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It is indeed a great pleasure for me to present this Summer Training Report on Delhi Metro Rail Corporation as a part of the curriculum of the B.Tech. course Mechanical & Automation Engineering I take this golden opportunity to thank all my mentors at DMRC who with their support and venerated guidance made this training a real success . I express my sincere thanks to officers of DMRC who inspite of their busy schedule have lent their precious time for helping me out to understand various system used in DMRC. I will be failing in my duty if I am not mentioning the technical demonstrations as given by the reverent staff of DMRC. There is no denying the fact that DMRC is the epitome of modern technology and getting training at such an organization is an exquisite learning experience that made a mark at the profoundest part of my mind.


Introduction METRO is like

a dream come true for Delhi, a revolutionary change in the city transport. Delhi needs metro system in the first place and it would change things for the better not only for people who would be using it and but for the people living in Delhi by reducing congestion, air pollution, noise pollution and accidents.
The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 189.63 kilometers (117.83 mi) with 142 stations of which 35 are underground. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade and underground lines and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC). As of November 2010, DMRC operates around 2,700 trips daily between 6:00 and 23:00 running with an interval of 2 minutes 30 seconds between trains at peak frequency.[6][7] The trains are mainly of four coaches, but due to increase in passengers numbers, six-coach trains are also added on the Red Line (Dilshad Garden to Rithala), Yellow Line (Jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre), Blue Line (Dwarka sec 21 to Vaishali/NOIDA city centre) and Violet Line (Central Secretariat to Badarpur).[4][5][7][8] The power output is supplied by 25-kilovolt, 50 Hertz alternating current through overhead catenaries. The metro has an average daily ridership of 1.8 million commuters, and, as of July 2011, had carried over 1.25 billion commuters since its inception.[9] The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has been certified by the United Nations as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get carbon credits for reducing

greenhouse gas emissions and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tons every year.[10] Planning for the metro started in 1984, when the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system for the city. The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) in 1995. Construction started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002, followed by the Yellow Line in 2004, the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009, the Green and Violet Lines in 2010 and the Delhi Airport Metro Express in 2011.

A world-class innovative, competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total business solutions.

To cover the whole of Delhi with a Metro Network by the year 2021. Delhi Metro to be of world class standards in regard to safety, reliability, punctuality, comfort and customer satisfaction. Metro to operate on sound commercial lines obviating the need for Government support.

We should be totally dedicated and committed to the Mission. Personal integrity should never be in doubt, we should maintain full transparency in all our decisions and transactions. The Organization must be lean but effective. The Corporation must project an image of efficiency, transparency, courtesy and we mean business attitude. Construction activities should not inconvenience or endanger public life nor should lead to ecological or environmental degradation. All the structures should be aesthetically planned and well maintained.

Train Formation At present each train set consist of four cars. Both ends of the train-set are Driving Trailer (DT) cars and middle cars are Motor (M) cars. The train set can be controlled as a complete unit or as separate units for various maintenance activities at the depot. 1) 4 car - DT-M-M-DT The formation of the 4 car train is DT M M DT



Each DTM car pair is connected together by a semi-permanent coupler .this means that for service operation the train consist is fixed and cannot be separated. However, for maintenance purposes, maintenance staff can physically disengage the semi-permanent couplers so that maintenance activities can be conducted on individual cars. Between each car pair, an automatic coupler is used. This allows quick and easy coupling and decoupling of the paired cars. 2) 6 car - DT-M-M-T-M-DT



3) 8 car car.)

DT-M-M-T-M-T-M-DT (Here T car is the non-driving trailer



Here T car is the non-driving trailer car. Salient Features Broad Gauge 25 KV Supply Voltage System

Three phase A.C. Induction Motor Fail Safe braking with regenerative braking VVVF Control Reinforced conical rubber primary Suspension Secondary Air Suspension Uniform Floor Height Jerk Controlled Braking Light Weight Stainless Steel Structure Slip/Slide protection Train Integrated Management System PLC based saloon Air conditioning system Electrically Operated and electronically controlled Saloon Door Emergency Door ATP/ATO

Function of air conditioning system to control temperature to control humidity to supply pure air Design Conditions Description No. of passengers :Ambient temperature:Inside condition:Present inside condition:Fresh air per passenger :Cooling capacity:Operating modes

Condition 392 430 DBT& 33% RH / 390 DBT & 41%RH DBT 330 DBT&/290DBT 240 DBT 2.3 lps 41 kw per unit 82 kw per car

Set Point + 1.0C




Set Point + 0.5C



Normal Operating Mode In Normal Operating Mode A/C unit provides cooling and ventilation, switching automatically by various sub modes to fulfil specified condition. Emergency Operating Mode When 3 Phase. Power supply is not available , ac will work in this mode & will supply fresh air only. Smoke Mode In this mode , system shuts off the fresh air intake and provides full recirculation of return air within the saloon. Normal operating sub -modes Vent mode :air is supplied inside saloon without any cooling Cool-1 mode:air is supplied with cooling (only 50% of cooling capacity is used) Cool-2 mode:air is supplied with cooling (100% cooling capacity is used. Main component of air conditioning system Refrigeration Equipment Air Transfer Equipment Electrical Equipment A) Refrigeration equipment 1.Compressor 2. Condenser coil 3. Solenoid valve 4. Thermal exp. Valve 5. Evaporator coil 1. Compressor

The function of the compressor is to pump the refrigerant through the system and to compress the low pressure, low temperature refrigerant into a high pressure high temperature super heated vapour, to allow condensing to occur. Type:- Semi-Hermetic Four Cylinder Reciprocating Suction Gas Cooled Speed:- 1450 rpm Swept volume:- 82.21 m3/h Displacement:-945ccm 2. Condenser The function of the condenser coil is to reject the heat from refrigerant absorbed by the evaporator coil and during the compression process Type: Copper finned, copper tube, brass frame heat exchanger Quantity: 2 per unit Air Flow:2700 l/s (each coil) 3. T-X valve The TX valve regulates the refrigerant flow into the evaporator coil, expanding the liquid from high pressure to low pressure, and causing a large drop in refrigerant temperature. Refrigerant R22 Range N -40 +10 o C Factory Superheat 5 K Max bulb temp. 100 o C Max working pressure 28 bar

4. Evaporator coil The prime function of the evaporator compartment is to deliver conditioned air to the main supply air duct that services the vehicle Type: exchanger. Quantity: Air Flow: Face Velocity: Cooling Capacity: Copper finned, copper tube, brass frame heat 1 per unit. 1350 l/s 2.5 m/s 41 kW

5. Dual pressure controller (DPC) Its function is to switch off the refrigeration system in case of adverse system condition . It monitors both the high and low refrigerant pressures. If the low (LP) or high (HP) pressures reach a predetermined set point, the refrigeration system will be shut down. Range: Set points:hp fault:- 2800 / 2500 kpa Lp fault :- 50/350 kpa LP 50 700 kPa HP 300 3000 kPa

B. Air Transfer Scheme

Fresh air


Supply fan


Fresh air damper

1.Supply fan As the name applies , it supplies the conditioned air inside saloon . It draws back 70% of return air & 30% of fresh air & moves past t Type: Quantity: Supply Air: Motor:2.Condenser fan Its function is draw the atmospheric air through condenser coil , inside which hot refrigerant is flowing , thus making the heat rejection & condensing the Two double inlet centrifugal blower wheels with double shafted motor Two (2) per unit 1350 Litres/second at 470 Pa external static pressure 2.2 kw @1500rpm , 415 v

Type: Multi wing axial fan, 9 blades Quantity: two (2) per unit Direction of flow: Draw through RPM Range: 0 2045 rpm Motor:- 2.2 KW @1500rpm , 415 v 3.Air dampers Their function is to control the fresh air & return( recirculated) air volume as per requirement. Mode Vent , Cool 1 &2 Emergency vent Smoke vent fresh air damper partially opened fully opened fully closed return air damper fully opened fully closed fully Opened


Pneumatic system is mainly used in five items in metro Brake System, Coupler, Suspension, Horn and Pantograph. But pneumatic system work in a unit with common input and different outputs i.e. having a common air supply equipment which supply air at high pressure in two pipes named MAIN PIPE (M.P.) & BRAKE PIPE (B.P.) and other equipment tapped pressure from it. Hence it has been configured as follows:Configuration A B C G L P U W Air Supply equipment Brake Control equipment Mechanical Brake Actuating component Wheel Side Protection equipment Air Suspension equipment Pneumatic Horn equipment Auxiliary Air Supply equipment Automatic Coupler Actuating equipment DT, T DT, T, M DT, T, M DT, T, M DT, T, M DT DT, T, DT, T, M

A) AIR SUPPLY EQUIPMENT Its mainly consist of three parts:1) Piston Compressor (VV120) 2) Air Dryer Unit (LTZ015 H) 3) Air Reservoir

Ai r

Piston compress or VV120

Air dryer unit LTZ015-H

Air Reserv oir

1.Piston Compressor There are two type of compressor:i. Main compressor:1. Discharge air pressure 2. Nominal discharge capacity 3. Type 4. motor induction motor ii. Auxiliary air compressor 1. Nominal discharge capacity 2. motor minute rating Features of piston compresseor: It is W- Shaped 3-Cylinder Unit with 2Stage compression reciprocating type compressor (see fig.). i. Extremely short design. ii. Optimum cooling for all cylinders. It have self-supporting, Flange- Mounted, Motor compressor set. i. No additional frame needed. ii. Small installation space. It creates very low sound pressure level. i. Only about 64db(A)/4.6m (76db/1.0m) It have closed circuit splash type lubrication i. Which allow low oil consumption. max. 10 bars. 900 L/min. piston type. 3, 415V AC, 50 Hz,

70 L/min 110V DC, 860W,10

It have forced air cool type ******** heat exchanger i.e. radiator. Its cooler Fan speed control by temperature. It also has a torsion ally rigid bellow type coupling between motor and compressor which allow no rotary vibration. It is mounted with car by wire rope isolators for no resonance throughout the whole compressor speed range. Compressor can be drive by AC, DC and hydraulic motor i.e. very low specific power consumption i. It also has low breakaway torque for low starting current even at low temperature.

2) Air Dryer Unit (LTZ015 H) At very high pressure when air is cooled some component of it condense in to liquid which make air wet. So that why an air dryer unit mounted which perform following function on air:1) 2) 3) 4) Dries the air.(Two column unit) Separate oil & liquid from it.(Oil separator) Filter the foreign partial from it.(MicroFilter) And act as silencer for out going air to reduce noise.(Air silencer)

19a 19b

Tower Tower

19.7 Desiccant 19.11 Oil separator bowl with Ranching rings 24 Valve cone for check valve 25 34 Bracket Duplex piston valve

3.Air Reservoir There are 2 type of reservoir Main reservoir & Auxiliary reservoir 1) Main reservoir can have 200L of air. 2) Auxiliary reservoir can have _______L of air. B.BRAKE CONTROL EQUIPMENT The brake system is one of the most important parts of metro and it is controlled and designed to interface with TIMS(Train Integrated Management System) with electrical and pneumatic controls. The two think must be taken in consideration while designing brake system:1) Wheel slide protection 2) Fail safe system 34.15 KNORR K-ring 34.17 KNORR K-ring 43 50 Valve magnet Regeneration choke 92.93 Insulators (on LTZO15..H) A Drainage port O.. Exhaust port P1 P2 Air supply port Air pipe connection to main reservoir

55 Piston for pre control valve 56 KNORR K-ring 70 KNORR K-ring 71 Valve head for bypass valve

V... Valve seat

Main component of brake system are:1) 2) 3) 4) 5)


BP (Brake Pipe) BCU (Brake Control Unit) BECU (Brake Electronic Control Unit) ASV (Anti Skied Valve) BBU (Block Brake Unit)

BAKE PIPE a. It is a tapped pipe from MRP (Main Reservoir Pressure). b. Its max. pressure is 5 bar c. Its used only for braking propose.



It is a single board which consist many type valves as shown in fig. It has analogue control valve which convert signal from BECU to required pressure. a. Combination of different valve used for different purpose:i.A & B used for service brake. ii.C, D & E used emergency brake. iii.F & G used for auxiliary unit. iv.J, L, M & N used for testing fittings

Different type of braking :i. Service brake ii. Blend brake iii.Emergency brake iv. Parking brake v. Holding brake vi. BP- back up brake


SERVICE BRAKE :a. It is ED (Electro Dynamic) brake. b. It is also Regenerative brakes c. In this motor work as generator and back EMF is produce which recharge the battery. d. And due to generative action and opposite field a braking force is applied on the motor. e. This brake is controlled by C/I of M car.


BLEND BRAKE f. It is blending of ED (Electro Dynamic) brake & EP (Electro Pneumatic) brake. g. It is applied when only ED brake is not sufficient. h. Then the remaining amount of brake is applied by EP brake i. EP brake is control by DT car. Hence blend brake is collectively controlled by DT & M car. M car DT car Train line brake demand



Blending request

F set by M & DT F set by M ED V1 V2 EP


EMERGENCY BRAKE j. The train set is equipped with an emergency brake loop wire. The emergency brake loop is connected to the emergency brake magnet valve. Which is opened when de-energized and closed when energized (Fail-safe system). k. Magnet valve is de-energies by driver or interruption it by pass the MRP i.e. MRP become 0 bar l. Analogue control valve on BCU produce a request signal using load limiting value. m. Redundancy realized for the emergency brake pressure generation.


PARKING BRAKE n. Parking brake is used for parking the train in depot and these are installed at Driving trailer car and Motor cars (1 set per axle). o. It can be operated manually or by TIMS. p. It is spring actuated brake. q. In this first MRP pressure goes low (< 4.5 bar) by any mean it release the pressure from spring and brake applied.


HOLDING BRAKE r. The holding brake is provided to prevent the train from rolling backwards on a rising gradient and the train from moving at the station. s. This brake is controlled by C/I of M car. t. The holding brakes are 70% of full service brakes.


BP- BACK UP BRAKE u. Additional BP (Brake pipe) controlled backup brake system is provided in order to take over the brake control function in case of failure of individual electronic or electrical control elements. The driver can continue to control the pneumatic friction brake by using the driver's brake valve. v. The driver is able to apply or release the pneumatic brake by operating the driver's brake valve. w. By the brake valve the brake pipe (BP) pressure can be reduced or increased depending on the time the brake lever is maintained at "braking" or "driving". During the normal service brake operation, the drivers brake valve lever shall be maintained at "driving"

C.BRAKE ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT 1.It is microprocessor based control system which deals with many type of signal. 2.It works as an interface between TIMS & BCU.

D. ASV (Anti Skied Valve) Wheel slide protection is used to optimize the stopping distance and to avoid the wheel flats under wheel sliding conditions. Wheel slide protection is active in service brake and Emergency brake.The wheel slide protection acts per bogie on each car by the dump valves (G2). Wheel-slide protection is operational at all speeds down to 3 km/h.Speed sensor mounted on the cover of each axle box, detects the speed of the associated wheel. When a potential wheel-slide event is detected, the BECU will release/apply the brakes through energizing/ de-energizing the magnets of the dump valves or anti skied valve

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17

Econnection Double valve magnet Plate Anchor spring Housing D piston Compressing spring Control chamber Valve seat Vd Bypass nozzle Nozzle D Bracket To brake cylinder pressure supply To the brake Nozzle C Valve seat Vc C-piston

18 Control chamber 19 Outer valve seat 20 Inner valve seat

Block Brake Unit

1 2 3 4 5 6

Piston packing ring Piston Piston return spring Piston pin Cam disc Bearing pin

44 45 46

Compensating link Bracket Return spring

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Cam roller Trust ring Adjuster mechanism Hexagon reset head Ball shaped rod head Torque pin Brake block wedge Brake block shoe Brake block Link pin Hanger Friction member Hanger pin Torsion sprin




1. 2. 3. 4.











Types of couplers: Automatic coupler

It enables automatic coupling of 2 mechanical units. Besides mechanical coupling, electric and pneumatic coupling is also achieved. Semi permanent coupler It make semi-permanent connection of two cars those form a unit and therefore need not be separated unless in an emergency or in the workshop for maintenance.

Types of Coupler 1. Automatic Front Coupler Coupler Length (from face to pivot) Coupler Weight Maximum Swing of coupler Horizontal Vertical 2. Automatic Intermediate coupler Coupler Length (from face to pivot) Coupler Weight Maximum Swing of coupler Horizontal Vertical 3. Semi Permanent Coupler Coupler Length (from face to pivot) Coupler Weight 1240 5 mm approx. 210 kg 1350 5 mm approx. 365 kg approx 45 approx. 6 1350 5 mm approx. 485 kg approx 45 approx. 6

Maximum Swing of coupler Horizontal Vertical

approx 45 approx. 6

There were many things that I have experience and learned during the eight weeks of my training in DMRC .The whole training period was very interesting, instructive and challenging. Through this training I was able to gain new insights and more comprehensive understanding about the real industry working condition and practice. The training provided me opportunities to understand the basic engineering concepts. This training was mainly concentrated on study of various parts of Delhi metro rail corporation and its designing . At the end I would like to thank all employees in DMRC for giving me necessary support and guidance in order to bridge the gap between my knowledge and the industry practices.

1. 2. 3. Material Available on DMRCs INTRANET. Material Available In DMRC STUDY BOOKS. Material available On Wikipedia.