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Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

Optimal design of a high-speed slotless permanent magnet

synchronous generator with soft magnetic composite

stator yoke and rectier load

Ahmed Chebak

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, QC, G1K 7P4, Canada

Received 16 October 2008; received in revised form 6 April 2010; accepted 9 May 2010

Available online 24 May 2010

Abstract

This paper presents a specific design methodology of a DC generation system using a high-speed slotless generator with surface-

mounted magnets and soft magnetic composite (SMC) stator yoke connected to a rectifier. The method is based on an analytical

design model of the machine, an electrical model of the machinerectifier system and a non-linear optimization procedure. The

coupling between both models is achieved by a specific correction mechanism during the iterative process that performs an efficient

convergence of the optimization procedure. The machine design model is derived from an analytical computation of the two-

dimensional magnetic field distribution created by the magnets, the armature currents and the stator eddy currents that circulate in

the SMC material. It has been cross-validated by 2D finite element analysis. The design approach is applied to the specifications

of a 1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm slotless permanent magnet generator with a rated DC output voltage of 1500 V.

2010 IMACS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: High-speed generation system; Permanent magnet machine; Optimal design; Soft magnetic composite material; Eddy currents

1. Introduction

High-speed slotless permanent magnet (PM) generators can be interesting for gas turbine driven generation systems

due to their high power density, high efciency and small size. These systems can be embedded in many applications

such as aircraft, hybrid vehicles, ships, and total energy units [8,7]. With a high-speed slotless generator, a direct

coupling to the gas turbine can be performed without gearbox. The stator and rotor magnetic losses due to the slotting

effects are reduced and the cogging torque is also eliminated [11,1]. In this paper, the DC generation system presented

in Fig. 1 is using a high-speed slotless machine with a stator yoke made of soft magnetic composite (SMC) material

and connected to a controlled bridge rectier. The rotor of the synchronous machine is equipped with surface-mounted

magnets (Fig. 2). The rectier is delivering the active power to the load through a LClter. The integrated design of such

a generation system is a complex problem because there is a strong coupling between the machine and the converter

performances that are inuenced by the high frequency current commutation in the rectier. The armature current and

Corresponding author. Permanent address: Dpartement de Maths-Info et Gnie, Universit du Qubec Rimouski, 300 alle des Ursulines,

Rimouski, QC, G5L3A1, Canada. Tel.: +1 418 723 1986x1876/656 2131x7139; fax: +1 418 724 1879/656 3159.

E-mail addresses: ahmed chebak@uqar.qc.ca, ahmed.chebak.1@ulaval.ca (A. Chebak), philippe.viarouge@gel.ulaval.ca (P. Viarouge),

jerome.cros@gel.ulaval.ca (J. Cros).

0378-4754/$36.00 2010 IMACS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.matcom.2010.05.002

240 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

Fig. 1. High-speed DC generation unit using a controlled rectier.

the DCoutput voltage waveforms highly depend on the transient impedance of the machine. This impedance is complex

in SMC machines because the eddy currents induced in this kind of magnetic material are not independent of the stator

yoke geometry like in laminated yokes [2]. On one hand, the machine transient impedance has a great inuence on the

average output DC voltage of the generation unit. On the other hand, the generator performances in terms of torque

and losses highly depend on the harmonic content of the armature currents. Consequently, the design process of such

a generation unit must use a specic methodology to take the strong machineconverter coupling into account.

In this paper, the authors present a design methodology of this kind of generation unit. It is based on an analyt-

ical design model of the machine, an electrical model of the machinerectier system and a non-linear constrained

optimization procedure. The coupling between both models is achieved by a specic correction mechanism during

the iterative process that performs an efcient convergence of the optimization procedure towards an optimal design

solution. The machine design model is derived from an analytical computation of the two-dimensional magnetic eld

distribution created by the magnets, the armature currents and the stator eddy currents that circulate in the SMC mate-

rial. It has been cross-validated by 2D nite element (FE) analysis. The design approach is applied to the specications

of a 1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm slotless PM generator with a rated DC output voltage of 1500 V.

2. Generator analytical design model

The generator design model is using the analytical modeling method of high-speed slotless PM machines that is

detailed in [2]. It has been adapted in this paper for the generator operation and several post-processors have been added

to compute specic machine performances. The model is based on the computation of the magnetic eld distribution

that is derived from the 2D analytical solution of the Maxwells equations in the magnets/air-gap/windings/stator core

regions of the slotless machine structure presented in Fig. 2. The model is formulated in polar coordinates and it takes

into account the stator eddy currents and the time and space harmonics of the magnetic eld. In this study, the following

assumptions are made:

The motor axial length is innite, i.e., the end-effects are negligible and the induced eddy currents are axially

directed.

The magnetic saturation and the hysteresis phenomena are absent.

The stator material permeability

s

and conductivity

s

are constant, isotropic and homogeneous.

Fig. 2. Structure of a 4 poles slotless PM generator with SMC stator yoke.

A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 241

The rotor iron core is innitely permeable.

The eddy currents in the magnets and in the rotor yoke are neglected.

The magnet retaining sleeve is non-conductive and non-magnetic.

2.1. Calculation of the magnetic eld distribution

The magnetic eld distribution in the generator structure is calculated separately as a superposition of the no-load

magnetic eld produced by the magnets and the armature reaction eld produced by the windings currents in terms

of potential vectors A

m

and A

s

, respectively. A general representation of the magnetization vector is used that is

applicable to radial or parallel magnetized magnets and discrete Halbach arrays, where the magnet permeability can

be different from

0

. The stator windings distribution is modeled for generalized balanced three-phase windings with

nite thickness [6]. In order to compute the magnetic elds, the generalized form of the diffusion equation that takes

into account the eddy current effects is applied [5]:

2

A = J

s

+

_

A

t

+V ( A)

_

+

0

M (1)

where J

s

is the winding currents density, Vis the circumferential speed of the conductive region, Mis the magnetization

vector, and are, respectively, the permeability and the conductivity of each material.

The no-load eld is derived by applying (1) in each region i of the generator structure (Fig. 2). By using the variable

separation resolution method, the general solutions in the rotor coordinates and in the four regions can be expressed in

terms of complex form of Fourier series:

A

(I)

m

(r,

r

) =

+

k=

_

A

(I)

m,k

r

+

B

(I)

m,k

r

+

S

k

(r)

_

exp

jkp

r

(2)

A

(i=II,III)

m

(r,

r

) =

+

k=

_

A

(i)

m,k

r

+

B

(i)

m,k

r

_

exp

jkp

r

(3)

A

(IV)

m

(r,

r

) =

+

k=

_

A

(IV)

m,k

I

_

m,k

r

_

+

B

(IV)

m,k

K

_

m,k

r

_

_

exp

jkp

r

(4)

with:

S

k

(r) =

0

jkp

M

r,k

M

,k

1

2

r if = |k|p / = 1

0

jkp

M

r,k

M

,k

2

r ln (r) if = |k|p = 1

(5)

where I

and K

are modied Bessel functions of the rst and second kind of order , with

2

m,k

= jkp

0

rs

s

.

p is the number of pole-pairs, is the rotor speed, and

rs

and

s

are the relative permeability and the conductivity

of the SMC material, respectively.

M

r,k

and

M

,k

are the complex Fourier coefcients of the radial and tangential

components of the magnetization vector distribution.

A

(i)

m,k

and

B

(i)

m,k

are constant coefcients that can be determined

by the boundary conditions, given by:

H

(I)

(r,

r

) |

r=R

ro

= 0

H

(i)

(r,

r

) |

r=R

i+1

= H

(i+1)

(r,

r

) |

r=R

i+1

B

(i)

r

(r,

r

) |

r=R

i+1

= B

(i+1)

r

(r,

r

) |

r=R

i+1

A

(I)

m

(r,

r

) |

r=R

so

= 0

(6)

where B and H are the ux density and the magnetic eld strength, respectively.

242 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

The same computation method is used to predict the armature reaction eld produced by the stator currents. The

derivation of the total currents density for the three-phase stator windings under steady-state operation is described in

[2]. It can be generalized in the following complex form in the stator reference frame:

J

s

(

s

, t) =

+

k=

+

h=

3

4

k

I

h

exp

j(kp

s

+hpt

h

)

if k +h = 3l, l Z (7)

where

k

are the Fourier coefcients of the winding density distribution, k is the order of the odd space-harmonics.

I

h

and

h

are the amplitude and the phase angle of the stator current nontriplen odd time-harmonics of order h.

By applying (1) in each region of the generator, the following solutions are obtained:

A

(i=I,II)

s

(r,

s

, t) =

+

k=

+

h=

_

A

(i)

s,k,h

r

+

B

(i)

s,k,h

r

_

J

k,h

exp

j(kp

s

+hpt

h

)

(8)

A

(III)

s

(r,

s

, t) =

+

k=

+

h=

_

A

(i)

s,k,h

r

+

B

(i)

s,k,h

r

+R

p,k,h

(r)

_

J

k,h

exp

j(kp

s

+hpt

h

)

(9)

A

(IV)

s

(r,

s

, t) =

+

k=

+

h=

_

A

(IV)

s,k,h

I

_

s,k,h

r

_

+

B

(IV)

s,k,h

K

_

s,k,h

r

_

_

J

k,h

exp

j(kp

s

+hpt

h

)

(10)

where

2

s,k,h

= jkp

0

rs

s

and

J

k,h

= (3/4)

k

I

h

. R

p,k,h

(r) is a particular solution of the eld problem in the

winding region that can be expressed as:

R

p,k,h

(r) =

0

r

2

4

2

if = |k|p / = 2

0

r

2

ln (r)

4

if = |k|p = 2

(11)

The constant coefcients

A

(i)

s,k,h

and

B

(i)

s,k,h

can be derived by using the same boundary conditions given in (6).

From the knowledge of the resultant magnetic eld in terms of total potential vector A

tot

= A

m

+A

s

, all elec-

tromagnetic characteristics required for the design model such as magnetic eld density, torque, losses, e.m.f. and

inductances can be derived. As an example, the calculated radial and tangential components of the ux density due

to the magnets and the stator currents are reported in Fig. 3 for a typical 4 poles, 1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm slotless PM

generator equipped with radial magnetized magnets. The results have been also validated by 2D time-stepping FE

analysis by assuming that the magnetic saturation of materials is negligible. One can notice an excellent agreement

between the two calculation methods.

2.2. Generator losses computation

2.2.1. Stator magnetic losses

The stator magnetic losses in the SMC material can be derived from the distribution of the resultant electromagnetic

eld calculated under generator full-load operation [3]. One assumes that they can be separated into eddy current losses

component and hysteresis losses component. The eddy current losses are computed by using the Poyntings vector

method in the stator reference system [10]:

P

EC

=

1

2

_

2

0

___

(S)

Real

_

_

d

S

_

dt (12)

where E and H are the resultant electric and magnetic elds, = p is the angular frequency and S is the integration

surface located at the inner radius of the stator core. The resultant electric eld is axially directed and can be determined

A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 243

Fig. 3. Flux density components due to magnets (a) and armature currents (b) at inner radius of the winding (analytical model vs. FE analysis

results).

form the total potential vector A

tot

in the SMC stator yoke region:

E =

A

(IV)

tot

(r,

s

, t)

t

=

A

(IV)

m

(r,

s

, t)

t

+

A

(IV)

s

(r,

s

, t)

t

(13)

The eddy current loss computation has been also veried by using a second method based on the integration of the

resultant eddy current density over the stator core volume.

The hysteresis losses are calculated by a specic postprocessor based on an analytical expression of the SMC

hysteresis loss density [4]:

P

H

_

W/kg

= C

m

B

x

max

f (14)

where f is the electric frequency, C

m

and x are specic SMC material coefcients and B

max

is the amplitude of the

full-load stator core ux density over one steady-state period. The stator core is split in small rings. For each ring

average radius, B

max

is derived from the resolution of the magneto-dynamic Eq. (1). The total hysteresis losses are

then computed by integration on the volume of the stator core.

Fig. 4 presents the variations of the stator magnetic losses components vs. rotor speed for the optimized slotless PM

generator (1.5 MW, 18,000 rpm) described in Table A.1 of Appendix A, where the 51 rst time and space harmonics

are taken into account (k = h = 51). The analytical computation of the eddy current losses is also validated by FE

simulations. One can notice that the eddy current losses remain more signicant than the hysteresis losses in this high

power machine despite the use of a less conductive SMC material. An opposite result has been obtained for low power

slotless PM machines [2,3].

244 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

Fig. 4. Variation of stator magnetic losses with rotor speed.

2.2.2. Copper losses

A conventional approach is used to compute the copper losses in the windings as a sum of two components: the

RI

2

losses corresponding to the winding DC resistance R and the eddy current losses due to proximity effect resulting

from the magnet movement. The skin effect is neglected since Litz wire will be used, with a suitable strand radius r

LZ

lower than the skin depth corresponding to the operation frequency. The average of the extra eddy current losses per

volume for round wire can be written as the summation over the space frequency components [1]:

P

E

=

+

k=1

_

B

2

r,k

+

B

2

,k

_

k

2

2

r

2

LZ

8

c

(15)

where

B

r,k

and

B

,k

are the peak values of the ux density of the k th space-harmonic radial and tangential components,

respectively, and

c

is the copper resistivity.

2.2.3. Mechanical losses

The windage losses of the rotating rotor are derived from the drag torques of a rotating cylinder and a rotating disk

corresponding to the rotor ends, respectively. The corresponding losses are:

P

F

= C

F

3

R

4

o

L (16)

P

F,end

=

1

2

C

F,end

3

_

R

5

o

R

5

i

_

(17)

where C

F

and C

F,end

are specic friction coefcients [9]. is the density of the uid. R

o

and R

i

are the outer and the

inner radius of the rotor, and L is the length of the cylinder.

2.3. Torque computation

The generator instantaneous electromagnetic torque is determined by integrating the Maxwell Stress Tensor along

the air-gap:

T

em

(t) = r

o

0

__

(S

)

H

r

H

dS

(18)

where S

o

in the air-gap region. H

r

and H

and tangential components of the resultant magnetic eld. This torque takes into account the interaction between the

magnets, the armature currents and the eddy currents induced in the stator yoke. The average electromagnetic torque can

be derived from the combinations of the time and space harmonics that are synchronous with the rotor, i.e. k +h = 0.

A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 245

Fig. 5. Instantaneous electromagnetic torque and its average value.

The torques corresponding to the hysteresis losses and the mechanical losses are added to the average electromagnetic

torque to get the input generator torque delivered by the gas turbine.

Fig. 5 depicts a comparison between the instantaneous electromagnetic torque calculated by the analytical method

and that computed by the time-stepping FE analysis for the current waveformand magnets of the optimized slotless PM

generator. The average value of the electromagnetic torque is also presented. One can notice a good correspondence

between the results obtained by the two calculation methods.

2.4. Generator equivalent electrical circuit

The electrical parameters of the generator single phase equivalent circuit must be derived fromthe machine analytical

model and transferred to the electrical model of the machinerectier system to perform the simulations of the whole

generation system. The e.m.f. is computed from the analytical resolution of the magnetic eld by taking the effects of

harmonics into account. The inductance is calculated for each space and time-harmonic. Fig. 6 presents the variations

of the machine inductance vs. frequency for the optimal generator characteristics (Table A.1). One can notice that the

inductance corresponding to each current time-harmonic is nearly constant in the frequency domain. According to this

result, we assume that the inductance of the equivalent circuit is constant. The stator phase resistance is derived from

the stator dimensions and it also takes into account the effects of the extra eddy current losses. The generator equivalent

Fig. 6. Frequency response of the generator inductance.

246 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

Fig. 7. Inputs and outputs of the generator analytical design model.

circuit is assumed to be composed of a non-sinusoidal voltage source corresponding to the e.m.f. connected in series

with the stator inductance and resistance.

The input and output variables of the generator analytical design model are presented in Fig. 7. The geometrical

dimensions, the structural parameters (i.e. number of poles, number of slots, ...), the speed, a corrected value K

c(i)

V

do

of

the specied rated DCoutput voltage V

do

and the harmonic content of the armature currents (amplitude and phase angle)

are the main input variables. K

c(i)

is a variable input correction factor that is used to implement the correction mechanism

of the couplingbetweenthe machine analytical designandthe electrical model of the machinerectier systemdescribed

in the next paragraph. The performances in terms of torque and losses, the equivalent circuit parameters, the output DC

voltage V

di

computed by the model are the main output variables. It must be noticed that any stator current waveform

can be imposed in the generator analytical design model in terms of fundamental and time-harmonics.

3. Electrical model of the generation system

The electrical model of the whole generation system is presented in Fig. 8: it is composed of the generator electrical

equivalent circuit linked to the rectier circuit. For simplication purpose, the rectier output circuit is modeled with

a current source I

do

(specied rated DC current of the generation unit). One assumes that the output current ripple

is negligible according to a suitable choice of the LC lter inductance. The electrical circuit of Fig. 8 is simulated

in Matlab/Simulink and an FFT analysis of the steady-state current and voltage waveforms is performed. The output

variables of this electrical model are the harmonic content of the armature currents and the rectier output DC voltage

V

dsim

that takes the inuence of the current commutation into account. These variables are used to performthe correction

mechanism of the coupling between both design models.

4. Optimization design process

The generator analytical design model and the electrical model of the generation system have been implemented in

a same design environment with a non-linear constrained optimization procedure. The owchart of the optimal design

process including the iterative correction mechanismof the coupling between both design models is presented in Fig. 9.

In a rst step, the main requirements of the generation system are derived from the specications of the application:

unit output power P

out

, generator speed , specied rated DC output voltage V

do

, overall dimensional constraints

of the generator, magnet characteristics, winding conguration, number of slots and poles, lling factor and material

data. The initial set of amplitude and phase angle of the armature current harmonics corresponds to a square armature

current waveform (instantaneous current commutation) and the initial correction factor is set to K

c(1)

= 1.

Fig. 8. Inputs and outputs of the electrical model of the generation system.

A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 247

Fig. 9. Design optimization method with correction mechanism.

In the next step, the generator design is performed by solving a nonlinear constrained optimization problem for the

given set of amplitude and phase of the armature current harmonics and correction factor value. The optimization state

variables are the main dimensions dened in Fig. 2 and some structural and winding parameters:

The rotor yoke inner radius R

ri

.

The rotor yoke thickness h

r

.

The magnet thickness h

m

.

The mechanical air-gap e.

The windings thickness h

w

.

The stator yoke thickness h

s

.

The stator axial length l.

The magnet width to pole pitch ratio .

The number of turns per phase N

sp

.

The objective function to be minimized is related to the materials cost:

Obj = 10P

mag

+7P

copp

+P

iron

(19)

where P

mag

, P

copp

and P

iron

are the magnet, copper and SMC weights, respectively.

Several constraints are imposed:

Magnet demagnetization constraints: the PM demagnetization is calculated at the inner and outer magnet radius for

the worst-case of armature demagnetizing reaction. The PM demagnetization limit is 0.3 T at 125

magnet material.

248 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

Table 1

DC voltages and correction factors.

i = 1 i = 2 i = 3 i = 4 i = 5

V

do

[V] 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

V

di

[V] 1515.8 1754.4 1813.6 1827 1826.8

V

dsim

[V] 1296 1451 1489 1501 1500

K

c(i)

1 1.1696 1.2091 1.218 1.2172

K

c(i+1)

1.1696 1.2091 1.218 1.2172 1.2172

Loss constraint: a maximal value of generator losses is imposed according to the specied cooling system perfor-

mance (water cooling system).

Mechanical constraints: the mechanical stress due to high-speed operation denes the maximal rotor radius and the

minimal retaining sleeve thickness.

Geometrical constraints for the overall dimensions.

Saturation constraints in the stator and rotor cores.

Specied rectier output power constraint.

DC voltage constraint: the DC voltage V

di

computed by the generator design model must respect V

di

K

c(i)

V

do

.

The electrical parameters of the equivalent circuit are transferred to the electrical model of the generation system

and a simulation of the circuit is carried out. New values of the amplitude and phase of the armature current harmonics

and of the output DC voltage V

dsim

are then computed.

A specic correction mechanism is then applied after this step: the new current harmonic content is reinjected in

the generator analytical design model and the DC voltage constraint K

c(i)

V

do

is actualized by injection of a new value

of the correction factor K

c(i+1)

that is computed from (Fig. 8):

K

c(i+1)

=

V

di

V

dsim

(20)

A new execution of the nonlinear constrained optimization problem of the generator is then performed. The process

is repeated until a stable optimal solution is found in terms of output DC voltage (i.e. V

dsim

= V

do

) and all generator

characteristics are identical to those of the previous optimal solution. The convergence of the preceding design process

is reached with a limited number of correction steps.

Fig. 10. Generator optimal structure.

A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 249

Fig. 11. e.m.f., current and phase voltage waveforms.

5. Optimization results

The proposed design procedure has been implemented in Matlab and applied to design a 3 phase, 4 poles, 36 slots,

high-speed PM generator using radial sintered NdFeB magnets. The slotless stator yoke is made of SMC material with

a relative permeability of 200 and a conductivity of 2500 S/m. The rated speed of the generator is 18,000 rpm. The

specied output power of the generation system is 1.5 MW at 1500 V DC voltage and full rectier operation (zero

ring angle).

The nal optimal design solution is obtained in 3 iterations of the preceding correction mechanism. Table 1 presents

the values of the calculated and simulated DC voltages for each intermediate optimal solution and the iterations of the

correction factor K

c(i)

. One can notice that the convergence of the mechanism is obtained after 4 executions of the

nonlinear constrained optimization procedure only.

Fig. 10 shows the nal optimal structure of the slotless PMgenerator. Its main characteristics are listed in Table A.1 of

Appendix A. One can notice that the PM demagnetization is the most important constraint, since the slotless generator

topology has a high electrical loading and low magnetic loading. Therefore, the copper losses are more signicant than

other losses and represent 67% of the total losses with 31% for the magnetic losses.

Fig. 11 presents the waveforms of the e.m.f., current and terminal voltage in a phase coil of the stator winding.

One can notice that the current commutation has a great inuence on the stator voltage. Since the slotless generator

inductance is low, the use of a conductive retaining sleeve is not necessary to improve the current commutation like in

Fig. 12. Calculated and simulated phase voltage waveforms.

250 A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251

slotted structures [11]. When the ring angle increases, the commutation time decreases. The output DC voltage and

current also decrease.

Fig. 12 compares the waveformof the stator line voltage computed with the generator analytical model by summation

of the different time-harmonics and waveform of the stator line voltage obtained by simulating the electrical model of

the whole generation system. One can notice a good agreement between these two waveforms. This result validates

the assumption made on the inductance and on the structure of the generator equivalent circuit.

6. Conclusion

A specic design method of high-speed DC generation system using a slotless PM machine with a SMC stator

yoke connected to a controlled rectier has been developed. This method is based on a generator analytical design

model, an electrical model of the machinerectier system, a simulation tool and a non-linear constrained optimization

procedure. The coupling between both models is achieved by a specic correction mechanismthat performs an efcient

convergence of the optimization procedure. The efciency of the method has been validated and the overall convergence

is reached with a limited number of circuit simulations.

Appendix A.

Table A.1.

Table A.1

Characteristics of the generator optimal structure.

Parameter Value Unit

Number of poles 4 []

Number of slots 36 []

Short pitch factor 1 []

NdFeB magnet remanent ux density 1.2 [T]

NdFeB magnet relative permeability 1.05 []

Copper lling factor 0.37 []

Number of turns per phase 24 []

Stator axial length 300 [mm]

Outer stator diameter 291.4 [mm]

Stator yoke thickness 34.5 [mm]

Inner winding diameter 183.7 [mm]

Windings thickness 19.4 [mm]

Retaining sleeve thickness 3 [mm]

Mechanical air-gap 1.5 [mm]

Magnet thickness 28.5 [mm]

Rotor yoke thickness 27 [mm]

Magnet width to pole pitch ratio 0.748 []

Specic loading 187680 [A/m]

Current density 24.96 [A/mm

2

]

RMS value of e.m.f. 993 [V]

Cyclic inductance 0.2086 [mH]

Effective stator phase resistance 0.0237 []

No-load maximal air-gap ux density 0.55 [T]

Magnet weight 21.71 [kg]

Copper weight 20.34 [kg]

Iron weight 77.71 [kg]

Total generator weight 119.76 [kg]

Copper losses 40.22 [kW]

Stator eddy current losses 14.73 [kW]

Stator hysteresis losses 4.07 [kW]

Windage losses 0.97 [kW]

Total generator losses 60 [kW]

Efciency 96.16 [%]

A. Chebak et al. / Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81 (2010) 239251 251

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