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Introduction: A polymer /plmr/[2][3] is a large molecule composed of many repeated

subunits, known as monomers. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene (orstyrofoam) to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word (polus, meaning "many, much") and (meros, meaning "parts"), and refers to a moleculewhose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties.[6] The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.[7] The term was coined in 1833 by Jns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Historically, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging important areas of the science now focus on non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber and the polystyrene of styrofoam are examples of polymeric natural/biological and synthetic polymers, respectively. In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromoleculesi.e., proteins (polyamides), nucleic acids (polynucleotides), and polysaccharidesare purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric componentse.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecule and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.

General overview:Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of
view they can be classified into four main categories: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers and synthetic fibers. They are found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as money, super glue, etc. A wide variety of synthetic polymers are available with variations in main chain as well as side chains. The back bones of common synthetic polymers such as polythene and polystyrene, poly acrylates are made up of carbon-carbon bonds, whereas hetero chain polymers such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes polysulfides and polycarbonates have other elements (e.g. oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen) inserted along the backbone. Also silicon form familiar materials such as silicones through siloxane linkages, which does not have any carbon atoms and is said to be aninorganic polymer. Coordination polymers may contain a range of metals in the backbone, with non-covalent bonding present. Some familiar house-hold synthetic polymers include Nylons in textiles and fabrics, Teflon in non-stick pans, Bakelite for electrical switches, polyvinyl chloride in pipes, etc. The common PET bottles are made of a synthetic polymer, polyethylene terephthalate. The

plastic kits and covers are mostly made of synthetic polymers like polythene and tires are manufactured from Buna rubbers.[1] However, due to the environmental issues created by these synthetic polymers which are mostly non-biodegradable and often synthesized from petroleum, alternatives like bioplasticsare also being considered. But they are expensive when compared to the synthetic polymers.

BAKELITE-Phenol formaldehyde resins:


Introduction:Bakelite (/beklat/ BAY-k-lyt), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from an elimination reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It was developed by Belgian-born chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907. One of the first plastics made from synthetic components, Bakelite was used for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators, radio and telephone casings, and such diverse products as kitchenware, jewelry, pipe stems, and children's toys. Bakelite was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in 1993 by the American Chemical Society in recognition of its significance as the world's first synthetic plastic.[1] The "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible. Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Phenolic resins are mainly used in the production of circuit boards. They are better known however for the production of molded products including pool balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. In the form of Bakelite, they are the earliest commercial synthetic resin
STRUCTURE:

Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed. Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomers, the concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH. Phenol reacts with formaldehyde at the ortho and para sites (sites 2, 4 and 6) allowing up to 3 units of formaldehyde to attach to the ring. The initial reaction in all cases involves the formation of a hydroxymethyl phenol: HOC6H5 + CH2O HOC6H4CH2OH The hydroxymethyl group is capable of reacting with either another free ortho or para site, or with another hydroxymethyl group. The first reaction gives a methylene bridge, and the second forms an ether bridge: HOC6H4CH2OH + HOC6H5 (HOC6H4)2CH2 + H2O The diphenol (HOC6H4)2CH2 (sometimes called a "dimer") is called bisphenol F, which is an important monomer in the production of epoxy resins. Bisphenol-F can further link generating tri- and tetra-and higher phenol oligomers. 2 HOC6H4CH2OH (HOC6H4CH2)2O + H2O

Application and usage:In its industrial applications, Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance not only to electricity, but to heat and chemical action. It was soon used for all nonconducting parts of radios and other electrical devices, such as bases and sockets for light bulbs and vacuum tubes, supports for electrical components, automobile distributor caps and other insulators. Bakelite is used today for wire insulation, brake pads and related automotive components, and industrial electrical-related applications. In the early 20th Century, it was found in myriad applications including saxophone mouthpieces, whistles, cameras, solid-body electric guitars, telephonehousings and handsets, early machine guns, pistol grips, and appliance casings. In the pure form it was made into such articles as pipe stems, buttons, etc. The thermosetting phenolic resin was at one point considered for the manufacture of coins, due to a shortage of traditional material; in 1943, Bakelite and other non-metal materials were tested for usage for the one cent coin in the US before the Mint settled on zinc-coated steel. Characteristics:In Phenol formaldehyde wide range of molding powders is available in which the composition of the resin, fillers etc is varied to provide mouldings suitable for many purposes. Here compression and transfer processes commonly used. The phenolic resinspolarisability is 10-24cm3 and Enthalpy of vaporization is 43.52 kJ/mol. Its polar surface area is 9.23 2 .It has 1 H bond donor and 1 H bond acceptor. 72.5 C is its flash point, 181.8 C at 760 mmHg its boiling point and 0.614 mmHg at 25C is its vapor pressure. Phenolic resin has the colour is Resin itself tends to be amber-colored. It has Wide variation depending on fillers and nature of resin. It is Smooth and has lustrous surface. Usually it seems hard and rigid, with good dimensional stability. It may be brittle in thin sections with low impact strength. It is very easy to mould. Phenolic resin has Retain properties at freezing temperatures. The phenol formaldehyde have Improved strength and dimensional stability and Improved impact resistance and also cast resins. Its color is good normally transparent and may be colorless It is good dimensional stability on heating up to about 300 degree F Poor conductors of heat , so that handles of pans etc stay cool to touch. It can burn only with difficulty. Age of phenolic resin is negligible deterioration. Electrical if we will verify then it is good electrical insulators, Laminated Plastics. Properties generally related to those of moulded plastics.

Polyethylene terephthalate:
Introduction:Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly
abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, or referred to by the brand name Dacron, is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. The term polyethylene terephthalateis a source of confusion because this substance, PET, does not contain polyethylene. Thus, the alternate form, poly(ethylene terephthalate), is often used in scholarly journals for the sake of accuracy and clarity. Depending on its processing and thermal history, polyethylene terephthalate may exist both as an amorphous (transparent) and as a semi-crystalline polymer. The semicrystalline material might appear transparent (particle size < 500 nm) or opaque and white (particle size up to a few microns) depending on its crystal structure and particle size. Its monomer (bis--hydroxyterephthalate) can be synthesized by the esterificationreaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a byproduct, or by transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol anddimethyl terephthalate with methanol as a byproduct. Polymerization is through a polycondensation reaction of the monomers (done immediately after esterification/transesterification) with water as the byproduct.

Structure: Polyethylene terephthalate is produced from ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate (C6H4(CO2CH3)2) or terephthalic acid.[9] The former is a transesterification reaction, whereas the latter is an esterification reaction. Dimethyl terephthalate process. In dimethyl terephthalate process, this compound and excess ethylene glycol are reacted in the melt at 150200 C with a basic catalyst. Methanol (CH3OH) is removed by distillation to drive the reaction forward. Excess ethylene glycol is distilled off at higher temperature with the aid of vacuum. The second transesterification step proceeds at 270280 C, with continuous distillation of ethylene glycol as well.[9] The reactions are idealized as follows: First step C6H4(CO2CH3)2 + 2 HOCH2CH2OH C6H4(CO2CH2CH2OH)2 + 2 CH3OH Second step n C6H4(CO2CH2CH2OH)2 *(CO)C6H4(CO2CH2CH2O)]n + n HOCH2CH2OH Terephthalic acid process. In the terephthalic acid process, esterification of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid is conducted directly at moderate pressure (2.75.5 bar) and high temperature (220260 C). Water is eliminated in the reaction, and it is also continuously removed by distillation:[9] n C6H4(CO2H)2 + n HOCH2CH2OH *(CO)C6H4(CO2CH2CH2O)]n + 2n H2O

Application:Because PET is an excellent barrier material, plastic bottles made from PET are widely
used for soft drinks (see carbonation). For certain specialty bottles, PET sandwiches an additionalpolyvinyl alcohol layer to further reduce its oxygen permeability. Biaxially oriented PET film (often known by one of its trade names, "Mylar") can be aluminized by evaporating a thin film of metal onto it to reduce its permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque (MPET). These properties are useful in many applications, including flexible food packaging and thermal insulation such as "space blankets". Because of its high mechanical strength, PET film is often used in tape applications, such as the carrier for magnetic tape or backing for pressure sensitive adhesive tapes. Non-oriented PET sheet can be thermoformed to make packaging trays and blisters. If crystallizable PET is used, the trays can be used for frozen dinners, since they withstand both freezing and oven baking temperatures. When filled with glass particles or fibers, it becomes significantly stiffer and more durable. PET is also used as substrate in thin film and solar cell. These bottles if placed in direct sunlight they can withstand there for a very long time(five years approx)..As the time passes these bottles become opaque.

Characterstics:PET in its natural state is a colorless, semi-crystalline resin. Based on how it is


processed, PET can be semi-rigid to rigid, and it is very lightweight. It makes a good gas and fair moisture barrier, as well as a good barrier to alcohol (requires additional "barrier" treatment) and solvents. It is strong andimpact-resistant. PET becomes white when exposed to chloroform and also certain other chemicals such as toluene. About 60% crystallization is the upper limit for commercial products, with the exception of polyester fibers. Clear products can be produced by rapidly cooling molten polymer below T g glass transition temperature to form an amorphous solid. Like glass, amorphous PET forms when its molecules are not given enough time to arrange themselves in an orderly, crystalline fashion as the melt is cooled. At room temperature the molecules are frozen in place, but, if enough heat energy is put back into them by heating above Tg, they begin to move again, allowing crystals to nucleate and grow. This procedure is known as solid-state crystallization. When allowed to cool slowly, the molten polymer forms a more crystalline material. This material has spherulites containing many small crystalliteswhen crystallized from an amorphous solid, rather than forming one large single crystal. Light tends to scatter as it crosses the boundaries between crystallites and the amorphous regions between them. This scattering means that crystalline PET is opaque and white in most cases. Fiber drawing is among the few industrial processes that produce a nearly singlecrystal product.

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE
Introduction:Poly(vinyl chloride), commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely
produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is used inconstruction because it is more effective than traditional materials such as copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in clothing and upholstery, electrical cable insulation, inflatable products and [5] many applications in which it replaces rubber. Pure poly(vinyl chloride) is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol, but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.
[4]

Structure: Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride (VCM), as
shown. About 80% of production involves suspension polymerization. Emulsion polymerization accounts for about 12% and bulk polymerization accounts for 8%. Suspension polymerizations affords particles with average diameters of 100 180 m, whereas emulsion polymerization gives much smaller particles of average size around 0.2 m. VCM and water are introduced into the reactor and a polymerizatio n initiator, along with other additives. The reaction vessel is pressure tight to contain the VCM. The contents of the reaction vessel are continually mixed to maintain the suspension and ensure a uniform particle size of the PVC resin. The reaction is exothermic, and thus requires cooling. As the volume is reduced during the reaction (PVC is denser than VCM), water is continually added to the mixture to maintain the suspension.

Application:PVC's relatively low cost, biological and chemical resistance and workability have resulted in
it being used for a wide variety of applications. It is used for sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where cost or vulnerability to corrosion limit the use of metal. With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, it has become a popular material for window and door frames. By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator. It has been used in many other applications. PVC demand is likely to increase at an average annual rate of 3.9% over the next

years Electric cables PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electrical cables; PVC used for this purpose needs to be plasticized. In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form hydrogen chloride fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance. Clothing and furniture Black PVC pantsPVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. PVC clothing is common inGoth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. PVC is cheaper than rubber, leather, and latex which it is therefore used to simulate. PVC fabric has a sheen to it and is waterproof so is used in coats, skiing equipment, shoes, jackets, aprons, and bags.

Characterstics:PVC has high hardness and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties enhance
with the molecular weight increasing, but decrease with the temperature increasing. The mechanical properties of rigid PVC (uPVC) is very good, the elastic modulus can reach to 1500-3,000 MPa. The soft PVC (Flexible PVC) elastic is 1.5-15 MPa. However, elongation at break is up to 200% -450%. PVC friction is ordinary, the static friction factor is 0.4-0.5, the dynamic friction factor is 0.23. The heat stability of PVC is very poor, when the temperature reaches 140 C PVC starts to decompose. Its melting temperature is 160 C. The linear expansion coefficient of the PVC is small and has flame retardancy, the oxidation index is up to 45 or more. Therefore, the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product's properties.

Polytetrafluoroethylene
Introduction:(PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
The best known brand name of PTFE is Teflon by DuPont Co. PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction against any solid. PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbonfluorine bonds, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction, wear, and energy consumption of machinery. It is also commonly used as a graft material in surgical interventions. It is commonly believed that Teflon is a spin-off product from the NASA space projects. Though it has [2] been used by NASA, the assumption is incorrect.

Structure:

It is formed by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene: nF2C=CF2 { F2CCF2} Application: PTFE (Teflon) is best known for its use in coating non-stick frying pans and other cookware, as it is hydrophobic and possesses fairly high heat resistance. In industrial applications, owing to its low friction, PTFE is used for applications where sliding action of parts is needed: plain bearings, gears, slide plates, etc. In these applications, it performs significantly better than nylon and acetal; it is comparable to ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene (UHMWPE), although UHMWPE is more resistant to wear than PTFE, for these applications, versions of PTFE with mineral oil or molybdenum disulfide embedded as additional lubricants in its matrix are being manufactured. Its extremely high bulk resistivity makes it an ideal material for fabricating long-life electrets, useful devices that are the electrostatic analogues of magnets. Gore-Tex is a material incorporating a fluoropolymer membrane with micropores. The roof of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis, USA, is one of the largest applications of

PTFE coatings, using 20 acres (81,000 m2) of the material in a double-layered, white dome, made using fiberglass with a PTFE coating. PTFE is also used as a film interface patch for sports and medical applications, featuring a pressure-sensitive adhesive backing, which is installed in strategic high friction areas of footwear, insoles, ankle-foot orthosis, and other medical devices to prevent and relieve frictioninduced blisters, calluses, and foot ulceration. Powdered PTFE is used in pyrotechnic compositions as oxidizers together with powdered metals such as aluminium and magnesium. Upon ignition, these mixtures form carbonaceous soot and the corresponding metal fluoride, and release large amounts of heat. Hence they are used as infrared decoy flares and igniters for solid-fuel rocket propellants.

Characterstics:PTFE is a thermoplastic polymer, which is a white solid at room temperature, with a


density of about 2200 kg/m . According to DuPont, its melting point is 600 K (327 C; 620 F). Its [13] mechanical properties degrade gradually at temperatures above 194 K (79 C; 110 F). PTFE gains its properties from the aggregate effect of carbon-fluorine bonds, as do all fluorocarbons. The only chemicals known to affect these carbon-fluorine bonds are certain alkali metals and most highly reactive fluorinating agents.The coefficient of friction of plastics is usually measured against polished [18] [12] steel. PTFE's coefficient of friction is 0.05 to 0.10, which is the third-lowest of any known solid material (BAM being the first, with a coefficient of friction of 0.02; diamond-like carbon being secondlowest at 0.05). PTFE's resistance to van der Waals forces means that it is the only known surface to [19] which agecko cannot stick. PTFE has excellent dielectric properties. This is especially true at high radio frequencies, making it suitable for use as an insulator in cables and connector assemblies and as a material forprinted circuit boards used at microwave frequencies. Combined with its high melting temperature, this makes it the material of choice as a high-performance substitute for the weaker and lower melting point polyethylene that is commonly used in low-cost applications.
3 [12]

Polyphosphazenes
Introduction: include a wide range of hybrid inorganic-organic polymers with a number of
different skeletal architectures that contain alternatingphosphorus and nitrogen atoms. Nearly all of these molecules contain two organic or organometallic side groups attached to each phosphorus atom. 1 2 1 2 These include linear polymers with the formula (N=PR R )n, where R and R are organic or organometallic side groups. The linear polymers are the largest group, with the general structure shown schematically in the picture. Other known architectures are cyclolinear and cyclomatrix polymers in which small phosphazene rings are connected together by organic chain units. Other architectures are available, such as block copolymer, star,dendritic, or comb-type structures. More than 700 different polyphosphazenes are known, with different side groups (R) and different molecular architectures. Many of these polymers were first synthesized and studied in the research group of Harry R. Allcock at The Pennsylvania State University
[1]

Structure:Cyclomatrix type polymers made by linking small molecule phosphazene rings together employ
difunctional organic reagents to replace the chlorine atoms in (NPCl2)3, or the introduction [13] of allylor vinyl substituents, which are then polymerized by free-radical methods. Such polymers may be useful as coatings or thermosetting resins, often prized for their thermal stability. The method of synthesis depends on the type of polyphosphazene. The most widely used method for [1][2][3][4] linear polymers is based on a two-step process. In the first step a cyclic small molecule phosphazene, known as hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, with the formula (NPCl2)3, is heated in a sealed system at 250 C to convert it to a long chain linear polymer with typically 15,000 or more repeating units. In the second step the chlorine atoms linked to phosphorus in the polymer are replaced by organic groups through reactions with alkoxides, aryloxides, amines ororganometallic reagents. Because many different reagents can participate in this macromolecular substitution reaction, and because two or more different reagents may be used, a large number of different polymers can be produced, each with a different combination of properties. Characterstics:The linear high polymers have the geometry shown in the picture. More than 700 different macromolecules that correspond to this structure are known with different side groups or combinations of different side groups. In these polymers the properties are controlled partly by the high flexibility of the backbone, its radiation resistance, high refractive index, ultraviolet and visible transparency, and its fire resistance. However, the side groups exert an equal or even greater influence on the properties since they impart properties such as hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, color, useful biological properties such as bioerodibility, or ion transport properties to the polymers. Representative examples of these polymers are shown below.

Application:The first large-scale commercial uses for linear polyphosphazenes were in the field of high
technology elastomers, with a typical example containing a combination of trifluoroethoxy and longer [14][15][16][17] chain fluoroalkoxy groups. The mixture of two different side groups eliminates the crystallinity found in single-substituent polymers and allows the inherent flexibility and elasticity to become manifest. Glass transition temperatures as low as -60 C are attainable, and properties such as oil-resistance and hydrophobicity are responsible for their utility in land vehicles andaerospace components. They have also been used in biostable biomedical devices. Water-soluble poly(organophosphazenes) with oligo-ethyleneoxy side chains can be crosslinked by gamma-radiation techniques. The cross-linked polymers absorb water to form hydrogels which are responsive to temperature changes, expanding to a limit defined by the cross-link density below a critical solution temperature, but contracting above that temperature. This is the basis of controlled

permeability membranes. Other polymers with both oligo-ethyleneoxy and carboxyphenoxy side groups expand in the presence of monovalent cations but contract in the presence of di- or tri-valentcations, [25][26][27][28][29] which form ionic cross-links. Phosphazene hydrogels have been utilized for controlled drug [ release and other medical applications.