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Computer Aided Design 2011

Unit No. 1 Introduction


In general CAD/CAM has been used in different industries by different people from various fields for various applications. For example, architects will use it for drawing of maps, plans, layouts, etc. A graphic designer may use it as an tool for visualization of complex shapes and geometries in animations. A mechanical engineer may use it for the analysis of models for finite elemental analysis. A production engineer may use it to perform process planning and generate NC part program. The roots of todays CAD/CAM go back to the beginning of civilization when the mode of communication was the graphics or drawing to represent the thoughts. Some of the drawing of the ancient times can be considered as the engineering drawing. Even some work of the great painter cum draftsmen Leonardo da Vinci was considered as technical drawing. Some of his drawing showed the flow in the river and made the researchers to visualize the flow concepts. Thus from the above discussion we can say that the CAD/CAM is the advanced stage of machine drawing and design and is also used as a tool for visualization.now let define CAD CAM and CAE. CAD: - Computer Aided Design abbreviated as CAD is been defined variously by different authors. But some of the widely applicable definitions are as follows Computer aided design is the creation and development of prototype on a computer to assist the design engineer in the design process. However, the implementation of performing design process on a computer, as simplified in CAD, has been available for nearly last two decades. The term computer aided design is interpreted differently. Some define CAD as Computer Aided Design while other define it as Computer Aided Design and drafting. CAD is actually an integration of the best hardware, software and humanware. CAD may defined as a design process using sophisticated computer graphics technique, backed by computer software package, to aid in the analytical, development, costing and ergonomic problem associated with the design work. CAD if often defined in a variety of ways and includes a large range of activities. Very broadly it can be said to be the integration of computer science (or software) techniques in engineering design. At one end when we talk of modeling, it encompasses the following:
B B B B B

Use of computers (hardware & software) for designing products Numerical method, optimizations etc. 2D/3D drafting 3D modeling for visualization Modeling curves, surfaces, solids, mechanism, assemblies, etc.
[Manish V. Sharma]

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Computer Aided Design 2011


The models thus developed are first visualized on display monitors using a variety of techniques including wire frame display, shaded image display, and hidden surface removed display and so on. Once the designer is satisfied, these models are then used for various types of analysis and applications. Thus, at the other end it includes a number of analysis activities. These could be:

Stress (or deflection) analysis, i.e. numerical methods meant for estimating the behavior of an artifact with respect to these parameters. It includes tools like the Finite Element Method (FEM). Simulation of actual use Optimization Other applications like
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CAD/CAM integration Process planning

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The Design Process: - To understand computer aided design effectively one must understand the process of design itself. The design process is an iterative procedure. The steps in design as described by shigley is shown below-

A. Recognition of Need: - Recognition of need involves the realization by someone that a problem exists for which some feasible solution is to be found. This might be the identification of some defect in a current machine design activity by an engineer or the perception of a new product marketing opportunity by a salesman. B. Definition of Problem: - definition of a problem involves a thorough specification of the item to be designed. This specification will generally include functional and physical characteristics cost quality performance etc. C. Synthesis: - During ther synthesis phase of the design process various preliminary ideas are developed through research of similar product or design in use.

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D. Analysis and optimization: The resulting preliminary desuign are then subjected to the appropriate analysis to determine their suitability for the specified design constraints. If these design fails to satisfy the constraints, they are then redesigned or modified on the basis of the feedback from the analysis. This iterative process is repeated until the proposed design meets the specification or until the designer is convinced that the design is not feasible. E. Evaluation: - The assessment or evaluation of the design against the specifications established during the problem definition phase is then carried out. This often requires the fabrication and testing of a protype model to evaluate operating performance quality reliability, etc. F. Presentation: - The final phase of design process is the presentation of the design. This includes documentation of the design through drawings, material specification, assembly lists and so on. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE): - computer aided engineering is defined as product design and development philosophy that brings together all the engineering activities. The figure shows the main activities of CAE and enabling all engineering disciplines to share the database created by others

The CAD forms the subset of CAE activity. The other subset are CAM, computer aided drafting and computer aided production management, etc. improved product quality, increased market share and increased profitability depends upon efficient and effective CAE integration and implementation.
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Elements of CAD: - CAD consist of 3 levels namely drafting modeling analysis and blended of two main factors i.e. machine and human factor, working together to achieve the optimum design. The computer graphic capability and computer power allows the designer to test their ideas interactively in real time without creating a real prototype as in traditional method of design. A Human Factor: - The human factoer is the key factor in ther sucxess of CAD system. This concern the training of the designer or the engineer, without whom the CAD system becomes redundant. The trained designer may be actively involved in CAD process due to the following factors Computer Aided Analysis Computer Aided Visualization Computer Aided Synthesis
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System Factor: - The system of CAD consist of two components namely hardware and the software

The elements of CAD is shown in fig below

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Computer Aided Analysis: The computer is highly useful in solving of analytical problems consisting of higher order of variables. This is also useful to solve numerous equations in a short span of time. This not only helps design engineer to work on the analytical part but also saves time to work on the other aspects of the product. The result interpretation will also get improved if the designer is left with some more time to analyze it. Compute Aided Visualization: A designer need a better visualization to analyze the overall development of the product. A designer can visualize the product by: An automated drafting tool and presentation of graphics A means for presenting numerical data in form of graphical sheets such as graphs and pie charts Animating a product in virtual space to visualize the working of the product in actual cycle Visualizing the aesthetic look by creating a 3 Dimensional model and giving the various material properties. The effecting visualization not only saves time money effort but also improves the quality of work. The designer not only looks at product from one point but is free to look for all the possible directions. Computer Aided Synthesis: the synthesis process is carried out with the help of the computer. The preliminary design ideas for similar products are created in a common database. This common database can be used by other elements of CAE to perform the computer aided synthesis. The evaluation of the various preliminary design need to develop the various model for the problem and thus computer aided synthesis helps to develop the model in real time and evaluate the performance of the design. Engineering Application of CAD: - Following are the application of the CAD More Realistic look: - A designer may need to visualize the product in more realistic environment to understand the problems associated with the use in the working environment. Thus more realistic looking material and metals can be used in the real time in CAD. Fast Iteration: - The fast working capacity of the microprocessor enables the designer to perform the iterations very fast and thus the designer can vary the designer and can go for complex design and avoid time delay in manual working. Simulator: - The computer simulation application allows the designer to simulate the model in the working environment without actually preparing a prototype. The stress analysis of the critical part can be done in short span pf time and moere time can be given in making the critical part safe Capacity improvement: - the capacity of the designer is also improved since he can give more time on the same design with almost every aspect of quality
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Flow visualization: - The CAD can be applied for the fluid flow Visualization in the flowing turbulent flow. Mechanism Analysis: - the analysis of the mechanism for better working can be done easily. The creation of the various velocity graphs is much easier in CAD for a skilled labor. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: - (CIM) Computer integrated manufacturing is the integration of CAD/CAM with the business functions of an organization. In other words we can say that joining of the CAD/CAM with market planning is Computer integrated manufacturing. The figure shows CIM.

Necessary and Importance of CAD: Importance of Colored over black & white images It is always advisable to use the colored images over the black and white images. Necessity of 3D over 2D 3D gives the better visuialization over the 2D images Standard application programming interfaces (APIs) such as Microsoft DirectX and Open GL provide libraries of common graphics operation that allows user and developers to incorporate many more realistic effects into their application

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Characteristics of a good CAD software:A) Efficiency:- An Efficient software is that which can use the resources such as CPU in terms of time and useage B) Simplicity:- A software must be simple tuse and easy to understand and be user friendly C) Flexibility: - The software must be able to incorporate the design modification with out much of difficulty. D) Readability:- This provides the capability within the software to help the user as and when required E) Portability: - the software must have the capcity to get transferred from one su\ystem to other F) Reliability: - to avoid causality the software must be able to avoid unwanted operation G) Recoverability: - A good software musty be able to give warnings before getting crash.

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