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Masoud Karimi-Ghartemani and M. Reza Iravani, Fellow, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents a unified power signal processor (PSP) for use in various applications in power systems. The introduced PSP is capable of providing a large number of signals and pieces of information which are frequently required for control, protection, status evaluation, and power quality monitoring of power systems. The PSP receives a set of locally measured threephase voltage and current signals and provides their fundamental components, amplitudes, phase angles, frequency, harmonics, instantaneous and stationary symmetrical components, active and reactive currents and powers, power factor, and the total harmonic distortion. Simplicity and integrity of its structure as well as its robustness with respect to internal parameters and external disturbances and noise render the proposed scheme very attractive for practical implementations. Index TermsAmplitude detection, frequency estimation, harmonic analysis, phase detection, PLL, power signal processing, reactive current extraction, symmetrical components, synchronization, THD.

I. INTRODUCTION IGNAL processing tools are used for control, protection, status evaluation, and power quality monitoring of power systems [1][10]. In power systems, an ideal voltage or current signal is a pure sinusoidal waveform. However, a typical voltage or current signal is usually distorted by harmonics, subharmonics, dc component, transient signal, and noise. It may also contain uncertainties or nonstationary behavior of parameters such as changes in the central frequency. Well-known signal processing methods have been used for analysis and synthesis of power signals. DFT is a widely used method for harmonic analysis. DFT, which assumes a fixed and known central (fundamental) frequency, suffers from shortcomings such as spectral leakage due to uncertainty in the frequency [11], [12]. DFT is not capable of dealing with an unknown frequency component. It projects such a component into its own presumed frequency components which are integer multiples of a central frequency. Moreover, it is not suitable for transient signals. Attempts have been made to extend DFT to estimate the input frequency, and hence, to provide a full phasor measurement [1], [13], [14]. Wavelet transform (WT) has been developed to overcome some of these shortcomings of DFT. Unlike DFT, WT uses different window lengths for different frequency bands. This makes it more suitable than DFT in many power system applications [15][18].

Many applications require a specific signal to be synthesized to a reference. For example, an active power filter (APF) requires a reference signal which is properly synchronized to the system voltage for harmonic and reactive power compensation. A synchronizing tool, such as a phase-locked loop (PLL), is used in combination with the analysis tool, such as DFT, to provide appropriate signals in these types of applications. In this paper, a new structure for a power signal processor (PSP) is introduced. The PSP is capable of deducing a number of signals from a set of measured voltage and current signals. The core of the PSP is an enhanced PLL (EPLL) system [19]. In addition to extracting the synchronized fundamental component of the input signal, the EPLL provides an estimation of the amplitude, phase angle, and frequency of the fundamental component. The PSP is comprised of an arrangement of a set of such EPLLs which extract principal signals. Other building blocks are included to extract other information and signals. The PSP has a simple structure; its speed and accuracy are readily controlled by a few parameters, and it exhibits a high degree of robustness with respect to changes in its internal parameters and also with respect to external disturbances and noise. Frequency-adaptivity is another main feature of the PSP. These characteristics render the PSP very well suited for practical applications based on hardware and/or software implementation. The paper is organized as following. A brief summary of required signals for control, protection, and status monitoring in power systems is presented in Section II. Section III reviews the basics regarding the EPLL which is used as the core unit of the PSP. Structure of the PSP is explained in Section IV and its building blocks are studied in Section V. Section VI is devoted to some computer simulations. The summary and conclusion are presented in Section VII. II. REQUIRED SIGNALS The parameters and signals required for control, protection, status evaluation, and quality monitoring/enhancement of a power system can be classified as follows. Energy of the constituting components: In a simplified situation, a distorted signal comprises of dc component and higher-order harmonics having a fixed and known central frequency. In a more complicated case, subharmonics are also present, and moreover, the central frequency may be unknown or varying over time. Energy of the signal at each constituting component is required for analysis and quality monitoring of the system. Constituting components: A signal is comprised of different frequency components such as fundamental component and harmonics. In many applications, instantaneous

Manuscript received November 10, 2002. The authors are with the Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada (e-mail: masoud@ele.utoronto.ca; iravani@ecf.utoronto.ca). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2003.817514

KARIMI-GHARTEMANI AND IRAVANI: A SIGNAL PROCESSING MODULE FOR POWER SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

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Fig. 1.

value of a specific component (mostly fundamental) and its basic information such as amplitude, phase, and frequency are required. Reactive Component and Power Factor: They can be used for evaluation or compensation. The value of the reactive current as well as the synthesized reactive current signal are of interest. Symmetrical Components: Stationary symmetrical components are used for the sake of evaluation of the degree of unbalance and also for fault detection. Instantaneous symmetrical components are used for synchronization and also for dynamic unbalance compensation. Disturbances and Transients: Detection and extraction of disturbances and high frequency transients, which frequently occur in power systems, are of great significance. These transients directly relate to the quality of the system and they are widely used to find the source of a failure or to prevent failures in the future. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): THD is an important criterion of the degree of harmonic pollution of a signal. DFT is widely used to calculate THD. Power Components: In a power system, different measures of power like active, reactive, harmonic, and apparent powers are defined and should be calculated based on the information embedded in voltage and current signals. The proposed PSP in this paper is capable of providing the aforementioned signals and information. This renders the PSP a general signal processing module for various applications in power systems. III. ENHANCED PLL SYSTEM The main building block of the PSP is an enhanced PLL system shown in Fig. 1. The major difference of this structure compared to that of the conventional PLL is in the phase detection (PD) mechanism. The conventional PLL estimates the phase difference between input and output signals by multiplying them. The EPLL directly estimates the phase angle of and simultathe input signal. EPLL receives input signal , its fundamental comneously provides its harmonic signal , and the corresponding amplitude , phase angle ponent , and frequency . While maintaining structural simplicity, the EPLL provides these five fundamental signal attributes and, at the same time, exhibits a high degree of robustness with respect to the uncertainties in its internal setting and external disturbances and noise. Speed and accuracy of the

Fig. 2. Block diagram of a typical power system configuration consisting of a source, a load, and the signal processing unit.

EPLL are controlled by means of three parameters , , and . Mathematical properties and performance of the EPLL are examined in [20] and its merits for power system applications are studied in [19]. IV. POWER SIGNAL PROCESSOR (PSP) A simplified power system is shown in Fig. 2. In this typical configuration, the objective is to extract necessary information and signals for the sake of control, protection, status evaluation, or power quality monitoring of the system from the locally measured signals (e.g., current and voltage signals). A signal processing unit is to extract the necessary information. These pieces of data are then forwarded to another unit which is to perform proper control actions or to display proper signals which facilitate monitoring the status of the system. The PSP is envisioned to be an integral part of a controller platform either as a separate or an embedded module. Fig. 3 depicts a schematic diagram of the signal processing unit. For a three-phase system, the unit receives the measured voltage and current signals. Among the outputs of the unit

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are the fundamental components and the corresponding amplitudes, phase angles and frequency, harmonic signals and their corresponding amplitudes, phase angles and frequencies, reactive current signal and its amplitude, instantaneous and stationary symmetrical components, total harmonic distortions, power factor, different powers, etc. Fig. 4 shows the structure of the proposed PSP. This structure is comprised of four parts which can be extended to accommodate more processing. The first part, enhanced PLLs, is comprised of a set of EPLLs for extraction of fundamental components, their basic parameters, and also harmonics. These signals are then forwarded to other parts for further processing. The second part is to extract stationary and instantaneous symmetrical components. THDs, power factor (PF), and different powers are extracted by the third part. The fourth part, reactive processing, of the PSP is to extract reactive current signals and their corresponding information. V. BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE PSP The principal building block of the PSP is the EPLL shown in Fig. 1. A single EPLL is used for every individual signal to extract its harmonic signal, its fundamental component, and the corresponding information of the fundamental component including amplitude, phase angle, and frequency. Every signal can be further analyzed into its constituting components by means of a chain of EPLLs as shown in Fig. 5. The input signal is passed through EPLL (1) which extracts its harmonic signal, fundamental component, amplitude, phase angle, and frequency. The harmonic signal is applied to EPLL (2) which extracts its second frequency component as well as its amplitude, phase angle, and frequency. This process is consecutively continued to EPLL (N) in which the last interested component of the signal is extracted. In the diagram of Fig. 5, the center frequency of EPLL (k) is and its domain of frequency coverage is controlled set at by incorporating a saturation block after the integrating block in its associated loop filter (LF). It is worthwhile noting that

this structure is more general than the conventional DFT-based methods of harmonic analysis since 1) The fundamental component frequency of the input signal is not assumed to be known or fixed. 2) Frequencies of the constituting components are not assumed to be multiple integers of the center frequency. Subharmonics are also covered by this configuration. 3) In addition to the energy of each constituting component of a signal, also the associated phase angle and frequency are simultaneously extracted. 4) The structure is highly robust with respect to noise. The proposed system normally takes more than a single cycle of the fundamental frequency to achieve its steady-state. This is the main drawback of the proposed method compared with DFT in applications which require fast response. However, in many applications, such as power quality monitoring, precision and robustness of the response are more important than the convergence time. Moreover, in some applications such as active power filtering, the slow transient response can be advantageous to soften transient phenomena from the mains point of view [8]. Symmetrical components processing part of the PSP is composed of two parts: instantaneous symmetrical components extraction and stationary symmetrical components extraction. Instantaneous symmetrical components of a set of three-phase signals can be extracted by means of elementary operations on their associated fundamental components. Fig. 6 illustrates a configuration in which these operations are implemented. Three inputs of this unit are the fundamental components which are extracted by the preceding part of the PSP and its three outputs are zero sequence component, real and imaginary parts of the positive sequence component,

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Fig. 9. Extraction of the reactive component of the current, its amplitude, and the phase difference between voltage and current. Fig. 7. Extraction of the instantaneous symmetrical components (alternative definition).

Fig. 10.

Calculation of THD.

respectively. Note that the instantaneous negative sequence component is the complex conjugate of the positive sequence component. This configuration is based on the definition of instantaneous symmetrical components as complex signals [24]. Alternative definition is also presented in the literature which amounts to real instantaneous symmetrical components. In this is considered definition, the complex multiplication by phase shift in the fundamental component [25]. as a The PSP is also capable of accommodating this alternative definition. A block diagram of the corresponding extractor is shown in Fig. 7. All symmetrical components are available through employment of three identical units as shown in Fig. 7. indicates the 90 phase-shifted version of the In Fig. 7, fundamental component which is provided by the EPLL core unit. Stationary symmetrical components are extracted using the basic information of the enhanced PLLs. The configuration of Fig. 8 receives the amplitudes and phase angles which are es-

timated by the EPLLs and provides six outputs which are real and imaginary parts of the zero, positive, and negative sequence components. Stationary symmetrical components are phasors which are defined with respect to a reference for phase angle [26]. It is convenient to choose this reference as the phase angle of phase of the voltage signal. The reactive processing part of the PSP is to extract reactive components of the currents and their amplitudes. A block diagram of this unit is shown in Fig. 9 for a single-phase application. Four input signals of the unit are phase angles of the and current , amplitude of the corresponding voltage , and the cosine of the phase angle of the voltage. current These signals are outputs of the EPLLs. This unit provides three outputs: reactive component of the current, its amplitude, and the phase difference between voltage and current signals. For a three-phase application, the reactive processing unit needs to receive instantaneous positive sequence components of both voltage and current signals. These two sets of signal components are then passed through another set of EPLLs by which their phase angles and amplitudes are estimated and used for reactive current extraction. Total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input signal is provided by the THD calculation unit of the PSP. The THD calculation unit receives the harmonic and amplitude of the fundamental component which are extracted by the enhanced PLLs and calculates the THD based on the configuration of Fig. 10. In Fig. 10, low-pass filter (LPF) is used to derive the average value. It can be a simple first or second order filter whose cut-off frequency is placed at a fraction of the center frequency of the input signal. For a 60-Hz input, a 30-Hz cut-off frequency is appropriate.

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Fig. 11. Performance of the PSP in extracting basic information in a polluted environment: (a) input (b) extracted fundamental component and its amplitude (c) extracted phase angle in radians (d) extracted frequency in Hertz (e) extracted THD in percent.

In addition to the discussed signals, other pieces of information and signals may be extracted by the PSP based on the application requirements. For example, power factor can be computed using the phase difference between voltage and current signals which is provided by the reactive processing part of the PSP. Also, different powers, including active, reactive, harmonic, and apparent power may also be computed based on the information obtained from the previously described sections of the PSP. VI. APPLICATION EXAMPLES Since the PSP provides a large number of signals, its performance cannot be adequately demonstrated by a limited number of simulations. However, some typical cases are reported to demonstrate basic operations of the PSP. The input signal used for the first part of the simulations is a 50-Hz signal comprising of harmonics and noise as described in Table I. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 17 dB is approximately . THD of this signal is 25%. a standard deviation of Fig. 11 shows the behavior of the PSP with respect to this input signal in extracting its basic information including the fundamental component, its amplitude, phase, frequency, and THD. All of the initial conditions are set at zero except for the frequency which is set at 60 Hz (i.e., 10-Hz deviation from the actual value). In the input signal, phase angle of the fundamental component is set at 90 and those of the other components are randomly chosen between zero and 360 . A transient time of few cycles is observed before all of the variables settle down to their steady-state values. At the initial stage where the amplitude has a small value, the THD exhibits a large value which is

saturated at 100%, and then approaches to its steady-state value as the amplitude converges to its final value. Performance of the PSP with respect to extracting different constituting components of the signal is shown in Fig. 12. Extracted energy (or amplitude) of the components associated with is the extracted the signal of Table I is depicted. In Fig. 12, harmonic. The errors in extracting nonexamplitude of the isting harmonics (e.g., seventh harmonic) are also shown. The latter simulation provides a basis for comparing PSP to DFT. Steady-state results of DFT for the case of Fig. 12 are shown in Fig. 13. Obviously, the results of DFT exhibit a higher level of noise than those of the PSP. Therefore, PSP has higher noise immunity. There is no control on the convergence rate and amount of noise in DFT. However, in the PSP, these two can be controlled based on the desired specifications. Further salient and important features of the PSP are its capability to extract instantaneous values of constituting components and also operating in environments under nonstationary frequency. In this sense, the PSP can be considered as a synchronized-frequency-adaptive-DFT. An example is presented here to illustrate the capability of the PSP in the extraction of the components of the input signal with unknown frequencies. An input signal of the form is used where the constant phases and are randomly taken between 0 to . Figs. 14 and 15 show the performance of the proposed method

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PSP response to step changes in frequency: (a) large steps (b) small

Fig. 14. Illustration of the performance of the algorithm in the extraction of two components of arbitrary frequencies. The top graph shows the amplitudes of the extracted harmonics and the bottom graph shows the frequencies of the extracted harmonics.

Fig. 15. Illustration of the performance of the DFT in the extraction of two components of arbitrary frequencies.

and the DFT in extracting components of this signal. It is observed that the DFT is totally inoperative in identifying the components of the signal. It identifies the signal as having two amplitude-oscillatory components of frequencies 50 and 100 Hz and a number of some other weaker components; a result which is far from reality. On the other hand, the proposed method provides accurate estimates of the amplitude and frequency of the constituting components. In another case, to study the performance of PSP in estimating with the amplitude of 1 frequency, a 60-Hz input signal p.u. undergoing large and small step frequency changes is considered. Large steps are from 60 to 45 Hz and then from 45 to 65 Hz and the small changes are from 60 to 59.9 Hz and then

to 60.1 Hz at 40 ms and 200 ms, respectively. Fig. 16 shows the estimated frequency. Faithful tracking of the variations with no steady-state error is observed. The transient time is approximately three cycles. PSP is capable of following all types of small and large step variations of the frequency. In contrast to the conventional methods for which the speed of estimator response is (1) dependent on the magnitude of frequency deviation and (2) very slow for small deviations, the speed of response of the PSP is almost independent of the magnitude of frequency change. Further studies show that the PSP can operate in highly polluted environments and estimate the frequency within few cycles and with an accuracy of about 20 MHz. In another simulation, an input signal comprising 1 p.u. of the fundamental component, 0.2 p.u. of the fifth harmonic, and 0.1 p.u. of the seventh harmonic is considered as the input signal. . The input signal undergoes a step-down of 50% at The input signal, extracted fundamental component and its amplitude, and extraction error (both in transient and in steadystate) are shown in parts (a), (b), (c), and (d) of Fig. 17, respectively. It is observed that the transient period (initialized at zero) is completed in almost two cycles. The steady-state error is below 0.2% which shows very robust performance of the PSP with respect to this highly polluted signal. To evaluate the operation of the PSP with regard to reactive current detection, the following case study is carried out using data obtained from a model of a real system. The system is the single-phase APF system of [21] which is simulated using the EMTDC/PSCAD [22] software package. The APF is designed to compensate harmonic and reactive current components in the single-phase line that connects the supply system to the load. The PSP is simulated using MATLAB FIXED-POINT BLOCKSET [23] to accommodate word-length limitation effects. This represents a digital fixed-point implementation platform such as an FPGA. The power system consists of: ac power source with the following parameters: rated voltage: 115 V, rated frequency: 60 Hz, internal induc; tance: 80 with and load is composed of a linear ;

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Fig. 17. Dynamic performance of the PSP: (a) input signal (b) extracted fundamental component and its amplitude (c) extraction error (d) steady-state error.

Fig. 18. PSP performance with the APF data: (a) PCC voltage, its extracted fundamental component and amplitude (b) load current, its extracted fundamental component and amplitude (c) extracted phase angles of the ) (e) extracted voltage ( ) and current ( ) (d) their difference ( harmonics i and reactive current i .

a full bridge voltage-source converter (VSC) APF with : 4800 , the following parameters: dc capacitance filter inductance : 2.5 mH, switching frequency: 8192 Hz, average dc voltage: 220 V (ideal switches assumed). This case studies the performance of the PSP when the resistive load is changed to a resistive plus inductive load. The system in seris initially in a steady-state with the resistive load is switched in at . vice, when the inductive load PCC voltage, its extracted fundamental component, and amplitude are depicted in Fig. 18(a). Load current, its extracted fundamental component, and amplitude are shown in Fig. 18(b). and current and Estimated phase angles of the voltage their difference are shown in Fig. 18(c) and (d), respectively. The phase difference approaches a value of about one radian in the steady-state. Part (e) shows the harmonics and reactive current components extracted by the PSP. No harmonic component exists in the steady state but a reactive current component with the amplitude of about 10 A exists due to the inductive part of the load. Transient time in the reactive current detection is less than two cycles. The transient time is due to the (1) transient in the load and (2) transient response of the detection unit. The overall transient time is longer than the FFT method [21] but shorter than that of [8]. The last set of studies investigates performance of the PSP regarding symmetrical components extraction. The PSP is em-

ployed to estimate the stationary symmetrical components of a three-phase system which undergoes single-phase voltage sag, voltage swell, and phase-jump. Voltage of phase undergoes a for a period of 0.2 s. Subsequently, 20% voltage sag at . phase angles of both phases and jump by 20 at The response of the unit is depicted in Fig. 19(a)(f). The 20% voltage sag at phase corresponds to 0.0667 p.u., 0.9333 p.u., and 0.0667 p.u. of the real parts of the zero, positive, and negative sequence components, respectively. The values are correctly estimated by the estimator within a reasonable time frame. The estimated values for the stationary symmetrical components due to 20 phase angle jump at phases and are also precisely provided by the proposed estimator, Fig. 19. The PSP is used to provide instantaneous symmetrical components of the three-phase signal corresponding to Fig. 19. Two definitions of the instantaneous symmetrical components (i.e., Fig. 6 and Fig. 7), are implemented and the results are shown in Fig. 20(a) and Fig. 20(b), respectively. As long as the system is balanced, the zero component is zero and real and imaginary parts of the positive component are quadrature sinusoids with amplitudes 0.865 p.u., Fig. 20(a). A voltage sag of 20% at phase creates a zero component with amplitude 0.115 p.u. and reduces the real part of the positive sequence by the same amount

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Fig. 19. Estimation of the stationary symmetrical components of a three-phase system undergoing a single-phase 20% sag at t = 0:1 s, swell at t = 0:3 s, both at phase a, and double-phase phase-jump of 20 at t = 0:5 s, at phases b and c: (a) real part of the zero sequence (b) imaginary part of the zero sequence (c) real part of the positive sequence (d) imaginary part of the positive sequence (e) real part of the negative sequence (f) imaginary part of the negative sequence.

Fig. 21. Symmetrical components of the voltages due to a line-to-line fault: (a) line-to-line measured voltages (b) extracted stationary symmetrical components.

The last case examines performance of the PSP with respect to real system data. The system under study is the IEEE first benchmark model for subsynchronous resonance [27] which is simulated in EMTDC/PSCAD environment. Fig. 21(a) shows the impact of a line-to-line fault on the measured line-to-line voltages. The estimated stationary symmetrical components are shown in Fig. 21(b). Effect of the fault on the symmetrical components can be summarized as 0.18 p.u. and 0.25 p.u. on the real and imaginary parts of the positive sequence, respectively, and 0.25 p.u. on the imaginary part of the negative sequence. VII. CONCLUSION A PSP is introduced and its performance is evaluated in this paper. The PSP is a unified processor which is capable of providing a full set of information and signals which are frequently required in control, protection, status evaluation, and quality enhancement of power systems. Fundamental component, amplitude, phase angle, frequency, harmonics, THD, power factor, reactive current, and symmetrical components are the major outputs of the PSP. Unified and simplicity of the structure which facilitates easy control and setting, frequency-adaptivity, and performance robustness with respect to internal settings as well as external disturbances and noise render the proposed PSP very well suited for hardware/software and analog/digital implementations. REFERENCES

[1] A. G. Phadke et al., A new measurement technique for tracking voltage phasors, local system frequency, and rate of change of frequency, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 102, pp. 10251038, May 1983. [2] A. A. Girgis and T. L. D. Hwang, Optimal estimation of voltage and frequency deviation using linear and nonlinear kalman filtering: theory and limitations, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 103, pp. 29432949, Oct. 1984. [3] I. Kamwa and R. Grondin, Fast adaptive schemes for tracking voltage phasor and local frequency in power transmission and distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 7, pp. 789795, Apr. 1992.

Fig. 20. Estimation of the instantaneous symmetrical components of a three-phase system undergoing a single-phase 20% sag at t = 0:1 s, swell at t = 0:2 s, both at phase a, and single-phase phase-jump of 20 at t = 0:3 s, at phase a: (a) implementation of Fig. 6; (b) implementation of Fig. 7.

while having no impact on the imaginary part. The phase jump creates 0.2-p.u. zero sequence component while reducing the real/imaginary parts of the positive/negative sequence components by 0.02 p.u. and 0.01 p.u., respectively. For the alternative definition of the instantaneous symmetrical components (Fig. 7) only the positive sequence exists and the negative and zero sequence components are zero [Fig. 20(b)] as long as the system is balanced. The 20% voltage sag at phase generates equal zero and negative sequences with amplitude 0.066 p.u. and reduces the positive sequence to 0.932 p.u. The rad reduces the instantaneous positive comphase-shift of ponent by 0.02 p.u. and creates 0.1 p.u. identical zero and negative sequence components which are lagging the positive component by 90 .

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[4] T. Lobos, Nonrecursive methods for real-time determination of basic waveforms of voltages and currents, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 347351, Nov. 1989. [5] B. G. Quinn, Estimation of frequency, amplitude, and phase from the DFT of a time series, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 45, pp. 814817, Mar. 1997. [6] V. V. Terzija, M. B. Djuric, and B. D. Kovacevic, Voltage phasor and local system frequency estimation using newton type algorithm, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 9, pp. 13681374, July 1994. [7] D. W. P. Thomas and M. S. Woolfson, Evaluation of frequency tracking methods, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 16, pp. 367371, July 2001. [8] J. S. Tepper, J. W. Dixon, G. Venegas, and L. Morn, A simple frequency-independent method for calculating the reactive and harmonic current in a nonlinear load, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 43, pp. 647653, Dec. 1996. [9] J. A.Jose A. de la O, New family of digital filters for phasor computation, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 8691, Jan. 2000. [10] L. L. Lai et al., Real-time frequency and harmonic evaluation using artificial neural networks, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, pp. 5259, Jan. 1999. [11] Y. Baghzouz et al., Time-varying harmonics: part Icharacterizing measured data, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, pp. 938944, July 1998. [12] A. A. Girgis and F. M. Ham, A qualitative study of pitfalls in FFT, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 16, pp. 434439, July 1980. [13] A. G. Phadke, Synchronized phasor measurement in power systems, IEEE Comput. Applicat. Power, vol. 6, pp. 1015, Apr. 1993. [14] J.-Z. Yang and C.-W. Liu, A precise calculation of power system frequency and phasor, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 494499, Apr. 2000. [15] M. Karimi, H. Mokhtari, and M. R. Iravani, Wavelet-based on-line disturbance detection for power quality applications, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 12121220, Oct. 2000. [16] D. C. Robertson and O. I. Camps et al., Wavelets and electromagnetic power system transients, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 10501058, Apr. 1996. [17] S. Santoso and P. Hofmann, Power quality assessment via wavelet transform analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 924930, Apr. 1996. [18] G. T. Heydt and A. W. Galli, Transient power quality problems analyzed using wavelets, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 12, pp. 908915, Apr. 1997. [19] M. Karimi-Ghartemani and M. R. Iravani, A nonlinear adaptive filter for on-line signal analysis in power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 617622, Apr. 2002.

[20] M. Karimi-Ghartemani and A. K. Ziarani, Periodic orbit analysis of two dynamical systems for electrical engineering applications, in J. Eng. Math. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2003. [21] M. Sedighy, A Robust VSC-Based Shunt Active Power Filter, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. Toronto, 1999. [22] PSCAD/EMTDC, Power Systems Simulation Software Manual: Manitoba HVDC Research Center. [23] Fixed-Point Blockset Users Guide, MathWorks Inc., 1995. [24] A. Ghosh and A. Joshi, The use of instantaneous symmetrical components for balancing a delta connected load and power factor correction, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 54, pp. 6774, 2000. [25] S.-J. Lee, J.-K. Kang, and S.-K. Sul, A new phase detecting method for power conversion systems considering distorted conditions in power system, in Proc. Ind. Applicat. Conf., 34th Ind. Applicat. Soc. Annu. Meeting, vol. 4, 1999, pp. 21672172. [26] W. D. Stevenson, Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th ed. New York, 1995, McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical Engineering. [27] IEEE Subsynchronous Resonance Task Force of the Dynamic System Performance Working Group, Power System Engineering Committee, First benchmark model for computer simulation of subsynchronous resonance, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 96, pp. 15651572, Sept./Oct. 1977.

Masoud Karimi-Ghartemani received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in 1993 and 1995, respectively. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Toronto, ON, Canada. His research is focused on developing control and signal processing algorithms for power systems protection and control.

M. Reza Iravani (M85SM00F03) received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Tehran Polytechnique University, Iran, in 1976, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, in 1981 and 1985, respectively. Currently, he is a Professor at the University of Toronto, ON, Canada. His research interests include power electronics and power system dynamics and control.

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