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Fisheriesbiology,assessmentandmanagement

Welcometotheaccompanyingwebsite forFisheriesbiology,assessmentandmanagementby
MichaelKing.Thiswebsitecontainsanswerstomanyofthe practicalexercisesgivenattheendof
eachChapterinthe book.

Thebook
Thenew andcompletelyrevised 2007editionofFisheriesbiology,assessmentandmanagement
includesanadditionalChapteronmarineecologythishasbeenincludeddueto theincreasing
needtomanageecosystemsaswellasfishstocks.Chaptersonparameterestimationandstock
assessmentnowincludestepbystepinstructionsonbuildingcomputerspreadsheetmodels,
includingsimulationswithrandomvariationsthatrealisticallyemulatethevagariesofnature.
Sectionsonecosystemmanagement,comanagement,communitybasedmanagementandmarine
protectedareashavebeenexpandedtomatchthe growingimportanceofthesetopics.

Theauthor
DrMichaelKing isapastAssociateDirectoroftheFacultyofFisheriesand MarineEnvironment
atthe AustralianMaritimeCollege.Hehasbeenteamleaderofinternationalfisheriesprojectsand
ispresentlyafisheriesconsultantworking inmany countriesfrom theMiddleEasttotheSouth
Pacific.He hasextensiveexperiencein fisheriestraining,theassessment,developmentand
managementoffisheries,and in promotingthe communitybasedmanagementoffisheriesandthe
marineenvironment.

Chapter1.Ecologyandecosystems
ThisChapterisaboutthedistribution,abundance andlifehistoryoforganismsandtheirplacein
ecosystemsthatvary fromwetlandsto theopenseas.TheChapteralsodescribesmarinefood
chains,productionfromfisheriesandtheimpactsofhumansonmarineecosystems.Theaimofthe
Chapteristoprovidethereaderwiththebroadecologicalknowledgenecessaryforeffective
fisheriesmanagement.
AstheexercisesinChapter1 relatetolocalspeciesandissues,specificanswerscannotbe
providedhere.However,somepointsforconsiderationaregiven below.

Exercise1.1
Mapthedistributionandareasofeitherwetlands,saltmarshes,mangroves,seagrassbedsor
coralreefsadjacenttoyourtownorcommunity.Consultrecordsandinterview olderlocal
inhabitantstodiscoveriftheseareasareincreasingordecreasinginsize.Whatchangeshave
occurredandwhy?Aretheareasadequatelyprotectedatpresent.
Whencollectingoralhistorykeepmindthatsomepeoplemayexaggerate.Somefishers,proudof
theirfishingskills,mayoverstatethesizeofcatches.Andalthoughtheviewsofolderpeopleare
importantlinkstothepast, many tendto rememberthingsasbeingbetterthantheyreallywere!
Also,keepinmindthatsomemarineandcoastalareasmayhavebeenprotectedundertraditional
arrangementsandcommunityagreementsratherthanbymodernlawsandregulations(abrowseof
Chapter6mayhelpincompletingthisExercise).

Exercise1.2
Obtainrecentfishcatchstatisticsforyourcountryandreviewthestatusofthefivemostimportant
speciesorfisheries.Considerthestatusoftheresources(underexploited,fullyexploited,orover
exploited)andwhetherrulesandregulationsappliedtothefisheryareeffective.
Firstofall,considerwhatimportantmeansinthecontextofyourcountryorlocalarea.
Importancecanbedefinedintermsofeithertotalcatchweight,totalcatchvalue,theamountof
localfoodproduced,theamountofexportincomegenerated,oremploymentcreated.Insome
cases,thetargetedspeciesisofgreaterculturalsignificancethan itsvalueasfoodoranitemtobe
tradedthefleshofturtlesandgiantclams,forexample,are culturallyimportantfoodsformany
Pacificislandpeoples.

Exercise1.3
Reviewthemostseriousthreatstothecoastalenvironmentinanareawithwhichyouarefamiliar.
Whatregulationsapplytothearea andarethesebeingenforced?Whatactionsarebeingtaken,
orshouldbetaken,tocounteractthesethreats?
Insomecases,local coastal environmentsarebeingaffectedbythingsthatarehappening some
distanceawayfromthe areaofconcern.Siltpollution affectingafisheryinanestuary,for
example,mayhaveresultedfrom eitherfarmingorforestryoperationsmanykilometresupriver.It
wouldbeusefulinan analysistoseparate threatscausedlocallyfromthose relatedto distant
activities.Thelatterthreatsoftencannotbeaddressedby alocalcommunity and usuallyrequire
the integratedeffortsofgovernmentagenciesandcommunitygroupsworkingtogether.Integrated
CoastalManagement(ICM),referredtoinChapter6, takesintoaccounttheinterdependenceof
ecosystemsandtheinvolvementofmanydifferentagencies(forexample,thoseresponsiblefor
agriculture,forestry,fisheries,publicworksandwatersupply)andotherstakeholders.

Chapter2.Exploitedspecies
ThisChapterisaboutexploitedmarinespecies,from bivalvemolluscsonbeachesto pelagicfish
in theopensea. TheaimoftheChapteristofamiliarizethereaderwiththebiologyandlifecycles
ofspecies,includingmolluscs,crustaceans,echinodermsandfishes,whicharetargetedin fisheries
aroundtheworld.Effectivefisheriesmanagementdependsonmanagershaving atleastsome
knowledgeofthe biologyofthe targetspecies.
AstheexercisesinChapter2 relatetolocalspeciesandissues,answerscannotbeprovided and
somehintsoncollectinginformationaregiven.

Exercise2.1
Preparearesourcestatusreportonanexploitedmarinespeciesthatyouarefamiliarwithlocally.
Thereportshouldaddressthebiologyofthespecies, historyofthefishery,statusoftheresource,
currentmanagementmeasuresandrecommendations.
Staffoflocalfisheriesmanagementagenciesareusuallyagoodsourceofinformation.Inaddition,
viewsonthemanagementoftheresourceshouldbeobtainedfromkeystakeholdersincludingthe
fishers,processorsandthoseaffected,sometimesadversely,bythefishery.Notethatinsome
fisheriesthereareconflictseitherbetweeninshoreandoffshorefishersorbetweenrecreationaland
professionalfisherstargetingthesamespecies.

Exercise2.2
Conductabriefsurveyof alocalfishmarket.Makealistofallspeciesofferedforsalewith
estimateweightsavailable,priceperkgandplaceoforigin.Interviewsellerstofindoutwhere
eachspeciescomesfromandhowtheavailabilityofthemarketedspeciesvariesseasonally.
Keepinmindthatnotallmarketdayswillbethesameagreatervarietyorquantityofseafood
maybeavailableonparticulardaysoftheweek.Insomecultures,forexample,preparationsfor
SundayfeastsmeanthatSaturday isthemostimportantdayatthelocalfishmarket.Inother
cultures,religiousbeliefsresultinFridaybeingthebiggestfishmarketingdayoftheweek.Adaily
marketsurvey shouldbecarriedoutoverasevendayperiod.Notethatbadweatherwillreduceor
preventseafood reachingthemarket.Anextensionofthisexercisewouldbetoconsiderthreeor
fourkeymarketedspeciesandconductmarketsurveysontheiravailabilityandpriceoveraperiod
of12months.

Chapter3.Fishingandfishers
ThisChapterisaboutfishersandtheirgear.Akeyaimofthechapterisforthereadertobecome
familiarwiththevarietyoffishinggearused,motivationsforfishingandtheenvironmentaleffects
offishing.Fishinggearsfromtraps topurseseinenetsaredescribed.Reasonsforfishinginclude
recreationaswellastheprovisionoffoodandincome.Allfishingoperationshavesome
environmentaleffectsincludingthoseon targeted species,nontargetedspeciesandmarine
ecosystems.

Exercise3.1
Chooseaparticulartypeoffishinggearthatisusedlocallyanddiscusshowitisused,how
selectiveitis,howmuchbycatchiscaughtinatypicaloperation,andhowdamagingitistothe
environment.
Isthe fishinggearused passively (likeagillnet)oractively (likeatowedtrawlnet)?Whatisits
formandshape?adrawingwithtypicaldimensionswouldbeuseful.Howisitused?findout
howlongthegearisleftinthewaterduringatypicalfishingoperationandwhatspeciesare
caught.Allfishinggearisenvironmentallydamagingtosomedegree findouthowtheparticular
gearchosen affectsthemarineenvironmentandhowthiscompareswithotherfishinggear.Here,
theopinionsoflocalfisheriesagencies,fishersusingtheparticulargear,fishersusingdifferent
gear,andotherusersofthemarineenvironmentshouldbesought.

Exercise3.2
Anexperimentinvolvingcoveringthecodendofatrawlnetwithacovermadeofsmallermesh
nettingproducedthefollowingsmallsample.Makeaninitialestimateofthemeanlengthatfirst
capture,Lc.
Thedatagivenintheexercisecanbearrangedasshowninthetablebelow (thisissimilartoTable
3.3inthebook).Foreachlengthclass,theproportionretainediscalculatedasthenumberoffish
inthecodenddividedbythetotalnumbercaught. The righthandcolumncontainsvaluesusedin
subsequentcalculations.


length
frequency
frequency frequency proportion
(cm)
(codend)
(cover)
total
retained(P) ln[(1P)/P]

9
0
8
8
0.00
(notdefined)
10
1
9
10
0.10
2.20
12
3
11
14
0.21
1.30
14
3
13
16
0.19
1.47
16
12
8
20
0.60
0.41
18
14
4
18
0.78
1.25
20
13
2
15
0.87
1.87
22
25
1
26
0.96
3.22

Thedataintheabovetablearenowusedtofindthetwoconstantsin anSshapedorlogisticcurve
oftheform:
P=1/(1+exp[r(LLc)])
where risaconstantwithavaluewhichincreaseswiththesteepnessoftheselectioncurve,andLc
isthemeanlength atfirstcapture.Asdescribedinthebook,thisequationmaybetransformed
into:
ln[(1P)/P]=rLcrL
whichisoftheformofastraightlinewheretheslope,b=r andtheintercept,a= rLc.Thevalues
ofln[(1P)/P]intheabovetablemaybeplottedagainstLasshown intheMicrosoftExcel
spreadsheetbelow(whichissimilartoFigure3.16binthebook)toprovideanestimateofrandLc
as r= (b),and,Lc =intercept/r.
Theinterceptistheyaxisinterceptwhich,althoughoffthescaleofthegraph,isgiveninthe
equationincludedonthegraphasy= 0.452x+6.9762.Fromthis,r= 0.452,andLc =6.976/0.452
=15.4cm.
3.00
2.00

ln[(1P)/P]

1.00
0.00
5

10

15

1.00
2.00

y=0.452x+6.9762
R2 =0.9609

3.00
4.00
length

20

25

Theproportionretainedmaybeplottedagainstlength,andanSshapedcurvedrawn throughthe
points(asin Figure3.16ainthebook).Theimportantpointonthegraphisthemeanlengthatfirst
capture(Lc),atwhichafishhasa50%chanceofbeingretainedbythenet(a0.5 probabilityof
beingcaught).Themeanlengthatcapturecouldalsobeestimatedmoredirectlybynonlinear
leastsquaresusingacomputerbasedsearchfortheparametervalues(Lc and rinthiscase)that
resultinalogisticcurvefittingtheobserveddataseeExercise3.3.

Exercise3.3
Designacomputerspreadsheetprogramthatestimatesthemeanlengthatcapturefromthedata
inTable3.3usingnonlinearleastsquaresasdescribedinAppendix4.Seetheexampleusedto
estimatemeanlengthatmaturityforthespreadsheetdesign.
Appendix4.5describesaspreadsheetprogram designed toestimatethemeanlengthatsexual
maturity.Thisspreadsheetcanbeadaptedtoestimatethemeanlengthatcaptureasbotharebased
onthesshapedorlogisticcurve.Inthiscase,trialvaluesofrand Lc (say0.5and15respectively)
are enteredinthe twocellsatthetopofcolumnB ofthespreadsheetshownbelow.Now length
dataandtheobservedproportionretainedinthenetareentered incolumnsAandB.Column C
containstheproportionretainedpredictedbythelogisticequation:
P=1/(1+exp[r(LLc)])
ColumnDcontainsthesquaredresiduals(valueincolumnBminusthevalueincolumnCall
squared).Solveristhen usedtominimizethe sum ofthesquaredresiduals(SSR)inthecellatthe
bottomofcolumnD.FulldetailsofusingSolveraregiveninAppendixA4ofthebook.Inthis
caseSolverlocatesaminimumSSRof0.014with r=0.8 andLc =14.04cm.Notethatthese
valuesareslightlydifferentfromthoseobtainedbythegraphicalmethodand,astheyareobtained
bymoredirectmeans,aretobepreferred.Thegraphshownattherightofthespreadsheetplotsthe
observednumberretained(columnB)andthepredictedlogisticcurve(columnC)againstlength
(columnA).
Thesameprogramshowninthespreadsheetcanbeused toanalysethedatainExercise3.2.Inthis
case,Solverlocatesaminimumsumofthesquaredresidualsof0.024with r=0.49 andLc =15.6
cm.
Mesh selectivity
r>>
0.80
Lc>>
14.04

Exercise3.4

probabilityofcapture

length
(cm)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

observed predicted
proportion proportion squared
retained retained residuals
0.00
0.038
0.001
0.11
0.081
0.001
0.23
0.164
0.004
0.30
0.304
0.000
0.43
0.493
0.004
0.68
0.684
0.000
0.86
0.828
0.001
0.93
0.915
0.000
1.00
0.960
0.002
SSR=
0.014

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
8

10

12

14

16

lengthatfirstcapture

18

20

Graphtheproportioncaughtagainstcarapacelengthforthedeepwatershrimpdatagivenin
Table3.4.Drawaselectivitycurvethroughthedatabyeye,andestimatethemeanlengthatfirst
capture,Lc.Fitalogisticcurvebylogtransformationorbydesigningaspreadsheetprogramasin
AppendixA4.
Theprocedure isthesameasinExercise3.3andaMicrosoftExcelspreadsheetdesignedforusing
Solverisshownbelow.Notethatthesamplesizeforacarapacelengthof17mmwaslessthan5
andexcludedfromtheanalysisassuggestedinTable3.4inthebook(iethevalueofthe squared
residualsmustbesetatzero).ThecellsatthetopofcolumnGarereservedforinitialtrialvalues
forrand Lc (rememberthatabsolutereferenceseg$G$2and$G$3haveto be usedinequations
usingthesevalues).
Startingoffwithreasonableguessesforrand Lc,Solverfoundaminimumsumofsquared
residualsof0.034with r=0.46 andLc =20.47mm.Thegraphshownattherightofthe
spreadsheetplotstheobserveddata(columnB)aspointsandthepredictedlogisticcurve (column
C)asacontinuousline againstcarapacelength(columnA).
Mesh selectivity
r>>
0.46 <<entertrialvaluehere
Lc>> 20.47 <<entertrialvaluehere
1.2

proportion retained

observed predicted
length proportion proportion squared
(mm)
retained retained residuals
15
0.1 0.075
0.001
16
0.09 0.114
0.001
17
0.169
0.000
18
0.31 0.244
0.004
19
0.39 0.338
0.003
20
0.36 0.447
0.008
21
0.46 0.561
0.010
22
0.71 0.669
0.002
23
0.84 0.762
0.006
24
0.85 0.835
0.000
25
0.82 0.889
0.005
26
0.93 0.927
0.000
27
1.02 0.953
0.005
28
0.99 0.970
0.000
29
0.96 0.981
0.000
30
0.99 0.988
0.000
31
1.08 0.992
0.008
32
1.12 0.995
0.016
33
1.01 0.997
0.000
34
1.06 0.998
0.004
35
0.94 0.999
0.003
SSR=
0.034

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

carapace length (mm)

Exercise3.5
Lobsterpotsortrapsareoftenfittedwithanescapegap,arectangularorroundholeworkedinto
theirside,toallowtheescapeofsmallindividuals.Designafieldexperimenttoexaminethe
selectivityofsuchtraps,andtoestimatethemeanlengthatfirstcapture.
Onesuchexperimentcouldinvolverecording thelengthsoflobsterscaughtin alargenumberof
trapssomewithand somewithoutescapegaps.ThedatacanthenbearrangedasinTable 3.4
followedbycalculationssimilartoExercise3.4.

Exercise3.6

Duringasurveyonapotentialfisheriesresource,thelikelycommercialfishingcostswere
estimated.Fixedcostswereestimatedtobe$30000peryear,andthedailyrunningcosts$800
perday.Meteorologicalinformationsuggeststhatapproximately180daysperyeararesuitable
forfishing.Constructabreakevencurveforaproposedcommercialoperationofonevessel.
AsderivedinChapter3,themarketprice requiredtocoverthecostsoffishingisrelatedtocatch
peruniteffortbyEquation3.3 thatis:
price =[(runningcosts daysfished)+fixedcosts]/[CPUE daysfished]
whereCPUEisthe catchperday.Valuesforfixedcostsof$30000peryearand dailyrunning
costsof$800canbesubstitutedintheaboveequation.The 180daysperyearinwhichtheweather
issuitableforfishing,however,shouldberegardedasamaximum asitdoesnotallowforvessel
breakdownsandotherreasonsfornotfishing.Forthisexercisetheequation becomes:
price=[(800 180)+ 30000]/[CPUE 180].
Fromthis equation,thetableshownbelowcanbeconstructedthispredictsthepricerequiredto
covercostsforarangeofrealisticCPUEvalues.Thevaluesinthetablecanbeplottedasagraph
similartothatshowninFigure3.13inthebook.Thetablesuggests,forexample,thatifaverage
catchrateswere120kgperday,afishsalepriceof$8.06wouldberequiredjusttocovercosts.

CPUE
price
(kgperday)
($perkg)

50
19.33
60
16.11
70
13.81
80
12.08
90
10.74
100
9.67
110
8.79
120
8.06
130
7.44
140
6.90
150
6.44

Exercise3.7
Buildacomputerspreadsheetmodeltorecordfishingcostsandconstructabreakevencurve.Base
yourmodelontheexamplegiveninTable3.1.
Thefirsttwocolumns (AandB) ofthespreadsheet shownbelowareusedto enterthefinancial
datagiveninTable3.1.ColumnsCandDareusedtopredictthepricerequiredtocovercostsfora
rangeofrealisticCPUEvalues.ColumnDcontainstheequation:
price=[(runningcosts daysfished)+fixedcosts]/[CPUE traps daysfished]
inwhichvaluesarepickedupfromtheappropriatecells.Useabsolute referenceforallcellsexcept
forthevalues ofCPUEincolumnC.AgraphisproducefromthedataincolumnsCandDand
thisshould besimilartotheoneshowninFigure 3.13inthebook.

BREAK EVEN MODEL


Numberoftrapsused
Daysworkedperyear

priceperkg

90CPUE price
160
150(kg/trap) (Rperkg)
0.4 157.56
140
Initial investment
0.6 105.04
vesselcost
800000
0.8
78.78
120
traps(atR1200each)
108000
1.0
63.02
floats&lines
60000
1.2
52.52
100
1.4
45.02
Totalinitialinvestment
968000
1.6
39.39
80
1.8
35.01
Fixed costs per year
2.0
31.51
repayments/return(10%)
96800
2.2
28.65
60
depreciation(10%)
80000
2.4
26.26
vesselrepairs(10%)
80000
2.6
24.24
40
insurance(3%)
24000
2.8
22.51
3.0
21.01
20
Totalfixedcostsperyear
280800
3.2
19.69
3.4
18.54
0
Running costs per day
3.6
17.51
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
crewpayments(R250perday)*
1250
3.8
16.58
kgpertrapperday
fishinggearreplacement**
560
4.0
15.76
fuel&food
1000
bait(R6pertrap)
540
*basedonfivecrewmembers
ice(R5pertrap)
450
**basedonreplacementof50%ofgearduetowearandloss.

totalrunningcosts(perday)
3800
totalrunningcosts(peryear)
570000

Total annual costs


850800

4.0

Chapter4.Stockstructureandabundance
ThisChapterisconcernedwith factorsthatincreasestockbiomass(includinggrowthand
recruitment)andfactorsthatdecreasestockbiomass(includingnaturalandfishingmortalities).
TheaimoftheChapteristoenablethereadertoestimatetheparametersinvolved.Notethat
AppendixA4ofthebookcontainsstepbystepinstructionsonbuildingcomputerspreadsheet
modelsforestimatingparameterssuchasgrowthandmortality and fordetermining relationships
betweenrecruitmentandstocksize.

Exercise4.1
a)EstimatethenumbersofseacucumbersinthestockshowninFigure4.5bycountingthe
numberofindividualsin6randomlyselectedquadrats(usetherandomnumber/lettertablein
Appendix7).Calculatethe95%confidencelimitsfortheestimate.
b)RepeattheabovebysamplingeverysecondquadratalongatransectfromgridreferenceG1to
G11i.e.usequadratsG1,G3,G5,G7,G9andG11.Calculatethe95%confidencelimitsforthe
estimate.Howdoestheprecisionofthisestimatecomparewiththatoftheestimateobtainedby
randomsampling?
Theanswertothefirstpart willdependontherandomlyselectedquadratsused.Forthesecond
part, thedataaresummarizedbelowinaMicrosoftExcelspreadsheet.Eachquadratandthe
numberinit(takenfromFigure4.5)aregiven inthetoppartofcolumnsAandB.Thestatisticsof
thesamplearegiveninthelowerpartofcolumnB andtheformulaeandExcelfunctionsusedare

shownin columnC(exceptforthevalueoftwhichistakenfromthetableinAppendix7using5
degreesoffreedom).

quadrat number
G1 7
Excelformulae
G3 14
andbuiltinfunctions
G5 9
aregivenbelow.
G7 9
G9 15
G11 10
totaln=
64 SUM(B2:B7)
mean=
10.67 AVERAGE(B2:B7)
totalstock=
1664 B8*156/6
variance=
9.87 VAR(B2:B7)
sdev=
3.14 SDEV(B2:B7)
s.error=
1.28 B12/SQRT(6)
tvalue=
2.571 (fromtable)
lowerCL=
7.37 B9(B14*B13)
upperCL=
13.96 B9+(B14*B13)
percent+/=
30.9 100*(B14*B13)/B9
Thereis95%confidence(or0.95probability)thatthetruestocksizeliesbetween166430.9%
and1664+30.9%orbetween1150and2178.Theseconfidencelimitsarelikelytobemore
narrowthatthoseobtainedbyrandomsamplinginthefirstpartofthequestionthatis,thetransect
estimateismoreprecise.

Exercise4.2
Estimatethenumbersofseacucumbers,with95%confidencelimits,inthestockshowninFigure
4.6bycountingthenumberofindividualsinatotalof10quadratsbystratifiedsampling.Either
selectyourown,orusethefollowingrandomquadratsinstrataAandB.
STRATUMA(>5mand<10m):
STRATUMB(<5mand>10m):

C6,E3,F4,G9,J3,andJ8
A3,G6,K11,andM10

AsinExercise4.1,thegivendataaresetoutinthespreadsheetbelow.Usingequations4.4and4.5
fromthebook,thestratifiedmeanis11.39plusorminus19.1%atthe95%confidencelevel.
Calculatingthestocksizeas11.39multipliedby156(thetotalnumberofquadratsinthestock)
givesanestimateof1777withconfidencelimitsbetween 1427and2127.

STRATUM A
STRATUM B
quadrat number
quadrat number
C6 15
Excelformulae
A3 7
Excelformulae
E3 14
andbuiltinfunctions
G6 14
andbuiltinfunctions
F4 12
aregivenbelow.
K11 9
aregivenbelow.
G9 15
M10 9
J3 13
totaln=
39 SUM(E3:E6)
J8 16
mean=
9.75 AVERAGE(E3:E6)
totaln=
85 SUM(B3:B8)
#quadrats=
4
mean=
14.17 AVERAGE(B3:B8)
variance=
8.92 VAR(E3:E6)
#quadrats=
6
variance=
2.17 VAR(B3:B8)
statifiedmean= 11.39
stratifiedvariance= 0.93
stratifiedstand.error= 0.30
tvalue= 2.262
CLmean+/ 2.2
CL(%+/)= 19.1

(B10*58+E8*98)/156
((B12/B11)*(58/156)^2)+((E10/E9)*(98/156)^2)
SQRT(D15)/SQRT(10)
(fromTableinAppendix7)
D17*SQRT(D15)
D18/D14*100

Exercise4.3
Aresearchvesselcompletesastandardtrawlat41stationsonaunitstockdistributedoveran
areaof360km2. Thetrawlnet,whichhasaneffectivefishingwidthof20m,wastowedata
velocityof8kmperhourfor20minutesateachstation.Themeancatchpertrawlwas64kg,and
thestandarderrorofthemean(s/n)was18.Assumingthatvulnerabilityofthefishtothetrawl
netis50%(v=0.5),usethesweptareamethodtoestimatethetotalstocksizewith95%confidence
limits.
Atowedtrawlnetsamplesfishinarectanglewithan area,a,estimated fromEquation4.6inthe
book as:
a=W TV D
where Wistheeffectivewidthofthetrawl,TVisthetowingvelocity,andDisthedurationofthe
tow.Theareainsquaremetresistherefore (20 8000 20/60)or53333m2 or0.053km2.
Equation4.7is:
B=CW/v (A/a)
whereCW =meancatchweightpertow,v=thevulnerabilityofthefish,A=thetotalarea
occupiedbythestock,and a=theareacoveredbythestandardtrawl.Intheexample:
B=64/0.5 (360/0.053)orapproximately869tonnes
Thestandarderror(SE) ofthemean iss/nandisgiven as18. Confidencelimitsare discussedin
Appendix2andare calculatedas x t0.05 SEwhere t0.05 isthevalue fromtheTablegivenin
Appendix7.Thevalueoftfor40 degreesoffreedomis2.02 atthe95%levelandtheconfidence
limitsare 64 (2.02 18)or64 36.4.Intermsofpercentagesthevalueof36.4is57%ofthe
meanvalueof64.Thusthereis95%confidence(or0.95probability)thatthetruestocksize lies
somewherebetween(86957%)and(869+57%),orbetween 374and1364tonnes.

Exercise4.4

a)Adepletionexperimentusingtrapsonanisolated24km2 stockofcrabswasrunoverfour
weeks.Thenumberofcrabscaughtandthenumberoftrapsusedperweekareshowninthe
followingtable.Estimatethecatchabilitycoefficientperkm2,andtheinitialexploitablestocksize.
Listtheassumptionsthathavetobemade.
The table givenin thisExercise canbeextendedtoincludeCPUE(innumbercaughtpertrap),
cumulativecatch(C)andadjustedcumulativecatch asinTable4.3in thebook.These
calculationsarecompletedinthespreadsheetshownbelow whichincludesaplotofCPUEagainst
adjustedcumulativecatch.
Thespreadsheetgraphshowsaregressionlineoftheformy=0.00085x+15.714.Theinitial
exploitablestocksizecanbeestimatedfromthegraphastheintercepton thexaxiswhere,in
theory,theCPUEhasbeenreducedtozero(ieallthestockhasbeencaught!).Moreconveniently,
forastraightlineoftheformy=a+bx,theinterceptonthexaxiscanbecalculatedasa/b which
equals18487crabs discrepanciesbetweenthisvalueandtheoneinthespreadsheetresultfrom
thehighdegreeofaccuracy(largenumberofdecimalplaces)usedinExcel.

Depletion model
week catch traps CPUE sumC adj.sumC
1 2074 140 14.8
0
1037 intercept = 15.71425
2 2376 183 13.0 2074
3262
slope = 0.00085
3 2534 235 10.8 4450
5717
q =
0.0009
4 1836 204
9.0 6984
7902
N =
18432
16
14

CPUE

12
10
8
6

y=0.0009x+15.714
R2 =0.9997

4
2
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

cumulative catch

Thecatchabilitycoefficient,q,forastockoccupyinganareaof24km2 isestimatedfromtheslope
ofthegraphas0.0009.Thissuggeststhatoneunitofeffort(eachtrap) willcatch0.0009ofthe
stockinthisarea.Theproportioncaughtin1km2,therefore,willbelargerby24timesthatisq=
0.022perkm2.
Thekeyassumptionsarethat:
CPUEisdirectlyproportionaltostocksize
individualsaremoreorlessevenlydistributedovertheexperimentalarea.
thereisnoimmigrationoremigrationovertheperiodoftheexperiment
b)Ifasurveyofanadjacentlargerstockof150km2 resultedinaninitialmeanCPUEof15.6
crabspertrap,usethecatchabilitycoefficientobtainedintheabovedepletionexperimentto
estimatetheexploitablestocksizeinthislargerarea.Whatadditionalassumptionshavetobe
made?

Bythedefinitionofq(astheproportionofthetotalstockcaughtbyoneunitofeffort)anestimate
oftheinitialexploitablestocksize(N)isobtainedby:
N =CPUE/q
whereCPUE istheinitialcatchrate.InthisExercise,CPUE =15.6crabspertrap andthe
catchabilitycoefficient,q,is0.022perkm2.Multiplyingthisresultbythelargerstock areaof150
km2 (seeEquation4.17inthebook)providesanestimate oftheexploitablestocksize of106,364
individuals.Animportantadditionalassumption forthisestimatetobereasonable isthatthelarger
adjacentareamusthave similarecologicalcharacteristicsandasimilardistribution ofindividuals
totheinitialexperimentarea.

Exercise4.7
a)Basedonthefourmodallengthsvisibleinthelengthfrequencyhistogramforthehypothetical
speciesinFigure4.19(topgraph),useaFordWalfordplottoestimatethevonBertalanffygrowth
parameters.
Althoughthere areactually5componentgroups(the continuouscurveintheFigurebelow),only
fourmodesarevisibleinthelengthdistribution (thehistogramintheFigurebelow).Thisis
becausethefinaltwogroupsbunchtogetherasgrowthslowsafish42cminlength,forexample
couldbelongtoeithergroup4orgroup5. Thevisiblemodesaremarkedbyarrowsat16.5,27.5,
35and40cm.

Setupatable(asinTable4.6)oflengthinoneyear(Lt)againstlengthoneyearlater(Lt+1)ie
27.5against16.5,35against27.5 and40against35.AspreadsheetandaFordWalfordplotis
shownbelow.AFordWalfordplotofLt+1 againstLt (asinFigure4.17)hastheequationofa
straightline,y=a+ bx,inwhichtheintercepta=16.362andtheslope b=0.676. Onthe
spreadsheet,theseareproducedusingthe appropriate ExcelfunctionsincellsB8andB9.From
equations4.28and4.29 respectively:
K= ln[b]=ln[0.676]=0.39yr1
L = a/(1b)=16.36/(10.676)=50.5cm
TheseareproducedincellsB10andB11respectivelyonthespreadsheet.

FordWalford plot
50

Lt+1
27.5
35
40

slope=
intercept=
K=
Linfinity=

0.68
16.36
0.39
50.52

40
lengthatyeart+1

Lt
16.5
27.5
35

30
20
y=0.6761x+16.362

10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

lengthatyeart

b)UsetheestimatedparametersKandL (andassumeto=0)inthevonBertalanffyequationto
predictfishlengthforagesfrom0to8years(anagelengthkey)instepsof0.5yearsanddrawa
growthcurve.
Anagelengthkeycanbepreparedbyestimatinglength,L,forarangeofarbitrarilyselectedages,
t.ThevonBertalanffyequation(Equation4.22inthebook)is:
Lt =L(1exp[K(tto)])
where Lt isthelengthataget,L istheasymptoticlength of50.5cmandKisthegrowth
coefficient,0.39yr1.Theageatzerolength (to)isassumedtobezero(iethegraphpassesthrough
theorigin).Asamplespreadsheettable isshownbelowbasedontheparametersK,Linfinity(L )
andtzero(to )thatareincludedincellsB2,B3andB4respectively.Agrowthcurveisaplotof
lengthvalues(L)incolumn 2againstage(t)incolumn1usingtheExcelformula$B$3*(1EXP(
$B$2*(A7$B$4)))typedincellB7andcopieddowntoB17.

length,L

Agelength key and growth curve using L=Linf(1exp[K(ttzero)])


K =
0.39
55
Linf =
50.5
50
t zero =
0
45
40
age, t length, L
35
0
0.0
30
1
16.3
25
2
27.4
20
3
34.8
15
4
39.9
10
5
43.3
5
6
45.6
0
7
47.2
0
2
4
6
8
10
8
48.3
age,t
9
49.0
10

49.5

c)Estimatetheapproximatemeanlifespanofthefishastheageatwhichthespeciesreaches
95%ofthevalueofLusetheinverseofthevonBertalanffyformula(i.e.makeage,t,thesubject
ofEquation4.22).
Ifmeanlifespan(tmax)isroughly thetimerequiredforafishtoreach95%ofitsasymptoticlength,
L,thenfrom theinverseofthevonBertalanffygrowthequation (Equation4.22):
tmax =(1/K)ln[1(0.95L)/L]orapproximately,tmax =3/K
Usingthegrowthparametersestimatedin thefirstpart,thisequation(giveninChapter4as
Equation4.74)providesanapproximatelifespanof7.7years.Ifthespecieslivesforover7years,
whyarethereonly4or5sizegroupsinthelengthfrequencyhistogramgiven?Onecommon
reasonisthatthespeciesisheavilyexploitedandlargerindividualsarerareorabsent.

Exercise4.8
Thenumbers givenintheexercisearethelengths(cm)of221fishcaughtina singletowofatrawl
net.DisplaythelengthfrequencydataasahistogramsimilartothatshowninFigure4.21.From
theleft,labelthefourmodal(highest)pointsonthegraphas0+years,1+years,2+years,and
3+years.
Thecompletedhistogram shouldbesimilartotheonebelowwithmodesat12,28,39,and46cm.

c)Usethemodalvaluestodrawagraphoflengthataget+1againstlengthataget(aFord
Walfordplotwiththreepoints,similartothatshowninFigure4.17)inordertoestimate KandL.
AFordWalfordplotofLt+1 againstLt issimilartothat completed inthepreviousexerciseand
shownin Figure4.17inthebook.Theequationthestraightlinefittingthedatahasanintercepta
=20.1andaslope b=0.67.Fromequations4.28and 4.29:
K= ln[b]=0.4yr1
L = a/(1b)=60.9cm
d)UsethevaluesofKandL topredictfishlengthforarangeofages(assumeto =0).Enterthe
estimatedlengthsinanagelengthkeyanddrawavonBertalanffygrowthcurve.

Anagelength keycanbepreparedasinthepreviousExercisebysubstitutingthevaluesofKand
L inthevonBertalanffyequation(Equation4.22inthebook)forarangeofarbitrarilyselected
ages,t.Astheageatzerolengthisassumedtobezero,thegrowthcurvewillpassthroughthe
origin.
e)Examinetheaboveprocedurecarefully.Whataspectsofthebiologyofthishypotheticalfish
speciescouldresultintheestimatesofKandL beingquitewrong?
Theinitialassumptionisthatthesampleshowninthehistogramisrepresentativeoftheactual
population thatis,thegearusedtocollectthesamplewastotallyunselective(whereas,infact, all
fishinggearisselectivetosomeextent).Bylabellingthemodesas0+,1+,2+and3+,the
assumptionisthatthemodesrepresentsuccessiveageclassesproducedbyspawningeventsthat
were12monthsapart.Ifthespeciesspawnedirregularly,oratintervalsofmoreorlessthanone
year, theresultswouldbeincorrect.

Exercise4.9
Theheightsofalargeandrandomsampleofhumanscouldbeplottedasalengthfrequencygraph
asusedtoanalysegrowthinsomefishpopulations.Butitisimpossibletousesuchagraphto
estimatethegrowthofhumansfromtherelativefrequenciesinsizeclasses.Whyisthisso?
Humansbreedmoreorlessevenly overtheyear.Alengthfrequencydistributionwouldtherefore
shownoseparateageclassesandbesomethinglikethelowerhistograminFigure4.19forafish
stockwithanextremelyextendedspawningseason.

Exercise4.10
ReanalysethepenaeidprawndatainTable4.9toestimateKusinga"forced"GullandHoltplot
withL =46mmcarapacelength(ignorenegativegrowthincrements).
Thedata(meanlengthsandcorrespondinggrowthrates)canbeenteredonaspreadsheetasshown
below.Ina"forced"GullandHoltplot,themeangrowthrateandthemeanlengthareused,and
thesevaluesarecalculatedatthebottomofcolumnsAandB.Inthiscaseforcingthelinethrough
afixedvalueofL ontheXaxis(46mminthiscase)givesanapproximatevalueforKas .
forcedK= meanY /(forcedL meanX)=0.21/(46 37.85)=0.025week1
The forcedstraightline thatcutstheXaxisat46mmisoftheformY=forcedK(forcedL x)
andthisequationisenteredin columnC.Thiscolumnisusedtoproducetheforcedlineonthe
graphandtheExceltrendlinefunctionisusedtocreatetheunforcedorbestfittingline
throughthedataincolumnB.

growthrate

GullandHolt plot (with best fit and "forced" solutions)


meanL growth rate forced
31.1
0.34 0.38
0.4
32.5
0.37 0.34
33.2
0.3 0.33
0.3
33.4
0.28 0.32
34.1
0.31 0.30
37.8
0.21 0.21
0.2
36.6
0.15 0.24
36.3
0.26 0.25
0.1
37.6
0.13 0.21
39.6
0.12 0.16
y=0.017x+0.851
38.5
0.12 0.19
0
40.4
0.18 0.14
30
35
40
42.2
0.19 0.10
length
43.6
0.13 0.06
43.3
0.07 0.07
45.4
0.16 0.02
bestfitLinf= 50
37.85
0.21<means
forcedLinf=46

45

50

bestfitK= 0.017
forcedK= 0.025

Exercise4.11
AnalysetheresultsofthefourmarkedandrecapturedbivalvesshowninFigure4.31assumethat
ninemonthshavepassedbetweenmarkingandrecapturing.Measuretheshellheightalonga
straightlinefromtheumbo(thepointedtipoftheshell)totheshellmargin,andwhichpasses
throughthefilednotches.EstimateKandL byusingagraphicalmethod.

Thesuggestedmethodofmeasuringthebivalvesisshownintheillustrationontheshellattop
right.Fromthemeasurementstakenoneachofthefourbivalvesintheillustration aworksheet
similartoTable4.9inthebook couldbepreparedasfollows.Thegrowthrateinthefinalcolumn
isthedifferenceinlengthsatreleaseandcapturedividedby9,thenumberofmonthsbetween
thesetwoevents.

Length (mm)
Length (mm)
Mean
Growthrate
atrelease
atcapture
length(mm)
(mm/month)


5.0
13.5
9.25
0.94
9.5
16.0
12.75
0.72
12.0
17.0
14.50
0.56
22.0
24.0
23.00
0.22

AGullandHoltplotofgrowthrate(mm/month)againstmeanlength(mm),similartothatshown
inFigure4.27,isreproducedbelow.Theplot,createdonaMicrosoftExcelspreadsheet,includesa
trendline,theequationofthelineandameasureofgoodnessoffit.

The regressionline intheaboveFigure hasaslopeof0.05andaninterceptof1.37.From


Equations4.36and4.38inthebook:
K= b=0.05m1 or0.6yr1
L.= a/b = (1.37/0.05)=27.4mm

Exercise4.12
Analysethemeanlengthsatageofthemalemorwong, Nemodactylusmacropterus,(Table4.11)
bymeansofavonBertalanffyplottoestimatetheparametersKandto,anddrawagrowthcurve.
UseL =43.2cm,andignorethesamplesforagesXandXIwhichcontainlessthan10fish.
ComparetheseestimateswiththeleastsquaresresultsinAppendixA4.4.
ThespreadsheetbelowhasacellreservedforenteringthevalueofL which,inthiscase,is43.2
cm.TheageandlengthdataareenteredincolumnsAandB.The vonBertalanffyplotusesvalues
ofln[1Lt/L],calculatedincolumnC,plottedagainstage,t.Thedataareplottedwith atrendline
andequationofthelineinthespreadsheet.
FourcellsE4to7areusedtorecordtheslope,interceptoftheline,thevalueofK(fromtheslope
oftheregressionline)and to (fromintercept/(K)).TheExcelformulaeandfunctionsenteredin
thesefourcellsareshowntotherightofthecellsincolumnF.Inthisexercise,K=0.203yr1 and
to =1.91years. Thesevaluescomparefavourablywiththoseobtainedby nonlinearleastsquares
inFigureA4.9(inwhichK=0.203yr1 and to =1.93years).

von Bertalanffy plot


age

Linf=
43.2 <<enterLinfinityhere
length Lt/Linf]
3
27.2
0.993
slope=
0.203 <<SLOPE(C4:C10,A4:A10)
4
30.3
1.209 intercept=
0.388 <<INTERCEPT(C4:C10,A4:A10)
5
32.6
1.405
K=
0.203 <<E4
6
34.6
1.614
tzero=
1.912 <<E5/E4
7
35.9
1.778
8
37.3
1.991
9
38.6
2.240
10
40.6
2.810 <datanotincludedinplot
11
42.5
4.123 <datanotincludedinplot

2.5
y=0.2028x+0.3877
2
R =0.9981

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
2

10

Exercise4.13
a)Usethedrawingofthebivalve,Vasticardium,inFigure4.28 toestimateKandL inthevon
Bertalanffygrowthequation.
UsingthescaleprovidedonFigure 4.28,therearebandsat13,22,28,32,35and37mm.Tousea
FordWalfordplot,thedatacouldbeorganized inasimilarwaytoTable4.6 asfollows:

Lt
Lt+1

13
22
22
28
28
32
32
35
35
37

AFordWalfordplotofLt+1 againstLt (asinFigure4.17)hastheequationofastraightline,y=a


+bx,inwhichtheintercepta=13.04 andtheslope b=0.683.Fromequations4.28and4.29:
K= ln[b]=ln[0.683]=0.38yr1
L = a/(1b)=13.04/(10.683)=41.1mm

b)IfthebivalvewascollectedinmidJune,andthespeciesisknowntoreachaspawningpeakin
midSeptember,estimateto.
Making to thesubjectofthevon Bertalanffygrowthequation(Equation4.22)gives:
to =t +(1/K)(ln[(LLt)/L])
asgiveninEquation4.30ofthebook.IftheindividualresultedfromamidSeptemberspawningit
wouldhavebeen13mmbythefollowingmidJune,9monthslater.Substituting K=0.38 yr1,and
L = 41.1mm andthe ageandlengthofthefirstmodalgroup(t=0.75 yearsandLt =13mm
respectively)providesanestimateofto =0.25 years.
c)Drawthegrowthcurveforthespeciesbasedonthisoneindividual.Commentonwhetherornot
thisisreasonable,andconsidertheassumptionsthattheaboveanalysesrelyon.
A growthcurvecanbeconstructed bysubstitutingthevaluesofK, L and to.inthegrowth
equation Lt = L (1exp[K(tt0)])givenasEquation 4.22inthebook.Thatisbycalculating
valuesofLt forarangeofages,sayfrom t=0to8 instepsof1year.
Analternative andmoredirectwayofobtainingparameterestimatestoconstructagrowthcurveis
toadaptthe computerprogramsuggestedinFigureA4.6inAppendix4.Theoutputoftheprogram
isshownbelow)hasminimizedtheSSRof0.034with K=0.38yr1,L = 41.2cmand t0 =007
years.Otherthanthevalueobtainedfort0 thevaluesoftheothertwoparameterscompare
favourablywiththoseobtainedbythegraphicalmethod.

Growth fitting a curve to lengthatage


K> 0.37799
Linf> 41.1997
age length
tzero> 0.0069
0
0.11
1 13.04
age L obs L exp
SR
2 21.90
1
13.0 13.04 0.002
3 27.98
2
22.0 21.90 0.009
4 32.14
3
28.0 27.98 0.000
5 34.99
4
32.0 32.14 0.019
6 36.95
5
35.0 34.99 0.000
7 38.28
6
37.0 36.95 0.003
8 39.20
SSR>
0.034
9 39.83
10 40.26

length(cm)

Itis,ofcourse,unreasonabletoexpectthegrowthcurvebasedonthisoneindividualtorepresent
growthintheentirepopulation.Withinallspeciestherearedifferencesingrowthratesbetween
individuals.Inaddition,theanalysis,assumesthattheringswerelaiddownatyearlyintervals.
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

age(years)

Exercise4.14
Thetablebelowshowsthenumbersoffishcaught perunitofeffortineachofthreeageclasses.
Fishmorethanoneyearoldaresexuallymatureandimmaturefisharerecruitedtotheadult
stockbeforetheyare12monthsofage.Usethesedatatoestimateastockrecruitment
relationship.
Thetable givenintheexercisecanberearrangedintocolumnsthatrepresentnewlyrecruited
individualsandreproductiveindividuals(ageclasses1+and 2+)andtheresultingrecruitment(0+

intheFOLLOWINGyear)thatis,amaturestockof402individualsin1985resultingina
recruitmentof210individualsin1986etcasfollows:

year
stock
recruitment inthe
(1+and 2+)
followingyear (0+)

1985
402
210
1986
183
255
1987
240
270
1988
141
195
1989
130
180

A stockrecruitmentcurve canbedrawnbyeyethroughascatterplotofthesevalues.Alternatively
thedatamaybeenteredin aMicrosoftExcelspreadsheetandthe routineSolvercanbeusedto
produce curvesasshowninAppendix4.6. ThespreadsheetshownbelowisadaptedfromFigure
A4.11inAppendix4.6.
TheRickermodel,in which recruitment(R)reachesamaximumbeforedecreasingathigherlevels
ofstockabundance(S),isR=aSexp(bS).TheBevertonandHoltmodel,inwhichrecruitment
approachesanasymptoteathighstockdensities,isR=aS/(b+S).Solverisusedtofindvaluesfor
aandbintheRickermodelandthen,separately,tofindthevaluesofaandbintheBevertonand
Holt model (a andb in each model are unrelated). These values are used to predict recruitment
overarangeofstocklevelsfortheRickermodel(columnH)andfortheBeverton&Holtmodel
(column I). These columns are the bases of the curves in the graph on which the five raw data
points(fromcolumnB)havebeensuperimposed.
stockrecruitment curves
Ricker
a> 2.46742
b> 0.00371
stock recruit Rick.log
130
180
0.421
141
195
0.380
183
255
0.224
0.013
240
270
402
210
0.588
SSR>

B&H
a> 275.1592
b> 47.93834
SR
B&H log
0.009
0.436
0.003
0.376
0.012
0.175
0.011 0.045
0.004 0.492
0.039
SSR>

SR
0.012
0.003
0.025
0.027
0.025
0.091

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

200

400

600

stock
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575

Ricker B&H
curve curve
0
0
56
94
102
140
140
168
170
186
194
199
212
209
226
216
235
222
241
227
244
231
245
234
243
237
240
240
236
242
230
244
224
246
217
247
209
249
201
250
193
251
185
252
176
253
168
254

Exercise4.15
Prepareagraphrelatinginstantaneousmortalityratestopercentagemortalityrates(place
percentageratesfrom0to90on theXaxis).
Percentagemortalitiesarerelatedtoinstantaneousmortalityratesby Equation4.53inChapter4:
Mortality(%)=100(1exp[Z])
Percentagemortality ratesfrom0to90areenteredincolumnA.MakingZthesubjectofthe
aboveequationgivesZ=ln[1(%mortality)/100],whichisenteredincolumnB ofthe
spreadsheet.
Z
0.00
0.05
0.11
0.16
0.22
0.29
0.36
0.43
0.51
0.60
0.69
0.80
0.92
1.05
1.20
1.39
1.61
1.90
2.30

2.50
2.00
instantmortality(z)

%
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
%mortality

Exercise4.16
Estimatethegrowthparameters,KandL,andthetotalmortality,Z,fromthelengthfrequency
datashowninthefigure.Listtheseparateassumptionsthatestimatinggrowthandmortalityin
thiswaydependon.
Thefigurebelowhashadthenumbersineachlength class addedtothe topofeachcolumnandthe
threemodesare indicatedbyarrows.Theestimationofgrowth dependson thepositionsofthe
modesand theestimationofmortalitydependson thenumberswithineachofthethreesizegroups
theuseofeachdependsonseparateconditions.

Themodesoccuratthemiddleofsizeclassesat23.5,33.5and 40.5cm.Thenumberswithineach
ofthesizeclassesaretotalled.Heretheselectionofcutoffpoints(betweensizeclasses)is
somewhatarbitrary ifthecutoffpointbetweenthesecondandthirdsizeclass,forexample,is
takentobe37.5cmhalfofthenumbersinthesizeclassfrom37to38shouldberegardedas
belongingtothesecondsizeclassandhalftothethirdsizeclass.Detailscanbearrangedasinthe
tablebelow.

class
modal length
numbers
ln[number]

1
23.5
162.5
5.09
2
33.5
96.0
4.56
3
40.5
46.5
3.84

Growth fitting a curve to lengthatage


K>
0.36
Linf> 56.83
age length
tzero> 0.50
0
9.2
1 23.5
age L obs L exp
SR
2 33.5
1
23.5 23.50 0.000
3 40.5
2
33.5 33.50 0.000
4 45.4
3
40.5 40.50 0.000
5 48.8
SSR>
0.000
6 51.2
7 52.9
8 54.1
9 54.9

length (cm)

Themodallengthscanbeusedtoestimategrowth usingtheprogramdescribedinFigureA4.3in
Appendix4ofthebook.Amisleadinglygoodfitisobtainedusingonlythreepoints.To
approximaterealitythekeyassumptionisthateachofthethreemodesrepresentssizeclassesthat
havebeenproducedfromspawningeventsseparatedbyoneyear.

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

age(years)

Plotting thenaturallogarithmsofnumbersineachsizeclassasacatchcurve(asin Figure4.44)


givesaslopeandthereforeanestimateoftotalmortality,Z,as 0.63peryear.Forthisestimate to
bereasonable,thesamenumberofjuvenileswouldhavetohavebeen recruited ineachofthe
yearsthatproducedthethreesizeclasses.Thissituationisunlikelyasenvironmentalfluctuations
alonemustresultin annualrecruitmentthatishighlyvariableinmostspecies.However,ifamuch
largernumberofpointswasavailable,andrecruitmentvariedrandomly,acatchcurvemay

produceareasonableestimateofaveragemortality.Animportantadditionalassumptionisthatall
sizeclassesareequallyvulnerabletothefishinggear.

Exercise4.17
Abiologisthasaccesstorecordsfromaprocessingfactoryasshownbelow.Thefactorygrades
theprawncatchasthenumberofprawnsperkgandthetableshowsthecatchesandgradelanded
inthefourmonthsimmediatelyfollowingrecruitment. Makeaninitialestimateofthetotal
instantaneousmortalityrate,Z,andlisttheimportantassumptionsthatmustapplyfortheestimate
tobeareasonableone.
Thetablegiven intheExercise canbeextendedasfollows:

month
numbers
catch
numbers
ln(numbers)
(per kg)
(kg)

1
35
5690
199150
12.20
2
28
5260
147280
11.90
3
24
4550
109200
11.60
4
22
3670
80740
11.30

Aregressionofthenaturallogarithmagainstmonthisacatchcurvethat,inthisexample,
estimatestotalmortality,Z, at 0.3permonth.Fortheestimatetobereasonable fishingeffortin
eachofthefourmonthswouldhavehad tobesimilarand prawnsofallsizeswouldhavetobe
equallysusceptibletothefishinggear. Inaddition,theremustbenomovementofprawnsintoor
outoftheareafished.

Exercise4.18
Aclupeidfishspeciesisrecruitedatanageof5monthswhenitisfullyvulnerabletothefishing
gear.Meancatchratespermonth,startingatthemonthofrecruitment,are145,215,295,380,
and466kg/hour.GrowthisdescribedbythevonBertalanffygrowthequationwithK=0.05(m1),
andL =35cm.Weight(g)isrelatedtolength(cm)byapowercurvewitha=0.03andb=3.
Estimatethetotalmortalityrate(Z)forthespecies.Listtheassumptionsthatmustbeacceptedfor
theestimatetobeareasonableone.
Thecalculationscanorganized asin thefollowingtable.Inthethirdcolumn,lengthisestimated
bythevonBertalanffygrowthequationbysubstitutingthevaluesofK,and L (assuming t0 =0)in
thegrowthequation Lt = L (1 exp[Kt])givenasEquation 4.22inthebook.Inthefourth
column,weightispredictedusingEquation4.20inthebookinwhichweight(W)isrelatedto
length(L)byW=aLb.CPUEcannowbeconvertedfromweightunitstonumberscaughtper
hour.

month
CPUE (kg)
length (cm)
weight (g)
CPUE (nos)
ln CPUE

5
145
7.74
13.91
10424
9.25
6
215
9.07
22.38
9607
9.17
7
295
10.34
33.17
8894
9.09
8
380
11.54
46.10
8243
9.02
9
466
12.68
61.16
7619
8.94

Aregressionlinethroughthenaturallogarithmsinthefinalcolumnhasaslopeof0.078which
suggestsatotalmortalityrate,Z,of0.078permonth.Keyassumptionsarethatthereisnofurther
recruitmentandindividualsarenotmigratingeitherintoorawayfromthefishinggrounds.

Exercise4.19
Catch(t)andeffort(hourstrawled)bymonth for apenaeidprawn,Penaeuslatisulcatus,trawl
fisheryareshowninthetablebelow.RecruitmentisassumedtobecompletebyMarchwhenthe
newlyrecruitedprawnsare6monthsofage.ThevonBertalanffyequationappliestogrowthwith
K=0.15m1 andL=55mm.Weight(g)isrelatedtocarapacelength(mm)bytheequationW=
0.0005L3.Examinetheuseofthedatainacatchcurvetoestimatemortality.Thereissome
evidencethatprawnsspendmoretimeunderthesubstrateincoldermonths(southernhemisphere
wintermonths),andmaybelessaccessibletothetrawlgear.
TheTablegiveninthisExercisecanbeextended assuggestedinTable4.18oraspartofa
spreadsheetasshownbelow.IncolumnEofthespreadsheet,carapacelengthispredictedbythe
vonBertalanffygrowthequationas55*(1exp[0.15*t])where tisage pickedupfromcolumnB.
IncolumnF,individualweightis0.0005*(L^3)whereLislengthpickedupfromcolumnE.In
columnG,thenumberofindividualsinthecatchiscalculatedasC*(1000^2)/Wwhere Cisthe
catchweightfromcolumnCandWisindividualweightfromcolumnFnotethattonneshaveto
beconvertedtograms.IncolumnH,CPUEinnumbercaughtperhouriscalculatedasC/f where
CisfromcolumnGand f(effort)ispickedupfromcolumnD.In the finalcolumn,CPUEis
convertedtonaturallogarithms.
A
month

B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
age catch effort length weight catch
CPUE ln[CPUE]
(m) (tonnes) (hr)
(mm) (g)
(numbers) (nos/hr) (nos/hr)
4 169.1 3068 24.8
7.6 22131552
7214
8.88
5 252.9 4738 29.0 12.2 20696352
4368
8.38
6 298.6 4146 32.6 17.4 17176018
4143
8.33
7 314.2 5171 35.8 22.9 13749385
2659
7.89
8 173.9 3974 38.4 28.4 6125930
1542
7.34
9
79.5 2388 40.7 33.8 2351132
985
6.89
10
45.8 1693 42.7 39.0 1174256
694
6.54
11
45.8 1858 44.4 43.9 1043888
562
6.33
12
62.5 2383 45.9 48.4 1291900
542
6.30
13
69.4 2738 47.2 52.5 1322074
483
6.18
14 164.7 4431 48.3 56.2 2929743
661
6.49
15
59.8 2024 49.2 59.6 1004050
496
6.21

ln[CPUE](numbersperhour)

JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
9
8
7
6

y=0.2546x+9.5655

5
4

10

12

14

16

age(months)

Theslopeofthecatchcurveintheabovespreadsheetgraph providesanestimateoftotalmortality,
Zof0.26permonth.However,thestraightlinedoesnotfitthedatathatwell possiblybecause

theprawnsarelessaccessibletothegearintheSouthernHemispherewintermonthsfromJuneto
August.Thissuggeststhatdatafromthesemonthsshouldbeexcluded fromtheanalysisonthe
otherhand,theremovalofthethreewinterpoints(forages9,10and11months)may notmake
thatmuchdifferencetotheslopeofthecatchcurve.Tryitandsee.

Exercise4.20
Whenanalysingmarkrecapturedatafromasinglereleaseoftaggedfish,whatwouldbethe
effectsonestimatesoftotalandnaturalmortalityifa)aconstant10%oftaggedfishcaughtare
unreportedbyfishers,andb)fishersgraduallyloseinterestinreturningtaggedfishduetopoor
feedbackfromresearchers?
DetailsforthisExercisearegiveninBox4.13inChapter4ofthebook.Ifaconstant10%of
taggedfishcaughtareunreportedbyfishers,theslopeofthelineinFigureB4.13.1willnotbe
affectedbuttheinterceptontheyaxiswill.Hence,theanalysiswillprovide anaccurateestimate
oftotalmortality,Z,butaninaccurateestimateoffishingmortality,Fandthereforealsonatural
mortality,M.
Iffishersgraduallyloseinterestinreturningtaggedfishdueto poorfeedbackfromresearchersthe
slopeofthelinewillbesteeperandZwillbeoverestimated.However,theinterceptontheyaxis
willbeunaffectedandestimatesofFandMwillbereasonable.

Exercise4.21
Thelengthfrequencydiagramshowninthefigureisfromasampleofscad, Decapterus
macrosoma,caughtinapurseseinenetduringsurveys.Growthisdescribedbythevon
BertalanffygrowthequationwithK=0.8yr1 andL =38.3cm.Estimatethetotalmortalityrate
(Z)forthespecies.Acceptingthatthegrowthparametersarecorrect,listassumptionsthatmust
bemadefortheestimatetobeareasonableone.

The lengthfrequencydistribution abovehastobe convertedtoanagefrequencydistribution


before acatchcurvecanbeusedtoestimatemortality.Thisisthebasisofalengthconvertedcatch
curve showninFigure4.47andaspreadsheetmodelproducedbythespreadsheetprogram
presentedinAppendixA4.7Lengthconvertedcatchcurve lobsterexample.

Lengthconverted catch curve


K> 0.8 firstpoint> 0.9
Linf38.3lastpoint> 2.5

L1

L2 mid L
15 17
16
17 19
18
19 21
20
21 23
22
23 25
24
25 27
26
27 29
28
29 31
30
31 33
32
33 35
34
35 37
36

F
23
96
174
162
128
120
98
70
54
22
6

slope> 1.704
Z> 1.704

age
at L1
0.621
0.733
0.857
0.993
1.147
1.322
1.526
1.769
2.072
2.472
3.064

age
change
0.1122
0.1233
0.1367
0.1536
0.1751
0.2037
0.2435
0.3027
0.4002
0.5922

age at ln[F/dt] ln[F/dt]


mid L
regress.
0.676
5.32
0.794
6.66
0.923
7.15
7.15
1.068
6.96
6.96
1.231
6.59
6.59
1.420
6.38
6.38
1.642
6.00
6.00
1.911
5.44
5.44
2.256
4.90
4.90
2.734
3.61

ln[F/dt]

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.02

y=1.7041x+8.7485

0.52

1.02

1.52

2.02

2.52

3.02

relativeage

Theregressionlineisfitted through the datafrom thefinalcolumn.Thelineisthroughdatawhich


excludestheinitialascendingdatapointsrepresentinggroupsofindividualswhichareeithernot
fullyrecruitedoraretoosmalltobetotallyvulnerabletothefishinggear,and datapointscloseto
L,wheretherelationshipbetweenlength andagebecomesuncertain.
Thevalueoftotalmortalityestimatedfromtheslopeofthelengthconvertedcatchcurveshown
belowisZ=1.7yr1.Notethatgrowthandmortalityratesareveryhighinmany smalltropical
clupeids.

Exercise4.22
AfishspeciesgrowsaccordingtothevonBertalanffygrowthequationwithK=0.4yr1 andL =
60cm,andthemeanlengthatfirstcaptureis18cm.Overseveralyearsofincreasingeffort,the
meansizeoffishinthecatchhasbeendecreasingasshowninthetablebelow.Estimatethe
naturalmortalityrate,M.
Totalmortality,Z,canbecalculatedusingEquation4.61inthebookby:
Z=K[(L Lc)/(Lc Lc)]
whereLc isthemeanlengthatfirstcapture,and Lc isthemeanlengthoffishinthecatch. The data
providedcanbeenteredonaspreadsheetasshownbelow.IncolumnD,Zisestimatedby
substitutingthegrowthparametersprovidedintheaboveEquation.

Totalandnaturalmortality
1.0

year

effort
mean
total
(hours) length(cm) mortality,Z
1 1760
34.8
0.60
2 2800
33.2
0.71
3 3640
32.1
0.79
4 4120
31.7
0.83
5 4680
31.2
0.87

0.8
total mortality

K=0.4
Linf=60
Lc=18

0.6
0.4
y=9E05x+0.4396
0.2
0.0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

effort (hours)

Thestraightlinethroughthedataisextrapolatedbacktotheyaxiswherethefishingeffortiszero
andthereforefishingmortality,F=0.Atthispoint onthexaxis,totalmortalityis equivalentto
naturalmortality.Thatis, MisequivalenttotheinterceptontheYaxis,whichinthiscase is0.44.

Chapter5.Stockassessment
ThisChapteraimstofamiliarizethereaderwithmethodsusedin theassessmentoffishstocks.
Equilibriumandnonequilibriummodels,classicalyieldperrecruitmodels,simulationmodelsand
ecosystemmodelsare describedandworkedexamplesprovided.AppendixA4ofthebook
containsstepbystepinstructionsonbuildingcomputerspreadsheetmodelsforstockassessment,
including simulationmodelsandriskassessmentmodels

Exercise5.1
Deepwatersnappersarecaughtbyartisanalfishersusinghandreelsanddroplinesindepthsof
over200moffmanytropicalcoasts.Theapproximatefishingeffort(intripsperyear)andthe
combinedcatchoftwodeepwatersnapperspecies,Etelisand Pristipomoides,areshownbelow.
Estimatefishingefforttosecurethemaximumsustainableyield,fMSY,usingboththeSchaeferand
Foxmodels.
Thetable providedinthisExercise canbeextendedin asimilarwayto Table5.1asfollows.

Effort (trips)
Catch (kg)
CPUE (kg/trip)
ln CPUE

106
60000
566.04
6.34
215
86000
400.00
5.99
321
110000
342.68
5.84
491
136000
276.99
5.62
540
176000
325.93
5.79
608
141000
231.91
5.45
650
155000
238.46
5.47
680
141000
207.35
5.33
885
180000
203.39
5.32
920
208000
226.09
5.42
1100
178000
161.82
5.09
1410
160000
113.48
4.73


CPUEcanbeplotted againsteffortfortheSchaefermodel(asshowninFigure5.3)andln(CPUE)
againsteffortfortheFoxmodel.
FortheSchaefermodel,theintercept(a)andtheslope(b)ofthe regressionare465and 0.289.
FromEquations5.7and5.8,themodelpredictsthatanMSYof187tonnescanbetakenbya
fishingeffort(fopt)of806trips. ASchaeferyieldcurve,likethatshownin Figure 5.3,canbe
constructedbysubstitutingthevaluesofaand bintheequation forcatchoryield=af +bf2
substituting valuesoffishingeffort,f, say from0to1500trips.
FortheFoxmodel,theintercept(a)andtheslope(b)oftheregressionare6.25and0.00109. From
Equationsonpage243,themodelpredictsthatanMSYof175tonnescanbetakenbyafishing
effort(fopt)of920trips. AFoxyieldcurve,likethatshownin5.3,canbeconstructedby
substitutingthevaluesofaand bintheequation (Equation5.10)forcatchoryield=fexp[a+bf]
forvaluesoffishingeffort, f, from0to1500trips.
Graphsforbothmodelsareshowninthespreadsheetgraphbelow.Simplyonthebasisofr2
values,0.79fortheSchaefermodeland0.92fortheFoxmodel,thelatterappearstoprovidea
betterfit.However,itmustberememberedthatequilibriummodelssuchasthesehavebeen
associatedwithoverestimatingthesustainableyieldfromfishstocks.
250000

Catch (kg)

200000
150000
100000
50000
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

fishing effort (trips)

Exercise5.2
Molluscsarecollectedfromfourdifferentsandbanks(numbers1to4)bysubsistencefishers.Each
sandbankhasadifferentarea,andapproximately60subsistencefisherstraditionallyfishoneach
ofthesandbanks.Abiologistestimatesthattheareasofthesandbanksandtheannualcatchfrom
eachareasshowninthetablebelow.
Useasurplusyieldmodeltoestimatethemaximumsustainableyieldperkm2 ofsandbank,and
thenumberofsubsistencefishersperkm2 ofsandbankrequiredtoobtainit.Inwhatwaydothe
datauseddifferfromtheusualdatausedinsurplusyieldmodels?Whataretheassumptionsin
usingthesedatainasurplusyieldmodel?
Thetablegiven intheExercise canbeextendedtoincludefishingeffort(fishersperkm2),yieldor
catch(kgperkm2 andCPUE(kg/fisher/year)as showninTableB5.3.3inBox5.3andinthe
spreadsheetbelow.

Sandbank
number
1
2
3
4

B
Areaof
sandbank
(km2)
20
10
7
5

C
Totalcatch
(tonnes)
peryear
9
7.2
5.4
3.6

slope,b=
interc,a=
r2>=
fMSY=
MSY=

Schaefer
10.117
179.794
0.997
8.885
798.769

Fox
0.103
5.359
0.989
9.718
759.521

effort
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

yield
0.0
319.1
557.3
714.5
790.8
786.2
700.6

yield
0.0
345.9
563.1
687.5
746.2
759.2
741.6

D
fishing
effort
(fishers/km2)
3
6
8.6
12

yield
(kg/km2)
450
720
771
720

CPUE
(kg/fisher/yr)
150
120
90
60

G
lnCPUE
(kg/fisher/yr)
5.011
4.787
4.496
4.094

900.0
800.0
700.0
yield(kg/km2)

600.0
500.0
400.0
300.0
200.0
100.0
0.0
0

12

fishingeffort(fisher/km2)

Theconstantsa and bfortheSchaefermodelareestimatedfromthe interceptand slope


respectivelyofthelinearrelationshipbetweenCPUE(columnF)andfishingeffort(columnD).
FortheFoxmodelaregressionofthenaturallogofCPUE(columnG)issimilarlyused.The
slope,intercept,r2, fMSY andMSYarereproducedincellsincolumnsBfortheSchaefermodeland
columnCfortheFoxmodel.Fromthe SchaefermodelanMSYof799kgperhectarecanbetaken
byafishingeffort, fMSY,of8.9peopleperkm2.TheFoxmodelsuggeststhatanMSYof760kg
perhectarecanbetakenbyafishingeffort, fMSY,of9.7peopleperkm2.
ThelowerportionsofcolumnsA,BandCcontainfishingeffort(startingatzeroandextending
overareasonablerangeofvalues),SchaeferyieldpredictedfromEquation5.6whichisC=af+
bf2 andFoxyieldpredictedfromEquation5.10whichisC= fexp[a+bf]. Thegraphattheright
ofthespreadsheetplotstheseyieldvaluesaswellastherawdatafromcolumnE.Notethatsimilar
equilibriummodelshavebeenassociatedwiththeoverestimationoftheyieldthatcanbe
sustainablytakenfromfishstocks.

Exercise5.3
Deepwatercarideanshrimpsarecaughtintrapswhichhaveanunknownareaofinfluence.As
trapsspacedatmorethanabout50mapartappearnottocompetewitheachother,itmaybe
assumed(intheabsenceofcurrents)thatasingletrapattractsshrimpsin fromacirclewitha
radiusofhalfthisdistance.TheshrimpsareestimatedtohaveanaturalmortalityofM=0.66yr1,
andahabitatareaof200km2.Duringasurveyinthisarea,meancatchrateswere2kgpertrap
pernight.Assumingthatthetrapsare50%efficient,useGulland'sapproximateyieldequationto
estimatethemaximumsustainableyieldforthestock.Onwhatassumptionsdoesthisestimate
depend?
Gullandsapproximateyield(Equation5.13inthebook)canbestatedas:
MSY=0.5MB

Thenaturalmortalityrate,M,isgiven and theunexploitedstockbiomass,B hastobeestimated.


A singletrapattractsshrimpsfromwithinacirclewitharadius25m.Equation4.8inChapter4
suggeststhatbiomass,B,canbeestimatedas:
B=CPUE (A/a)
where Aisthe totalareaofthestock,and aisthecircularareaofthetrap'sinfluence.Theareaof
the circleofinfluenceisequaltopi ()multipliedbythesquareofthecircle'sradius,which
convertedtokilometres,is0.025km.Theareaistherefore 3.14 0.0252 or0.00196km2. The
CPUEis2kgor0.002tonnespertrap.
Biomass,B,isthereforecalculatedasB= 0.002 (200/0.00196) or204tonnes.MSYtherefore
equals(0.5 0.66 204)orapproximately67tonnesperyear. Thisestimatedependsonhavinga
reasonableestimateofbiomasswhich,inthemethodused,isdependentonamoreorlesseven
distributionofshrimpsovertheareaunderconsideration.

Exercise5.4
ThevonBertalanffygrowthparametersforaspeciesofpenaeidprawnareK=0.2m1,L =55
mmcarapacelength,andto =0.Theinstantaneousrateofnaturalmortality,M=0.25m1.Weight
(g)isrelatedtocarapacelength(mm)bytheequationW=0.0007L3,andthevalueofthecatchis
$5perkgatrecruitment(in month4),increasingby10%eachmonth.Inthefishery,prawnsare
recruitedfromadjacentmangroveareasinAprilat4monthsofage.
a)Whenwouldtheunexploitedstockreachamaximumbiomass?
b)Whenwouldtheunexploitedstockreachamaximumbiovalue?
Approachtheseexercisesbyanalysingthechangesinlength,weight,relativenumbers,biomass,
andbiovalueofasinglerecruitmentofprawnsintheformofTable5.3.Thendrawgraphsofboth
therelativebiomassandrelativebiovalueagainstmonthssincerecruitment.
A tablesimilartothatgiveninTable5.3canbeproducedonaspreadsheetasshownbelow.The
modelisbestdesignedwiththeconstantsforgrowth,mortalityetcin cells,intheupperpartofthe
spreadsheet,thatcanbereferred toinabsoluteterms.
AgeisenteredincolumnAand,incolumnB,themeanlengthofindividualscanbecalculatedby
using the growth equation (Equation 4.22) andconverted to weight (in column C) by using the
lengthweight relationship. Assuming that natural mortality rate, M, is constant, the numbers
survivinginthecohort(columnD)maybecalculatedfrom theexponentialdecayequationasNt+1
=Nt exp[M],whereNt isthenumberpresentatthebeginningofoneyear,andNt+1 isthenumber
at the beginning of the following year. Note that column D lists relative rather than absolute
numberssurviving,beginningwithanarbitrarilychoseninitialnumber(1000inthiscase).
IncolumnE,thetotal weight ofthecohort,orrelativebiomass,is calculatedby multiplyingthe
individualweight(columnC)bythenumberssurviving(columnD).IncolumnF,thepricebegins
at$5perkgandincreasesby10%permonth.Thusthevalueofthecohort,orrelativebiovalue,
canbecalculatedincolumnG,bymultiplyingcolumnEbycolumnF.

BIOMASS MODEL
Growthparameters
K>
0.2
Linf
55
tzero
0
month

length
30.29
34.77
38.43
41.44
43.90
45.91
47.56
48.91
50.01

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Lengthweight
a>
0.0007
b>
3

weight
19.45
29.42
39.74
49.80
59.21
67.73
75.29
81.88
87.56

Mortality
M>
initialno>

0.25
1000

Value
perkg>
incr(%)>

5
10

relative
relative
relative
numbers biomass(kg) priceperkg biovalue
1000.0
19.45
5.00
97.24
778.8
22.91
5.50
126.00
606.5
24.11
6.05
145.84
472.4
23.53
6.66
156.57
367.9
21.78
7.32
159.44
286.5
19.40
8.05
156.26
223.1
16.80
8.86
148.80
173.8
14.23
9.74
138.64
135.3
11.85
10.72
127.00

Thegraphsofrelativebiomassand relativebiovalueshownbeloware producedfromthe


spreadsheet.Thesereachmaximainmonth6andmonth8respectively.

100
90
percent

80
70
60
50
40
4

10

12

month

Exercise5.5
ConsidertheprawnspeciesinExercise5.4asanexploitedstock.Fishingisequivalentto
imposingafishingmortalityrateofF=0.20month1duringeverymonthfished.Thefisherymay
extendovera9month"season"fromApriltoDecemberinclusive,butsomeoftheinitialmonths
couldbeclosedtofishing.
a)Ifthefirstmonth(April)isclosedtofishing,i.e.theseasonisreducedtoeightmonths,arethere
anygainsinthetotalweightandvalueofthecatchovertheseason?Arethereanygainsinthe
numberofprawnsleftinthestockatthecloseoftheseason(attheendofDecember)?
BuildthespreadsheettableshownbelowwhichisbasedontheoneshowninTable5.4andasa
spreadsheetcomputermodelinAppendixA4.10.Thespreadsheetmodelisbestdesignedwiththe
parametersforgrowth,mortalityetcin cellsthatcanbereferredtoin absolute termsasshownin
FigureA4.15andthespreadsheetbelow.

Biomass with fishing mortality


growth
lengthweight
mortality
price
K>
0.2
a> 0.0007
M> 0.25
Unitprice>
5
Linf
55
b>
3
F>
0.2
%increase>
10
tzero
0
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
length
weight
Cohort
Numbers
catch
catch
Unit
Catch
age M
F
(mm)
(g)
numbers
dying
numbers weight(kg) price($/kg)
value
4 0.25
0.20
30.29
19.45
1000.00
362.37
161.05
3.13
5.00
15.66
5 0.25
0.20
34.77
29.42
637.63
231.06
102.69
3.02
5.50
16.61
6 0.25
0.20
38.43
39.74
406.57
147.33
65.48
2.60
6.05
15.74
7 0.25
0.20
41.44
49.80
259.24
93.94
41.75
2.08
6.66
13.84
8 0.25
0.20
43.90
59.21
165.30
59.90
26.62
1.58
7.32
11.54
9 0.25
0.20
45.91
67.73
105.40
38.19
16.97
1.15
8.05
9.26
10 0.25
0.20
47.56
75.29
67.21
24.35
10.82
0.81
8.86
7.22
11 0.25
0.20
48.91
81.88
42.85
15.53
6.90
0.57
9.74
5.51
12 0.25
0.20
50.01
87.56
27.32
9.90
4.40
0.39
10.72
4.13
numbersremaining=
17.42
totalweight=
15.33
value=
99.51

Therunofthemodelasshownabovecanbe regardedasthe statusquothatis,the situation


withoutanymanagementintervention.RunthemodelagainwiththefisheryclosedinApril
(equivalenttoentering F=0forage4).Thebottomrowofspreadsheetforthe newrunofthe
modelisreproducedbelow.Numbersremaininghaveincreasedfrom17.42to21.28,anincrease
of22%,totalcatchweighthasdecreased from15.33to14.89,orby 2.9%,andcatchvalue
increased from99.51to102.41,or2.9%.
numbersremaining=

21.28

totalweight=

14.89

value=

102.41

b)Thefishermenwishtoincreasetheirgearefficiency(whichwouldresultinincreasingthe
catchabilitycoefficient,q,andthereforeFby25%).However,theFisheriesAgencyisconcerned
thatthestocksarealreadyoverfished,andthebreedingstockleftaftertheendofthefishing
seasonistoosmall.Acompromise istoallowthegearchangesbuttodelayopeningthefisheryfor
twomonths. Whatchangesincatchvaluewouldresultfromthesechanges?Wouldtheaimsofthe
FisheriesAgencybeaccomplished?i.e.toreduceoverfishingandallowagreaterbreedingstock
tobepresentaftertheendofthefishingseason(afterDecember).
RunthemodelagainwithFishingmortalityincreasedtoF=0.25withAprilandMayclosed(enter
zeroincolumnCforages4and5. Thebottomrowofthenewrunofthe spreadsheetis
reproducedbelow.Numbersremaininghaveincreasedfrom17.42to18.32,anincreaseof5.2%,
totalcatchweighthasdecreasedfrom15.33to15.29,or0.3%,andcatchvaluehasincreasedfrom
99.51to110.39,or10.9%.
numbersremaining=

18.32

totalweight=

15.29

Exercise5.6
Astockofherring, Clupea harengus,hasthe followingpopulationparameters:
GrowthK=0.48yr1,W=180g,andto=0
MortalityM=0.36yr1
Criticalagestr=0.25yr,andtc=0.75yr.

value=

110.39

Constructayieldperrecruitcurvefortheherring forvaluesofF=0toF=1.0yr1,instepsof0.1.
IfF=0.6atpresent,bywhatpercentagewouldFhavetobereducedinordertomaximizeyield
andbywhatpercentagewouldyieldchangeasaresult?
Calculateyieldperrecruit(YPR)valuesforarangeafishingmortalityvalues,sayfrom F=0to
F=1instepsof0.1.Thesecanbecalculatedmanually(asshowninBox5.6)orbyusingthe
computerprogramdescribedintheAppendix,A4.11.
Themodel shownbelow hascellsreservedatthetopofthespreadsheetforgrowth,mortality and
otherconstantsequationsusedinthelowerpartofthespreadsheet.The useofabsolutereferences
tothesecellsallowsthespreadsheettobeusedfordifferentcases.
A rangeoffishingmortality(F)valuesisplacedincolumnA.ThefivetermsoftheYPRequation
(providedinBox5.6Yieldperrecruitexample)arecalculatedinseparatelyincolumnsBtoF.
Thefirstterm(incolumnB)isthenmultipliedbythesumoftheremainingfourtermstogivea
valueofYPRincolumnG.AgraphofYPRagainstFisshownontherightofthespreadsheet.As
amaximumYPRisreachedatafishingmortalityrateofF=0.4, fishingmortalitywouldhavetobe
reducedfromF=0.6orby33%tomaximiseyield.This33%decreaseinfishingeffortwouldresult
inanincreaseoffrom18.69to19.39gperrecruitorabout3.7%.
Yield per recruit
K>
Winfinity>
to>

0.48
180
0

M>
tr>
tc>

0.36
0.25
0.75

25

F
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

term 1
term 2
term 3
term 4
term 5
0.00
2.78
2.49
1.11
0.19
15.03
2.17
2.23
1.03
0.18
30.07
1.79
2.01
0.96
0.17
45.10
1.52
1.84
0.90
0.16
60.14
1.32
1.69
0.85
0.15
75.17
1.16
1.56
0.80
0.15
90.21
1.04
1.45
0.76
0.14
105.24
0.94
1.36
0.72
0.14
120.28
0.86
1.28
0.69
0.13
135.31
0.79
1.20
0.66
0.13
150.35
0.74
1.14
0.63
0.12

Y/R
0.00
11.98
16.96
18.89
19.39
19.21
18.69
18.03
17.32
16.61
15.92

yieldperrecruit(g)

20
15
10
5
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

fishingmortality

Exercise5.7
Basedonthelengthfrequencydataforthelobster,Panulirus penicillatus,thepopulation
parametersare:
Growth:
K=0.39yr1,W=1.5kg,andto=0
Mortality:
M=0.5yr1
Criticalages: tr=0.25yr,andtc=1.0yr.
IffishingmortalityispresentlyF=0.4,usethecomputerspreadsheetprogramdescribedin
AppendixA4.11toestimatethepercentagechangeinyieldthatwouldresultfromdelayingthe
lobster'sageatfirstcaptureto1.5years.
ThespreadsheetmodelusedinExercise5.6canbeusedinthisExercise.Runningtheyieldper
recruitmodel forthestatusquoatF=0.4 providesayieldperrecruit(YPR)of0.0846kg.Running
themodelagainafterincreasing theageatfirstcapture,tc to1.5yearsincreasestheyieldper
recruitto0.0919kgorbyabout9%.

Exercise5.8

Iffishingmortalityonthelobster(Exercise5.7)ispresentlyF=0.4,completeasensitivityanalysis
todetermineiftheestimationofyieldperrecruitismostsensitivetoerrorsineitherKorM.
ThisExercise examineshowtheoutputfromtheyieldperrecruit(YPR)modelisinfluencedby
varying(orgettingincorrect!)theinputparametersKandM. TheYPRmodelusedintheprevious
Exercise (5.7)canberunfirstintheunperturbedstatewiththeparameterssetasgiven thisrun
producesthecorrectYPRvalueof0.0846kgatF=0.4yr1.
ThemodelcanthenberuntorecordtheeffectsonYPRwithKunderestimatedby10%thatis
byreducingKfrom0.39to0.35yr1 andagainwithKoverestimatedbyincreasingitsvalue
from 0.39to0.43yr1.AfterreturningKtoitsoriginalvalueof0.39yr1,themodelcanberun
withMunderestimatedby10%thatisbyreducingMfrom0.5to0.45yr1 andagainwithM
overestimatedbyincreasingitsvaluefrom0.5to0.55yr1.
Thechangesinducedinyieldperrecruitvaluesby theperturbationsinthegrowthcoefficient,K,
andnaturalmortality,M,areshownin thetable below.The"correct"estimateofeachparameter
representstheunperturbedstate(zero %perturbation)andisshowninthemiddlecolumnofthe
table,wherethevalueofyieldperrecruitis0.0846kg perrecruit. The resultssuggestthattheYPR
modelisslightlymoresensitivetovariationsin(orincorrectestimatesof)thevalueofthegrowth
parameterKthanthevalueofthenaturalmortalityrateM.

percentage change in input parameters


10%
0
+10%

Parameter
Values of yield per recruit (with percentage change)

K
0.0707(16.4%)
0.0846(0%)
0.0987(16.7%)
M
0.0978(15.6%)
0.0846(0%)
0.0736(13.0%)

Exercise5.9
Atemperatewaterspeciesofherringhasthefollowingpopulationparameters:
Growthinweight
Mortality

K=0.25yr1,W =350g,andto=0
M=0.38yr1

Inasmallfishery,anaverageof1.2millionyoungherringarerecruitedattwoyearsofage,when
theyarefullyvulnerabletothefishinggear.Thecatchisessentiallymadeupofsixageclasses
(years2to7inclusive).ConstructacomputerspreadsheettablesimilartoTable5.6,andrecord
theyieldforrunsofthemodelforF=0toF=1instepsof0.1.Drawtheyieldcurve.
Aworksheetcanbearrangedasin the Table shownbelowwith thesixageclasseslistedincolumn
A.NaturalmortalityandfishingmortalityarelistedincolumnsBandC.ThevonBertalanffy
equation(Equation4.22inthebook)isusedtopredictweightincolumnD.IncolumnE,the
numberofindividualsineachageclassstartswith arecruitmentof1200000forageclass2.
Numbersineachsuccessiveageclassareestimatedusing anadaptationofEquation4.55:
Nt+1 =Nt exp[(M+F)]
whereNt isthenumberpresentinthepreviousyear,MisnaturalmortalityandFisthefishing
mortality.IncolumnFcatchnumbers,(Ct) arecalculatedby fromthecatchequation(Equation
4.66)as:

Ct =(F/Z)Nt (1exp[Zt]]
whereNt isthenumberpresentandZistotalmortality(=F+M).IncolumnG,thecatchweight
foreachageclassiscalculatedbymultiplyingindividualweight(columnD)bycatchnumbers
(columnF).Thecontribution ofcatchweightsfromallageclassesissummedatthebottomof
columnG.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
age
weight
total
catch
catch
class
M
F
(g)
numbers
numbers
weight(t)

2
0.38
0.3
21.32
1200000
261203
5.57
3
0.38
0.3
51.41
607940
132330
6.80
4
0.38
0.3
88.40
307993
67041
5.93
5
0.38
0.3
127.13
156034
33964
4.32
6
0.38
0.3
164.10
79049
17207
2.82
7
0.38
0.3
197.41
40048
8717
1.72

total>>
27.16

TheexampleshownintheabovetableisforafishingmortalityofF=0.3andthetotalyieldofall
exploitedageclassescombinedis27.16tonnes.ThecalculationscanberepeatedforarangeofF
values,sayfromF=0.1toF=1.0 instepsof0.1,and plottedasayieldcurveasshownbelow.

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Fishingmortality

Exercise5.10
BuildthesimulationmodelillustratedinFigureA4.19 inAppendix4.13 onacomputer
spreadsheetandenter aconstantfishingeffortof2000hoursinthefishingeffortcolumn.
Advisemanagersonlikelyaveragecatchratesiftheleveloffishingeffortisa)increasedby25%
andb)decreasedby25%.(Hint:runthemodel10timesforeachofthethreesituations).

Runningthesimulationprogramwith1500,2000and2500hoursofeffortprovidescatchratesof
about310,280and260kgperhourrespectively.Arunfor2500hourseffortisshownbelow.
Notethat,asthemodelisstochastic,norunsarelikelyto bethesame.
Age structured simulation model
500
1000000
0.00012
0.6
8
3
0.000001
0.6

400

age1>
age2>
age3>
age4>

mean
weight
0.73
2.73
4.65
6.01

CPUE

initialrecruitment>
catchability>
growthK>
maxweightWinf(kg)>
Rickerstockrecruitment,a>
Rickerstockrecruitment,b>
naturalmortality,M>

300
200
100
0
0

10

15

20

recruitment numbers numbers numbers spawning fishing


fishing catch weight catch weightcatch weightcatch weight catch
age 2
age 3
age 4
stock
effort
mortality
age 2
age 3
age 4
TOTAL
rate
year age 1
1
1000000
548812
301194
165299 1015305
2500
0.417
392468
367072
260422
1019963
408
2
1290063
548812
198409
108889
856109
2500
0.316
309769
190853
135402
636023
254
3
837020
708001
219663
79413 1007078
2500
0.354
440437
232879
108835
782150
313
4
916220
459366
272851
84654
816872
2500
0.215
184128
186385
74754
445267
178
5
1263002
502832
203402
120815
827049
2500
0.389
338853
233597
179364
751813
301
6
957855
693150
187092
75681
955923
2500
0.235
301099
138503
72426
512028
205
7
1169313
525682
300844
81202
907728
2500
0.231
225450
219884
76722
522056
209
8
1312461
641732
228915
131007 1001654
2500
0.201
241876
147040
108782
497698
199
9
1205501
720294
288167
102794 1111255
2500
0.362
456962
311558
143669
912188
365
10
1018296
661593
275304
110141 1047038
2500
0.301
358778
254431
131586
744795
298
11
873606
558853
268594
111768
939214
2500
0.240
247572
202779
109081
559433
224
12
1214199
479445
241301
115973
836719
2500
0.308
264801
227124
141112
633037
253
13
1285162
666367
193403
97338
957107
2500
0.338
398624
197168
128280
724072
290
14
1051142
705312
260905
75724 1041940
2500
0.185
246498
155395
58303
460195
184
15
859983
576879
321786
119033 1017698
2500
0.404
401567
381737
182544
965848
386
16
1064730
471969
211361
117898
801228
2500
0.235
205361
156730
113015
475106
190
17
1339254
584336
204757
91696
880789
2500
0.365
373415
222993
129094
725501
290
18
1214649
734998
222644
78017 1035659
2500
0.337
439259
226761
102718
768738
307
19
961041
666614
287885
87206 1041704
2500
0.236
291176
214301
83917
589394
236
20
1356453
527430
288908
124768
941106
2500
0.302
286198
267168
149153
702519
281

Exercise5.11
ChangethegraphproducedbythesimulationmodelshowninFigureA4.19toshowspawning
stocksizeoverthe20 years.Useittorecommendaleveloffishingthatwouldmaintainthe
spawningstocknumbersatlevelsabove800,000for90%ofallsimulationruns(thatis,therewill
beonlya10%riskthatspawningstocknumberswilldropbelowthislevel).
ThisExerciseisapproachedbyadaptingthegraphproducedbythesimulationmodeltoshowthe
spawningstocksizeincolumnFagainstyear(from1to20).Themodelisthenusedtotrial
differentlevelsoffishingeffort.Areasonablewaytoproceed isto starthigh(saywith 5000boat
days)anddecreaseeffortinlargesteps(sayby 500boatdays)foreachsubsequentrun.This
enablestheidentificationofanarrowerrangethatincludestheoptimumleveloffishingeffort.
Runningthemodelwithafishingeffortof5000boatdaysresultsinabout11ofthe20years(or
55%)havingspawningstocklessthan800000individuals.However,asthemodelisstochastic,
eachrun,evenwiththesamefishingeffort,canbedifferentjustbychance.Intheparticularrunof
themodelshownbelowwithalevel offishingeffortof3000boatdays,thespawningstocksize
dropsbelow8000onlytwicein20years(10%).

Age structured simulation model

year
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

1000000
0.00012
0.6
8
3
0.000001
0.6

age1>
age2>
age3>
age4>

mean
weight
0.73
2.73
4.65
6.01

spawningstock

1200000

initialrecruitment>
catchability>
growthK>
maxweightWinf(kg)>
Rickerstockrecruitment,a>
Rickerstockrecruitment,b>
naturalmortality,M>

1000000
800000
600000
400000
0

10

15

20

recruitment numbers numbers numbers spawning fishing


fishing catch weight catch weightcatch weightcatch weight catch
age 1
age 2
age 3
age 4
stock
effort
mortality
age 2
age 3
age 4
TOTAL
rate
1000000
548812
301194
165299 1015305
3000
0.425
398488
372702
264416
1035606
345
1327558
548812
196872
108045
853729
3000
0.433
404421
247239
175405
827065
276
973670
728579
195358
70080
994017
3000
0.486
589457
269358
124909
983723
328
943390
534361
245989
65958
846308
3000
0.330
313236
245739
85179
644154
215
874882
517743
210877
97075
825696
3000
0.401
358076
248550
147910
754535
252
1296415
480145
190290
77505
747940
3000
0.262
229797
155207
81720
466724
156
1214104
711488
202866
80399
994753
3000
0.310
395137
192005
98369
685512
229
1173375
666314
286443
81673 1034430
3000
0.271
329280
241239
88918
659437
220
1230490
643962
278825
119864 1042651
3000
0.370
416120
307053
170638
893811
298
974417
675307
244180
105726 1025214
3000
0.216
272558
167954
94008
534521
178
1258116
534771
298528
107943
941242
3000
0.241
238320
226726
105977
571023
190
1149736
690469
230534
128692 1049695
3000
0.349
424525
241556
174316
840396
280
1173606
630989
267383
89274
987645
3000
0.466
493634
356484
153863
1003982
335
1017155
644088
217318
92089
953495
3000
0.330
377591
217118
118935
713644
238
1341621
558227
254170
85758
898155
3000
0.284
286887
222612
97096
606595
202
837059
736297
230733
105057 1072087
3000
0.350
454560
242757
142885
840202
280
853670
459388
284651
89201
833240
3000
0.386
307514
324729
131547
763790
255
1261399
468504
171456
106240
746199
3000
0.441
350593
218658
175147
744397
248
812033
692271
165408
60533
918211
3000
0.230
295166
120190
56861
472217
157
1006530
445653
301910
72137
819700
3000
0.402
308685
356386
110079
775150
258

Chapter6.Fisheriesmanagement
ThisChapteraimstoprovidethereaderwithanunderstanding ofthemethodsusedinfisheries
management.Detailsonthecomanagementoffisheries,managementpolicies,objectivesand
strategies,referencepointsandindicators,andmanagementplansandactionsareprovided.
Managementactionsdescribedincludeinputcontrols(onfishingandfishingeffort),output
controls(onthecatch)andcontrolsto protectecosystems.

Exercise6.1
ThisExerciserelatestothedeepwatersnapperfisheryinExercise5.1inChapter5.Thepresent
costoffishingisapproximately$600pertripandthepricethatfishersreceiveforthecatchis
$3.50perkg. Graphyield(asrevenue)andfishingcostsagainsteffort,andestimatefMEY basedon
theSchaefermodel.
ThetablefromExercise5.1canbeextendedasshowninBox6.2inChapter6withadditional
columnsforcostandrevenue.IncolumnC,totalcostiscalculatedasthenumberoftrips
multipliedby $600.IncolumnD,totalrevenueisobtainedbymultiplyingcatch(inkg)multiplied
by$3.50. TherevenuecurvedataincolumnEcanbecalculatedbyusingtheSchaefermodel,
Y =(af+ bf2) $3.50,withthevaluesofaand bfromExercise5.1(465and 0.289respectively).

A
B
C
D
E
trips
tonnes
cost
revenue
curve data

106
60
63600
210000
161244

215
86
129000
301000
303367
321
110
192600
385000
418547
491
136
294600
476000
555853
540
176
324000
616000
584584
608
141
364800
493500
616416
650
155
390000
542500
631408
680
141
408000
493500
639933
885
180
531000
630000
649505
920
208
552000
728000
642651
1100
178
660000
623000
568287
1410
160
846000
560000
286705

Thegraphshownbelowisoffishingcosts(columnC)andtherevenuecurvedata(columnE)
againsttrips(columnA).Thefishingcostlinecutsthe yield(revenue)curveattheopenaccessor
breakevenpoint(fBE),whereearningsfromthecatchjustbalancefishingcosts.Profitfromthe
fisheryisatitsgreatestatthemaximumeconomicyield(MEY),wherethedistancebetweenthe
costlineandtherevenuecurveisgreatest.Attheopenaccesspoint,fishingcostsequalfishing
revenuesothat,fromEquation2inBox6.2:
fBE =[(costs/price)a]/b=[(600/3.5) 465]/0.289=1016trips.
Theleveloffishingeffortthatmaximizesprofitoccursatonehalfofthevalue,thatisfMEY = 508
trips. AlthoughthesamecaveatsforMSYholdforMEY,setting fBE asatargetfishingeffortisa
saferoptionasitismore biologically conservative thanfMSY.
800000
700000

revenue($)

600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

fishingeffort(trips)

Exercise6.2
TheFigurebelow representsthelifecycleofasnapperthatiscaughtinshorebyartisanalfishers
fromvillagesAandBusingbeachseinenets,andcaughtoffshorebylicensedcommercialfishers
usinghookanddroplinegear.TheartisanalfishersmakelargecatchesfromJanuarytoMarch
whentherearelargenumbersofsmallindividualsininshoreareas.Thecommercialfishers,from
atown15kmsouthoftheBay,fishoffshoreallyearround,butmakethehighestcatchratesin

Aprilwhennewlyrecruitedindividualsappearoffshore.FishersfromvillageBalsocatchlarger
maturefishusinghooksandlinesfromsmallboatsduringaspawningaggregationoffthePointin
October.
Catcheshavebeenfallinginboththeinshoreandoffshorefishery.Eachgroup(artisanaland
commercialfishers)blamestheotherforfallingcatchrates.Itispoliticallyundesirabletoreduce
thenumberofoffshoreboats(whicharelicensedbythegovernmentfisheriesauthority).
Proposealternativefisheriescontrolsthatcouldbeappliedtotheinshoreandoffshorefisheries.
Considerthedisadvantagesanddisadvantagesofeachandcomparetherelativecostsand
difficultiesofenforcingeachproposedregulation.Discussthepossiblesociologicalimplications
ofimposingtheregulations.

Inaddressingthisexercise,keepinmindthatfisheriesmanagementinvolvesmanagingthepeople
fishing.Thismeanscontrollingeithertheamountoffishingdoneorthequantityoffishcaughtas
well asreducingtheeffectsoffishing onmarineecosystemsandcoastalenvironments.
Notethatmostcontemporaryfisheriescontrols(eg closures,sizelimits,etc)haveanalogous
traditional controlsincludingtaboosonfishinginparticularareasandoncatchingsmallfish.
Somecontrolsaredisplayedinthetable belowbutthislistisnotexhaustive.Alsonotethat
fisheriesmanagementofteninvolvestheuseofmorethanonecontrolandthatpoliticalrealities
andsocialconsiderationsusuallyresultin compromisesbeingmade.
Fisheries control
Inshore fishery
1. Closefisheryon
spawning stockoff the
PointinOctober.

Aim (advantages)

Toallow increased
spawning success.
Toprevent recruitment
overfishing.
2.CloseBayfishery for Toallow juvenilefish to
somepartof theperiod growinsize.
JanuarytoMarch.
Toprevent growth
overfishing.
3.Imposesizelimiton Toallow juvenilefishto
fishcaughtinshore.
growin size.
4.Increaseminimum
legal meshsizein

Disadvantages/
social implications

Comments, solutions,
compromises.

VillageB isdeprived of VillageAtoallowfishersfrom


onemonthsfishing.
villageBaccesstoitsfishing
areaduringOctober.
Villagesdeprivedof
sourceoffoodand
incomeduringclosure.

Difficulttoenforce.
Reductioninavailable
food.
Toallowjuvenilefishto Easiertoenforcethan
growinsize.
sizelimitsbutwould

Notpracticablewithout an
alternativesourceoffood
supply.
Maynotbepracticablewithout
fullcommunitysupport.
Maynotbepracticablewithout
fullcommunitysupport.

beachseinenets.
Offshore fishery
5. Close commercial
offshore fisheryin
April.

reduceavailablefood.

Toallow newly
recruitedfish togrow
to amore marketable
size.
6.Reducefishingeffort Toallowmorefishto
(eg,fishingprohibited survivetoreproduce.
onweekends?).

Discontinuityofsupply
fromcommercial
fishery.

Acompromisewouldbeto
reducefishingeffortwhile the
fisharesmall (see6and7).

Reductionin
profitability.

Agencytooffercorresponding
reductioninresourcerent eg,
licencefeereductions.

7.Reduceeffective
fishingeffort(eg
restrictnumberof
hooksused).

Toallowmorefishto
survivetoreproduce.

Possiblereductionin
profitability.

Agencytooffercorresponding
reductioninresourcerent eg,
licencefeereductions.

8.Imposeminimum
allowable hooksize.

Toallowmorefishto
survivetoreproduce.

Hooks are notthat


selective. Possible
reductionin
profitability.

Agencytooffercorresponding
reductioninresource rent eg,
licencefeereductions.

Inconsideringtheoptions,includingthosesuggestedabove,issuesofcompliance andenforcement
mustbeconsidered.Ifcontrolsareimposedbynational(andoftencentralized)fisheries
authorities,thosesuchas totalclosures(asinoption 1)arerelativelyeasytoenforce,asitis
usuallyobviousifoneortwoindividualsare fishing illegally duringaclosure.However,controls
suchastheimpositionofsizelimits(asinoption2)aredifficulttoenforce asthe catchesmadeby
individualfishers,sometimesoperating overalargegeographicalarea,havetobecheckedby
enforcementofficers.
Ingeneral,with anyrestrictiononfishingeffortorcatch,itisdifficultto ensure compliance
without,atleast, publicsympathy fortheneedforrestrictionsand,atbest,fullcommunitysupport
forsuchactions.In somecasesofcommunitybasedfisheriesmanagement,forexample,controls
areimposedbythecommunityitselforitsleaders,andlevelsofcomplianceareoftenhigh.

Exercise6.3
a)Discussthreemethodsofdelayingtheageoffirstcaptureofexploitedspeciesthatis,of
protectingsmallindividualsofexploitedmarinespeciesingeneral.
1. Size limitsareoftenimposedtoprotectsmallindividuals. Theregulationinvolvesreturning
capturedindividualssmallerthanaprescribedminimum legal sizetothesea.
2.Minimummeshsizesinnets,andescapegapsintrapsareappliedinmanyfisheriestoallow
smallindividualstoescapeandgrow.
3. Fishingclosuresatthetimeofrecruitmentarealsousedtoprotectsmallindividuals.
Allthreecontrolsseektoallowanincreaseinstockbiomass(topreventgrowthoverfishing),to
allowindividualstoreachamoremarketablesize,andtoallowmoreindividualstoreachasizeat
whichtheyreproduce.
b)Whichofthethreemethodsislikelytobemostsuitableforprotectingsubadultpenaeidprawns
orshrimpsthatrecruit fromnurseryareasoverashortperiodeachyear?
1.Incommercialfisherieswherecatchesarelarge,measuringeachindividualinthecatchand
rejectingundersizeonesoftenrepresentsanunreasonableamountofadditionallabourforfishers.

Inanycase,suchcontrolsareimpracticalwherethesurvivalprospectsofreleasedindividualsare
low.
2. Restrictionsongearsizes(suchasmeshsizeinnets)theoreticallyachievethesameendsassize
limits,butpreventthefishbeingcaughtinthefirstplace.However,becauseoftheirregularshape
ofprawns,individualsareunlikely to passthroughmesheswithoutdamage.
3. Closuresatthetimeofrecruitmentmaybethebestwayofaffording protectiontosmall,newly
recruitedindividuals.Inaddition,totalclosuresarerelativelyeasytoenforce,asitisusually
obviousifavesselfishesillegally fishing duringanimposedclosure.

Exercise6.4
AspecieswithgrowthparametersK=0.3yr1 andW =900gissubjecttoanaturalmortalityofM
=0.5yr1.Theageatrecruitmentistr =1.0yearsandtheageatfirstcaptureof tc=2.5years.
Useayieldperrecruitmodel(asinFigure5.17inChapter5)toestimateF0.1 foruseasatarget
referencepoint.
Calculateyieldperrecruit(YPR)valuesforarangeafishingmortalityvalues,sayfrom F=0to
F=1instepsof0.1asshowninthetablebelow.Thesecanbecalculatedmanually(asshownin
Box5.6)orbyusingthecomputerprogramdescribedintheAppendix,A4.11.
Thethirdcolumninthetablebelowgivesthedifferenceinsuccessiveyieldperrecruitvalues
dividedbythedifferenceinF asanapproximationoftheslopeofthecurve.ThevalueofF at
whichtheslopeis0.1,or10%,oftheinitialslopeisapproximatelyF0.1 =0.65.

F
YPR
Slope

0.0
0.00

0.1
24.64
246.44
0.2
39.16
145.12
0.3
48.19
90.37
0.4
54.06
58.67
0.5
57.99
39.32
0.6
60.69
27.01
0.7
62.58
18.89
0.8
63.92
13.40
0.9
64.88
9.58
1.0
65.57
6.89

AlthoughthereisnobiologicalreasonforselectingF0.1 asareferencepoint,itiswidelyusedin
ordertoprovideabufferagainstrecruitmentoverfishingandtosecuregreaterprofitability.

Exercise6.5
UsethestochasticsimulationmodeldescribedinChapter5andAppendixA4.14(Riskassessment
model)todeterminethemaximumfishingeffortthatwouldallowthestockbiomasstoremain
above2500tonnesfor90%ofallfutureyears.
ThemodeldescribedinAppendixA4.14,canbeusedafterchangingtheentriesincolumnLofthe
spreadsheettoreadCOUNTIF(B9:K9,<2500)/10etc.Differentlevelsoffishingeffortcanthen
beenteredinthemodelandtheresultsrecordeditmustberemembered,however,that as the

modelisstochasticeachrun,evenwiththesameleveloffishingeffort,isunlikely tobethesame.
A fishingeffortofabout25000hmnd appearsto allowthestockbiomasstoremainabove2500
tonnesfor90%ofallfutureyears.