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Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
Optimal design of a high-speed slotless permanent magnet
synchronous generator with soft magnetic composite
stator yoke and rectier load
Ahmed Chebak

, Philippe Viarouge, Jrme Cros


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, QC, G1K 7P4, Canada
Received 16 October 2008; received in revised form 6 April 2010; accepted 9 May 2010
Available online 24 May 2010
Abstract
This paper presents a specific design methodology of a DC generation system using a high-speed slotless generator with surface-
mounted magnets and soft magnetic composite (SMC) stator yoke connected to a rectifier. The method is based on an analytical
design model of the machine, an electrical model of the machinerectifier system and a non-linear optimization procedure. The
coupling between both models is achieved by a specific correction mechanism during the iterative process that performs an efficient
convergence of the optimization procedure. The machine design model is derived from an analytical computation of the two-
dimensional magnetic field distribution created by the magnets, the armature currents and the stator eddy currents that circulate in
the SMC material. It has been cross-validated by 2D finite element analysis. The design approach is applied to the specifications
of a 1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm slotless permanent magnet generator with a rated DC output voltage of 1500 V.
2010 IMACS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: High-speed generation system; Permanent magnet machine; Optimal design; Soft magnetic composite material; Eddy currents
1. Introduction
High-speed slotless permanent magnet (PM) generators can be interesting for gas turbine driven generation systems
due to their high power density, high efciency and small size. These systems can be embedded in many applications
such as aircraft, hybrid vehicles, ships, and total energy units [8,7]. With a high-speed slotless generator, a direct
coupling to the gas turbine can be performed without gearbox. The stator and rotor magnetic losses due to the slotting
effects are reduced and the cogging torque is also eliminated [11,1]. In this paper, the DC generation system presented
in Fig. 1 is using a high-speed slotless machine with a stator yoke made of soft magnetic composite (SMC) material
and connected to a controlled bridge rectier. The rotor of the synchronous machine is equipped with surface-mounted
magnets (Fig. 2). The rectier is delivering the active power to the load through a LClter. The integrated design of such
a generation system is a complex problem because there is a strong coupling between the machine and the converter
performances that are inuenced by the high frequency current commutation in the rectier. The armature current and

Corresponding author. Permanent address: Dpartement de Maths-Info et Gnie, Universit du Qubec Rimouski, 300 alle des Ursulines,
Rimouski, QC, G5L3A1, Canada. Tel.: +1 418 723 1986x1876/656 2131x7139; fax: +1 418 724 1879/656 3159.
E-mail addresses: ahmed chebak@uqar.qc.ca, ahmed.chebak.1@ulaval.ca (A. Chebak), philippe.viarouge@gel.ulaval.ca (P. Viarouge),
jerome.cros@gel.ulaval.ca (J. Cros).
0378-4754/$36.00 2010 IMACS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.matcom.2010.05.002
240 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
Fig. 1. High-speed DC generation unit using a controlled rectier.
the DCoutput voltage waveforms highly depend on the transient impedance of the machine. This impedance is complex
in SMC machines because the eddy currents induced in this kind of magnetic material are not independent of the stator
yoke geometry like in laminated yokes [2]. On one hand, the machine transient impedance has a great inuence on the
average output DC voltage of the generation unit. On the other hand, the generator performances in terms of torque
and losses highly depend on the harmonic content of the armature currents. Consequently, the design process of such
a generation unit must use a specic methodology to take the strong machineconverter coupling into account.
In this paper, the authors present a design methodology of this kind of generation unit. It is based on an analyt-
ical design model of the machine, an electrical model of the machinerectier system and a non-linear constrained
optimization procedure. The coupling between both models is achieved by a specic correction mechanism during
the iterative process that performs an efcient convergence of the optimization procedure towards an optimal design
solution. The machine design model is derived from an analytical computation of the two-dimensional magnetic eld
distribution created by the magnets, the armature currents and the stator eddy currents that circulate in the SMC mate-
rial. It has been cross-validated by 2D nite element (FE) analysis. The design approach is applied to the specications
of a 1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm slotless PM generator with a rated DC output voltage of 1500 V.
2. Generator analytical design model
The generator design model is using the analytical modeling method of high-speed slotless PM machines that is
detailed in [2]. It has been adapted in this paper for the generator operation and several post-processors have been added
to compute specic machine performances. The model is based on the computation of the magnetic eld distribution
that is derived from the 2D analytical solution of the Maxwells equations in the magnets/air-gap/windings/stator core
regions of the slotless machine structure presented in Fig. 2. The model is formulated in polar coordinates and it takes
into account the stator eddy currents and the time and space harmonics of the magnetic eld. In this study, the following
assumptions are made:
The motor axial length is innite, i.e., the end-effects are negligible and the induced eddy currents are axially
directed.
The magnetic saturation and the hysteresis phenomena are absent.
The stator material permeability
s
and conductivity
s
are constant, isotropic and homogeneous.
Fig. 2. Structure of a 4 poles slotless PM generator with SMC stator yoke.
A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 241
The rotor iron core is innitely permeable.
The eddy currents in the magnets and in the rotor yoke are neglected.
The magnet retaining sleeve is non-conductive and non-magnetic.
2.1. Calculation of the magnetic eld distribution
The magnetic eld distribution in the generator structure is calculated separately as a superposition of the no-load
magnetic eld produced by the magnets and the armature reaction eld produced by the windings currents in terms
of potential vectors A
m
and A
s
, respectively. A general representation of the magnetization vector is used that is
applicable to radial or parallel magnetized magnets and discrete Halbach arrays, where the magnet permeability can
be different from
0
. The stator windings distribution is modeled for generalized balanced three-phase windings with
nite thickness [6]. In order to compute the magnetic elds, the generalized form of the diffusion equation that takes
into account the eddy current effects is applied [5]:

2
A = J
s
+
_

A
t
+V ( A)
_
+
0
M (1)
where J
s
is the winding currents density, Vis the circumferential speed of the conductive region, Mis the magnetization
vector, and are, respectively, the permeability and the conductivity of each material.
The no-load eld is derived by applying (1) in each region i of the generator structure (Fig. 2). By using the variable
separation resolution method, the general solutions in the rotor coordinates and in the four regions can be expressed in
terms of complex form of Fourier series:
A
(I)
m
(r,
r
) =
+

k=
_

A
(I)
m,k
r

+

B
(I)
m,k
r

+

S
k
(r)
_
exp
jkp
r
(2)
A
(i=II,III)
m
(r,
r
) =
+

k=
_

A
(i)
m,k
r

+

B
(i)
m,k
r

_
exp
jkp
r
(3)
A
(IV)
m
(r,
r
) =
+

k=
_

A
(IV)
m,k
I

_

m,k
r
_
+

B
(IV)
m,k
K

_

m,k
r
_
_
exp
jkp
r
(4)
with:

S
k
(r) =

0
jkp

M
r,k


M
,k
1
2
r if = |k|p / = 1

0
jkp

M
r,k


M
,k
2
r ln (r) if = |k|p = 1
(5)
where I

and K

are modied Bessel functions of the rst and second kind of order , with
2
m,k
= jkp
0

rs

s
.
p is the number of pole-pairs, is the rotor speed, and
rs
and
s
are the relative permeability and the conductivity
of the SMC material, respectively.

M
r,k
and

M
,k
are the complex Fourier coefcients of the radial and tangential
components of the magnetization vector distribution.

A
(i)
m,k
and

B
(i)
m,k
are constant coefcients that can be determined
by the boundary conditions, given by:
H
(I)

(r,
r
) |
r=R
ro
= 0
H
(i)

(r,
r
) |
r=R
i+1
= H
(i+1)

(r,
r
) |
r=R
i+1
B
(i)
r
(r,
r
) |
r=R
i+1
= B
(i+1)
r
(r,
r
) |
r=R
i+1

for i = I, II, III


A
(I)
m
(r,
r
) |
r=R
so
= 0
(6)
where B and H are the ux density and the magnetic eld strength, respectively.
242 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
The same computation method is used to predict the armature reaction eld produced by the stator currents. The
derivation of the total currents density for the three-phase stator windings under steady-state operation is described in
[2]. It can be generalized in the following complex form in the stator reference frame:
J
s
(
s
, t) =
+

k=
+

h=

3
4

k

I
h
exp
j(kp
s
+hpt
h
)
if k +h = 3l, l Z (7)
where
k
are the Fourier coefcients of the winding density distribution, k is the order of the odd space-harmonics.

I
h
and
h
are the amplitude and the phase angle of the stator current nontriplen odd time-harmonics of order h.
By applying (1) in each region of the generator, the following solutions are obtained:
A
(i=I,II)
s
(r,
s
, t) =
+

k=
+

h=
_

A
(i)
s,k,h
r

+

B
(i)
s,k,h
r

_

J
k,h
exp
j(kp
s
+hpt
h
)
(8)
A
(III)
s
(r,
s
, t) =
+

k=
+

h=
_

A
(i)
s,k,h
r

+

B
(i)
s,k,h
r

+R
p,k,h
(r)
_

J
k,h
exp
j(kp
s
+hpt
h
)
(9)
A
(IV)
s
(r,
s
, t) =
+

k=
+

h=
_

A
(IV)
s,k,h
I

_

s,k,h
r
_
+

B
(IV)
s,k,h
K

_

s,k,h
r
_
_

J
k,h
exp
j(kp
s
+hpt
h
)
(10)
where
2
s,k,h
= jkp
0

rs

s
and

J
k,h
= (3/4)
k

I
h
. R
p,k,h
(r) is a particular solution of the eld problem in the
winding region that can be expressed as:

R
p,k,h
(r) =

0
r
2
4
2
if = |k|p / = 2

0
r
2
ln (r)
4
if = |k|p = 2
(11)
The constant coefcients

A
(i)
s,k,h
and

B
(i)
s,k,h
can be derived by using the same boundary conditions given in (6).
From the knowledge of the resultant magnetic eld in terms of total potential vector A
tot
= A
m
+A
s
, all elec-
tromagnetic characteristics required for the design model such as magnetic eld density, torque, losses, e.m.f. and
inductances can be derived. As an example, the calculated radial and tangential components of the ux density due
to the magnets and the stator currents are reported in Fig. 3 for a typical 4 poles, 1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm slotless PM
generator equipped with radial magnetized magnets. The results have been also validated by 2D time-stepping FE
analysis by assuming that the magnetic saturation of materials is negligible. One can notice an excellent agreement
between the two calculation methods.
2.2. Generator losses computation
2.2.1. Stator magnetic losses
The stator magnetic losses in the SMC material can be derived from the distribution of the resultant electromagnetic
eld calculated under generator full-load operation [3]. One assumes that they can be separated into eddy current losses
component and hysteresis losses component. The eddy current losses are computed by using the Poyntings vector
method in the stator reference system [10]:
P
EC
=
1
2
_
2
0
___
(S)
Real
_

_
d

S
_
dt (12)
where E and H are the resultant electric and magnetic elds, = p is the angular frequency and S is the integration
surface located at the inner radius of the stator core. The resultant electric eld is axially directed and can be determined
A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 243
Fig. 3. Flux density components due to magnets (a) and armature currents (b) at inner radius of the winding (analytical model vs. FE analysis
results).
form the total potential vector A
tot
in the SMC stator yoke region:

E =
A
(IV)
tot
(r,
s
, t)
t
=
A
(IV)
m
(r,
s
, t)
t
+
A
(IV)
s
(r,
s
, t)
t
(13)
The eddy current loss computation has been also veried by using a second method based on the integration of the
resultant eddy current density over the stator core volume.
The hysteresis losses are calculated by a specic postprocessor based on an analytical expression of the SMC
hysteresis loss density [4]:
P
H
_
W/kg

= C
m
B
x
max
f (14)
where f is the electric frequency, C
m
and x are specic SMC material coefcients and B
max
is the amplitude of the
full-load stator core ux density over one steady-state period. The stator core is split in small rings. For each ring
average radius, B
max
is derived from the resolution of the magneto-dynamic Eq. (1). The total hysteresis losses are
then computed by integration on the volume of the stator core.
Fig. 4 presents the variations of the stator magnetic losses components vs. rotor speed for the optimized slotless PM
generator (1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm) described in Table A.1 of Appendix A, where the 51 rst time and space harmonics
are taken into account (k = h = 51). The analytical computation of the eddy current losses is also validated by FE
simulations. One can notice that the eddy current losses remain more signicant than the hysteresis losses in this high
power machine despite the use of a less conductive SMC material. An opposite result has been obtained for low power
slotless PM machines [2,3].
244 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
Fig. 4. Variation of stator magnetic losses with rotor speed.
2.2.2. Copper losses
A conventional approach is used to compute the copper losses in the windings as a sum of two components: the
RI
2
losses corresponding to the winding DC resistance R and the eddy current losses due to proximity effect resulting
from the magnet movement. The skin effect is neglected since Litz wire will be used, with a suitable strand radius r
LZ
lower than the skin depth corresponding to the operation frequency. The average of the extra eddy current losses per
volume for round wire can be written as the summation over the space frequency components [1]:
P
E
=
+

k=1
_

B
2
r,k
+

B
2
,k
_
k
2

2
r
2
LZ
8
c
(15)
where

B
r,k
and

B
,k
are the peak values of the ux density of the k th space-harmonic radial and tangential components,
respectively, and
c
is the copper resistivity.
2.2.3. Mechanical losses
The windage losses of the rotating rotor are derived from the drag torques of a rotating cylinder and a rotating disk
corresponding to the rotor ends, respectively. The corresponding losses are:
P
F
= C
F

3
R
4
o
L (16)
P
F,end
=
1
2
C
F,end

3
_
R
5
o
R
5
i
_
(17)
where C
F
and C
F,end
are specic friction coefcients [9]. is the density of the uid. R
o
and R
i
are the outer and the
inner radius of the rotor, and L is the length of the cylinder.
2.3. Torque computation
The generator instantaneous electromagnetic torque is determined by integrating the Maxwell Stress Tensor along
the air-gap:
T
em
(t) = r
o

0
__
(S

)
H
r
H

dS

(18)
where S

is an integration surface that can be located at any radius r


o
in the air-gap region. H
r
and H

are the radial


and tangential components of the resultant magnetic eld. This torque takes into account the interaction between the
magnets, the armature currents and the eddy currents induced in the stator yoke. The average electromagnetic torque can
be derived from the combinations of the time and space harmonics that are synchronous with the rotor, i.e. k +h = 0.
A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 245
Fig. 5. Instantaneous electromagnetic torque and its average value.
The torques corresponding to the hysteresis losses and the mechanical losses are added to the average electromagnetic
torque to get the input generator torque delivered by the gas turbine.
Fig. 5 depicts a comparison between the instantaneous electromagnetic torque calculated by the analytical method
and that computed by the time-stepping FE analysis for the current waveformand magnets of the optimized slotless PM
generator. The average value of the electromagnetic torque is also presented. One can notice a good correspondence
between the results obtained by the two calculation methods.
2.4. Generator equivalent electrical circuit
The electrical parameters of the generator single phase equivalent circuit must be derived fromthe machine analytical
model and transferred to the electrical model of the machinerectier system to perform the simulations of the whole
generation system. The e.m.f. is computed from the analytical resolution of the magnetic eld by taking the effects of
harmonics into account. The inductance is calculated for each space and time-harmonic. Fig. 6 presents the variations
of the machine inductance vs. frequency for the optimal generator characteristics (Table A.1). One can notice that the
inductance corresponding to each current time-harmonic is nearly constant in the frequency domain. According to this
result, we assume that the inductance of the equivalent circuit is constant. The stator phase resistance is derived from
the stator dimensions and it also takes into account the effects of the extra eddy current losses. The generator equivalent
Fig. 6. Frequency response of the generator inductance.
246 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
Fig. 7. Inputs and outputs of the generator analytical design model.
circuit is assumed to be composed of a non-sinusoidal voltage source corresponding to the e.m.f. connected in series
with the stator inductance and resistance.
The input and output variables of the generator analytical design model are presented in Fig. 7. The geometrical
dimensions, the structural parameters (i.e. number of poles, number of slots, ...), the speed, a corrected value K
c(i)
V
do
of
the specied rated DCoutput voltage V
do
and the harmonic content of the armature currents (amplitude and phase angle)
are the main input variables. K
c(i)
is a variable input correction factor that is used to implement the correction mechanism
of the couplingbetweenthe machine analytical designandthe electrical model of the machinerectier systemdescribed
in the next paragraph. The performances in terms of torque and losses, the equivalent circuit parameters, the output DC
voltage V
di
computed by the model are the main output variables. It must be noticed that any stator current waveform
can be imposed in the generator analytical design model in terms of fundamental and time-harmonics.
3. Electrical model of the generation system
The electrical model of the whole generation system is presented in Fig. 8: it is composed of the generator electrical
equivalent circuit linked to the rectier circuit. For simplication purpose, the rectier output circuit is modeled with
a current source I
do
(specied rated DC current of the generation unit). One assumes that the output current ripple
is negligible according to a suitable choice of the LC lter inductance. The electrical circuit of Fig. 8 is simulated
in Matlab/Simulink and an FFT analysis of the steady-state current and voltage waveforms is performed. The output
variables of this electrical model are the harmonic content of the armature currents and the rectier output DC voltage
V
dsim
that takes the inuence of the current commutation into account. These variables are used to performthe correction
mechanism of the coupling between both design models.
4. Optimization design process
The generator analytical design model and the electrical model of the generation system have been implemented in
a same design environment with a non-linear constrained optimization procedure. The owchart of the optimal design
process including the iterative correction mechanismof the coupling between both design models is presented in Fig. 9.
In a rst step, the main requirements of the generation system are derived from the specications of the application:
unit output power P
out
, generator speed , specied rated DC output voltage V
do
, overall dimensional constraints
of the generator, magnet characteristics, winding conguration, number of slots and poles, lling factor and material
data. The initial set of amplitude and phase angle of the armature current harmonics corresponds to a square armature
current waveform (instantaneous current commutation) and the initial correction factor is set to K
c(1)
= 1.
Fig. 8. Inputs and outputs of the electrical model of the generation system.
A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 247
Fig. 9. Design optimization method with correction mechanism.
In the next step, the generator design is performed by solving a nonlinear constrained optimization problem for the
given set of amplitude and phase of the armature current harmonics and correction factor value. The optimization state
variables are the main dimensions dened in Fig. 2 and some structural and winding parameters:
The rotor yoke inner radius R
ri
.
The rotor yoke thickness h
r
.
The magnet thickness h
m
.
The mechanical air-gap e.
The windings thickness h
w
.
The stator yoke thickness h
s
.
The stator axial length l.
The magnet width to pole pitch ratio .
The number of turns per phase N
sp
.
The objective function to be minimized is related to the materials cost:
Obj = 10P
mag
+7P
copp
+P
iron
(19)
where P
mag
, P
copp
and P
iron
are the magnet, copper and SMC weights, respectively.
Several constraints are imposed:
Magnet demagnetization constraints: the PM demagnetization is calculated at the inner and outer magnet radius for
the worst-case of armature demagnetizing reaction. The PM demagnetization limit is 0.3 T at 125

C for the selected


magnet material.
248 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
Table 1
DC voltages and correction factors.
i = 1 i = 2 i = 3 i = 4 i = 5
V
do
[V] 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
V
di
[V] 1515.8 1754.4 1813.6 1827 1826.8
V
dsim
[V] 1296 1451 1489 1501 1500
K
c(i)
1 1.1696 1.2091 1.218 1.2172
K
c(i+1)
1.1696 1.2091 1.218 1.2172 1.2172
Loss constraint: a maximal value of generator losses is imposed according to the specied cooling system perfor-
mance (water cooling system).
Mechanical constraints: the mechanical stress due to high-speed operation denes the maximal rotor radius and the
minimal retaining sleeve thickness.
Geometrical constraints for the overall dimensions.
Saturation constraints in the stator and rotor cores.
Specied rectier output power constraint.
DC voltage constraint: the DC voltage V
di
computed by the generator design model must respect V
di
K
c(i)
V
do
.
The electrical parameters of the equivalent circuit are transferred to the electrical model of the generation system
and a simulation of the circuit is carried out. New values of the amplitude and phase of the armature current harmonics
and of the output DC voltage V
dsim
are then computed.
A specic correction mechanism is then applied after this step: the new current harmonic content is reinjected in
the generator analytical design model and the DC voltage constraint K
c(i)
V
do
is actualized by injection of a new value
of the correction factor K
c(i+1)
that is computed from (Fig. 8):
K
c(i+1)
=
V
di
V
dsim
(20)
A new execution of the nonlinear constrained optimization problem of the generator is then performed. The process
is repeated until a stable optimal solution is found in terms of output DC voltage (i.e. V
dsim
= V
do
) and all generator
characteristics are identical to those of the previous optimal solution. The convergence of the preceding design process
is reached with a limited number of correction steps.
Fig. 10. Generator optimal structure.
A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 249
Fig. 11. e.m.f., current and phase voltage waveforms.
5. Optimization results
The proposed design procedure has been implemented in Matlab and applied to design a 3 phase, 4 poles, 36 slots,
high-speed PM generator using radial sintered NdFeB magnets. The slotless stator yoke is made of SMC material with
a relative permeability of 200 and a conductivity of 2500 S/m. The rated speed of the generator is 18,000 rpm. The
specied output power of the generation system is 1.5 MW at 1500 V DC voltage and full rectier operation (zero
ring angle).
The nal optimal design solution is obtained in 3 iterations of the preceding correction mechanism. Table 1 presents
the values of the calculated and simulated DC voltages for each intermediate optimal solution and the iterations of the
correction factor K
c(i)
. One can notice that the convergence of the mechanism is obtained after 4 executions of the
nonlinear constrained optimization procedure only.
Fig. 10 shows the nal optimal structure of the slotless PMgenerator. Its main characteristics are listed in Table A.1 of
Appendix A. One can notice that the PM demagnetization is the most important constraint, since the slotless generator
topology has a high electrical loading and low magnetic loading. Therefore, the copper losses are more signicant than
other losses and represent 67% of the total losses with 31% for the magnetic losses.
Fig. 11 presents the waveforms of the e.m.f., current and terminal voltage in a phase coil of the stator winding.
One can notice that the current commutation has a great inuence on the stator voltage. Since the slotless generator
inductance is low, the use of a conductive retaining sleeve is not necessary to improve the current commutation like in
Fig. 12. Calculated and simulated phase voltage waveforms.
250 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251
slotted structures [11]. When the ring angle increases, the commutation time decreases. The output DC voltage and
current also decrease.
Fig. 12 compares the waveformof the stator line voltage computed with the generator analytical model by summation
of the different time-harmonics and waveform of the stator line voltage obtained by simulating the electrical model of
the whole generation system. One can notice a good agreement between these two waveforms. This result validates
the assumption made on the inductance and on the structure of the generator equivalent circuit.
6. Conclusion
A specic design method of high-speed DC generation system using a slotless PM machine with a SMC stator
yoke connected to a controlled rectier has been developed. This method is based on a generator analytical design
model, an electrical model of the machinerectier system, a simulation tool and a non-linear constrained optimization
procedure. The coupling between both models is achieved by a specic correction mechanismthat performs an efcient
convergence of the optimization procedure. The efciency of the method has been validated and the overall convergence
is reached with a limited number of circuit simulations.
Appendix A.
Table A.1.
Table A.1
Characteristics of the generator optimal structure.
Parameter Value Unit
Number of poles 4 []
Number of slots 36 []
Short pitch factor 1 []
NdFeB magnet remanent ux density 1.2 [T]
NdFeB magnet relative permeability 1.05 []
Copper lling factor 0.37 []
Number of turns per phase 24 []
Stator axial length 300 [mm]
Outer stator diameter 291.4 [mm]
Stator yoke thickness 34.5 [mm]
Inner winding diameter 183.7 [mm]
Windings thickness 19.4 [mm]
Retaining sleeve thickness 3 [mm]
Mechanical air-gap 1.5 [mm]
Magnet thickness 28.5 [mm]
Rotor yoke thickness 27 [mm]
Magnet width to pole pitch ratio 0.748 []
Specic loading 187680 [A/m]
Current density 24.96 [A/mm
2
]
RMS value of e.m.f. 993 [V]
Cyclic inductance 0.2086 [mH]
Effective stator phase resistance 0.0237 []
No-load maximal air-gap ux density 0.55 [T]
Magnet weight 21.71 [kg]
Copper weight 20.34 [kg]
Iron weight 77.71 [kg]
Total generator weight 119.76 [kg]
Copper losses 40.22 [kW]
Stator eddy current losses 14.73 [kW]
Stator hysteresis losses 4.07 [kW]
Windage losses 0.97 [kW]
Total generator losses 60 [kW]
Efciency 96.16 [%]
A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 251
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