Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

Introduction to Low Frequency Electromagnetics Simulation

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Olivier Roll Application Engineer ANSYS France

Electromechanical Design Flow


Q3D
Parasitics

Simplorer
System Design
IA
A

RMxprt
Motor Design
J

PMSYNC IB
A ICA:

Torque
A
D2D

IC
A

PP := 6

GAIN

ANSYS CFD
PExprt
Magnetics

ANSYS Mechanical
Thermal/Stress

Maxwell 2D/3D
Electromagnetic Components
Model order Reduction Co-simulation Field Solution Model Generation

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Electromechanical (EM) Applications

Definitions
3 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

EM Application Definitions Electrical Machine


Electromechanical devices converting - Electrical power to mechanical power as motor - Mechanical power to electrical power as generator

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

EM Application Definitions Magnetic Actuators


Electromechanical devices that use magnetic field to produce motion - Hydraulic valves (airplanes, cars, robots, etc.) - Fuel injectors in engines - Biomedical prosthesis devices - Head positioners for computer disk drives - Loudspeakers

Solenoid
5 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Relay

EM Application Definitions Magnetic Sensors


Electromechanical devices that use magnetic field to sense motion - Proximity sensors to determine the presence of conducting objects - Microphones that sense air motion - Linear variable-differential transformers to determine the object position - Velocity sensors for antilock brakes and stability control - Hall effect positions

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

EM Application Definitions Transformers


Electromechanical device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

EM Application Definitions Semiconductors


Devices
A semiconductor is a material that has an electrical conductivity between that of a conductor and an insulator. Devices made from semiconductor materials are the foundation of modern electronics, including radio, computers, telephones, power conversion devices (converters, inverters, etc.)

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Maxwell
Finite Element Solvers (3D/2D)

Transient with Motion Eddy Current DC Magnetic Electrostatic

Coupled Drive & Control Circuit Equivalent Circuit Generation Parametric/Optimization

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Maxwells Approach
Edge element Nodal element

One type of elements

One formulation per solver

All solid objects are meshed

Adaptive Meshing to back-up slave master

10

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Maxwell Auto-Adaptive Meshing


Initial
Geometry (no mesh data)

Create Initial Mesh

Calculate Field

Calculate Field Accuracy

Final
No Refine Mesh

Error Acceptable?

Yes

Postprocess

11

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Example: Team Problem #20

Small Air Gaps

12

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Automatic Adaptive Meshing


Measured

13

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Comparison to Measurement

Measured

14

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Modeling Capabilities

Equation-based polylines

Equationbased surfaces

Fillet and Chamfer

16

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Import / Export

Imports .sm2 .gds .sm3 .sat .step .iges .dwg .sld .geo .stl .dxf, CATpart, .NAS Exports directly .sat, .dxf, .sm3, .sm2
17 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Specific Capabilities

18

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

3D Eddy Current High Order Elements


Coil

Plate

Mesh on the plate

Induced eddy current Zero order vector shape functions


19 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Induced eddy current First order vector shape functions

Higher Capacity Solver Capabilities


Significant memory saving Allow to solve large problem

PCG Iterative Solver

Develop good pre-conditioners to get efficient speed performance Example: Team Workshop Problem #8
Eddy-Current Problem

64 bit machine (2.83 GHz,16.0 GB of RAM)


Residual tolerance 0.00001
Mesh (volume, adaptive) 00:19:26 00:19:26 2.9 G 3,665,594 tetrahedra Iterative Solver 02:44:37 02:44:19 13.5 G 5,308,396 matrix Adapt 01:43:22 01:43:19 13.5 G 3,665,594 tetrahedra

20

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Demagnetization / Magnetization
3rd Quadrant Demagnetization
Load line without other sources
Load line with other sources

1st Quadrant Magnetization


B Line a Based on the original non-remnant B-H curve Line b Construct line b at the operating point p, which is parallel to the line a Br is the intersection of line b with B-axis 0

Initial Br Br after demag

Br

0
Hc after demagnetization

Element by element

Demagnetization point

Expand the existing algorithm to the 3rd quadrant for demag computation Base on the actual user-input B-H curve in the 3rd quadrant Element by element

Functional Vector Magnetization


Allow functional unit vector magnetization

21

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Dynamic Demagnetization Generator Fault Example


550 W PM generator, 4 pole, 3 phase, 50 Hz AC, ceramic 8D PM Rated speed, open- to short-circuit fault Leading edge is weakened significantly

Original

Fault

22

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Core Loss Parameter Extraction from Multi-Frequency Loss Curves


1. Select Electrical Steel or Power Ferrite 3. Automatically update

2. Select Core Loss versus Frequency


23 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Core Loss Field Effects of Laminated Materials


Core loss computation including hysteresis loss with minor loop Based on dB/dt instead of f Can have impact on torque to match power balance

24

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Maxwell Double Armature Motion


Two Bands in Transient Two independently moving objects Rotational and/or translational Hybrid drive applications Magnetic gearboxes, ...
Stator
Rotor I

Rotor II
25 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Enhanced Boundary Capabilities


Automatically connect two parts of a winding separated by matching boundary

Automatically identify 3D coil terminal counterparts and connect them together


26 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Nodal Force Computation

Applicable to both local and global force Virtual work method with single field computation Using shell element Allow force-computing objects to directly touch non-forcecomputing objects

27

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Example of application

28

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Electromechanical Design Flow


Q3D
Parasitics

Simplorer
System Design
IA
A

RMxprt
Motor Design
J

PMSYNC IB
A ICA:

Torque
A
D2D

IC
A

PP := 6

GAIN

ANSYS CFD
PExprt
Magnetics

ANSYS Mechanical
Thermal/Stress

Maxwell 2D/3D
Electromagnetic Components
Model order Reduction Co-simulation Field Solution Model Generation

29

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Maxwell Multiphysics Integration Thermal/Mechanical Load Transfer

Losses Maxwell

Temperature

Geometry Workbench DM Maxwell UDP


30 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Centroids Workbench Mesher

Mapped Losses ANSYS CFD

Multiphysics Coupling through WB


Maxwell 3D provide volume/surface forces to ANSYS Structural Solver improvements
Surface forces are supported
Thermal-Stress with Electromagnetic Force load

The electromagnetic force density from Maxwell is used as load in Structural


31 2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

Deformation of the stator

Thermal deformation of the rotor

Coupling between Maxwell and Fluent


Induction heating example
The coupling is straightforward and allow the engineer to work like they usually do. The mesh are independent between Maxwell and Fluent. The Electromagnetic specialist can start the WorkBench project by creating and doing the simulation of the Electromagnetic part. Once it is done, the CFD specialist will add the Fluent simulation to the WorkBench project, prepare his CFD analysis like he usually do and simply create the link to use the Maxwell simulation as source for his CFD simulation.

Design simulated in Maxwell


32 2011 ANSYS, Inc.

Results in Maxwell
June 24, 2013

Losses mapped in Fluent

Thermal results obtained in Fluent

Maxwell Simplorer System Simulation


Wireless power transfer

THREE_PHASE1 D5 D7 D9

IGBT1

D1

IGBT3

D3

3PHAS
A * sin (2 * pi * f * t + PHI + phi_u)

WM1

WM2 Cs R1 Current_1:src Current_2:src 1.72uF 7.2mOhm Current_1:snk Current_2:snk 3.6mOhm R2

+
W

+
W
D11 D13 Rload 13ohm

~ ~ ~

PHI = 0

PHI = -120

Cp 4.96uF

C2 1uF D12 D14

C1
PHI = -240

1000uF IGBT2 D6 D8 D10 D2 IGBT4 D4

+
Battery

LBATT_A1

AC400V
ICA: FML_INIT1

Rectify
0 TRANS1 STATE_11_1

Wireless Power Transformer Inverter


PWR_Probe1 TRANS2 STATE_11_2
PWR Probe

Battery
Curve Info WM1.V TR WM2.V TR

rms 281.0066 321.9453

700.00

200.00

Modulation_Index:=0 Carrier_Freq:=20k Frequency:=20k Dead_Time:=2u DC_Source:=400 SINE1 TRANS4 AMPL=Modulation_Index FREQ=Frequency

PWR_Probe2 SET: TSV4:=1 SET: TSV3:=0 SET: TSV2:=0 SET: TSV1:=1 SINE1.VAL < TRIANG1.VAL SET: TSV4:=0 SET: TSV3:=0 DT1 SET: TSV2:=0 SET: TSV1:=0 DEL: DT1##Dead_Time TRANS3 STATE_11_3
PWR Probe

Y1 [V]
-300.00 -800.00 2.00 2.20 2.40 Time [ms] 2.60 2.80 3.00 150.00

STATE_11_4

Controller

TRIANG1 DT4 SET: TSV4:=0 SINE1.VAL > TRIANG1.VAL SET: TSV3:=0 SET: TSV2:=0 SET: TSV1:=0 DEL: DT4##Dead_Time SET: TSV4:=0 SET: TSV3:=1 SET: TSV2:=1 SET: TSV1:=0

AMPL=1 FREQ=Carrier_Freq

Curve Info WM1.I TR

rms 41.6165 34.8648

250.00

Curve Info WM1.I TR

873.02 Y Axis rms


Y1 Y1 Y2 Y2 38.9542

100.00
TR

WM2.I

125.00

WM2.I TR WM1.V TR

500.00
34.1140

50.00

Y1 [A]

Y2 [V]

276.0822

Y1 [A]

0.00 -40.2840 -64.8250 -408.7847 -125.00 -315.0105 -319.5653

-0.0037 -53.6971 -377.1247


TR

WM2.V

0.00

0.00

316.6292

-50.00

-500.00
-100.00

-250.00

2.900

2.925 MX1: 2.9200

2.950 Time [ms] 0.0610

2.975

3.000

-1000.00
-150.00

MX2: 2.9811

2.00

2.20

2.40

Time [ms]

2.60

2.80

3.00

33

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Example: Co-Simulation Magnetic Pneumatic Force Coupling


S1

Maxwell Cosimulation
R1 T1 T4

SM_TRB1

smpl_lift

CTRL=S1

F_mag E1 D1 F_Plunger

F_TRB2

F
F_spring

cfd_force

T3

T2

0 MASS_TRB1
Id e a l

STOP

F_TRB1

SPRING_TRB1 C=333

FLUENT Cosimulation

+
VALUE=0.185mm

Simplorer Schematic
0.06 500.00 0.05 400.00 0.04 300.00
Coil Current [A] Position [um]

F
LOWER_LIM=0.01mm S_TRB1 UPPER_LIM=0.195mm 0 0

Transient Switching with CFD


Curve Info

V0=0m_per_sec S0=0.5mm M=1gram

02_CoSim_MAgnetic_CFD

ANSOFT

20.00
Y Axis

Current Current Plunger Force Plunger Force Position w. CFD Y3 Position w/o CFD Y3

15.00

10.00 5.00
Plunger Force [newton]

0.03

0.00

200.00

0.02

-5.00 -10.00

100.00

0.01 -15.00

0.00

0.00

34

2013 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

0.00

2.50

5.00

Time [ms] ANSYS Confidential

7.50

10.00

12.50

15.00

-20.00

Specific pre/postprocessing through UDO (User Defined Outputs)

35

2013 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

ANSYS Confidential

Electrical Machines Design Flow


Maxwell2D Toolkit

RMXprt

Maxwell3D

UDOs &Toolkit

Initial Design
36 2012 ANSYS, Inc. June 24, 2013

FE Design

Optimal Design

User Defined Outputs (UDOs)

37

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

Electric Machines Design Toolkit

38

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

39

2013 ANSYS, Inc.

June 24, 2013

ANSYS Confidential

Оценить