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ASCB7-98

6.0 WIND LOADS

~lUre of 10 IW (0.48 kN/m2)ICUngin eidlerdirectionnonnalto d)C.urflCe.

6.1 GENERAL
6.1.1 Scope Buildings and other structures.including the main wind force resisting systcm and 811 components and cladding thereof, shall he designedand constnlcted to resist wind loads as specified herein. 6.1.2 AUowed Procedures The design wind loads tor buildings and other stlUctures,including the main wind force ~isting system and componentand cladding elementsthereof. shall be detennined using one of the following procedu~: (1) Method I-Simplified Procedureas specified in Section 6.4 Cafbuildings meeting the requirements specified therein; (2) Method 2-AnalyticaJ Procedureas specified in Section 6.5 Corbuildings meeting [he requirementsspecified therein; and (3) Method 3-Wind Thnnel Procedureas specified in Section 6.6. 6.1.3 Wind Pressura Acting on Opposite Fata of Eac:h Building Surface In (he calculation of design wind loads tor the main wind force ~sisting system and tor components and cladding tor buildings. the aIgebraicsum of the p~ssures acting on opposite faces of each building surface shall be taken into account 6.1.4 Mluimum DesIgn Wlnd Loading The design wind load. detennined by any one of the proceduresspecified io Section 6.1.2. shatl he Dot less than specified in this section. 6.1.4.1 Main Wind Force Rnisting S,"'UnI The wind load to he used in the design of the main wind force resisting system for an enclosedor partially enclosed building or other structure shall not he less than 10 lb/ft2 (0.48 kN/m; multiplied by the area of the building or structure projected onto a vertical plane Donna] to the assumedwind direction. The design wind force for open buildings and other structuresshall he nO( less than 10 lW (0.48 kN/m; multiplied by the areaAf' 6.1.4.2 Compollellts alld C/addill' The design wind pressuretor componentsand cladding of buildings shall be not less ihan a net

6.2 DEFINITIONS
The following definilions apply only to (he provisions of Section 6: Approved: Acceptable to the authority having jurildiction. Baslc \riDd Speed,V: 3-secondgust speedat 33 ft (10 m) above!he groundin Exposure C (seeSection 6.5.6.1) as detennined in accordancewith Sectioo 6.5.4. BuJIdiaa, enclOled: A building that does nol comply with the.~uirements tor open or partially enclosedbuildings. BaiIdIuc eDveiope: Cladding, roofing, exterior walli, glazing, door usemblies, wiodow assemblies, skylight assemblies, and other componentsenclosing the building. Bldldilll 8Dd otber ItnIctul'e, fteDble: Slender buildings and other struchlres that bave a fundamentaI natura1frequency less than l Hz. BIdIdJDIf Iow-riae: Enclosed or partia1Iyenclosed building. which comply with both of the following conditions: 1. mean roof height h 1essihan or equal ta ~ ft (18 m); and 2. mean roof height h does not exceed least horizontai dimension. BuiIdin&, open: A building having each wall at least 80% open. This condition is expressedtor each

wall by the equation A. ~ 0.8 A. where: A. = tOCal ~


A. of openings in a wall that receives positive extemal pressure,in fr (mz) Che gross area of d1atwall in which A. is identified, in rr (m1)

Building, partiaUy endosed: A building which complies with both of the following conditions: 1. the totaJarea of openings in a wall that receives positive extcmaJpreslure excecdsd1elum af d1e areasof openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by m~ than 10%, and 2. the tota1area af openings in a wall that receives

positiveexternal pressure excecds 4 ft2 (0.37 m1


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LOADS R)R

BUn..DINOS

ANn

(7nIBR

STRUCI'URBS

I ~ of thc uea of d'8t wall. whiclleveria . 1maUer, lDd dIe percentapof openin,. in d1e balanceof the buildingenvelope doesnot exceed 20lIl. Theae condiuons areexpreSlcd by d1e following equationa : 1. A. > 1.10.4.

GI8II8I. laa-ct r-.e.t: alainl which hu beenIIIown by an approved teit medtod to wiChlland
Ibe ilnPKt of wind bCK'ne missiJeslikely ta be generIted in wind bome debril ~gionl durin, deaisn winds. B1D: With reapectta toPOIrapi1ic effectl in Scction 6.S.7. a land lurf~ cbII8Cterizedby Ibong ~lief in any horizonta! direction (~ Ml. 6.2). Hunic8De proae 0..: Areas vulnerable to hurricanes;in dte Uniled Statesand its tenitories defined u: 1. (he U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coastswhere (he buic wind apeedia glUter dlan 90 mph. and 2. Hawaii. Puerto Rico. Guam. Virxin Islands, and American Samoa. ~~ ~at COftrfDl: A covering desisned ta pro~ g1azing.whicb hu been shown by an approved teat mcdtOO to witbstand (he impect of wind borne rniuiJes likely ta be geoeratedin wind txJme debris ~gions during design winds. 1mport8ace factor, 1: A fk:tor thal accountsfor the de~ of hazard ta human life and damage to property. MaIa wiad.rorce ~-!!g syltem: An usemblage of atrucblra1 el~ts usigned to provide support and atability for the overaJl slnlCture.The ayatem gener.ily ~vea wind lo8dina from ~ tb8Dooe surf~. Meaa rooI belPt, h: The averageof (he roof eave beight and (he beight to dte highest point on dte roof surf~, except daat,for roof angles of less Ihan or equal ta 10, the mean roof beigi1tshaJlbe the roof beave heighl O~--: Apertures or holes in dIe building envelope which allow sir ta ftow through (he building enveiope and whicb ue designeciII ..~., during desisn winds u defined by d1ese provisions. ~~~ UteratuR: Publishcd ~h findings and technical papen lha1 ue approved. Ridp: With reapectto topolr8phic effects in Section 6.S.7 an eloogated crest of a hill chancterized by slroog ~Iief in two directions (see Pig. 6.2). WInd bome debrls regloas: Areas within hurricane prone regions localed. 1. within one mile of (he couta! mean high watcr lme where (he buic wind Speedis equal ta or greatcr tban 110 mph and in Hawaii; or 2. in ~ where d1ebuic wind speedis equal ta or greatcr dtan 120 mph.

2. A. > 4 rt2(0.37m2)or >O.OIArwhichever is


smaIler, andA.IA" s 0.20 where: A.. A, are u definedtor OpenBuilding A. . dIe sum of dIe lreaI af openinSI in dte
building envelope (walli and roof) not including A.. in rt2 (m2) Ali = dIe sum of dIe 81'0'1swfKe areu of dte building envelope (walls and roof) not including A,. in ft2 (m2) Bu1Idin& or o&berltnd8R, rrcuJar lbapeci: A building or od1erstnJcturehavins no unusual Se<>metricaJin'egularity in spatial fonn. BIdIdiDa or otber ltnId8res, rllid: A buildinS or other Itructure whose fundameotalfialucocy is gJQter than or equaJto I Hz. BalldiDa. 8IDpIe dllPbl'8llD: An enclosed or partially enclosedbuilding in which wind loads ale b'alWnitted Ihrough ftoor and roof diapbragms ta me vel1icaJmain wind force resisting systcm. Compoaeatl aDd Elementl of dIe ColDpODeDta and d8ddiq: d8ddiDl: Elcments dte building cnvclopc that do not qualify 8Spart of w main wioo-fon:e reliltin. Iyltem. DesIp loiU, F: Equivalent ltatic fon:e ta be used in dte detennination of wind loads for ~ building' and other structure,. DeIiID p~ p: Equivalent static presswe ta be used in thc detennination of wind lOIdI tor Elrective wIad ana: The area used ta detennine GC,. Por component and cladding elementl. the effective wind ~ in Fiss. 6-S through 6-8 is the span length multiplied by an effcctive width that oecd nol be less than one-third the span length. For cladding fulenen. the effective wind area Ihall naI be greater than the area thaI is tributary to an individual fastener. Elcarpalmt: A1so Down as scarp. widl ~pect to topographic effects in Section 6.S.7. . cliff or steep Ilope generally scparatiDS two levels or gently slopinS ~. GIuJq: Olus or tranlparalt or ttanllucent plastic sheet used in windoWI. ckJon, CKakylilhtJ. 7A

41

MIN1MUMDESION LOADS ~

BUIl.DINOSANO ontER STRUcroRES


\

42

ASCE7-98

"

43

MINIMUM DESIGNWADS ~

BUD.DINOS AND 0t1IBR STRUcroRES

b ~ 60 n. Fllure 6-5A Exta'DaI P.-n t:: '~~ii, EnclOled. PaniaOyEnelOled BuDdlnp Waits

"

MlNIMUM ~JGN

LOADSR)R BUIlDINOS AND onIBR STRUC11JRES

62

MINlMUM DBSION LOADS R>R BUD.DINOS AND O'I1IBR STR UcruRES R, . -1 - - 1 (1 '7 2'"

- e-2") fOl''1 > 0

(Eq.6-i .a)

regions shallbe impactresistant glazingor protected


with an impact ~sistant covering, or such glazing that receivespositive extemal shall be assumed to be openings. 6.5.9.4 Mllidpl. CIas'~GIioIU If a building by definition complies with both the "open" and "partiaJly encloscd" definitions, it shall he classified as an "open" building. A building that does not comply with either the "open" or "paltially enclosed" definitions shall he classified as an "enclosed" building. 6.5.10 Velodty Pre88ure Velocity pressure,q" evaluatedat height z shall he calculatedby the following equation: q, . ().00256K,K..K"V21 (Ib/fr) [in SI: q, = 0.613K,K.,K.,V21 (N/mz) where K" is the wind directionality factor defined in Section 6.5.4.4, K. is the velocity pressureexposure coefficient defiDedin Section 6.5.6.4, K" is the tapogr3phic factor defined in Section 6.5.7.2, and q. is the velocity pressurecalculated using Eq. 6-13 at mean roof hcight h. The numericaJcoefficient 0.00256 (0.613 in SI) shall he usedexcept whcre sufficient climatic data are available to justify the selection of a dift'erent value of this factor tor a design application. (Eq.6-13)

R,= I for'1=O

(Eq.6-llb)

wheredte subscript t in Eq. 6-11 shall be takenash, B, andL respectively.

n, =building naturaJf~uency;
Rf

= Rio setting

11

= 4.6n.hl9i;

Rf = R. setting 11= 4.6n.BIV-; Rf = RL setting 11= IS.4n\U9i; .B =damping ratio, pen:ent ot critical h, B, L are deVi =mean hourly wind speed(tt/S) al height i deterfined in Section 6.3; and

minedfrom Eq. 6-12. Vi = b

(~). V(~)

(Eq.6-12)

where b and ale consrantslisted jn Table 6-4 and


V is the basic wind specd io mph.

6.5.8.3 R4Iio1lal AlIaly.ris Jn lieu of tbe proced~ defined in Sections 6.5.8.1 and 6.5.8.2. detenninaaon of Che gust effect factor by any rationaI analysis defined in Che recognized litera~ is pennitted. 6.5.8.4 UmiIGtions Where combined gust effect factors and pressure coefficients (GC,. GC,.. and GC,,> are given in figures and tables. d1egust effect factor shall not he determined separately. 6.5.9 Enclosure CIa.uificatiODS 6.5.9.1 General For the pwpose of detennining intemal pressure coefficients, all buildings shaJlhe classified as enclosed, paJtially eocloscd, Dr open as defined in Secbon 6.2. 6.5.9.2 Openings A detennination shall he made of me arnount of openings in chebuilding envelope in order to deterroine cheenclosure classification as defined in Section 6.5.9.1.

6.5.11Pressure and Fon:e


6.5.11./lnUmal pT.u",. Co..o;ci6n1s lntemal pressurecoefficients, GC,I' shall be detennined from Table 6-7 basedon building enclosure

classifications detennined from Section 6.S.9. 6.5.JJ.J.J Reductionfactor tor large volume
building!. R; For a partially cnclosedbuilding containing a single, unpartitioned large volume, the intemal pressure coefficient, GC". shall he multiplied by the fol-

lowing reduction factor,R;:

+
R1= 1.0 or R1= O.S (1

1 '. +

6.5.9.3WindBorn. D.brls GJazing in the Jower 60 ft (18.3m) of Category II. 111, or IV buildingssitedin wind bornedebris
30

,,1 T22:~ ..

-L

s 1.0

(Eq.6-14)

ASCE7-98

where
.4..

totaI aIea of openings in dte building envelope (walls and roof. in rt2); V,D unpartitioned intemal volume, in ft'.

6.5.12.1.2 CrlticallOdd condltion Values af extemal and internaI prcssurcsshall be combined algebraically ta detennine the most critical load. 6.5.12./.3 Tributary anas gnater Ihan 700 Jf (65 m2J Component and cladding elementswith tributary areasgreatcr than 700 ft2 (65 m~) shall be pennitted ta be designedusing the provisions tor main wind force resisting systems. 6.5.12.2 Main Forcl RI,iltinr Synlm'

6.5.11.2 Ext.ntal Pr6Slun CHfficUlIb 6.5.J J.2.J Main wind force ~sisting systems Extemal p~W'e coefficients tor main wind f~e resisting systemsC, ~ given in Pig. 6-3 and Table 6-8. Combined gust effect factor and extemal pressW'e coefficients. GC, ~ given in Pig. 6-4 for low-rise buildings. The press~ coefficient values and gust effect factor in Pig. 6-4 shall not he separated. 6.5.J J.2.2 ComponentsoM cladding Combined gust effcct f8CtOrand extemal p~s~ coefficienrs for componentsand cladding GCp are given in Figs. 6-5 through 6-8. The pressurecoefticient values and guat eft'ect factor sball not be

6.5./2.2./ Rigid buildings 0/ all /leights Design wind pressures tor the main wind force resisting sysle~ af buildings of afl heights shall be detcrmined by the following equation:

p =qGC,

- q,(GC1i)(Ib/fr)

(N/m1

(Eq.6-15)

separated.
6.5.11.3 Forc, Coefficilllb Fon:e coefficients C1are given in Tables 6-9 d1rough6-13. 6.5.11.4 ROD/OJIerhangl

q = q, tor windwud walls evaluated at height l


above the ground; q = q. tor leewud waIls, side walls, and roofs, evaJuated at height h; q/ = q. tor windwud walls, side waIls, leeward walli, and roofl of enclosedbuildings and tor negative intcmaI pressureevaluation jn paniaIly enclosedbuildings; q, = q, fOl' positive intemal pressureevaluation in partially enclosedbuildings where height z is defined as the level of the highest opening in
~LL__""'-~L_. ,.. ~ -'----,"'--,-

6.5.J J .4. J

Main wind-force ~sisting syslem Roof overhangsshall he designecifor a positive pressureon the bottom surface of windwanJ roof overhangscorresponding to C, = 0.8 in combination with dJe pressuresdetennined from using Fip. 6-3 Q...f~