty of
more atrocious crimes, has been conceded by God to the lawful supreme civil authority for the
common good. All Catholic commentators agree that the lawful civil authority has the right to
punish wrong-doers even by death it is not for nothing that he bears the sword. Although
some interpret that John 8:7 of the Bible condemns the death penalty, Christian positions, as on
many social issues, vary.
Roman Catholic Church: The Roman Catholic Church traditionally accepted capital
punishment as per the theology of Thomas Aquinas (who accepted the death penalty as a
necessary deterrent and prevention method, but not as the means of vengeance). The Roman
Catholic Church holds that the death penalty is no longer necessary if it can be replaced by
incarceration. The Catechism of the Catholic Church says "If bloodless means are sufficient to
defend human lives against an aggressor and to protect public order and the safety of persons,
public authority must limit itself to such means, because they better correspond to the concrete
conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person".
But recent efforts of the Catholic Church to oppose capital punishment can have a political
Anglican & Episcopalian: The Lambeth Conference of Anglican and Episcopalian bishops
condemned the death penalty in 1988. In Protestantism, both Martin Luther and John Calvin
followed the traditional reasoning in favor of capital punishment, and the Augsburg Confession
explicitly defends it; the Mennonites and Friends, among other, smaller groups, opposed it. Some
Protestant groups have cited as for permitting the death penalty. Both proponents and opponents
derive their own stance from the Bible itself. Until recently, however, the retentionist position
was held by all but a relatively few groups.
United Methodist Church: The United Methodist Church, along with other Methodist
churches, also condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social
vengeance as a reason for taking human life. The Church also holds that the death penalty falls
unfairly and unequally upon marginalized persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and
religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses. There are some significant
arguments used by some Christians and many pseudo-Christians against the death penalty as the
Scriptures speak of it. One is that capital punishment is immoral because of the commandment
not to kill. Another is that the death penalty "cuts short" the possibility for the evangelism of the
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criminal (essentially condemning him/her to hell without a "chance"). The third argument,
somewhat more serious, is that execution for the crime of murder is acceptable, while execution
for other crimes is not. But those who accept in capital punishment they said, death penalty
moreover serve the balance out the disturbance to the moral order
ISLAM: In Asian and Middle Eastern countries, violent and nonviolent crimes are punishable
by death under Islamic and Sharia laws: murder, drug trafficking, armed robbery, apostasy,
adultery, blasphemy, sorcery, prostitution, conjugation between partners not married to each
other, converting to Christianity or Judaism, plotting to overthrow the Islamic regime and
conspiring against the government. Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that the present
life is only a trial preparation for the next realm of existence. Basic articles of faith include: the
Day of Judgment, resurrection, Heaven and Hell. When a Muslim dies, he or she is washed,
usually by a family member, wrapped in a clean white cloth, and buried with a simple prayer
preferably the same day. Muslims consider this one of the final services they can do for their
relatives, and an opportunity to remember their own brief existence here on earth. The Prophet
taught that three things can continue to help a person even after death; charity which he had
given, knowledge which he had taught and prayers on their behalf by a righteous child. Islam is a
monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7
century Arab religious
and political figure. It is second largest religious in the world today, with an estimated 1.4
million adherents, spread across the global, known as Muslims. Linguistically, Islam means
peace, acceptance and submission, referring to the total surrender of ones self to God and
a Muslim is one who submits (to God). Muslims belief that God revealed the Quran to
Muhammad and that Muhammad is Gods final prophet. The Quran and the traditions of
Muhammad in the Sunnah are regarded as the fundamental sources of Islam.
Sharia Law or Islamic law may require capital punishment; there is great variation within Islamic
nations as to actual capital punishment. In Islamic law, as expressed in the Qur'an, capital
punishment is condoned. Although the Qur'an prescribes the death penalty for several hadd
(fixed) crimesincluding robbery, adultery, and apostasy of Islammurder is not among them.
Instead, murder is treated as a civil crime and is covered by the law of qisas (retaliation),
whereby the relatives of the victim decide whether the offender is punished with death by the
authorities or made to pay diyah (wergild) as compensation.
"...If anyone kills a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in
the land - it would be as if he killed all people. And if anyone saves a life, it would
be as if he saved the life of all people" (Qur'an).
The key point is that one may take life only "by way of justice and law." In Islam, therefore,
the death penalty can be applied by a court as punishment for the most serious of crimes.
Ultimately Life is sacred, according to Islam and most other world faiths. But how can one
hold life sacred, yet still support capital punishment? The Qur'an answers, "...Take not life,
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which God has made sacred, except by way of justice and law. Thus does He command you, so
that you may learn wisdom". But even though the death penalty is allowed, forgiveness is
preferable. Forgiveness, together with peace, is a predominant Qur'anic theme. Muslims
believe that capital punishment is a most severe sentence but one that may be commanded by a
court for crimes of suitable severity. While there may be more profound punishment at the
hands of God, there is also room for an earthly punishment. Methods of execution in Islamic
countries vary and can include beheading, firing squad, hanging and stoning. In some countries
public executions are carried out to heighten the element of deterrence. Each case is regarded
individually and with extreme care and the court is fully able to impose more lenient sentences
as and when they see fit. Muslim countries vary in the extent to which they practice capital
punishment, though all retain it at present. Islamic countries that practice a very strict Sharia
law are associated with the use of capital punishment as retribution for the largest variety of
crimes. In Islamic law, the death penalty is appropriate for two groups of crime:
- Intentional murder
- Fasad fil-ardh ("spreading mischief in the land")
Intentional Murder
The Qur'an legislates the death penalty for if any one intentionally murder. In these cases the
victim's family is given the option as to whether or not to insist on a punishment of this severity.
Ones eternal punishment is in God's hands, but there is a place for punishment in this life as
well. The spirit of the Islamic penal code is to save lives, promote justice, and prevent
corruption and tyranny. Islamic philosophy holds that a harsh punishment serves as a deterrent
to serious crimes that harm individual victims, or threaten to destabilize the foundation of
society. Although in Islam forgiveness and compassion are strongly encouraged. The murder
victim's family is given a choice to either insist on the death penalty, or to pardon the
perpetrator and accept monetary compensation for their loss.
Fasaad fi al-ardh
The second crime for which capital punishment can be applied is a bit more open to
interpretation. "Spreading mischief in the land" can mean many different things, but is generally
interpreted to mean those crimes that affect the community as a whole, and destabilize the
society. Crimes that have fallen under this description have included are followed:
Treason / Apostasy (when one leaves the faith and joins the enemy in fighting against the
Muslim community)
Land, sea, or air piracy
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Homosexual behavior
If we see, the actual methods of capital punishment vary from place to place. In some Muslim
countries, methods have included beheading, hanging, stoning, and firing squad. Executions are
held publicly, to serve as warnings to would-be criminals. It is important to note that there is no
place for vigilantism in Islam -- one must be properly convicted in an Islamic court of law before
the punishment can be meted out. The severity of the punishment requires that very strict
evidence standards must be met before a conviction is found. The court also has flexibility to
order less than the ultimate punishment (for example, imposing fines or prison sentences), on a
case-by-case basis. Scholars of Islam hold it to be permissible but the victim or the family of the
victim has the right to pardon. In Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), to forbid what is not forbidden is
wrong. Consequently, it is impossible to make a case for abolition of the death penalty which is
explicitly endorsed. In Islamic view The Ulamas (those who are learned in Islamic Law,
constitution and theology) do not always agree on the interpretation or authenticity of the sacred
texts. Neither do they agree on the social context in which these texts should be applied.
Sharia law is often used by repressive powers that attack women and the poor. There are
incidences of these states summarily executing those who are accused whilst denying them
access to a lawyer. These acts are totally contradictory to the concept of Islamic justice. The
dangerous escalation of violence in the world is disturbing to all people of conscience, from
September 11 to the Middle East battles, and other random acts of violence perpetrated at
innocent civilians. It is important to understand who or what is our enemy. We can only fight
against this horror if we understand its causes and motivations. If we see in Islam, the fight
against terrorism of all forms, In Islam, several things are clear:
Suicide is forbidden.
The taking of life is allowed only by way of justice but even then, forgiveness is better.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, retaliation and mass murder was commonplace. If someone was
killed, the victim's tribe would retaliate against the murderer's entire tribe. This practice
was directly forbidden in the Qur'an.
The Qur'an admonishes those who oppress others and transgress beyond the bounds of
what is right and just.
Harming innocent by standers, even in times of war, was forbidden by the Prophet
Muhammad (peace be upon him). This includes women, children, noncombatant
bystanders, and even trees and crops. Nothing is to be harmed unless the person or thing
is actively engaged in an assault against Muslims.
The predominant theme in the Qur'an is forgiveness and peace. Allah (God) is Merciful and
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Forgiving, and seeks that in His followers. Muslims believe that capital punishment is a most
severe sentence but one that may be commanded by a court for crimes of suitable severity. While
there may be more profound punishment at the hands of God, there is also room for an earthly
punishment. Muslim countries vary in the extent to which they practice capital punishment,
though all retain it at present time. Islamic countries that practice a very strict Sharia law are
associated with the use of capital punishment as retribution for the largest variety of crimes. At
the other end of the spectrum are countries such as Albania and Bosnia, which still retain the
death penalty as part of their penal system, but are abolitionist in practice. There are incidences
of these states summarily executing those who are accused whilst denying them access to a
lawyer. These acts are totally contradictory to the concept of Islamic justice.

Judaism: The official teachings of Judaism approve the death penalty in principle but the
standard of proof required for application of death penalty is extremely stringent, and in practice,
it has been abolished by various Talmudic decisions, making the situations in which a death
sentence could be passed effectively impossible and hypothetical. "Forty years before the
destruction" of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, i.e. in 30 CE, the Sanhedrin effectively
abolished capital punishment, making it a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment,
fitting in finality for God alone to use, not fallible people. In law schools everywhere, students
read the famous quotation from the 12th Century legal scholar, Maimonides, "It is better and
more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death."
Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would
lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely
"according to the judge's caprice." (Caprice of all kinds is more visible now with computers,
statistics, DNA evidence, and new discovery laws directed at prosecutors' files.) Maimonides
was concerned about the need for the law to guard itself in public perceptions, to preserve its
majesty and retain the people's respect.
Hinduism: The divinity in every human being is beautifully enunciated in the Brahmasukta of
Atharvaveda: "Indeed these killers are Brahma (God); these servants (or slaves) are Brahma;
these cheats and rogues are also manifestation of one and the same Brahma itself." That said,
ancient Indian lawgivers considered danda (punishment) as essential for the maintenance of
dharma. The king was called Dandadharita, wielder of the scepter of punishment. The
Mahabharata refers to four kinds of punishments: gentle admonition (dhigdanda), severe reproof
(vagdanda), imposition of fine (arthadanda) and lastly capital punishment (mrityudanda). Capital
offenses in India included murder, arson, manslaughter, poisoning, and sale of human flesh,
theft, adultery, forgery, treason and destruction of a temple. In ancient India, the use of the death
penalty is referred to by Kautilya, Manu, Yajnavalkya and Kamandaka. Manu stated that if the
king does not "inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished, the stronger would roast the
weaker like fish on a spit." In another verse he says, "The king who pardons the perpetrator of
violence quickly perishes and incurs hatred.
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Jainism: Ahimsa is central to Jaina philosophy, which does not allow for the killing of even
small creatures. However, according to Jain legal expert Lekh Raj Mehta, "Jain rulers, in fact,
dealt with instances of crime as was done by any other ruler, including by capital punishment,
though it was rare." These rulers also maintained armies, he said, which necessarily fought and
even eliminated opponents. The issue of statecraft is not dealt with much in Jain scriptures,
according to Mehta. The overriding Jain principles are nonviolence, search for truth, forgiveness
and reform.
Buddhism: Buddhist philosophy clearly advocates the rehabilitation of criminals. There is the
famous story of Buddha himself reforming--to the astonishment of the local king--the feared
murderer and highway robber Angulimala. The Dhammapada says, "Hatred does not cease by
hatred, hatred ceases by love; this is the eternal law." At issue, however, is the actual practice of
Buddhist rulers. One of the earliest, Emperor Ashoka, said, "The state should not punish with
vengeance." Nevertheless, that he did resort to execution is documented in his rock edicts. The
4th century Chinese monk Fa-Hsien wrote that he met a king of India who "governed without
capital punishment." While most Japanese Buddhist rulers employed capital punishment, there
were notable exceptions, including Emperor Shomu in the 8th century. One might be surprised to
learn that Buddhist Tibet had the death penalty until 1920, when it was eliminated by the 13th
Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. In modern times, four countries have Buddhism as their state
religion: Bhutan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Of these, Cambodia eliminated the death
penalty in 1993, and Bhutan eliminated it in 2004. Thailand has more than 1,000 prisoners
awaiting execution. Sri Lanka reactivated the death penalty in 2004 after a 27-year moratorium.
Reference Readings:
- Hanks, Gardner C. (1997). Against the death penalty: Christian and secular arguments against
capital punishment. Herald Press (VA).
- Honderich, Ted. (2005). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York: Oxford University
- http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/religion_and_capital punishment. On 10.08.2012
- Rang char S. A Primer of Ethics, p.139-140
- Gollanz (1955). Capital Punishment: The Heart of the Matter: p.6.
- Mahabharata: Shanti Parva: Chapter: CCLXVII: Verses-4-13
- Rabbi Ben Zion Bokser (1960). Statement on capital punishment in Proceedings of the
Committee on Jewish Law and Standards 1927-1970, Volume III, p.1537-1538
- http://www.acts1.info
- Punishment in Islamic Law. Etd by. Mohammeds El,
- Banerji, S.C. (1996). Principles of Hindu Jurisprudence. Sharada Publishing House.
- Oder berg, David S. (2008). Applied Ethics a non- consequentialist approach. Blackwell
Publishers, pp. 146-147.
- Mackenzie, John S. (1987). A Manual of Ethics. Oxford University Press.

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Siddhartha Shankar Joarder
Every experience is conclusively private. But whenever this experience is expressed in language it can no
longer be private because the aim of language is to communicate with others. It needs to follow the rules
of language i.e. the syntax of the formation of sentence to be meaningful. Language consists of
vocabulary and syntax. Therefore, the rules of the formation of sentence must be known to the people and
these rules have a definite structure. However, in the case of private language it is always found to be
arbitrary and the deduction from which it is brought does not follow the rules of language. This paper is
an attempt to prove that every word and sentence must refer something that needs to be existent
conclusively. Therefore there should be no scope of any experience which might be thought to be private.

"Private"," experience", "sense", "perception", "knowledge" and "public appearance of an object"
are the terms which refer to different ideas of our known phenomena, have a deep rapport with
each other to make a clear sense to the observer. An experience which is privately sensed,
confined within oneself does not have a characteristic of public enterprise is called private
experience. This is commonly assumed that private language is closely connected to private
experience. Private experience, therefore, is an experience which is usually thought to be most
inalienable mental provocation. It is called private because it is devised to enable a small group
of people to communicate with each other which is mostly unintelligible to others except them.
The detective branch of police or military intelligence group does use their confidential code and
it is strictly forbidden to public. Shorthand's writings and especial code or password for the
warriors in the battle field is considered to be private language. It is not, strictly speaking, private
because it is structured in such a way that it must be comprehensible at least to the people within
the group. Having been experienced of that language people does their functions within their
stipulated project very secretly. So, the above terms are very much important for making the
significant communications. Every process in making significant sense these terms work together
and do function invariably. But in spite of their congruent workability it can never be told that
they do justice to the observers properly. So, the question may there be asked, 'Isn't our
experience has got the public appearance?' Or, more precisely, ' can there be private experience?
I think we are in urgent need to solve the problem of these aforementioned terms and then to the
process of construction of ideas by which we do usually build the relation with the external
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.47-57
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world. This is an effort to prove that there can never be such experience which might be coined
as the private experience.
Private Experience
Let us, now, see how the feelings of human mind become solitary. There are some important
cases which are thought to be private in nature which need careful and adequate checking.
a. Macbeth waits. His imagination begins to work and he sees a visionary dagger before him. He
tries to seize the dagger in his hands, but cannot do so. He asks if it is a "dagger of the mind" and
"a false fevered brain".
b. When we go through a bank of the river in a moon-lit night, we might feel that the moon is
also moving towards our destination with us. But this is thought to be a false-perception.
c. In a dark night when we cross over the road, sometimes it is felt to be a snake in lieu of a piece
of rope.
d. Mystics are usually found claiming to have direct acquaintance with the ultimate being. This
perplexing and costly hypothesis builds a serious dilemma for all kinds of people including
These examples of human perception are hallucinatory or illusory because it never takes an
objective view whatsoever. It is not possible for the observers to repeat their perception
successfully. The conditions usually compel the observers to perceive the thing differently or in a
distorted mode. Private feelings are exactly something which is absolutely mental. Nobody can
be able to translate his feeling to a large number of people correctly. Here the term 'large number'
and 'correctly' are needed to explicate plausibly because sometimes it is seen that people who
have the same feelings about mysticism
or religious experience or something like that do speak
and express the same emotions. Accordingly, it is rather difficult to make the distinctions
between common sense believer and the people of especial kind who have mystic
in the mind. Their demand about the above feelings is almost same in every case. Here, large
number of people mean that the people who just depend on their cognition in recognizing the
object rather than emotive persuasions. So 'correctly' means having the perception of something
devoid of maximum philosophical dispute. We are, thus, convinced from the history of human
intellect that scientific knowledge is wholly impersonal. It needs, therefore, to convince every
people about every sense of human cognition.
It is often', Ayer writes, 'held that for a language to be public it must refer to what is publicly
observable: if a person could limit himself to describing his own sensations or feelings, then,
strictly speaking, only he would understand what he was saying; his utterances might indirectly
convey some information to others, but it could not mean to them what it mean to him.'
Macbeth's hallucinatory dagger has a definite meaning to him which reflects his feeble mind's
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emotion but its experience is extremely mental. Every people of bad conscience feel alike during
the time of their reminiscences. If he were asked, then, to show it to Lady Macbeth at least,
certainly he would fail to show it because of its non-factual reality. Learning or being
experienced about something is a process in which we need to translate to other person
regardless of the circumstances. When the baby learns to have the taste of bitter gourd in his
early boyhood he learns it what exactly his parents want to mean by it. What his parents learnt in
their childhood might not have the different meaning for the case of their children. When we use
to take a cup of sugar beverage at the family reunion each of us surely expresses the same taste
or experience during the time of drinking. Why does it take hold of same taste? Why the people
are found exposing the same feeling and same mental state during the time of taking the same
thing. It is never seen anyhow to have different sign in their face while they are having same
experience? It does never happen that someone shouts with its pungent taste and another is
keeping mum following the same incident. Why does it happen to be? When our senses are
allowed to interact with the external world it normally occurs to have the same experience for all
the people under the same condition. If the senses are sound and prevails the same conditions all
around, nobody would expect the different results from the events. If the case would have been
different nobody would found to say "saccharine is sweet" or "quinine is bitter".
The process of learning depends on the approbation of human thoughts. Sweet, bitter, sour, pain,
sorrow, etc. are the human internal feelings which are extremely personal but when it is learnt
first its sensations take an objective shape. When once learning is complete nobody would expect
it to be different from the same occurrences. If there is any shortage of sweetness in sugar it
never implies that sugar is not sweet, it must be apprehended in the case that this special amount
of sugar contains the adulteration. The sweetness of sugar may never be slackened. How the
parents, at the outset, start in teaching their children about the taste of sweetness in their
boyhood? How the children learn to distinguish between the taste of sweet and bitter? Dont they
depend on their preceptor who first teach them by giving them a piece of ripen mango and
convince them to learn it as sweet? Yes, they must learn their experience from the convention at
the beginning which is agreed to be conceded as: 'this is sweet' or 'this is sour'.
I argue that private experience which is expressed in language would no longer be private when
it is expounded for public. The function of language is to communicate with others which are
mutually accepted as to refer the same thing. If I say 'this boiling water is hot' or that piece of
snow is cold does mean that nobody would cast doubt about its hotness or coolness if the senses
are found to be sound. Likewise, the language of the umpire of cricket match is same to that of
the symbol of traffic light. This is mere a sign of some events which imply something beyond the
occurrences. All we have agreed to go by the meaning of red or green light in accordance with
the convention. Red light or green light has no definite meaning for itself and it is completely
meaningless either, if we do not inscribe the meaning on it. Accordingly, the experience of these
events is also private but it becomes meaningful whenever it works as per the agreement of
people. Now we will categorize some essential properties of private experience as follows:
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a) Private experience is extremely personal and it has no meaning at all when it does speak only
human inner felling.
b) It is the immediate sensation of the observer which has no definite meaning until it is achieved
objective acceptance.
c) It is unintelligible to other people because it talks nothing about the events outside of the
world which they do represent.
We will see, later on, why it happens to the person who claims it to have private experience.
Now we will examine some cases which may be pointed out as the private sensation.
Critical Approach towards Private Experience
This cannot be denied that the process of making perception about any object of the world is
private. It is private in the sense that there is a long complicated psychological process which
solely depends on human brain and its constant functions on the way of its formulation. The
experience of anybody cannot transfer to anyone during the time of occurrence. Every people are
responsible for their respective experience. It never happens that one can transfer his red light
sensation to a man who is blind from birth. However, it does never take a subjective shape
following finishing up with its courses. I see a cuckoo at the top of my house, for example, is a
case of very personal sensation but when everybody of my house comes out to see it and concede
it to be cuckoo thereafter, there might be no disagreement among the members of my house
about its acquaintance. It might not be happened for anybody to identify it as swallow rather
than cuckoo. In case of a tiny member of my family who is yet to be acquainted with this special
species of bird may shout suddenly by saying it as crow! It is nothing unnatural for him to
identify it as crow because his experience with the language is yet to be bridged up.
Learning of language depends on two important ways. One is verbal definition
and another is
ostensive definition.
A word may be learnt in terms of other words and this process depends on
definition. Arthropod, for example, is a group of animal which has a segmented body having a
strong skeleton. If this is said that it is a lobster it means that it has got very properties of
Arthropod. When we learn to be acquainted with a new term, like lobster, we actually depend on
some verbal definition until we reach at the last point which it is referred to. Other process is
more efficacious which just refer to the objects or events directly. When we start teaching our
baby with many new events or terms around us like "rain", "sun", "moon", "storm" or "dinner",
what do we mean by that? What do we usually tell then? During the time of raining we just tell
them, ' it is called rain', or showing the shimmering nugget in the sky at noon we say them 'it is
called sun'. No child can learn anything at the outset of his life by verbal definition.
'Consequently the meaning that the child comes to attach to the word is a product of his personal
experience, and varies according to his circumstances and his sensorium'.
Every language needs
to refer something which must be conclusively referential to be meaningful. 'I am seeing a
cuckoo' and ' I am seeing a ghost' are the statements which do not have the same meaning to the
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observer since the case is non-referential for the later statement. Nobody believes in ghost. Why
do they disbelieve in ghost? It seems to be an easy answer to that. Ghost is a non-existent
concept which does refer nothing. When anybody of my family claims to have the experience of
ghost what we usually do then? We demand to show it again. What does the observer say then?
This case is not very better than a spiritualist who constantly claims to have knowledge of the
mystic short. There is a big question in philosophy and also in psychology how the process of
perception takes place and in what circumstances perception may be called in question.
Perception is usually thought to be private and public and it is often misunderstood for the case
of private sensation. In most of the instances hallucinatory or false perception takes place for the
case of private affair. Moreover, in many other cases we may stumble into our common sense
believe and our senses on which we do rely dogmatically.
When a book is kept on the table it should never be told that it looks the same from the different
points of view to the different perceivers. Its shape, size, color, hardness might not be the same
to each of the perceivers at every moment. Why does it look different? Why the book is thought
to be different to the same observer under different conditions and different mental-state of the
perceiver? It is sometimes pointed out that circumstances or conditions are very important
factors under which the objects are being perceived. So, it should be called the relativity of
perception. It is important to ask, why does people do not see the same thing at every level of its
position. Is there anything which works between the object and the preserver? To press on this
argument we will now go on to elucidate the terms by which we started our essay. "Private" refer
to personal feeling. It denotes to subjective affairs. "Experience" is used to mean the source of
human knowledge which is thought to be asymmetrical to empiricism. Therefore, private
experience means the experience which is felt personally can't be an easy task to transfer to
somebody. It is only felt mentally as the devotee claims to have a direct acquaintance with the
Being. But the question arises then, are all our experiences personal? I am seeing a white paper
kept on my table. I am getting immense pleasure by reading Dr.Sajahan Miahs book on
Bertrand Russell's theory of Perception (1905-1919). This should not be denied that all the
experiences acquired from the above events are personal indeed. If I had a major cut in my finger
and had a bleeding with that nobody can assume the pain of my body. Can I ask then anybody,
do you feel pain what has inflicted me? That is not possible actually. At best the visitors who
come to see me can tell and memorize their similar experience which they have had many days
ago. How the children learn the feeling of joy or pain? Pleasure, pain, mental agony, ecstasy are
the events which people learn from their childhood regardless the circumstances. When the
children had to stumble during the time of their first walking their parents ask them whether they
got pain from the mishap. They usually concede that, "yes" they have. How do they come to
know that discomforting in the muscle is called pain? How the parents think that their children
have received the painful sensation? Possibly there is an easy solution to that problem. Parents
will reply, in the very circumstances, every sentient being feels pain. They themselves have got
the similar experiences and received numerous injuries in their life from which they learn to have
the sensation of pain. So the case might not be different for their babies.
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Feeling pain is a case of extreme private but it never goes in confine within oneself. Finally,
when it is expressed in language it becomes more public. The question may there be asked, isn't
the felling of pain of one is asymmetrical to that of others? John Hospers says, "If you have just
cut yourself badly and I see your agonized behavior, do I, in saying that you feel pain, mean only
that you behave as if you felt pain? Surely I mean that your behavior is an indication that you
feel pain--and when I say that you are in pain I mean to say exactly the same thing about you that
I am saying about myself when I say that I am in pain. The only difference between "I am in pain
" and "You are in pain" is the personal pronoun. What I am saying about me about you is exactly
the same in the two cases. The question is, how can I verify the pain in your case, as I can do so
immediately in my own?"
Radical behaviorists
of twentieth century distinguish covert and
overt behavior by the way to explain human mind and its different states. They hold that only
overt behavior could be studied objectively and that is the true method of behavioral science.
They categorically denied having any kind of knowledge of private thoughts and rejected it
However, this method is unsatisfactory for different grounds. All human activities cannot be
reduced to observable experiences. And it is not sure that what is explicitly done is thought to be
an unvarnished deed. This might not be denied that in every case all people may not express
themselves exactly what is going on inside the body. What then is the development? One can
hide his/her internal pain or can pretend to have pain inside the body. As it is not an easy task to
infer one's mental events. So, how can we understand the actual mental state? J.A. Shafer

divides two ways to know the level: how people are known to be conscious i.e. the case for other
people and for the case of myself. These two ways are categorized as Third Person and First
Person Account. When we come to know other peoples mental state how they are thought to be
conscious is called third person account according to Shafer. And it is the way that Behaviorist
does follow to know other peoples consciousness. Accordingly, for my case when we
understand myself and feel my level of consciousness is called First Person Account. Third
Person Account is the process by which the typical behaviorist uses to know other peoples state
of consciousness. Actually we use the process to know the inner state of human being through
the external behavior. But the case is not as easy as it is thought to be since it contains some
obstacle on the way to assume other mental events. It does not follow that one can behave and
express the events of the mind exactly. So it cannot be assumed every time to understand events
of actual affair through the exposed behavior. On the face of it behaviorist in the similar case
emphasizes the need to depend on the disposition to behavior i.e. what people usually behave
under the stipulated circumstances. This can easily be understood beyond his poker-face or

J. A. Shafer denies accepting the behaviorist stance. He maintains that in the case of the situation
we need to explore metaphysical behavior. But in spite of that finally Shafer didn't dishearten
with the tactic of the behaviorists by which they successfully operate other's mental events.
. So,
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it can be said that sensation is rather private and might not be the same to others but it must have
a public appearances. One can cries out watching a horror show on the television or feel
extremely joy watching an exciting cricket match in the ground. Although these feelings are
although private, in my opinion, it makes a public look that has to supersede personal line of
human feeling. The argument from analogy is often invoked to explain the similar cases. If the
two events are completely similar and if something happens to one, it can easily be inferred that
the same event must be occurred to the case of later. I have an experience of cutting finger and
severely pain thereby, so I can assume others pain in the same situation. If I had lost my parents
and had a deep shocking with that, can't I understand one's agony that had lost his parents also?
Skeptic may twist his argument and say, "not exactly". Sensibility and mental flexibility are not
equal for everybody. Even it may not be the same to the case of twin brothers. So it might be a
bad analogy to the case of similar events. It seems to be a good argument but it is a victim of
inadequate logical application. It is not true that every man is identical even in the case of twin
brothers if they are not identical twin. They might have different mental states, different
personality, different attitude towards shocking events, but it does not follow that their mental
upheaval is to be different, for the same events. Their style may be different their expression may
be at distance but it should never be understood that they do not feel the same mental pang.
Carnap argues
that people can understand one another's experience in certain cases. He has
named it protocol language which is obtained from the direct experience. He holds that every
word of any language is reduced to other words and consequently to the words which occur in
observation sentences. This is called protocol sentences. This can be assumed that people do
acquire protocol experience from protocol language. Protocol sentences can also be called
primary sentence. When we do have direct acquaintance with something it follows that we have
protocol experience. But the problem is that: if we do wait for direct experience of something it
must leads to solipsism.
On the other hand since Carnap is a realist so he needs to get out of
this dilemma. In The Unity of Science, he has maintained that protocol language is a part of
physical language.' That is, he concludes that sentences which on the face of it refer to private
experiences must be logically equivalent to sentences which describe some physical state of the
. Carnap, further appended in explaining the case, says, if an utterances like 'thirst
now' belonging to protocol language of a subject s1, is construed as expressing' only what is
immediately given' to S1,it cannot be understood by anyone else. Another subject s2 may claim
to be able to recognize and so to refer to s1's thirst, but 'strictly speaking' all that he ever
recognizes is some physical state of s1's body. 'If by "the thirst of s1" we understand not the
physical state of his body, but his sensations of thirst, i.e. something non-material, then s1's thirst
is fundamentally the reach of s2's recognition.
Carnap further added ' every statement in any
person's protocol language would have sense for that person alone. ...Even when the same words
and sentences occur in various protocol languages, there sense would be different, they could not
even be compared. Every protocol language could there be applied only solipsistically: there
would be no inter-subjective protocol language. This is the consequence obtained by consistent
adherence to the usual view and terminology (rejected by the author).

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In Philosophical Investigation Wittgenstein has extensively discussed about personal language
and its application in our daily life usage. He strongly opposes the idea of private language. "He
seems to take the view that someone who attempted to use language in this private way would
not merely be unable to communicate his meaning to others, but would have no meaning to
communicate even to himself. He would not succeed in saying anything at all"
...Ayer says, if
any word needs to be entirely meaningful its subject or meaning must not be impersonal. If any
meaning of a word confine within oneself it does imply nothing and it can never be meaningful
at all. 'Pain', 'sorrow',' discomfort' and other feeling-provoking words are used in sentences
meaningfully. 'I am in pain', for example, is a sentence which needs to justify: how is it being
used in language? We can teach a small boy how this sentence is used in language? When he
does feel pain and cry: we ask then, 'I know that you have got the pain', 'don't think, you will be
cured soon' and so forth. Then, in such way the boy obviously acquire the feeling of pain
behavior. So it might be learnt that groaning and fidgeting are indications of pain, hence it
becomes synonymous to pain. Wittgenstein also underscored the need to evaluate the
circumstances and the environment regarding the issue. An actor is groaning in a stage when he
received an injury as a part of his acting does mean nothing to the viewers. It does not follow that
people have to believe his groaning to be true because they must judge the situation and
convinced that it is mere acting. But during the time of performance, suddenly if the stage is
broken down and the actor had a serious injury in his head they might think it to be true. So
common sense can be normally applied to the fact. Moreover, many technologies have been
advanced to detect the inner state of mind and its different courses now a day. Toothache or
headache is now not an undetectable case for the technician. Even many internal complications
following brain hemorrhage could easily be diagnosed. Therefore the problem of other mind
might not be an abstruse fact to the people. G. E. Moore writes in his Lecture Notes.

Private Experience Concerning Human Observation
How do people perceive? How can we know that there is an object before our eyes? Can we
know it directly? Or is there any intermediary factor that enables me to see the object?
Philosophers don't accept the thing easily which normally try to convince them. There is a big
question in our daily life perception that weather is it true what is normally taken for granted?
From the point of perception, table, chair, bird, pen, spectacle, book are not really an easy object
which might be taken as we normally think to be. From this crucial point of view Russell's
exposition of the observances of object is of much needed question to press on this issue. 'My
knowledge of the table as a physical object, on the contrary, is not direct knowledge. Such as it
is, it is obtained through acquaintance with sense-data that make up the appearance of the
Perception is a long physiological and mental process which is rather complicated to
explain. And it becomes an important epistemological enterprise on the long way to knowledge
formation. I have mentioned, at the outset, that perception, (private, public) and knowledge of an
object are the terms which need a consistent operation during the time of knowledge formation.
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In spite of their congruent function perception is not an easy way to define. Russell made a
difficult twist on our daily life believing. He says," In our daily life, we assume as certain many
things which, on a closer scrutiny, are found to be so full of apparent contradictions that only a
great amount of thought enables us to know what it is that we really may believe. In the search
for certainty, it is natural to begin with our recent experiences, and in some sense; no doubt,
knowledge is to be derived from them."
. So it is commonly assumed that nothing in the world
should be taken to be final without any doubt. It is thus calculated that there might be a serious
gap between appearance and reality. Russell's skeptical view on the common sense believing of
human being is never akin to that of Bradley's contradistinction between the so called appearance
and reality. Russell is more coherent and his argument on perception is more logical than
Bradley. It has been settled doubtlessly that all our empirical knowledge generate from our
senses. Different senses of our body are responsible for the respective knowledge. Color, for
example, can never be known by our own skin or the taste of our food must be tasted by our
sound tongue. Isn't it our normal eye that takes the responsibility to discern the patch of color? Is
there any alternative to have the knowledge of our food without having tested by our senses? So
the respective senses are solely responsible for our empirical knowledge. This can never be
denied that physical science chiefly depends on our empirical justification. Probably physical
science does not seek any other help except abstract reasoning from logico-mathematical
proposition. 'All synthetic knowledge is based on experience' says Bertrand Russell. Synthetic
propositions are a posteriori. There can be delusion in the empirical hypothesis but whether that
is delusion or veritable this confusion can also be settled by the senses. When a school boy
shouts having seen a snake on the road while returning from school it needs another senses to
refute his false perception altogether.
Russell points out that, the chief function of language is communication. And to serve the
purpose it must be public, not a private dialect invented by the speaker. It is true that what is
most personal in each individual's experience tends to evaporate during the process of translation
into language.

Now I will conclude the discussion with a summary of the above elucidation. It shouldn't be
denied that every sense is private. It is private because when it is sensed nobody could be able to
understand his actual mental events. Senses are individual for every people. So what is sensed by
individual organ would always be private. But the case is quite different for practical life. When
people invented language there was possibly a common agreement among the inventors that it
must mean the same thing what they actually refer to. It is very curious that what it is meant by
'mango' mean the same fruits in every language of the world. Therefore, it is commonly held that
there must be a common element in every language. If I say, what do you understand by 'toovy'?
You will find no meaning of such a word toovy in the dictionary. Nobody did agree to mean
something by the word toovy in the past. So it contains nothing but an interesting sound toovy.
Every experience, thus, needs to have the capabilities of being confirmed to be meaningful.
56 | P a g e
Otherwise the case might not be better than the experience of the so called toovy, however
respectful the word might be.
Notes and References:
1. Mysticism: Mysticism is one kind of belief or experience of a reality which surpass as
usual human cognition or experience. It is also thought to be an essential understanding
to unravel the secrecy of nature. It is often claimed that mysticism is immediate
consciousness of the transcendent or the supreme reality.
2. Mystic complication: It is very obscure and confused belief. So it creates serious
complication for human mind. Realists explain this belief as vague, groundless and
3. Ayer, A.J: The Concept of Person; London, Macmillan and Co Ltd, New York, St
Martins Press, 1964, p-37
4. Verbal definition: Verbal definition is used to recognize or to make out the term
verbally. It is expressed in spoken rather than written words. At the outset of the learning,
in most of the cases, verbal definition is used as a contract.
5. Ostensive definition: It is the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. It is often used
where the term is difficult to define verbally. When the words are not understood verbally
because of the nature of the term color, sensations of different kinds for example,
ostensive definition has no alternative to make out the term clearly. This definition
assures the questioner to recognize the type of information being given.
6. Russell, B; Human Knowledge Its scope and Limits, Routledge, London, p-17
7. Hospers, John: The Problem of Other Minds ( John R. Burr and Milton Goldinger (ed.)
Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, Ninth Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private
Limited, New Delhi,2008 .p-389
8. Radical behaviorism: It is a school of psychology that is known as experimental analysis
of behavior. It says, although private events are not publicly observable behaviors, radical
behaviorism accepts that we are each observer of our own behavior. B. F. skinner is the
founder of this theory among many innovative psychological theories.
9. Shafer, J. Philosophy of Mind, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi-
10. Ayer, A.J: The Concept of Person; London, Macmillan and Co Ltd, New York St. Martin
Press,1964, p-38
11. Carnap, R.: The Unity of Science, p-79
12. Solipsism: Solipsism is a philosophical idea that expresses the events of ones mind. No
other events happened in other mind is sure to be knowledge. So it strongly holds that
knowledge of anything outside of ones mind is quietly unsure.
13. Carnap, R.: The Unity of Science, p-79
14. Ibid-79
57 | P a g e
15. Ayer, A.J: The Concept of Person; London, Macmillan and Co Ltd, New York, St
Martins Press, 1964, p-39
16. Ammerman, R.R: Classics of Analytic Philosophy,( G. E. Moore; Wittgenstein lectures in
1930-1933), Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, Bombay- New Delhi,
17. Russell, B.: The problems of Philosophy, p-47
18. Ibid-7
19. Russell, B; Human Knowledge: its Scope and Limits, Routledge, p-17.

58 | P a g e

Viswaja S.Nair

Sanskrit grammar, which known as mouth of Veda is considered as a source of plenty sacred
knowledge. Paniniyan system of grammar does not consist only the sutrapatha, or ashtadhyayi,
but also comprises dhatupatha, ganapatha, paniniyasiksha, and linganushasanam. And hence
Sanskrit grammar is widely known as Panchangam vyakaranam. According to paniniyasiksha,
Panini is the exponent of complete grammar.
This is a matter of controversy. How much of the
terminology is his own creation and how much borrowed from his predecessors is not sure.

Scholars argued that dhatupatha was mainly work of earlier grammarians, which work Panini
took over from his predecessors and structured it. The dhatupatha contain many more roots that
are necessary for the rules of ashtadhyayi. In addition Panini uses the term upadesa to refer
dhatupatha, which shows that Panini gained this as an upadesa, from his acharyas. This paper is
an attempt to trace out the expansive views of dhatupatha.

Meaning shades of the term Dhatu

The term Dhatu has wide range of connotations, and used in various contexts to convey different
things. The term is derived from the root dudan dharanaposhayoh. The suffix tun
is added to the
root thus the world dhatu is derived. Etymological sense of the word is that which sustain.

Dhatu has several meanings, as a constituent part, primitive matter, primary element of the earth,
element of word, grammatical verbal root or stem etc. A causal glace at these meanings of dhatu
reveals that the term connotes both micro and macro levels. It stands on one hand for the great
elements prithivi, ap, tejah, vayu, akasha. On the other hand it denotes the basic elements of
which the human body is constituted- vayupittakapha etc. it is interesting the word stands for
both the fundamental physical substance and the supreme consciousness.

In grammar it means the essential element of a word. Panini does not define it but merely names
two important roots one of the first conjugation-bhu, and one of the second va, and says that
roots are of the nature of these. His aphorisms "bhvadayah dhatavah".

Evolution of Dhatupatha

Krtsnam vyakarama proktam - Paniniyasiksha, Verse57.
Unadisutra, 1/ 62.
Ashtadhyayi - 1/3/1.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.58-64
59 | P a g e
In the history of linguistic speculations in Sanskrit the concept of root always remained in the
center. Entire Sanskrit words except nipatah are based on the element dhatuh. Dhatupatha is
the list of roots. Various schools of Sanskrit grammar had their own separate dhatupatha. We get
much information about the dhatupatha which belongs to the pre-paninian, paninian, and post-
panianian periods. While these root lists share large common things each dhatupatha differs by
the addition, omission, alternative classification and modification of roots in the list. There are
several reasons for this variance in the contents and ordering among these root lists. Mainly roots
may have been deliberately added by grammarians to their dhatupatha in order to account for
forms in the Sanskrit language as known to them and appropriate for their grammatical school.
Such roots would account for new words not known to Panini or other early grammarians. This
may have come into Sanskrit due to historical sound change and from borrowing into Sanskrit
from regional and foreign languages. In addition to these the linguistic processes create new verb
forms in Sanskrit to be accounted for by reclassification of roots within the dhatupatha.

Among the various rootlists, Paninis is the one which grammarians used as authentic. This is
the basis for all the postpaninian dhatupatha and other languages grammar into some extent.

Paninian Dhatupatha
According to Panini, the stems like bhu and va are called dhatu. Panini divided these roots into
ten major classes. The basis of distribution is the way in which the roots form their present stem.
Name of these ganas or classes are formed from the first dhatu in that class. Panini ascertain an
augment (vikaranapratyaya) for each group, which inserted between the root and the suffix or
ending or between the last vowels and the following consonant of the root. The ten classes are:-
- Bhvadigana with the vikarana pratyaya sap
including 1035 roots.
- Adadigana seeing with the disappearance of sap
including 71 roots.
- Juhotyadigana appered with slu
a simple absence and having reduplication of the roots,
including 24 roots.
- Divadigana with the vikarana pratyaya syan
including 141 roots.
- Svadigana with snu
including 34 roots.
- Tudadigana marked with sa
including 155 roots
- Rudhadigana signed with snam
including 25 roots.
- Tanadigana marked with u
including 10 roots.

Ashtadhyayi - 3/1/63.
Ibid - 2/4/72.
Ibid - 2/4/75.
Ibid - 3/1/69
Ibid - 3/1/73
Ibid - 3/1/77
Ashtadhyayi- 3/1/78
Ibid - 3/1/79
60 | P a g e
- Kryadigana marked with sna
including 62 rots.
- Curadigana signed with nich
and sap including 410 roots.

Thus we get paninian dhatupatha of 1967
roots. There is one more group also, which is
consisting mainly of nominal stem, kandvdayah consist of 410 roots. When we added this with
paninian dhatupatha the total number of roots will be 2014. The number of roots in the paninian
dhatupatha is still a subject to controversy. According to madhaviyadhatuvritti there are 1944
roots. Considering the dhaturatnakara we get 2045 roots, including kanduyadigana, without that
there is 1982 roots. According to Maya A. Cainani, there are only 1905 roots.

Panini refers each root with anubhandha suffixes, which have different functions. He used 19
suffixes. They are a (udatta), a (anudatta), a (svarita),a,ir,i,u,r,l,e,o,n,ni, tu, du, mit, and p.

The 10 classes have subgroups, which may overlap with or be included in another. They are
named according to their first root. Thus in Bhvadigana we get 7 subgroups, they are
dyudadigaa, vritadigana, khatadigaa, phanadigaa, jvaladigana, and yajadigana. In Adadi
gana we get 2 sub-groups rudadigana and jaksadigana. In Divadigana we get svadigana and
pusadigana. Tudadigana consisting three subganas kutadigaa, kiraigana, and mucadigana.
Kryadi have two subgroups pvadi and lvadi. In curadi we get four subgroups akusmiya,
asvadiya, adhrisiyaand agardhiya.

Roots in the Paninian dhatupatha can be classified into two groups on the basis of conjugation.
They are atmanaipada, denotes the active endings and parasmaipada denotes middle or passive
endings. A root is conjugated in the atmanaipada if the fruit of the action occurs to the agent, if
not then the root is conjugated in parasmaipada. The roots which belong to both conjugational
type is known as ubhayapadinah. For example- Raja yajate (A king perform a sacrifice. king
should perform a sacrifice if he has a desire for himself. Thus the results of the act sacrifice
being connected with the agent. So the verb is used in atmanaipada), viprah yajati (A priest
performs sacrifice. In this case priest performs a sacrifice not for his own purpose but for the
king. So the verb is used in the parasmaipada).

In every type a root is conjugated for six different tenses and four moods. They are called
dasalakaras. Roots are also categorized as sakarmaka, akarmaka and dvikarmaka. According to
Kaundabhatta, the action (vyapara) and result (phala) subsists in the different substratum in the
case of transitive (akarmaka) roots, whereas they subsist in the same substratum in the case of
intransitive (sakarmaka) roots. There are dvikarmaka roots also; which we get as a listed form

Ibid - 3/1/81
Ibid - 3/1/25
Dhatupatha, Sriramlalkapurtrustgranthamala-38, 2000.
61 | P a g e
from siddhantakaumudi. We get more categorization in the roots like set rots and anitroots,
simply if the root accept the augment i it is set, and if it does not it is anit.

Pre-Paniniyan Dhatupatha.
The authorship of dhatupatha itself is controversial, whether Panini used a traditionally available
one or composed his own. From various investigations one can believe that Panini received the
dhatupatha from the tradition in a manner in which he desired to use it.

According to Yudhishtiramimasaka in ancient time, dhatu was termed as pratipadika. He said
that Indra is the first one who set a dhatupatha. Bhaguri an early grammarian also had
dhatupatha for his own metrical grammar. But we have hardly got information about these two

Apisali is also a famous grammarian in the pre-paniniyan period. Apisalas (the students of the
grammar of apisali) had their own dhatupatha, which is not available now. Patanjali said that
according to apisala school the root as was s the a and in the forms like asti, asit etc are
augments (1/111/22). From much information Yudhishtiramimasaka concluded that, there
existed a dhatupatha of apisali which is slightly different from Panini.

Sakatayana also settled a dhatupatha for his grammatical school. It is Sakatayana who held the
view that all the nouns were derived from verbs and that the verbs were the primal element of the
whole structure of language. Patanjali yaska etc. quoted him.

Kasakrsthna was also a pre-paniniyan grammarian. His dhatupatha with the Kannada
commentary of Channaveera was published by Pune Dhakkhan College. It includes 2511 roots
with meaning. The roots are divieded into 9 classes. Comparing to paninian dhatupatha
juhotyadigana is included in Adadigana. In each gana first part of roots are parasmaipadas.
Second part included the atmanaipada and last part is of ubhayapadaroots. Several root which
Panini mentioned as parasmaipada is considered as ubhayapada in this dhatupatha. For
example- vasa nivase, duosvi gativriddhau, are taken as ubhayapadinah. Certain root takes as
one in paniniya dhatupatha is taken as two in this dhatupatha.

According to Yudhshtiramimasaka there existed the dhatupathas of Indra, vayu bhaguri,
sakatyana, kasakrstna apisali and others. But they are not available now except kasakrstna

Post-Paniniyan Dhatupatha
Like pre-paniniyan period the post-paninian grammarians also had their dhatupathas, related to
various grammatical schools. Very important thing is that all these dhatupathas are mainly based
on paniniyan dhatupatha.
62 | P a g e
Candra Dhatupatha:- Compared to paniniyan dhatupatha it is small, which includes 1575 roots
only. It is settled by Candragomi. (Vamgadesa, A.D. 5
century). Most of the roots in this
dhatupatha have only one meaning (ekarthadhatava). Only 17 roots have more than one
meaning. An extra anubhandha suffix i is appered in Candra dhatupatha.

J ainendra Dhatupatha:- It includes 1478 roots. This dhatupatha was arranged by acarya
Devanandi (5th to 7
century A.D.) Extra suffixes ai and au are appeared with certain roots,
which is not in Paniniya. Roots are classified into 10 classes. Here juhotyadi is used before
adadi. Meaning of certain roots differs from Paniniyan dhatupatha. The root ksubha have
meaning sancalane in Paniniyan dhatupatha, in jainendra it have the meaning sankshobhe.

Katantra Dhatupatha:- It is written by Durgasimha (1
century A.D) It includes 1858 roots.
Probably it is based on the Katandra system of grammar. Like kasakrstna dhatupatha it also has
9 classes, juhotyadigana is included in Adadigana. Order of roots is also same in both. The root
cara has the meaning asamsaya in both; but in others it is used to denote samsaya.

Sakatayana Dhatupatha:- Palyakirtisakatayana is the author of this dhatupatha, who lived in 9

century A.D. It includes 1851 roots. Roots are divided into 10 classes. Order of the ganas is
slightly different from paniniya dhatupatha. Kryadi is placed after svadigana, and tanadi is
placed after tudadigana. It is also known as prakrtipatha.

Haima Dhatupatha:- Hemacandrasuri has settled this dhatupatha, (Gujarat in 1145 to 1229).
1980 roots are included in this dhatupatha, with its meaning. The whole roots are arranged in
alphabetical order. Like Kasakrtsna and Katantra in Haima also have 9 classes, reason is the

Kavikalpadruma Dhatupatha:- It is written by Vopadeva (Maharashtra, 13
century A.D). Main
thing is that it is a metrical work, in the form of a poem, in anusthup meter. Include 2358 roots.
43 anubhandha suffixes are used in it, 17 anubhandha suffixes are taken from paniniya au is
taken from jainendra and the rests are made by Vopadeva himself. It does not have classes, but
has groups based on the final letter of the roots.

Dhatupatha - some controversies.
Regarding the text dhatupatha and its authorship, some controversies are there. The dhatupatha
does not seem to be the author of sutrapatha, but seem to be the work of his predecessors. But
nevertheless the arrangement of roots, and the system in the dhatupatha clearly shows that the
author of the dhatupatha knew very many sutras now found in ashtadyayi and so arranged the
roots in the dhatupatha as to serve the purpose of those sutras. From the rules dvita kriti

Ashtadhyayi 3/3/88
63 | P a g e
anudattanitha athmanepadam
etc. one can believe that there existed a dhatupatha which Panini
used, established before beyond any doubt, as a part of oral tradition. At present we get
paniniyandhatupatha with meaning. But whether these meaning are added by Panini or anyone
else is a matter of controversy amongst grammarians. Yudhishtiramimasaka discussed this topic
with its details. There is evidence in mahabhashya that Katyayana regarded the meaning entries
as non paniyan as Bhattoji notes paninistu bhvedha ityapatit iti bhasyavarttikayu spastam.

Nagesha suggest that the meaning entries along with the roots are made by Bhimasena. Many
others also noted this. But we didnt get much information about him. The references lead one to
conclude the view that there was a listing system much earlier to Panini. He successfully used
that technique.

According to Yudhishtiramimasaka there exist two version of dhatupatha, one with meaning of
each roots and another without meaning. He said that Panini used dhatupatha without meaning
like bhvedhaspardha for the students of his school, and in the another version he used the roots
like bhusattayamudattah edha vrddhau. We could see this view in the introductory part of the
Madaviyadhatuvrtti and said that the rootlist with meaning entries is known as vrddhapatha, and
as lakhupatha. In any way at present we have only one version of paninian dhatupatha which
refered as vrddhapatha.

The dhatupatha is only preserved now as it is known to commentators. The dhatvartha is
generally expressed in the locative case; to include that use of roots will be found in the activities
or conditions described by the dhatvartha. Dr. Maya a Cainani said that the meanings of 1316
roots in the dhatupatha are mentioned in the locative case.


Roots are the basic part of a word. Dhatupatha is the list of dhatus. From the available sources
we could assume that, a form of dhatupatha is existed for millennia, as oral tradition.
Grammarians like sakatayana, kasakristna, apisali, hemachandra, indra, vopadeva etc. arranged
roots appropriate to their grammatical school. At present dhatupatha which we use is arranged
by none other than Panini. In its the evolutionary period Paniniya dhatupatha remains constant,
just because of its greatness comparing to others. Several versions of dhatupatha are came
existence but paninis dhatupatha is considered as authentic.

1. Dhatukarika, Samskritaparishadgranthamala-47, Sanskrit Academi, Osmania
University, 1996.

Ibid 1/3/12
64 | P a g e
2. Dhatupatha, the Roots of Language, Stephen R.Hill, Peter G.Harisson,
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 3rd. 1997.
3. Dhatupatha, Panini, Sriramlalkapurtrustgranthamala-38, Mantri ramlalkapur
trust, Pro. Shahpurtark Senapati, 6th edition, 2000.
4. Dhatupathom mein arthanirdesh, Maya A.Chainani, Vidyanithi prakasan, 1994.
5. Madhaviyadhatuvritti, Srisayanacharya, Swami Dwarakadasshastri, Tara Book
Agency, Varanasi, 2000.
6. Panini A survey of research, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
7. Post paniniyan systems of Sanskrit grammar, Dr. R.Saini, Parimal Publication,
Delhi, 1999.
8. Recent research in Paninian studies, Cardona George, Motilal Banarsidas
Publishers Pvt. Ltd.1999.

65 | P a g e

Preet Kumari, Gargi Sharma, Swami Pyari, Umang Verma

The main aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among private self-conscious, public
self conscious, Social Anxiety and Spiritual intelligence. The sample consisted of 100 adults, age ranging
from 25 to 45 year. Self Consciousness scale and Spiritual intelligence Scale were used to measure
private self-conscious, public self conscious, Social Anxiety and Spiritual intelligence respectively. For
analysis of the data multiple regression analysis was used. Private self-consciousness is more positively
correlated with spiritual intelligence, than public self conscious and social anxiety. Private self-
consciousness is highly predictor variable of Spiritual intelligence.

Key Words: Private Self-Conscious, Public Self Conscious, Social Anxiety and Spiritual Intelligence

Health is a state of well-being with physical, cultural, psychological economic and spiritual
aspects, not simply the absence of illness. The role of spirituality in health is of increasing
interest to research. Indeed as spirituality is associated with mental health. Practicing spirituality
may have benefits for your psychological and physical health. It is clear that we are more than
physical, psychological and social being. We also are spiritual beings in search of relationship
with sacred.

A healthy personality is well-balanced, cheerful and stress-free. Healthy people have self-
discipline and self-control. They are honest with themselves. They have a great ability to
understand others and they know well how to deal with people. They have a strong faith in
themselves. They always listen to their mind, rather than following the majority. A
psychologically healthy and contented person achieves all happiness and takes hard efforts to go
beyond, through a process of self-realization. Such healthy people contribute a lot to overall
happiness and health of the society. A healthy person possesses individualistic uniqueness in
his/her character and personality.

Spiritual Intelligence is the ultimate intelligence which we address and solve problems of
meaning and value, the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider,
richer, meaning-giving context, the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of
action or one life path is more meaningful than another.

Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.65-70
66 | P a g e
Spiritual Intelligence is not necessarily religious or even dependent upon religion as its
foundation. It can be defined against or observed through some telling criteria such as:
truthfulness, compassion, respect for all levels of consciousness, constructive empathy, a sense
of being a player in a large whole, generosity of spirit and action, a seeking of being 'in tune'
with or 'in synch' with nature of the universe, and being comfortable with being alone without
being lonely.
Those who have Spiritual Intelligence: have the capacity for transcendence; have heightened
consciousness; have the capacity to endow everyday activity with a sense of the sacred; use
spiritual resources on practical problems; engage in virtuous behaviour (forgiveness, gratitude,
humility, compassion and wisdom.

Consciousness is a term that refers to a variety of aspects of the relationship between the mind
and the world with which it interacts. It has been defined as: subjectivity; awareness; the ability
to experience feelings; wakefulness; having a sense of selfhood; or the executive control system
of the mind. Max Velmas and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to
Consciousness: "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our
consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious
aspect of our lives.

Consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists, but in recent years it has been an
increasingly significant topic of research. In psychology and neuroscience, the primary focus is
on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in
consciousnessthat is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness.
The majority of experimental studies uses human subjects and assesses consciousness by asking
subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do
this"). Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, blind sight, denial of
impairment, and altered states of consciousness produced by psychoactive drugs or spiritual or
meditative techniques.

Private self-consciousness is a tendency to introspect and examine one's inner self and feelings.
Public self-consciousness is an awareness of the self as it is viewed by others. This kind of self-
consciousness can result in self-monitoring and social anxiety. Both private and public self-
consciousness are viewed as personality traits that a relatively stable over time, but they are not
correlated. Just because an individual is high on one dimension doesn't mean that he or she is
high on the other.

Different levels of self-consciousness affect behavior, as it is common for people to act
differently when they "lose themselves in a crowd". Being in a crowd, being in a dark room, or
wearing a disguise creates anonymity and temporarily decrease self-consciousness.

67 | P a g e
Social anxiety is anxiety (emotional discomfort, fear, apprehension, or worry) about social
situations, interactions with others, and being evaluated or scrutinized by other people. The
difference between Social Anxiety and normal apprehension of social situations is that social
anxiety involves an intense feeling of fear in social situations and especially situations that are
unfamiliar or in which you will be watched or evaluated by others. The feeling of fear is so
strong that in these types of situations you may be so worried that you feel anxious just thinking
about them and will go to great lengths to avoid them.
In the present study researcher explored the relationship between consciousness and spiritual
intelligence and also investigate the predictor variable of spiritual intelligence.

To study relationship among private self-conscious, public self conscious, social anxiety and
spiritual intelligence.

(1) Spiritual intelligence would be more positively related with private self-conscious than
public self conscious and social anxiety.
(2) Relative contribution of private self-conscious would be more as compared to public self
conscious and Social Anxiety towards on spiritual intelligence.

The investigator adopted the following selection criteria for the sample of the present
investigation. The sample consists of 100 adolescence were taken as a sample. The subjects were
belonging to age group of 25 to 45 years.

For measuring Consciousness, Self-consciousness scale was used, developed by Feinstein (2010)
and measuring spiritual intelligence Spiritual Intelligence Scale was used. It was developed by
Neal (2004).

The coefficients of correlations were computed among private self-conscious, public self
conscious, Social Anxiety and Spiritual intelligence by using Pearsons product moment method.

68 | P a g e

**P<.01, *P<.05

Table 1 show that spiritual intelligence is more positively related to private self-conscious
than public self-conscious and social anxiety.

For interpreting the results obtained from multiple regression analysis, the variance caused by the
combined effect of total predictor variables is seen by obtained R square, which is further
adjusted into adjusted R square. Individual contribution of each predictor variable can be noted
with the help of Beta weights. Level of significance indicated in the table against each predictor
variables shows the variable which are significant enough, and to which extent, to predict the
variance caused by each variable individually, beta weights of each predictor variable are
multiplied by their respective correlation coefficients. The sum total of this individual proportion
value is found equal to the value of R square.

MULTI PLE R 0.483601
R SQUARE 0.233869



Private self-
Public self
Private self-
15.13 3.6 1
Public self
13.27 4.5 0.46** 1
Social Anxiety 8.87 3.6 0.43** 0.308** 1
115.8 13.5 0.45** 0.311** 0.303** 1
69 | P a g e






Coefficients of
1.32 0.36 0.35 3.34** 0.45** 0.165
public self
0.32 0.45 0.10 1.05 0.311** 0.033
0.43 0.36 0.11 1.15 0.303** 0.034
Constant 87.64

**P<.01, *P<.05
The table-2 shows the result of multiple regression analysis when spiritual intelligence
was taken as dependent variable. To see the strength of relationship between dependent variable
and several independent variables coefficients of multiple correlations was computed. The value
of multiple R of .48 (F 3, 96) =9.76834, P <.01 was found. The multiple R square of .23
indicated that 23% variance in spiritual intelligence is to be accounted for by these variables. In
the table of Adjusted R square was 0.21 which indicates 21 % variance in spiritual intelligence
is to be explained by combined predictor variables private self-Conscious and spiritual
intelligence. The individual contribution of private self-conscious score was found to be 16 %
70 | P a g e
which is worth finding that association between is positive. Thus, increase in private self-
Conscious score increases the spiritual intelligence of an individual

The effect of private self-conscious was highest than the other two variables on spiritual
intelligence i.e. 16 % variance in spiritual intelligence was due to private self-conscious.


Positive relation has been found among private self-conscious, public self-conscious, social
anxiety and spiritual intelligence. The survey suggested that if person is highly spiritual then
he/she also aware about himself/herself (consciously aware about themselves). Private self-
conscious is highly contributor variable in determining spiritual intelligence .Person who are
more conscious about one selves possesses some characteristics i.e. they became more open to
diverse idea about consciousness, more self-aware and more committed to meditation and self-
reflection. Present studies finding in line with (Green and Noble 2011; Glass and Carver 2010;
and Ayranci 2011) studies support that person who spiritual aware is generally aware conscious
about him/her.

In end it can be conclude that private self consciousness is highly predictor variable in
determining spiritual intelligence in comparison of other variables.


- Ayranci,E. (2011). Effects of Top Turkish Manager Emotional and Spiritual
intelligences on their organizations financial performance in Journal of Business
Intelligence,3 (02),95-98.
- Feinstein,A (2010). Self-consciousness Scale available http// www.google.com
- Glass,D. & Carver,C. (2010). The Self-Consciousness Scale: A Discriminant Validity
Study in Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 10 (05) 102-145.
- Green,W.,& Noble,D. (2011). Foster Spiritual Intelligence: Undergraduates growth in a
course about Consciousness in Journal of Advanced Development, 9(01) 66-73.
- Neal,J.(2004). Spiritual Intelligence Scale available http// www.google.com

71 | P a g e

Jyoti George

Linguistics is the science of describing languages and showing how it works. Stylistics is that
part of linguistics, which concentrates on variation in the use of language, often, with a special
attention to the complex uses of language in literature. Stylistics is not a stylish word but it is
well connected. It means a scientific and a methodical study of the form of the text. A
stylistician, who makes a methodical study of the principles of style, applies it to study the lexis,
structures and phonological features. Linguists and Idealists like Spitzer, Edward Sapir, Leonard
Bloomfield, Ferdinand de Saussere, Michael Halliday, Enkvist and others have brought about
new theories and methods for linguistic analysis. An attempt is made to study the stylistic
features of The Sorrow of Love 1925 of W.B Yeats. The text would be studied in terms of
linguistic forms i.e., the lexical, grammatical and phonological features.

Stylistics: A Historical Retrospect
Meaning and Origin
According to O.E.D., word stylistics as we understand it today was used in English for the
first time in 1906. Being a scientific discipline, stylistics aims at providing a systematic, precise
and objective description of the style of a given author or discourse. The traditional view of style
was largely subjective and lacked in descriptive accuracy; impressionistic labels like sublime,
lyrical, terse, etc. tell us more about the intuition of the critic than the linguistic features in the
text responsible for the intuition. Modern stylistic studies attempt to provide an accurate
description of the linguistic patterns and structures, which give the style, a discourse its
characteristic quality. Modern linguistics, particularly the post-Chomskyan linguistics, provides a
satisfactory framework for analyzing language. Stylistics has borrowed its framework for the
description of style. Hence, Stylistics was born of a reaction to the subjectivity and imprecision
of literary studies(Fish 1981:53). Further, the term stylistics has been derived after the French
word stylistique. Tracing the history of the word in English and other European languages,
Ullmann writes, The term stilistik has been in current use in German since the early nineteenth
century; the first example recorded by Grimms dictionary is from Novalis (Spencer and
Gregory) 1964:63). In short, if style is the art of expression, stylistics is the science of style.

Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.71-84
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Stylistics: its Relevance to Our Age

A persistent concern with concepts and methodology has been a fundamental trait of the modern
mind. Langer observes every age is unique in the way it treats its problems, the questions that it
asks (1967:3). The impetus for this enquiry has come mainly from natural sciences in which
both conceptual thinking and methodology have undergone change because of new findings.
Concepts have been redefined in rigorously formalized terms and there has been a perceptible
swing towards a quantitative and objective knowledge. The intellectual vigour released by
scientific disciplines has influenced social and humanistic disciplines too. The new attitude
demands accurate observation and description of facts, formal tools of analysis, and verifiable
data to support the statements made.

Literary criticism has until now been without a sound theoretical foundation. To be in
consonance with the current intellectual climate, it should develop objective tools of
investigation. Tallentire observes, Todays reader of literary criticism has been conditioned by a
computerized world, to expect objective analysis and is less apt to be satisfied by conjecture. For
literary criticism to be accepted as a respectable discipline in modern times, its quality judgement
must be corroborated by facts (1971:973). Since these methodological commitments underlie
stylistics, it is a welcome development in the field of criticism. As a discipline, it aims at making
objective statements about the style of a given text as opposed to the intuition-based judegements
of traditional style critics. In other words, stylistics aspires to be a scientific discipline.


Verbal Criticism I.A. Richards & New Criticism

The emergence of the textual or verbal criticism in the 1920s was a reaction against easy going
and vaguely laudatory criticism prevalent then. The assumption underlying this criticism was
that literature was a product of moonlight exaltation and that it was adequate and desirable
merely to communicate evocatively ones private-responses (Fowler1971:105). In the absence
of a shared critical vocabulary criticism degenerated into self-indulgence.

The critical spirit registered a change in the post-Edwardian era, which was a concomitant result
of a general intensification of the study of language and symbolism. A new consciousness
regarding the language of literature pervaded the critical writings of Hulme, Pound and Eliot.
Eliot in particular by his close comparative analysis of poetry and well-informed discussion of
poetic elements created an intellectual base for new critical thinking. The Sacred Wood (1920) in
which Objective correlative is used by Eliot to explain how emotion can be best transmitted to
the mind of the reader through a concrete picture. The object in which emotion is thus bodied
forth is its external equivalent or objective correlative (Prasad1965:236). In other words, a set
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of objects or a sequence of events can trigger off a particular emotion. Homage to John Dryden
(1924) and the essays published later bear witness to Eliots interest in the linguistic surface of a
literary work. In Tradition and Individual Talent, Eliot describes tradition as changing and
directing the present so that present alters and modifies the past and the progress of an artist is a
continual self-sacrifice, a continual extinction of personality. This he elucidates by examining,
the relation of the poet to the past and the relation of the poem to its author (Ibid 1965:235). To
Eliots practice of close reading, a scientific touch was provided by I.A.Richards theories of
aesthetic response and contextual semantics. His critical ideas were expounded in Principles of
Literary Criticism (1924) and Practical Criticism (1929).The whole effort of Richards was
directed towards replacing the vague, subjective criticism by a practical method, which would
establish a close connection between the readers response and the words on the page. To
provide his ideas a theoretical base, he developed the theory of contextual semantics. Meaning is
a property of the context. In a literary work, words acquire new shades by interacting with each
other; and hence the need to consider the total context. Richards, therefore, proposed that
through close study of the verbal surface and of the relationships between words, the reader
could discover the sense, feeling, tone and intention of the poem. Criticism needed less
poeticizing and more detailed analysis and investigation. It is easy to see how this emphasis on
linguistic elements culminated in modern descriptive stylistic studies.

With Empsons analytical criticism got firmly planted. Through lexical and syntactic analyses,
he studied the phenomenon of double or multiple meaning plurisignation
(Wheelright1962:45), as it was termed to suggest how ambiguity creates complexity of meaning
in poetry. The new interest in linguistic elements is reflected in Empsons frequent use of
grammatical categories and terms. Notions like parts of speech, subject of, and object of, etc.
are used to decipher the function and meaning of words.

Taking the cue from Eliot, Richards and Empson, a group of American academics, which
includes J.C. Ransom, Allen Tate, Cleanth Brooks, R.P.Warren, R. P. Blackmur and Hyman,
have done the bulk of serious critical thinking in recent years. Since they believe in
reconstructing the meaning of the poem through its formal characteristics, they are known as
formalists, textual critics or ontological critics. The term most commonly used is New Critics,
after the book New Criticism (1941) by Ransom.

The New Critics of Britain and American and the Formalists of Europe were inheritors of
rhetoric. They were textualists and believed that a poem should be interpreted only in terms of its
formal features, the verbal clues that the text provides. The most significant aspect about modern
stylistics is that the new, analytical methods of linguistics have been adopted with a view to
provide a precise and adequate description of the language of a given text. All other
considerations are extraneous to the business of criticism. Social, moral, cultural, biographical
and psychological concerns are declared irrelevant to a proper understanding of the text. Hence,
74 | P a g e
a modern critic tends to force his attention back to the text of the work itself, that is, to look at
the poem neither as an appendage to the biography, nor as an illustration of the history of

Consequently, with all New Critics, despite differences in their individual method, the form of
the poem became all-important. The formal elements of the poem diction, images, symbols,
rhyme, metre etc, will on an objective analysis, yield the meaning or the knowledge that the
poem has to communicate. Thus, the form was identified with the meaning and the different
elements combine to produce effects that are unique in poems. The assumption underlying this
affirmation is that meaning is a property of the text. Words derive their meanings in the way they
are made to interact with each other. Any change of words or in the arrangement of words results
in a change of meaning. Further, Jakobson, a critic of the New Criticism had formulated a model
of language founded on Sausssures thesis that there are three levels of interaction between
language and meaning: signifier (the visual or phonemic substance of the word); signified (the
concept or image represented by the word); referent (the pre-linguistic object or condition). This
provides a continuous tension between the combinative and the selective axes of language. The
poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of
combination(1988:39). The axis of combination includes the set of rules in which words are
combined to form a sentence and can be termed as syntagmatic chain, hence, the axis of selection
includes the choices made from the different words available for example, The person looks,
sees, watches etc. In the principle of equivalence, the two axes in terms of syntagmatic chain are
matched for example (Its person is see) is grammatically incorrect, secondly an equivalent
relation between the rules of the syntagm, the perceived relation between language (signifier and
signified) and the pre-linguistic world (the referent). For example, A tree sings satisfies the
rules of the syntagm because walks like grows is a verb used in its correct grammatical
position but has deviated in its equivalent relation between language and the pre-linguistic world.
This unexpected use of the selective axis is the basic principle of metaphor, which Jakobson
claimed, made the language poetic. Similarly, prose (novel) is more closely allied to metonymy;
its linguistic selections maintain a close relationship between the written word and its
representation. Two Russian Formalists, namely Viktor Shklovsky and Vladmir Propp reduced
fictional structures to two opposing and interacting dimensions i.e., sjuzet and
fabula(Bradford1997:52). While fabula refers to the actual order of events that make up of
narrative, sjuzet comprises of order, manner and style. For example, the experiences of Pip in
the city of London refer to fabula of Dickenss Great Expectations and sjuzet is his narration
with temporal and emotional registers. Thus, there is close affinity between Jacobsons
differentiation between the poetic function (operation and effect of poetic devices), the
referential function (what the poem is about) and Shklovskys distinction between sjuzet
(narrative devices) and fabula (the story of the novel). Hence, Shklovskys and Jakobson
focused on the ways in which poems and novels coalesce and change the non-literary language
and experience.
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The Relevance of New Criticism

Literature is sought to be analyzed in objective terms, ignoring considerations of author period or
other extra textual evidence. In this way, they make for formalistic, anti-historicist approach to
literature and they all of recent origin. Practical Criticism, New Criticism and Stylistics are some
of the theories that come under this category. It is in its insistence on the primacy of the text, on
close reading of the linguistic features, and in its positivistic approach, that New Criticism
anticipated the scientific nature of modern stylistics and paved the way for its emergence. The
question about the relevance of New Criticism to stylistics is pertinent. However, one can notice
some significant differences. Stylistics or linguistic criticism deals with the whole text (the
method of random sampling may be used where the text is unwieldy), whereas New Criticism
focuses only on significant details. Linguistic criticism uses formal techniques for discovering
recurrent pattern and significant details, but New Criticism relies on the readers sensibility. It
embodies a response to a poem not merely in terms of the readers linguistic capabilities, but also
in terms of his critical faculties and sensibilities(Schorer1972:340). Hence, New Criticism is
value-oriented but linguistic criticism makes no such claims.

The Model
Proposing a viable stylistic model for the novel is perhaps the most challenging task a stylistic
critic faces. For one thing, generally this genre with its multiple episodes and characters occupies
a comparatively large canvas. A poem, on the other hand, is quite compact because much greater
degree of crystallization takes place in it.

From the foregoing discussion, it emerges that an eclectic model for the analysis of fiction is not
only possible but necessary as well. Accordingly, the Prague School of Linguistics, where the
notion of style includes textual as well as extra-textual context such as genre, dialect and
interpersonal relationship have been selected for analysis. It will also focus on stylistic features
of lexis, grammar and phonology.

A note on sampling is necessary at this point. There are several sampling techniques. Techniques
like Random Sampling and Block Sampling are aridly mechanical and are marked by critical
blindness, whereas criticism, as Freeman rightly observes, does not proceed from a tabula
rasa(1981:5). If this statement is true, then intuitive sampling based, of course, on some
principle of stratification. In the fluid state of the present day stylistics the right thing, perhaps,
would be to use several theories and concepts as far as they suit our purpose of interpretation, not
sticking rigidly to one particular theory or trend. Therefore, it was felt to use transformational
methodology and Prague school of linguistics central notion of style as foregrounding, which is
a device in a literary passage through the use of unexpected lexical collocation, syntactic
inversion etc, in my analysis of the text.
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The analysis that follows has been based on a close reading of the text. The prominent linguistic
items of the poem have been examined under the heads of lexis, syntax, phonology and
interpretation. In some cases, the linguistic items examined include grammatical categories such
as, verb, pronoun and other structural peculiarities of the texts concerned. Under lexis, the
prominent lexical items in the text have been listed to show how they give a clue to the main
theme. While the syntax part examines the structural and the dominant syntactic characteristics
of the text, phonology is mainly concerned with phonological patterning and the device of
alliteration. The section on interpretation and comment attempts not only to relate the various
prominent stylistic features of the text to its theme.

Yeats naturally inherited and rooted in a regional tradition from Ireland could assume the voice
of an ancient bard challenging the changing modern with its vanishing values. Marcus (1970),
Jakobson and Rudy (1977), Thuente (1981), Kinahan (1988) Bawer (1982), Pierce (1989), Smith
(1990) opine that Yeats came to believe that finite world of 19
century materialism was found
among the Irish peasants folklore and that poetry must be brought to the people by song. While
rediscovering the old Irish legendary material, he was being national and uncoloured by modern
politics. Yeats is primarily an Irish poet and his poetry is distinctively Irish (MacDonald
2001:302). He was perhaps the twentieth centurys finest stylist and for him poetry is the
natural words in the natural order as he was naturally drawn to stylistic device of antithesis,
foregrounding, iambic pentameter, play on words, alliteration, rhyming sentences, assonances
etc. (Smith1990: 122). He made a new religion of an infallible church of poetic tradition.
Yeats poems celebrate the rose, the mystic rose, ancient Celtic symbol in the human soul,
which repeatedly represents beauty, ladylove, or even Ireland (Lampeusa 1989:49). In a sense,
Yeats although modern, was not modernist as he was the least experimentalist, yet he possesses
distinctive strength for his thought provoking contribution to critical debate. The familiar view of
Yeatsian poetry develops with increasing absorption and pursuit of hieratic knowledge of literary
milieu of late nineteenth and early twentieth century Ireland. Hence, transformational generative
and structural methodology is used to analyse both the habitual and unfamiliar appearance of the
text of Yeatss The Sorrow of Love 1925

The brawling of a sparrow in the caves,
The brilliant moon and all the milky sky,
And all that famous harmony of leaves,
Had blotted out mans image and his cry.
A girl arose that had red mournful lips
And seemed the greatness of the world in tears,
Doomed like Odysseus and the labouring ships
And proud as Priam murdered with his peers,
Arose, and on the instant clamorous caves,
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A climbing moon upon an empty sky,
And all the lamentation of the leaves,
Could but compose mans image and his cry.

The Subject
The subject of the poem, The Sorrow of Love1925, is set within the framework of contended
domesticity. The narrator is serenely at peace with the natural and ethereal world in complete
harmony. The lamentation of the leaves is an indicator that peace may be disturbed and the loud
song of the ever singing leaves forebodes that the wind of change is up. The second stanza
describes banishment of content (Kinahan1988:100).Yeats contrastive sets of star laden sky
and the white stars of the sky juxtapose that happiness cannot last for long as things will fall
apart. The Rose with all her beauty shattered his contentment and left a trail of sorrow. Yeats
associates Helen of Troy, the eternal figure of the tragic heroine with the greatest human beauty.

The poem consists of three quatrains. Quatrain I and III display dual opposition. The last lines of
quatrains I and III have man as its main topic. Both quatrain I and III portray different levels of
thought and are at conflict with each other. One portrays victory and the other portrays defeat.
Yeats maintains the contiguity with mutual metamorphosis of two contrastive sets of quatrain
with the auditory and visual, earthly and celestial phenomena. The second quatrain has the girl as
the heroine who represents the tragic and heroic human world.The division of the poem into six
lines in the outer quatrain (lines 1-3 and 9-11) as opposed to the six lines (4-8 and 12), represent
two different metaphysical realms; the upper/over ground level and lower/terrestrial level
respectively. The middle stanza is completely devoted to the lower/terrestrial realm; the outer
stanzas bring the two realms into conflict but with a different outcome.

Phonological Features
(a) Rhyme

Within rhyme, the twelve lines of the poem the interplay of words similar in sound creates an
affinity and contrast either between the components of the same line or between diverse lines
within the same quatrain. The appearance of expressive consonantal clusters though the use of
tightly-knot word groups and of vocalic syncope furthers and widens the application of this
poetic device. In the first distich of I, a distinct alliteration binds the words. In quatrain I
brawling /br. / - brilliant / br./ - had blotted /bl /. In quatrain III clamorous /kl.m / - climbing
/kl.m/ - empty /mp/ - lamentation / l.m / - could but compose /k.mp /.

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The consonantal cluster /db / is common to both final predicates of the outer quatrains. Quatrain
I Had blotted, III could but and similarly / tk / of III instant clamorous III but compose I
harmony / m.n / and III lamentation /m-n/, moon - /mn / man / m-n /, II mournful / m-n /. It is
significant to note that the final picture of the lonesome lunar wanderer contains the greatest
accumulation of nasals: III A climbing moon upon and empty sky (with seven nasals) is
predominantly prevocalic in the outer quatrains (braw-ling, spa-rrow brill-iant, cry, a.rose, cla-
mo.rous, cry) but post- vocalic in the inner quatrain (girl, mournful world, tears,la.bour.ing,
mur.dered, peers). The inner quatrain unified by dense consonance and alliteration: had red
mournfulmurdered /dr /, / dm /, / r m /, / rd /, / rd /, proud Priam peers / pr /, / pr /, /p.r /.

The intense consonantal and alliterative patterning that is observed does not pervade the text
indiscriminately but rather establishes semantic connection with careful choiced sound patterns.
Alliteration and consonance pervades the text but only in random order. These combine to para
rhyme, often in multiple linkages.
sor. row - spar. row
brawl. ing - brill. iant
love - leaves
mans - har. mon. y moon-la. men. tation climb. ing- com.pose clam. or. ous

The central stanza has only one instance of para rhyme, and this is only partial and single.
mourn. ful mur dered

The other schemes like alliteration, consonance, assonance and rhyme, occur in the text like
proud priam peers lips la. bour. in a. rose red world with seemed ships had
his that the this A-Andand And as

Vowels in functional words in the inner stanza also echo vowels in the stanziac rhymes:
in with his ships lips.

(b) Rhythm
The brawling | of a sparrow| in the eaves,
The brilliant moon | and all the | milky sky,
And all | that | famous | harmony of leaves,
Had blotted out | mans image | and his cry.
A girl | arose | that had | red mournful lips,
And seemed | the greatness | of the world | in tears,
Doomed | like Odysseus | and the labouring | ships,
And proud | as priam murdered | with his peers.
Arose |, and on the instant | clamorous leaves,
A climbing moon | upon an | empty sky,
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And all | that | lamentation | of the leaves,
Could but compose | mans | image | and his cry.

Grammatical Features

Nouns- There are twenty-seven nouns, nine in each quatrain for example, sparrow, caves,
moon, sky, harmony, leaves, mans image, cry; girl, lips, greatness, world, tears, Odysseus,
ships, Priam, peers; instant eaves, moon, sky, lamentation, leaves, mans image, cry.
(a) abstract nouns There are three abstract nouns, i.e. harmony, greatness, lamentation, one
in each stanza, and followed by of.
Pronominal attributes There are three pronominal attributes in each stanza, such as
brilliant moon, milky sky, famous, red mournful, labouring ships, clamorous, climbing,
Pronouns his, that, all, each is repeated three times.
Articles -- There are nine occurrences of definite article (the), and four occurrences of
indefinite article (a,an).
Conjunction There are nine occurrences of and, three in each stanza.
Prepositions There are nine occurrences of prepositions, for example, of, in of, of in, with,
on upon of.
Finite Verbs had blotted out, arose, had seemed.
Modal could

Lexical Features
Pairs of opposites empty sky milky sky, brawling cry, brilliant moon climbing moon,-
blotted out mans image compose mans image and his cry, harmony of leaves, man moon,
mournful labouring, Doomed proud
Colour terms - red, milky, brilliant,
Simile- Doomed like Odysseus, proud as Priam
Epithet - brilliant moon, climbing moon, empty sky, milky sky
Puns -Arose ,a rose
Symmetry -And all that famous harmony of leaves
And all that lamentation of the leaves
Classical imagery proud as Priam, Doomed like Odysseus

The analysis at the phonological level is mainly conducted to study the patterns of poetic
rhythm and rhyme. While the study of rhythm involves the analysis of the metrical structure of
the poem, the study of rhyme involves the study of the external and the internal rhyme scheme
in the poem. The rhythm, as can be seen in this 12 lines poem, is controlled at line ends. The
stressed syllables in each of the lines in the poem are five primary stressed and five unstressed
(weak). The Sorrow of Love is written in iambic pentameter. Each line begins with a weak
80 | P a g e
stress, followed immediately by a primary stress. The most illuminating aspect of the rhythm is
the various patterning of the two fundamental prosodic types of words, which fulfill the
downbeat of the binary meter. For example, there is significant difference between down beat
carrying the primary stress in the separate lexical constituents e.g., milky sky, with two
primary stresses, as opposed to harmony with the primary stress on the first and last syllable,
and in the eaves, with primary stress on the third.

In addition to rhythm, rhyme scheme of the poem is ab ab, cd cd. However, there are instances
of alliteration, assonance and consonance, which function as stylistic features that help in
weaving the poetic texture of the poem. The pertinent role played by the auditory and visual
phenomena in the stanzas is worth mentioning. The second line of the outer quatrain finishes
with moon whereas the fourth line ends with man. Thus, the poem has deviant
phonological features.

To discard tradition was a vital loss for Yeats. The old metaphors, sensuous tradition was lost
in the meanders of innovation. For him the innovations did not strike relationship with old
poetic materials. Yeats in his poetry has imbibed the ideas from the various sources of the
philosophyIrish folklore and mythology(Kaur2001:105)Since mythological figures half-
historical, half-fictional and half-imaginative have an older tradition modern poetry with its
insistence on intellect ignored the past and its claim for self-sufficiency refused to take any

Genuine originality in the works of art is achieved within the framework of tradition. The
originality of the moderns is deliberately twisted to give an impression of intellectual novelty.
In Yeats view to seek originality is self-seeking. Further, Yeats believed that every folk art,
jazz and musical songs should be rejected if it does not go back to Olympus. Yeats thus, draws
distinction between genuine and spurious folk art. Yeats, a master of the pentameter chooses a
traditional stanza but always safe from the upheavals of historical change. The Sorrow of Love
1925 seems to evoke the legends of race, culture and a sad figure of a lady. What Yeats implies
is that genuine passionate thoughts and feelings cannot be expressed without invoking the
traditional resources of language and metre. With technical resources pushed to the limit,
nothing is superfluous or even incidental, the lines move with ease of perfect movement, set in
perfect verses enough to evoke the enchanted landscape of sound and resonance of centre
grace. Thus, Pierce Yeats philosophy is rooted in Platonism and his work reflects the Pre-
Socratic dilemma of being and becoming. Yeats was deeply indebted to Gaelic, Irish literary
ballad and to 19
century Irish poets. He along with other poets was grouped as poets of the
Irish Mode which allows for clear pronunciation of several syllables between stress and
stress(1989:93).Yeats verse has the musical quality of Irish chant, which saves Irish speech
from too definite a stress and from an utterance too monotonous and harsh. Combined then
with the purity of style, celebrating love, delicately varying between repetition and balance,
81 | P a g e
The Sorrow of Love 1925 is an accomplished poem because it has perfect symmetry and
similarity between central/upper/overground parts verses peripheral/lower/terrestrial parts,
initial parts versus final parts, and odd parts versus even parts. It has attained lyrical geometry
and numerical (Cureton2000:359).Yeats is strictly adhering to multiples of three as there
twenty-seven nouns besides three ing forms, one in each of the three stanzas such as
brawling, labouring, and climbing. Each of such form introduces the motif of movement.

One even line of each quatrain has three nouns, and any other line two nouns. This can be
further specified. In the outer (odd) quatrains, the even line of the even distich contains an odd
number of nouns (3), whereas in the inner (even) quatrains three nouns are found in the even line
of the odd distich. The poem contains six personal nouns, out of which two are common nouns
(girl and peers), two are proper nouns (Odysseus and Priam). The outer quatrain has only one
personal noun, the possessive mans, only are relative pronoun (that) and the inner stanza has a
noun of feminine gender (girl), the rest are masculine.

Only nouns functions as rhyme-fellows and the plural occurs solely in rhymes, eight of the
twelve rhymes-fellows are plural nouns. It is only in the inner part of the line, the actual arena as
it were the individual actors, such as the brawling sparrow, the brilliant moon, a girl, a
man, Odysseus and Priam, perform the drama. Nouns are temporally cyclical, because they
are concrete and stative. The two constituents of each of the six rhymes are morphological
homogenous but syntactically heterogeneous. In each quatrain one line ends in a grammatical
subject I (sky); II (ships); III (eaves), one in direct object I (cry); II (lips); III (cry), and two in
prepositional constructions I (in the eaves, of leaves); II (in tears, with his peers); III (upon an
empty sky, of the leaves).The post-positive attributes occur in the second stanza with two past
passive participles, Doomed,murdered and one adjective, proud. Adjective are qualities of
intensity therefore they are temporally centroidal.

The nine occurrences of the in the three quatrains form an arithmetic regression: 4-3-2. In the
first half of the poem, three lines contain two definite articles each, and three none, whereas the
second half has three lines with one definite article in each, and three without any. In each
quatrain of the poem, there are two lines with, and two without, definite articles. It is presented
in figures below.
Line: 1 2 3 4 Total
I: 2th 2th - - 4
Quatrain II: - 2th 1th - 3
III: 1th - 1th - 2

The distribution of the articles of the first quatrain forms a rectangle while the second and third
quatrain forms an oblique-angled quadrangle. The poem contains two equational conjunctions,
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both confined to the inner quatrain (II like, as ) and the other three instances of and in each
quatrain. Only three attributive pronouns occur in the poem and each of them his, that, all is
repeated three times. His occupies penultimate syllable of the last line in each quatrain. All
occurs only in the outer quatrains, twice in the in the first stanza and once in the third. That
appears twice as the demonstrative pronoun in the first and the third stanza only. In the first half
of the poem three lines are without finites, followed by three lines each containing one or more
finites and finally in the second half of the poem the last line or each three-line group contains a

The number of finites is limited to six active forms referring to the third poem. Three of these
forms (1+2) appear in the outer quatrains, and three-in the first distich of the inner quatrain. The
ratio of verbs to nouns is 1:3 in the inner and 1:8 in the two outer quatrains.

The three other semantic type of verbs are two compound forms verbs of action represented by (I
had blotted out, and III could but compose). The verbs of state are (II had, And, seemed) in the
inner quatrain and the verbs of process occurs in inner and last quatrain (II arose, III Arose).

The major facts are co-occurent qualities of the linguistic forms that Yeats uses to articulate The
Sorrow of Love in relation to human sensibility. Further, the homogeneity between nouns; the
patterning of plural versus singular nouns; the distribution of verbs of action, state and process;
the distribution of the pronoun, gender, postpositive attributes and conjunctions are positional
and poetically significant. The heterogeneity and contrastive claims of the poem are equally
worthy of note. The verbal meaning is both dynamic and static. Gender is impersonal and
personal. Rhymes are mixed and plural. Voice is active as well as passive. Pronouns are
demonstrative and relative therefore linear and person is generic and third person. There are
many derivational and inflectional forms in the text. Modal could, deals with probability
therefore, it is linear.


Though Yeats lexis is extremely wide and diverse, The Sorrow of Love 1925 is a Rose poem
and shares a common theme with the other Rose poems. Yeats symbol of Rose is multifaceted
yet taken in isolation it could represent Ireland, Maud Gonne ,supreme beauty, Helen, Gods
love, divine nature, kingdom of God. Yeats had a passion for mystical Rose. Placed with such
juxtaposition, it could only broaden the connotations of Rose symbol, such as commenting on
Irish history, his vision of universe, the whole order of things that concerns him. The way he
appropriated the English language, Yeats must be understood in relational terms because he is
both Anglo and Irish. Irish because for Yeats the symbol of Rose is couched in an occult
subculture of time, a common property of ancient culture of Gaelic poets who had lived in an
ancient isolated Irish countryside, which has endured the passage of time. The Rose for Yeats is
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a terrible beauty and the image of romantic Ireland, which represents unbroken continuity, and
permanence of Gaelic tradition. Yeats romanticized, nostalgically imagined heroic tragedy of
ancient days. He sings of the Romantic Irelands dead and gone, seems to gorge a link between
himself and the deceased in a strong sense of continuity with the past(Bawer1982:97) and
hence, expressed his Anglo side by his Anglo-Irish literature.


Primary Source:
Macneice, Louis. 1941. The Poetry of W.B.Yeats. New York: Macmillan.

Secondary Source:
- Bawer, Bruce (1982). Two on a Tower. Hardy and Yeats. Yeats Eliot Review. 7
& 2:91-107.
- Bradford, Richard (1997). Stylistics. The New Critical Idiom. London: Routledge.
- Cureton, Richard D.(2000).Jakobson Revisited. Poetics, Subjectivity, and Temporality.
Journal of English Linguistics. 28
ser. 4: 354-392.
- Fish, Stanley E .(1981). What is Stylistics and Why are They Saying Such Terrible
Things About It? Essays in Modern Stylistics. Ed. Donald C. Freeman.London:
Macmillan. 53-78.
- Fowler, Roger (1971). The Languages of Literature. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
- Freeman, Donald.1981. Essays in Modern Stylistics. London : Methuen.
- Jakobson, Roman (1988). Closing statement: Linguistics and Poetics. Style in
Language. Ed T. Sebok. Cambridge. MIT Press. Reprint in Lodge.
- Jakobson, Roman and Stephen Rudy (1977). Yeats Sorrow of Love: Through the Years.
Holland: The Peter De Ridder Press.
- Kaur, Tejinder. 2001. Women in the Poetry of W.B. Yeats. Language Forum. 27
1 & 2: 105-115.
- Kinahan, Frank.1988. Yeats, Folklore, and Occultism. Context of the Early Work and
Thought. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
- Lampeusa, Giuseppe Tomasi di. 1989. W.B. Yeats and Irish Renaissance. Yeats Eliot
Review. 10
ser. 2:46-51.
- Langer, Susan. 1967. Philosophy in a New Key. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Marcus, Phillip.1970. Yeats and the Beginning of the Irish Renaissance. London.: Cornell
University Press.
- McDonald, Peter (2001). Rev. of Yeats as Precursor: Reading in Irish, British and
American Poetry by Steven Matthews. The Review of English Studies. 52
ser. 206:
- Pierce, David (1989). The State of Art, W.B. Yeats. London: The Bristol Press.
84 | P a g e
- Prasad, Birjadish (1965). An Introduction to English Criticism. New Delhi:Macmillan.
- Richards, I. A. (1970). Pratical Criticism. Delhi: Orient Longman.
- Schorer, Mark (1972). The Analogical Matrix. Essays in Stylistic Analysis. Ed. Howard
Babb. 338-52. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- Stallman, Robert (1949). Critiques and Essays in Criticism. New York: The Ronald
Company Press.
- Smith, Stan (1990). W.B. Yeats. A Critical Introduction. London: Macmillan.
- Spencer, John and Gregory (1964). On Defining Style. Linguistics and Style. Oxford:
Basil and Blackwell.
- Tallentire, D.L. (1971) . The Mathematics of Style. Times Literary Supplement. 973-
- Thuente, Mary HeleN (1981). W.B. Yeats and Irish Folklore. New Jersey: Gill and
- Wheelright, Philip (1962). Metaphor and Reality. Bloomington: Indiana Press.

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Sanjay Chhabra

Nagaland is a State that does not conform to the general perception of womens status in India.
Apart from traditional practices that have generally cared for women and the girl child, the State
has successful achievements in the fields of literacy, increasing sex ratio, health and entrepreneur
development. The literacy rate of women and the enrolment rates for girls in Nagaland are higher
than the national average. In the area of health, the positive achievements are improving sex
ratios, absence of female feticides and low maternal mortality rate. There are almost no cases of
malnourishment among women and children. However, the very high fertility rate is a cause of
concern. The vast majority of Naga women are engaged in agriculture and allied sectors, such as
minor forest produce and cultivating cereals, The Communitisation initiative has created the
policy framework for bringing about substantial improvement in the quality of education.
Womens participation in the manufacturing sector is as low as 6 percent. Participation in the
services sector is only 14 percent, out of which only around 7 percent are professionals. In recent
times, in the wake of education and exposure, women have started entering other sectors, such as
trading, cottage industries, floriculture, restaurants, etc. There are also areas where interventions
are required like employment generation, higher education for women, financial support for
womens development, social problems, including violence against women, health problems,
including HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Naga womens exclusion from land rights and from
formal decision-bodies is areas of concern. The absence of women legislators in all the 10 State
Legislative Assemblies since statehood in 1963 is significant.
The State policy for empowerment of women has been formulated and a new department of
women has been established. The reservation of seats and earmarking of 25 percent of funds for
women in the Village Development Boards have been the first steps in the State for
empowerment of women and their participation in the governance and development of their
communities. With the participation of women in local bodies, and even greater numbers in the
self-help groups, the scenario could change as more women become familiar with governance.
Empowerment of women will be vital as Nagaland marches towards its vision of a peaceful,
developed and secure society. New opportunities are coming in the way of Naga women through
education, policy interventions in governance, economic development and greater interaction
within and outside the State. The focus must now shift to development of the human being in its
totality, and enabling each one to realise his/her highest potentials.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.85-95
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1. Status of Women: An Overview
Empowering women has become integral to the new approach in promoting sustainable human
development. It is in this context that Mrs Nini Meru, Secretary of the Nagaland Board of School
Education, said, A Naga woman, to me, enjoys more privileges than most other women
elsewhere.However, what must be kept in mind is that the vast majority of Naga women are still
engaged in agriculture. No doubt, challenging life experiences are emerging all the time as a
consequence of education, changing vocations, increasing mobility, awareness and participation
in various workforces. But what has left an indelible mark on Naga women has been the impact
of prolonged and protracted insurgency. They have been not only victims of violence but also
charged with additional responsibilities of supporting their families and communities to cope
with the adverse impact of violence. Naga women have played a pivotal role, individually and
collectively, in helping their communities survive and in enabling human development across
Naga society. The fact sheet above shows some of the areas of strength with high literacy rates,
low maternal mortality, rising sex ratio and a quality of life in general better than the national
average. However, there are also areas where interventions are required like employment
generation, higher education for women, financial support for womens development, social
problems, including violence against women, health problems, including HIV/AIDS and
substance abuse.
While the female literacy rate of Nagaland is above the national average, it is still far behind
those of developed countries where almost entire populations can read and write. Within the
State itself, there is a wide disparity in the literacy rates. Districts like Mon and Tuensang have
female literacy rates of 37.12 percent and 46.12 percent only as per 2001 figures, in sharp
contrast to districts like Mokokchung, Wokha and Dimapur (82.20%, 76.46% and 73.34%). It is
noteworthy that the first primary school opened by the Christian missionary Mrs. Mary Mead
Clark at Molungyimsen was for girls. The school enrolment rates for girls in Nagaland is higher
than the national average, although it is still not comparable with the most literate states in the
country. This reflects on the potential of Naga women to attain better educational qualifications
and hence better economic and social status. However, the lack of vocational education at school
and college levels is a cause of serious concern.
Though the age at marriage among Naga women is much higher than in other states, the high
fertility rate causes concern. There is a strong gender bias in the use of contraceptives. For
instance, the terminal methods are usually used by women only. NFHS II found that none of the
sampled women reported male sterilisation as the method of contraception. Use of contraceptives
is essential for spacing and has a direct bearing on the health of women. Compounding the
problem, most deliveries are still home-based without assistance of trained health personnel.
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Anaemia, due to worm infestations and frequent pregnancies, is common among women of
childbearing age. There are other areas of concern such as the high infant and under-five
mortality rates.
Income and Livelihood
The vast majority of Naga women are engaged in agriculture and allied sectors, such as minor
forest produce (MFP) and cultivating various kinds of cereals, vegetables, etc. Around 70 percent
of women are involved in agriculture. Generally, all the sowing, harvesting, etc., in the field are
done by women, who also do the household chores. Womens participation in the manufacturing
sector is as low as 6 percent. Participation in the services sector is 14 percent, out of which only
around 7 percent are professionals. Nevertheless, womens contribution to family earnings, in
financial terms, is lesser and not commensurate with the amount of work they do. This is because
their work is usually not calculated as income. The nature of their work is mainly household or
they work in their own fields, for which no financial remuneration is given. What is encouraging
is that the number of those launching out with their own business initiatives is increasing in
recent years. In recent times, in the wake of education and exposure, women have started
entering other sectors, such as trading, cottage industries, floriculture, restaurants, etc. A handful
of them have also entered the highly competitive export market. Now, with the opening up of the
tourism sector, new opportunities will become available.
Women and Marriage
The average age of girls at marriage in Nagaland is 2223 years. However, in some interior areas
it is still common to have girls married at 1516 years of age. Early marriage and high fertility
rate have contributed to very high decadal growth rate in Nagaland. Women traditionally married
within their own tribes, a practice that is still common today. Men traditionally paid dowry to the
family of the bride at the time of marriage in the form of livestock. This practice is different from
most parts of India, where the brides family pays dowry. Rooted in this tradition and governed
by a general culture of care, the valuing of the girl child has continued till today. There is no
prevalence of female foeticide in Nagaland.
Violence against Women
There has been increasing concern across the world about violence against women, especially
within the home, which usually goes as unreported. This global concern arises because this is not
only an issue of human rights violation but also creates health burdens with intergeneration and
demographic consequences. During the past five decades Naga society has been a witness to
conflict and violence. Insurgency has taken a heavy toll, with women receiving the brunt of the
consequences. Often, women themselves have been victims of violence and conflict, and many
of them also had to take care of their families single-handedly. Incidents of dowry deaths, female
infanticides, and neglect of the girl child are absent in Naga culture. However, other forms of
violence like wife beating, rape and molestation are on the increase and are being reported in
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recent years. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) made a study to assess whether
women viewed wife beating as justified and to measure the prevalence of violence against
women, including that committed by their husband. The incidence of beating or physical
maltreatment was found to be more in rural than in urban areas. Also, the percentage of violence
involving husbands was much more than others, viz. in-laws and other relatives.
II. Traditions and Gender-based Roles
Women down the centuries, have cultivated the fields, raised families, woven cloth, provided
food and marketed local produce. The impact of all these on Naga society from then to now has
been significant. They continue to do so, but are also participating in newer areas and in
changing environment. This has meant some new challenges and called for newer
understandings.Traditional Governing SystemsThe traditional governing system of the Nagas
was either chieftainship, under the Village Council or an informal council of elders. Only male
members were included in these decisionmaking bodies. Women were excluded from formal
decisionmaking processes. Some tribes, like Angami, have had informal spaces for women to be
consulted. In their homes, the women had wide latitude in making decisions. In cultural
ceremonies and rituals too, the women had specifically assigned roles.Land and InheritanceIn
Nagaland, cultivable land is the most valued form of property for its economic, political and
symbolic significance. It is a productive, wealth-creating and livelihood-sustaining asset. It also
provides a sense of identity and rootedness because it has a durability and permanence, which no
other asset possesses. Over and above this, in the Naga context, ancestral land has a symbolic
meaning, which purchased land does not. What is more, there are different rules for the
devolution of ancestral and self-acquired land.
Traditional Position of Women in Ritual Celebrations
There used to be two main ritual arenas of the Naga tribes. These were feasting and head
hunting. Both tended to centre around the exploits of men. Whereas head hunting was a totally
male preserve, women had better social status as far as feasting was concerned. In Naga
societies, at birth both boys and girls take their social identity from their father and are placed in
his agnatic group and familial unit. A female childs membership of her fathers agnatic unit is
neither permanent nor complete. Gender differences in group membership and social identity are
closely connected with the patterns of inheritance and resource distribution. In Naga societies,
property is inherited by the male heirs and transmitted through them. They have coparcenary
rights in ancestral property. The women have no share in such inheritance although acquired
properties can be gifted to daughters also. It is widely believed that the daughters after their
marriage come under the care of the husbands clan and family. Largely because of this, in
practice, no landed property was gifted to women although most of the work on the land was
done by the womenfolk. Even though a man cannot leave land in perpetuity to a daughter and no
woman can permanently inherit land of any sort, temporary ownership of land during her
lifetime, is allowed for daughters as well as widows. In recent times, a few pioneering initiatives,
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both private and official, are being taken to allow women to own land. There is a broad debate
amongst Naga women around rights to land. Among poor households, land rights could reduce
womens and their households risk of poverty and destitution. Giving women access to
economic resources has resulted in poverty alleviation.
III. New Changes and Policy Influences Democratic Governance
Though slow in coming, changes are taking place both through societal action and through
official policy interventions. Indeed, moving on from traditional institutions of governance,
Nagaland today is in the midst of a very innovative experience in democratic governance.
Traditional men only institutions have given way to democratic practices with provisions for
womens participation. Article 371(A) of the Indian Constitution, wherein Naga customary laws
have been given special safeguards. Customary law is intrinsic to the culture and tradition of
Naga society although it has also been subjected to socio-cultural change. There have been times
when the interpretation was not women-friendly. However, the continuing practice of
Christianity and wider interactions have all brought changes in customary practices. Women
have benefited out of some of these social changes.
Representation of Women in Governance
Naga women have played a limited role in institutional politics. At present there are no women
in either the State Assembly or in the Parliament. However, women have remained active
participants in the electoral process since statehood, in terms of voter turnout and in canvassing.
The peace movements, if not led by women, are overwhelmingly supported by them.

National Parliament
Nagaland has two parliamentary seats, one each in the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. Nagaland
sent a woman, Mrs. Rano Shaiza, to the 6th Lok Sabha in 1977. Since then, no woman has
represented the State in either House of Parliament. Hopefully, the increasing participation of
women in the local bodies will have an impact.

State Legislature
The absence of women legislators in all the 10 State Legislative Assemblies since statehood in
1963 is significant. Till date, four women have contested the assembly elections, three of them in
the February 2003 elections. However, none of them could win. With the participation of
women in local bodies, and even greater numbers in the self-help groups (SHGs), the scenario
could change as more women become familiar with governance.
Local Bodies
The participation of women in the local bodies, especially at the village level, is increasing. The
Nagaland Village Development Board (VDB) Act has reserved 25 percent for womens
representation. This directive was to first ensure womens participation in village development
and local bodies. This positive empowerment policy has produced some very successful women
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VDB Secretaries. It has also been reported from Zunheboto district where a woman has been
elected to the post of Gaonbura (village elder), another traditional male domain. This points
toward the possibility of womens participation in traditional institutions in larger numbers in the
Policy Interventions
The 8th Five Year Plan marks a definite shift from development to empowerment of women.
Empowerment of women across sectors is recognised as the central issue in determining the
status of women. A separate Ministry of Social Welfare was established in the Government of
India in 1967 to look into issues relating to women, children and disabled persons. In Nagaland
too, womens development was under the working of the State Ministry of Social Welfare till
2003. In 2003, the Government of Nagaland established a separate Department of Womens

The reservation of seats and earmarking of 25 percent of funds for women in the Village
Development Boards have been the first steps in the State for empowerment of women and their
participation in the governance and development of their communities, the innovations brought
about through NEPED and Communitisation have had considerable impact. The State Level
Working Committee on Womens Empowerment has asked that a minimum of one-third women
be made mandatory in the Village Councils, Village Development Boards, Women Dobashis,
Town Committees/Municipal Boards, State and District Planning and Development Boards,
Nagaland Public Service Commission and all other recruitment boards.
Nagaland Draft State Policy for the Empowerment of Women, 2003
The draft State Policy on Empowerment of Women, 2003, was declared after extensive and
broad-based consultations. This draft policy aims to bring about advancement, development and
empowerment of women. Some of the important recommendations contained in the policy are
given below:
- Setting up of a State Commission for Women to promote the interests of women.
- Setting up of Womens Development Corporations (WDCs) to channel financial
assistance for promotion of economic enterprises by women, poverty alleviation and
employment generation to be considered for Nagaland.
- Provision of financial resources for training and advocacy for womens participation at
all levels of decision-making process.
- The judicial system be made more responsive and gender sensitive especially in cases of
domestic violence and personal assault.
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- Changes in the personal laws related to marriage, divorce, maintenance, inheritance,
guardianship, etc., to eliminate discrimination against women.
- To make the laws relating to ownership and inheritance of property gender just.
- Women police cells in all the districts.
- Vocational education and gender sensitivity be incorporated in the school curriculum.
- Social, developmental and health consequences of HIV/AIDS to be tackled from a gender
- Womens health care and counselling centres be set up at the village level.
- Special efforts to tackle the macro- and micro-nutrient deficiencies, especially amongst
pregnant and lactating women.
- Institutions/mechanisms for prevention of crimes against women be established.
- Steps to tackle the menace of trafficking in women and girls.
- Access to credit and training for women to set up self-employment ventures.
- Quota for girls in institutions of higher and technical education.
- Encouraging women to participate in developmental process by providing support
services like child care facilities at work places, homes for short stay and free legal aid.
IV. Strategies for Better Income and Livelihood
Strengthening Agricultural Practices
The vast majority of Naga women are engaged in agriculture. To strengthen and build upon the
traditional agricultural practices, the State Government a few years ago, launched a pilot
initiative called the Nagaland Empowerment of People through Economic Development
(NEPED). 158 Nagaland State Human Development Reportassistance to farmers through village
administered revolving funds, organising womens SHGs, capacity building of women by
technical training, etc., NEPED has ensured greater space, empowerment and involvement of
women. Financial assistance to women was provided through mandatory provision of 25 percent
of the allocated funds to participate in the project, establishing revolving funds and credit link
assistance with local financial institutions. Besides financial assistance, the project helped
women explore their access to land in newer ways.
Small-scale Industry
The State Industrial Policy (1991) paved the way for interventions like opening of womens cells
in banks and financial institutions. At entrepreneurship in the conventional sense. The presence
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of women selling vegetables, seasonal fruits, handloom products and other home products was
slowly emerging by the roadsides and market places in the major towns of the State. Today,
while continuing these small income-generating ventures they have also expanded into small-
scale industries.
Cottage industry is part of the working culture of Naga women. These practices were adopted
by women to provide clothing for their families. They slowly extended this outside their families
to increase their income. The expertise of Naga women in the use of cane and plant fibre is
another area that can be exploited advantageously. National and international markets exist today
for these hand made products. Naga women are also fully engaged in meeting the demands of an
emerging clientele for indigenous goods and many have thriving businesses in the markets of
Cottage industry that has its roots in traditional spinning and weaving.
Weaving Dreams on Handloom
Analysis of women entrepreneurship would be incomplete without looking into the larger picture
which includes the vibrant tradition of Naga handloom, the mainstay activity of Naga women.
The potentials of the handloom sector are immense. The high-end market, including international
market appreciation and acknowledgement of handmade, are applicable to Naga handloom

Role of Non-government Organisations
The various success stories and case studies reflect the important role of NGOs and their great
potential in Nagaland. Many SHGs and womens societies also successfully dot the landscape of
Nagaland. Indeed, in Nagalands experience, these groups have proved to be among the most
successful. In many towns, there are buildings built by womens SHGs, which are fetching
handsome income. A major participant in this sector is the Church in Nagaland, comprising
Baptist, Catholic, Revival, Assembly of God, Pentecostal Mission, etc. Several denominations
have their own developmental organisations. Among them, the Nagaland Development Outreach
(NDO), the developmental wing of the Nagaland Baptist Church Council (NBCC), is one of the
better-known organisations. Naga women know that building a society to live in peace would
mean creating a climate that is conducive. Womens organisations like the NBCC womens wing
and the Naga Mothers Association (NMA) have been working for peace, human rights issues,
environment conservation, womens empowerment and on health issues like alcoholism, drug
addiction and AIDS. The Naga Mothers Association (NMA) was formed on February 14, 1984,
as a State level voluntary organisation with the objective of combating social evils confronting
the society in various forms. It also provides a common platform for women, where womens
issues and interests could be addressed, and to uphold the dignity of motherhood. Its motto is
Human Integrity. The NMA has also contributed significantly towards forging the peace
process and has been working on human rights issues, afforestation, environmental conservation
and empowerment of women. The NMA had also, along with the Church, spearheaded the
successful movement for imposition of prohibition in Nagaland. It had been working with other
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organisations to reduce violence and cruelty in Naga society. Their activities related to the peace
process have concentrated primarily in three areas, viz., peace and reconciliation, participation in
capacity building and the people-to-people dialogue with civil society. Womens intervention has
helped greatly to reduce tensions and violence in society. They have also started projects such as
hospice for people living with AIDS to provide care, support and space.

V. Special Challenges and Way Ahead
While traditional society valued the girl child equally, as all children are accepted as divine
blessing, the peculiar situation of Nagaland, with its protracted violent insurgency, had
frequently placed Naga women in especially difficult circumstances and confronted them with
enormous challenges. A few areas of special challenges are discussed below:
Conflict and Peace Building
For over five decades, Naga society has been a witness to violent conflict. Insurgency has taken a
heavy toll on society as a whole. Frequently, the women had to face the brunt of violence by
being forced into a situation where they had to take care of the families single-handed in the
absence of male members, either falling prey to violence or going underground for years. This
extraordinary situation stunted their emotional and psychological growth. The survival, health
and growth of the society were almost entirely entrusted to their care, in the midst of
environment not conducive to normal living. There has been no proper documentation on Naga
womens experiences and needs during the conflict period. Thus, the value of their experiences
and their relevance to the society and the State are yet to be compiled and assessed. The
contribution of Naga women to peace building has been multidimensional. They havebeen
preparing for life in peace based on shared compassion and empathy within and across the
society. The first steps have been to take stock of social and economic resource bases and
addressing structural issues, including womens rights in order to help establish peace and
stability. To this, they have integrated development, encouraging gainful employment for youth
in order to develop a just and productive society.
Nagaland is addressing the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic with resolve and responsibility. A
cause for great concern is the spread of AIDS from mother to child. Between 1999 and 2002,
antenatal screening of mothers showed a persistent prevalence rate of 1.25 percent. This requires
targeted education and intervention as well as specialised obstetric and paediatric services. The
NMA recognised the need to help those afflicted by drug addiction and decided to set up a de-
addiction-cum-rehabilitation centre for them. Thus, on February 12, 1989, the Mount Gilead
Home, in Zubza, Kohima, was inaugurated as one of the first de-addiction-cum-rehabilitation
centres in the North East. Its counsellors and recovering addicts became active apostles in
spreading awareness in the State. The NMA later set up Cradles Ridge, an AIDS Care Hospice,
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to look after the body, mind and spirit of the victims and to provide them with a dignified life.
The emphasis shifted from cure to care. The NMAs HIV/AIDS Care Hospice (community
residential care) was dedicated in 2001 as a 10-bedded facility. The Times of India survey on
social indicators, taken by womens groups all over India, reported that the NMAs role was an
excellent exampleof producing positive results in fighting against drugs in North-East India.
Courtesy: Naga Mothers Associationpartnership with the community to take care of people
living with AIDS. The classic example of dedicated community-based care is the Eleutheros
Christian Society.
Empowerment of women will be vital as Nagaland marches towards its vision of a peaceful,
developed and secure society. New opportunities are coming the way of Naga women through
education, policy interventions in governance, economic development and greater interaction
within and outside the State. The focus must now shift to development of the human being in its
totality, and enabling each one to realise his/her highest potentials. Some areas of possible
intervention include:
- More focus on improving literacy rates and vocationalisation of education.
- Provision of life skills and health education to young girls.
- Building knowledge and information base on women and issues connected with them in
the State.
- Research studies on womens issues and special needs in the context of Nagaland.
- Initiate institute of excellence on Naga womens issues with a view to making
- Provision of health education particularly in reproductive and child health & HIV/AIDS.
- Improve womens access to antenatal, natal and postnatal care.
- Create greater awareness on reproductive health through special campaigns and health
awareness days.
Income and Livelihood
- Ensure opportunity and build capacity of women to enjoy secure livelihoods.
- Encourage poverty alleviation and income generating activities.
- Encourage entrepreneurship development.
- Access to micro-credit: women also need to be trained to access credit and to form self-
help groups as well as generate micro-credit on their own.
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- Ensure greater access and equal land rights to women.Crime Against Women
Inspiring Leadership
Introduce gender sensitisation modules in educational institutions for both boys and girls.
Criminal cases involving women should be dealt with by women police force. For this a
special womens cell should be attached to all the district police headquarters.
Affirmative action, through reservations, for women judges should be explored. This will
make the law enforcing machinery more gendersensitive. Governance
Spread awareness and education about importance of womens participation.
Strengthen leadership of women at all levels.
Leverage/Lobby political and financial support for women.
Forge new partnerships with Government, NGOs/private sector and womens
Introduce innovative approaches for womens empowerment and gender mainstreaming.
Create support structures for womens development and facilitate networking.
Explore possibilities of reservation for women candidates to kickstart their participation
in democratic political institutions at all levels of governance

- Source: Jacobs, Juliana; The NagasHill People of North East India, 1990.
- Nagaland State Human Development Report.
- The Global Human Development Report 2003.
- Report from The Rural Development and Social Welfare: Govt. of Nagaland.
- Report from The State & District Urban Development Agencies: Govt. of Nagaland.

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Feminism - Conceptual and Ethical Issues-Merina Islam

About the Book : The book Feminism: Conceptual and Ethical Issues presents what moral
reasoning and gender and how the feminist thinkers construct different sets of feminist values. In
this book attempt is made to revaluate the ontological and axiological commitments underlying the
patriarchal discourses from the feminist perspectives and cover a variety of contemporary gender
related moral issues. The book ends with favour of the contention that our understanding of moral
situation becomes definitely better if it is gender sensitized, that is, an ethical theory which
generates nonsexist ethical principles, policies, and practices for both females and males.
About the Author: Merina Islam (b. 1977) is an Assistant Professor in Philosophy at Cachar
College, Silchar Assam. She was the best Arts Graduate (Honours in Philosophy) in the year 1999
and awarded Gold Medal for that. She stood 1st class 1st in M.A in Philosophy in 2001 and awarded
Gold Medal by Assam University, Silchar. Then she qualified NET. She was awarded Doctoral
Research Fellowship, Indian Council for Social Science Research, New Delhi. She has participated
several seminars, conferences, and contributed research papers in different journal on philosophy
and interdisciplinary studies. She is one of the active members of Society for Positive Philosophy
and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS) Haryana and associate editor of Milestone Education Review
(The Journal of Ideas on Educational & Social Transformation) an online peer-reviewed bi-annual
journal of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa (Kurukshetra).
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), p.96
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World Philosophy Day-2013
World Philosophy Day was proclaimed by UNESCO to be celebrated every third Thursday
of November. It was first celebrated on 21 November 2002. World Philosophy Day is
celebrated by the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization) to honor the philosophical reflections and works of philosophy by people
around the world, through ages. On this day people are to share thoughts, discuss and
explore new ideas and focus on the challenges that our society is facing today. This year
World Philosophy Day is being celebrated on November 21, 2013. The Centre for Positive
Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) in association with the Department
of Philosophy going to celebrates the World Philosophy Day through an essay-cum-
presentation competition for students. The details are given below:
Theme: Indian Society and Ideological Crisis
Subthemes: Students can choose any topic reflecting on the theme.
Eligibility: Undergraduate student from any stream.

Last Date of Submission: 15
November, 2013.
Presentation: 21
November, 2013.

Procedure: First students have to submit an essay about 1000 words, neatly written or
typed in Hindi or English language, reached us till 15
November, 2013 or email to
cppiskkr@gmail.com. In the second stage selected essays will be presented on the event

Benefits of Participation:
Selected candidate will be provided a merit certificate with a prize and essay will be
published in an online publication of the Centre.

For further details contact:
Dr Desh Raj Sirswal
Department of Philosophy,
P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh (India)
Contact Number-09896848775, 08288883993
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), pp.97-98
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October, 2013
Dear Friends,
Greetings from SPPIS Haryana and welcome new members. Here are some updates:
Call for Paper:Intellection
De-colonising the Mind; De-westernising the Soul
World Philosophy Day-2013
International Conference on Ethics
5th PIMG International Conference
10th International Conference of Management and Behavioural Sciences
International Education Conference
Symposium on Creative Education
Philosophy Talk
Assistant Professor Philosophy
ICSSR National Seminar
International Conference on The Asiatick Society, Indology and Indologists During
late 18th and 19th Centuries (ASII)
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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume III, No. 02 (September, 2013), p.99

Mrs. Sandhya Gupta, Lecturer-II , Dept.of Ethics & Governance , School of Social Sciences,
College of Humanities & Education , Fiji National University (Natabua Campus) | Lautoka.

Dr. Jitendra R. Ranka, Mahaveer Bal Mandir, Pali, Rajasthan.

Dr. Mane Pradeepkumar Pandurang, Department of Philosophy, University of Pune,
Ganeshkhind, Pune (Maharashtra).

Mr. Devartha Morang, Research Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India.
Dr. Prabhu Venkataraman, Assistant Professor (Philosophy), Department of Humanities
and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India
Mr. Kaizar Rahaman, Ex-Research Fellow-ICPR,NBU, Department of Philosophy, Ananda
Chandra College,Jalpaiguri.
Dr. Siddhartha Shankar Joarder, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy,
Jagannath University, Dhaka (Bangladesh).
Ms. Viswaja S.Nair, Research Scholar, Department. of Vyakarana, SSUS Kalady, Kerala.
Dr.Preet Kumari, Lecturer, Department of Psychology,Dayalbagh Educational Institute
Dayalbagh, Agra.
Ms.Gargi Sharma, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Dayalbagh Educational
Institute Dayalbagh, Agra.
Ms.Swami Pyari, Student. Department of Psychology,Dayalbagh Educational Institute
Dayalbagh, Agra.
Ms. Umang Verma, Student. Department of Psychology, Dayalbagh Educational Institute
Dayalbagh, Agra.
Dr. Jyoti George Roy, Vice-Principal and Reader, Department of English, Patkai Christian
College (Autonomous), Dimapur (Nagaland).
Dr. Sanjay Chhabra, Principal, Unity College, Dimapur (Nagaland).

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Instructions to the Contributors
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) welcomes contributions in all areas of
research proposed by the Centre. All articles are sent to experts who evaluate each paper on
several dimensions such as originality of the work, scientific argument, and English style,
format of the paper, references, citations and finally they comment on suitability of the article
for the particular Journal. In case of review articles the importance of the subject and the extent
the review is comprehensive are assessed. Prospective authors are expected that before
submitting any article for publication they should see that it fulfills these criteria. The
improvement of article may be achieved in two ways (i) more attention to language (ii) more
attention to the sections of the article.
Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with
12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003-07 and
between 3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced with
ample margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a certificate of
originality of the paper to be sent to the editorial address.
Time Line: The last dates of submission of the manuscript are as follows:
For April to September Issue: 31
August every year.
For October to March Issue: 31
January every year.
Reference Style:
Notes and references should appear at the end of the articles as Notes. Citations in the text and
References must correspond to each other; do not over reference by giving the obvious/old
classic studies or the irrelevant. Give all journal titles in full and not in an abbreviated form,
LJPP follows APA format for references. The following style of reference may be strictly

In case of Journal: Venkona Rao,A.(1980) Gita and mental sciences. Indian Journal of Psyhiatry, 22,
In case of a Book: McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York: Random House,
Chapter in an Edited Book: Hartley, J. T., Harker J. O.,& Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and
new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the
1980s:Psychological issues . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association,250-253.

For unpublished work: Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic Speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of
collegiate hate speech codes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 1999),54-55.

In case of institution/Govt. Report: Administration on Aging. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook
(DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 65.

For detailed reference-style sheet follow our CPPIS Manual for Contributors & Reviewers
available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
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CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies(CPPIS) Pehowa is a joint
academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and Society for
Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana (online) to do
fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences.
SPPIS Newsletter
The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information related to
events, new articles and programme details. One can register himself on the below
given address and will get regular updates from us.
Link for registration: http://drsirswal.webs.com/apps/auth/signup
All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to
be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal,
Chief-Editor, Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy,
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS),
Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharamshala, Pehowa,
Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India)
Mobile No.09896848775, 08288883993
E-mail: cppiskkr@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com
Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

My objective is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems,
and not to solve specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of
what it is when we philosophise.- Dr Desh Raj Sirswal